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Preface

Acknowledgements

Title 28 of the New York City Administrative Code Including the New York City Construction Codes

Article 1001 - Enactment and Update of the New York City Energy Conservation Code

Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Climate Zones, Design Conditions, Materials, Equipment and Systems

Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency

Chapter 5 Reserved

Chapter 6 Referenced Standards

Chapter C2 Definitions

Chapter C3 General Requirements

Chapter C4 Commercial Energy Efficiency

Chapter C5 Reference Standards

Appendix A Modified Energy Standards for Buildings, Except for Low-Rise Residential Buildings

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The requirements contained in this chapter are applicable to commercial buildings, or portions of commercial buildings.
Commercial buildings shall comply with one of the following:

1. The requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2010, as amended by Appendix A of the New York City Energy Conservation Code; or

2. Prescriptive. (i) The requirements of Sections C402, C403, C404 and C405 and (ii) the requirements of Section C406.2, Section C406.3 or Section C406.4; or

3. Performance. The requirements of Section C407.
Additions, alterations and repairs to existing buildings shall comply with one of the following:

1. The requirements of Sections C402, C403, C404, and C405; or

2. The requirements of Section C407;1 or

3. The requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2010, as amended by Appendix A of the New York City Energy Conservation Code.

1In a rehabilitation project, the building parameters for the proposed design and standard referenced design are allowed to vary. Parameters relating to unmodified existing conditions, or to any future building components shall be identical for both the proposed design and Standard referenced design, reflecting actual building conditions.
The building thermal envelope shall comply with Section C402.1.1. Section C402.1.2 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-values specified in Section C402.1.1.
The building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Tables C402.2 and C402.3 based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the R-values from the "Group R" column of Table C402.2. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the R-values from the "All other" column of Table C402.2. Buildings with a vertical fenestration area or skylight area that exceeds that allowed in Table C402.3 shall comply with the building envelope provisions ASHRAE 90.1-2010, as amended by Appendix A of the New York City Energy Conservation Code.
An assembly with a U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor equal or less than that specified in Table C402.1.2 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-value in Table C402.2. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor from the "Group R" column of Table C402.1.2. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the U-factor, C-factor or F-factor from the "All other" column of Table C402.1.2.

TABLE C402.1.2 OPAQUE THERMAL ENVELOPE ASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTSa

CLIMATE ZONE 1 2 3 4 EXCEPT MARINE 5 AND MARINE 4 6 7 8
All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-0.048 U-0.048 U-0.048 U-0.048 U-0.048 U-0.048 U-0.039 U-0.039 U-0.039 U-0.039 U-0.032 U-0.032 U-0.028 U-0.028 U-0.028 U-0.028
Metal buildings U-0.044 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.031 U-0.031 U-0.029 U-0.029 U-0.029 U-0.029
Attic and other U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.021 U-0.021 U-0.021 U-0.021 U-0.021 U-0.021 U-0.021
Walls, Above Grade
Mass U-0.142 U-0.142 U-0.142 U-0.123 U-0.110 U-0.104 U-0.104 U-0.090 U-0.078 U-0.078 U-0.078 U-0.071 U-0.061 U-0.061 U-0.061 U-0.061
Metal building U-0.079 U-0.079 U-0.079 U-0.079 U-0.079 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.039 U-0.052 U-0.039
Metal framed U-0.077 U-0.077 U-0.077 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.057 U-0.064 U-0.052 U-0.045 U-0.045
Wood framed and other U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.051 U-0.051 U-0.051 U-0.051 U-0.036 U-0.036
Walls, Below Grade
Below- grade wallb C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140 C-0.119 C-0.119 C-0.119 C-0.119 C-0.119 C-0.119 C-0.092 C-0.092 C-0.092 C-0.092
Floors
Mass U-0.322 U-0.322 U-0.107 U-0.087 U-0.076 U-0.076 U-0.076 U-0.074 U-0.074 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.057 U-0.055 U-0.051 U-0.055 U-0.051
Joist/ framing U-0.066 U-0.066 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated slabs F-0.73 F-0.73 F-0.73 F-0.73 F-0.73 F-0.73 F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.52 F-0.40 F-0.40 F-0.40 F-0.40
Heated slabs F-0.70 F-0.70 F-0.70 F-0.70 F-0.70 F-0.70 F-0.65 F-0.65 F-0.58 F-0.58 F-0.58 F-0.58 F-0.55 F-0.55 F-0.55 F-0.55

a. Use of opaque assembly U-factors, C-factors, and F-factors from Appendix A in ASHRAE 90.1-2010 shall be permitted, provided the construction complies with the applicable construction details from Appendix A in ASHRAE 90.1-2010.
b. Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the F-factor requirements for heated slabs.


TABLE C402.2 OPAQUE THERMAL ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTSa

CLIMATE ZONE 1 2 3 4 EXCEPT MARINE 5 AND MARINE 4 6 7 8
All Other Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-25ci R-25ci R-25ci R-25ci R-30ci R-30ci R-35ci R-35ci R-35ci R-35ci
Metal buildings (with R-5 thermal blocks)a,b R-19 +
R-11
LS
R-19 +
R-11
LS
R-19 +
R11 LS
R-19 +
R-11
LS
R-19 +
R-11
LS
R-19 +
R-11
LS
R-19 +
R-11
LS
R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-25 +
R-11 LS
R-25 +
R-11 LS
R-30 +
R-11 LS
R-30 +
R-11 LS
R-30 +
R-11 LS
R-30 +
R-11 LS
Attic and other R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-49 R-49 R-49 R-49 R-49 R-49 R-49
Walls, Above Grade
Mass R-5.7cic R-5.7cic R-5.7cic R-7.6ci R-7.6ci R-9.5ci R-9.5ci R-11.4ci R-11.4ci R-13.3ci R-13.3ci R-15.2ci R-15.2ci R-15.2ci R-25ci R-25ci
Metal building R-13+
R-6.5ci
R-13 +
R-6.5ci
R13 +
R-6.5ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-6.5ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13+
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13+
R-19.5ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13+
R-19.5ci
Metal framed R-13 +
R-5ci
R-13 +
R-5ci
R-13 +
R-5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-15.6ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13+ R17.5ci
Wood framed and other R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or
R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or
R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or
R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or
R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or R-20
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
or R-20
+
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
or R-20
+
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
or R-20
+
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
or R-20
+
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
or R-20
+
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-15.6ci
or R-20
+
R-10ci
R-13 +
R-15.6ci
or R-20
+
R-10ci
Walls, Below Grade
Below-
grade walld
NR NR NR NR NR NR R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-10ci R-10ci R-10ci R-12.5ci
Floors
Mass NR NR R-6.3ci R-8.3ci R-10ci R-10ci R-10ci R-10.4ci R-10ci R-12.5ci R-12.5ci R-12.5ci R-15ci R-16.7ci R-15ci R-16.7ci
Joist/framing NR NR R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30e R-30e R-30e R-30e R-30e


(continued)

TABLE C402.2 OPAQUE THERMAL ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTSa‒continued

CLIMATE ZONE 1 2 3 4 EXCEPT MARINE 5 AND MARINE 4 6 7 8
All Other Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R All
Other
Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R All Other Group R
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated slabs NR NR NR NR NR NR R-10
for
24"
below
R-10 for
24" below
R-10 for
24" below
R-10 for
24" below
R-10 for
24" below
R-15 for
24" below
R-15
for
24" below
R-15
for
24" below
R-15 for
24" below
R-20
for
24" below
Heated slabsd R-7.5
for
12"
below
R-7.5
for
12" below
R-7.5 for
12" below
R-7.5
for
12" below
R-10
for
24" below
R-10
for
24" below
R-15
for
24" below
R-15 for
24"
below
R-15 for
36"
below
R-15
for
36"
below
R-15 for
36" below
R-20 for
48" below
R-20
for
24" below
R-20
for
48" below
R-20 for
48" below
R-20
for
48" below
Opaque Doors
Swinging U-0.61 U-0.61 U-0.61 U-0.61 U-0.61 U-0.61 U-0.61 U-0.61 U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37
Roll-up or sliding R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. ci = Continuous insulation. NR = No requirement.
LS = Liner System‒A continuous membrane installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the membrane between the purlins.
a. Assembly descriptions can be found in Appendix A in ASHRAE 90.1-2010.
b. Where using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block shall be provided, otherwise use the U-factor compliance method in Table C402.1.2.
c. R-5.7ci is allowed to be substituted with concrete block walls complying with ASTM C 90, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 inches or less on center vertically and 48 inches or less on center horizontally, with ungrouted cores filled with materials having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btu•in/h•f2 °F.
d. Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the exterior insulation requirements for heated slabs.
e. Steel floor joist systems shall be insulated to R-38.
Opaque assemblies shall comply with Table C402.2. Where two or more layers of continuous insulation board are used in a construction assembly, the continuous insulation boards shall be installed in accordance with Section C303.2. If the continuous insulation board manufacturer's installation instructions do not address installation of two or more layers, the edge joints between each layer of continuous insulation boards shall be staggered.
The minimum thermal resistance R-value of the insulating material installed either between the roof framing or continuously on the roof assembly shall be as specified in Table C402.2, based on construction materials used in the roof assembly. Skylight curbs shall be insulated to the R-value of roofs with insulation entirely above deck or R-5, whichever is less.

Exceptions:

1. Continuously insulated roof assemblies where the thickness of insulation varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less and where the area-weighted U-factor is equivalent to the same assembly with the R-value specified in Table C402.2.

2. Unit skylight curbs included as a component of an NFRC 100 rated assembly shall not be required to be insulated.

Insulation installed on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling tiles shall not be considered part of the minimum thermal resistance of the roof insulation.
Low-sloped roofs, with a slope less than 2 units vertical in 12 horizontal, directly above cooled conditioned spaces in Climate Zones 1, 2, and 3 shall comply with one or more of the options in Table C402.2.1.1.

Exceptions: The following roofs and portions of roofs are exempt from the requirements in Table C402.2.1.1:

1. Portions of roofs that include or are covered by:

1.1. Photovoltaic systems or components.

1.2. Solar air or water heating systems or components.

1.3. Roof gardens or landscaped roofs.

1.4. Above-roof decks or walkways.

1.5. Skylights.

1.6. HVAC systems, components, and other opaque objects mounted above the roof.

2. Portions of roofs shaded during the peak sun angle on the summer solstice by permanent features of the building, or by permanent features of adjacent buildings.

3. Portions of roofs that are ballasted with a minimum stone ballast of 17 pounds per square foot (psf) (74 kg/m2) or 23 psf (117 kg/m2) pavers.

4. Roofs where a minimum of 75 percent of the roof area meets a minimum of one of the exceptions above.

TABLE C402.2.1.1 MINIMUM ROOF REFLECTANCE AND EMITTANCE OPTIONSa

Three-year aged solar reflectanceb of 0.55 and three-year aged thermal emittancec of 0.75
Initial solar reflectanceb of 0.70 and initial thermal emittancec of 0.75
Three-year-aged solar reflectance indexd of 64
Initial solar reflectance indexd of 82

a. The use of area-weighted averages to meet these requirements shall be permitted. Materials lacking initial tested values for either solar reflectance or thermal emittance, shall be assigned both an initial solar reflectance of 0.10 and an initial thermal emittance of 0.90. Materials lacking three-year aged tested values for either solar reflectance or thermal emittance shall be assigned both a three-year aged solar reflectance of 0.10 and a three-year aged thermal emittance of 0.90.
b. Solar reflectance tested in accordance with ASTM C 1549, ASTM E 903 or ASTM E 1918.
c. Thermal emittance tested in accordance with ASTM C 1371 or ASTM E 408.
d. Solar reflectance index (SRI) shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 1980 using a convection coefficient of 2.1 Btu/h • ft2•°F (12W/m2 •K). Calculation of aged SRI shall be based on aged tested values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance. Calculation of initial SRI shall be based on initial tested values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance.
Walls associated with the building envelope shall be classified in accordance with Section C402.2.2.1 or C402.2.2.2.
Above-grade walls are those walls covered by Section C402.2.3 on the exterior of the building and completely above grade or walls that are more than 15 percent above grade.
Below-grade walls covered by Section C402.2.4 are basement or first-story walls associated with the exterior of the building that are at least 85 percent below grade.
The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating materials installed in the wall cavity between the framing members and continuously on the walls shall be as specified in Table C402.2, based on framing type and construction materials used in the wall assembly. The R-value of integral insulation installed in concrete masonry units (CMU) shall not be used in determining compliance with Table C402.2.

"Mass walls" shall include walls weighing not less than:

1. 35 psf (170 kg/m2) of wall surface area; or

2. 25 psf (120 kg/m2) of wall surface area if the material weight is not more than 120 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (1900 kg/m3).
The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed in, or continuously on, the below-grade walls shall be as specified in Table C402.2, and shall extend to a depth of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the outside finished ground level, or to the level of the floor, whichever is less.
The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the floor framing or continuously on the floor assembly shall be as specified in Table C402.2, based on construction materials used in the floor assembly.

"Mass floors" shall include floors weighing not less than:

1. 35 psf (170 kg/m2) of floor surface area; or

2. 25 psf (120 kg/m2) of floor surface area if the material weight is not more than 120 pcf (1,900 kg/m3).
Where the slab on grade is in contact with the ground, the minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulation around the perimeter of unheated or heated slab-on-grade floors shall be as specified in Table C402.2. The insulation shall be placed on the outside of the foundation or on the inside of the foundation wall. The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance as shown in the table or to the top of the footing, whichever is less, or downward to at least the bottom of the slab and then horizontally to the interior or exterior for the total distance shown in the table. Insulation extending away from the building shall be protected by pavement or by a minimum of 10 inches (254 mm) of soil.

Exception: Where the slab-on-grade floor is greater than 24 inches (61 mm) below the finished exterior grade, perimeter insulation is not required.
Opaque doors (doors having less than 50 percent glass area) shall meet the applicable requirements for doors as specified in Table C402.2 and be considered as part of the gross area of above-grade walls that are part of the building envelope.
Radiant panels, and associated U-bends and headers, designed for sensible heating of an indoor space through heat transfer from the thermally effective panel surfaces to the occupants or indoor space by thermal radiation and natural convection and the bottom surfaces of floor structures incorporating radiant heating shall be insulated with a minimum of R-3.5 (0.62 m2/K × W).
Tight-fitting noncombustible fireplace doors to control infiltration losses shall be installed on fireplace openings as provided herein:

1. Masonry fireplaces or fireplace units designed to allow an open burn.

2. Decorative appliances (ANSI Standard Z21.60 gas-log style unit) installed in vented solid fuel fireplaces.

3. Vented decorative gas fireplace appliances (ANSI Standard Z21.50 unit).

Fireplaces shall be provided with a source of combustion air as required by the fireplace construction provisions of the 2010 Building Code of New York State, the 2010 Residential Code of New York State or the New York City Building Code, as applicable.
Fenestration shall comply with Table C402.3. Automatic daylighting controls specified by this section shall comply with Section C405.2.2.3.2.

TABLE C402.3 BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS: FENESTRATION

CLIMATE ZONE 1 2 3 4 EXCEPT MARINE 5 AND MARINE 4 6 7 8
Vertical fenestration
U-factor
Fixed fenestration 0.50 0.50 0.46 0.38 0.38 0.36 0.29 0.29
Operable fenestration 0.65 0.65 0.60 0.45 0.45 0.43 0.37 0.37
Entrance doors 1.10 0.83 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77
SHGC
SHGC 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.45 0.45
Skylights
U-factor 0.75 0.65 0.55 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
SHGC 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.40 0.40 0.40 NR NR

NR = No requirement.
The vertical fenestration area (not including opaque doors and opaque spandrel panels) shall not exceed 30 percent of the gross above-grade wall area. The skylight area shall not exceed 3 percent of the gross roof area.
In Climate Zones 1 through 6, a maximum of 40 percent of the gross above-grade wall area shall be permitted to be vertical fenestration, provided:

1. No less than 50 percent of the conditioned floor area is within a daylight zone;

2. Automatic daylighting controls are installed in daylight zones; and

3. Visible transmittance (VT) of vertical fenestration is greater than or equal to 1.1 times solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC).

Exception: Fenestration that is outside the scope of NFRC 200 is not required to comply with Item 3.
The skylight area shall be permitted to be a maximum of 5 percent of the roof area provided automatic daylighting controls are installed in daylight zones under skylights.
In an enclosed space greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2), directly under a roof with ceiling heights greater than 15 feet (4572 mm), and used as an office, lobby, atrium, concourse, corridor, storage, gymnasium/exercise center, convention center, automotive service, manufacturing, non-refrigerated warehouse, retail store, distribution/sorting area, transportation, or workshop, the total daylight zone under skylights shall be not less than half the floor area and shall provide a minimum skylight area to daylight zone under skylights of either:

1. Not less than 3 percent with a skylight VT of at least 0.40; or

2. Provide a minimum skylight effective aperture of at least 1 percent determined in accordance with Equation C4-1.


where:

Skylight area = Total fenestration area of skylights.
Skylight VT = Area weighted average visible transmittance of skylights.
WF = Area weighted average well factor, where well factor is 0.9 if light well depth is less than 2 feet (610 mm), or 0.7 if light well depth is 2 feet (610 mm) or greater.
Light well depth = Measure vertically from the underside of the lowest point of the skylight glazing to the ceiling plane under the skylight.


Exception: Skylights above daylight zones of enclosed spaces are not required in:

1. Buildings in climate zones 6 through 8.

2. Spaces where the designed general lighting power densities are less than 0.5 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2).

3. Areas where it is documented that existing structures or natural objects block direct beam sunlight on at least half of the roof over the enclosed area for more than 1,500 daytime hours per year between 8 am and 4 pm.

4. Spaces where the daylight zone under rooftop monitors is greater than 50 percent of the enclosed space floor area.
All lighting in the daylight zone shall be controlled by multilevel lighting controls that comply with Section C405.2.2.3.3.

Exception: Skylights above daylight zones of enclosed spaces are not required in:

1. Buildings in Climate Zones 6 through 8.

2. Spaces where the designed general lighting power densities are less than 0.5 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2).

3. Areas where it is documented that existing structures or natural objects block direct beam sunlight on at least half of the roof over the enclosed area for more than 1,500 daytime hours per year between 8 am and 4 pm.

4. Spaces where the daylight zone under rooftop monitors is greater than 50 percent of the enclosed space floor area.
Skylights in office, storage, automotive service, manufacturing, nonrefrigerated warehouse, retail store, and distribution/sorting area spaces shall have a glazing material or diffuser with a measured haze factor greater than 90 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1003.

Exception: Skylights designed to exclude direct sunlight entering the occupied space by the use of fixed or automated baffles, or the geometry of skylight and light well need not comply with Section C402.3.2.2.
For vertical fenestration, the maximum U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) shall be as specified in Table C402.3, based on the window projection factor. For skylights, the maximum U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) shall be as specified in Table C402.3.

The window projection factor shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-2.



where:

PF = Projection factor (decimal).
A = Distance measured horizontally form the furthest continuous extremity of any overhang, eave, or permanently attached shading device to the vertical surface of the glazing.
B = Distance measured vertically from the bottom of the glazing to the underside of the overhang, eave, or permanently attached shading device.


Where different windows or glass doors have different PF values, they shall each be evaluated separately.
Where the fenestration projection factor for a specific vertical fenestration product is greater than or equal to 0.2, the required maximum SHGC from Table C402.3 shall be adjusted by multiplying the required maximum SHGC by the multiplier specified in Table C402.3.3.1 corresponding with the orientation of the fenestration product and the projection factor.

TABLE C402.3.3.1 SHGC ADJUSTMENT MULTIPLIERS

PROJECTION FACTOR ORIENTED WITHIN 45
DEGREES OF TRUE NORTH
ALL OTHER ORIENTATION
0.2 ≤ PF < 0.5 1.1 1.2
PF ≥ 0.5 1.2 1.6
In Climate Zones 1, 2 and 3, vertical fenestration entirely located not less than 6 feet (1729 mm) above the finished floor shall be permitted a maximum SHGC of 0.40.
In Climate Zones 1 through 6, skylights shall be permitted a maximum SHGC of 0.60 where located above daylight zones provided with automated daylighting controls.
Where skylights are installed above daylight zones provided with automatic daylighting controls, a maximum U-factor of 0.9 shall be permitted in Climate Zones 1 through 3; and a maximum U-factor of 0.75 shall be permitted in Climate Zones 4 through 8.
For compliance with Section C402.3.3, the SHGC for dynamic glazing shall be determined using the manufacturer's lowest-rated SHGC, and the VT/SHGC ratio shall be determined using the maximum VT and maximum SHGC. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.
An area-weighted average shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements for each fenestration product category listed in Table C402.3. Individual fenestration products from different fenestration product categories listed in Table C402.3 shall not be combined in calculating area-weighted average U-factor.
The thermal envelope of buildings shall comply with Sections C402.4.1 through C402.4.8.
A continuous air barrier shall be provided throughout the building thermal envelope. The air barriers shall be permitted to be located on the inside or outside of the building envelope, located within the assemblies composing the envelope, or any combination thereof. The air barrier shall comply with Sections C402.4.1.1 and C402.4.1.2.

Exception: Air barriers are not required in buildings located in Climate Zones 1, 2 and 3.
The continuous air barrier shall be constructed to comply with the following:

1. The air barrier shall be continuous for all assemblies that are the thermal envelope of the building and across the joints and assemblies.

2. Air barrier joints and seams shall be sealed, including sealing transitions in places and changes in materials. Air barrier penetrations shall be sealed in accordance with Section C402.4.2. The joints and seals shall be securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation.

3. Recessed lighting fixtures shall comply with Section C402.4.8. Where similar objects are installed which penetrate the air barrier, provisions shall be made to maintain the integrity of the air barrier.

Exception: Buildings that comply with Section C402.4.1.2.3 are not required to comply with Items 1 and 3.
A continuous air barrier for the opaque building envelope shall comply with Section C402.4.1.2.1, C402.4.1.2.2, or C402.4.1.2.3.
Materials with an air permeability no greater than 0.004 cfm/ft2 (0.02 L/s m2) under a pressure differential of 0.3 inches water gauge (w.g.) (75 Pa) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 2178 shall comply with this section. Materials in Items 1 through 15 shall be deemed to comply with this section provided joints are sealed and materials are installed as air barriers in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

1. Plywood with a thickness of not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm).

2. Oriented strand board having a thickness of not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm).

3. Extruded polystyrene insulation board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12 mm).

4. Foil-back polyisocyanurate insulation board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12 mm).

5. Closed cell spray foam a minimum density of 1.5 pcf (2.4 kg/m3) having a thickness of not less than 11/2 inches (36 mm).

6. Open cell spray foam with a density between 0.4 and 1.5 pcf (0.6 and 2.4 kg/m3) and having a thickness of not less than 4.5 inches (113 mm).

7. Exterior or interior gypsum board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12 mm).

8. Cement board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12 mm).

9. Built up roofing membrane.

10. Modified bituminous roof membrane.

11. Fully adhered single-ply roof membrane.

12. A Portland cement/sand parge, or gypsum plaster having a thickness of not less than 5/8 inch (16 mm).

13. Cast-in-place and precast concrete.

14. Fully grouted concrete block masonry.

15. Sheet steel or aluminum.
Assemblies of materials and components with an average air leakage not to exceed 0.04 cfm/ft2 (0.2 L/s m2) under a pressure differential of 0.3 inches of water gauge (w.g.)(75 Pa) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 2357, ASTM E 1677 or ASTM E 283 shall comply with this section. Assemblies listed in Items 1 and 2 shall be deemed to comply provided joints are sealed and requirements of Section C402.4.1.1 are met.

1. Concrete masonry walls coated with one application either of block filler and two applications of a paint or sealer coating;

2. A Portland cement/sand parge, stucco or plaster minimum 1/2 inch (12 mm) in thickness.
The completed building shall be tested and the air leakage rate of the building envelope shall not exceed 0.40 cfm/ft2 at a pressure differential of 0.3 inches water gauge (2.0 L/s m2 at 75 Pa) in accordance with ASTM E 779 or an equivalent method approved by the code official.
Penetrations of the air barrier and paths of air leakage shall be caulked, gasketed or otherwise sealed in a manner compatible with the construction materials and location. Joints and seals shall be sealed in the same manner or taped or covered with a moisture vapor-permeable wrapping material. Sealing materials shall be appropriate to the construction materials being sealed. The joints and seals shall be securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation.
The air leakage of fenestration assemblies shall meet the provisions of Table C402.4.3. Testing shall be in accordance with the applicable reference test standard in Table C402.4.3 by an accredited, independent testing laboratory and labeled by the manufacturer.

Exceptions:

1. Field-fabricated fenestration assemblies that are sealed in accordance with Section C402.4.1.

2. Fenestration in buildings that comply with Section C402.4.1.2.3 are not required to meet the air leakage requirements in Table C402.4.3.

TABLE C402.4.3 MAXIMUM AIR INFILTRATION RATE FOR FENESTRATION ASSEMBLIES

FENESTRATION ASSEMBLY MAXIMUM RATE (CFM/FT2) TEST PROCEDURE
Windows 0.20 a AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440
or NFRC 400
Sliding doors 0.20 a
Swinging doors 0.20 a
Skylights ‒ with condensation weepage openings 0.30
Skylights ‒ all other 0.20 a
Curtain walls 0.06 NFRC 400 or ASTM E 283 at 1.57 psf (75 Pa)
Storefront glazing 0.06
Commercial glazed swinging entrance doors 1.00
Revolving doors 1.00
Garage doors 0.40 ANSI/DASMA 105,I
NFRC 400, or ASTM E 283 at 1.57 psf (75 Pa)
Rolling doors 1.00

For SI: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47L/s, 1 square foot = 0.093 m2.
a. The maximum rate for windows, sliding and swinging doors, and skylights is permitted to be 0.3 cfm per square foot of fenestration or door area when tested in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440 at 6.24 psf (300 Pa).
Doors and access openings from conditioned space to shafts, chutes, stairways and elevator lobbies shall either meet the requirements of Section C402.4.3 or shall be gasketed, weatherstripped or sealed.

Exception: Door openings required to comply with Section 715 or 715.3 of the New York City Building Code; or doors and door openings required by the New York City Building Code to comply with UL 1784 shall not be required to comply with Section C402.4.4.
Stairway enclosures and elevator shaft vents and other outdoor air intakes and exhaust openings integral to the building envelope shall be provided with dampers in accordance with Section C403.2.4.4.
Cargo doors and loading dock doors shall be equipped with weatherseals to restrict infiltration when vehicles are parked in the doorway.
All building entrances shall be protected with an enclosed vestibule, with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices. Vestibules shall be designed so that in passing through the vestibule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time.

Exceptions:

1. Doors not intended to be used by the public, such as doors to mechanical or electrical equipment rooms, or intended solely for employee use.

2. Doors opening directly from a sleeping unit or dwelling unit.

3. Doors that open directly from a space less than 3,000 square feet (298 square meters) in area.

4. Revolving doors (provided, however, that the installation of one or more revolving doors in the building entrance shall not eliminate the requirement that a vestibule be provided on any doors adjacent to revolving doors).

5. Doors used primarily to facilitate vehicular movement or material handling and adjacent personnel doors.
Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to limit air leakage between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. All recessed luminaires shall be IC-rated and labeled as having an air leakage rate of not more 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 283 at a 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential. All recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and interior wall or ceiling covering.
Except as otherwise provided in Section C402.4.9.1, Class I or II vapor retarders are required on the interior side of walls in climate zones 5 and 6 for all framed walls, floors and ceilings where the framed cavity is not ventilated to allow moisture to escape.

Exceptions:

1. Basement walls.

2. Below grade portion of any wall.

3. Construction where moisture or its freezing will not damage the materials.
When a vapor retarder is required by Section C402.4.9, a Class III vapor retarder may be provided in lieu of a Class I or II vapor retarder for framed walls, floors, and ceilings made of the materials indicated in Table C402.4.9.1.

Exception: Nothing is this section C402.4.9.1 or in Table C402.4.9.1 shall be construed as permitting a Class III vapor retarder in any situation where a Class I or Class II vapor retarder is required by the 2010 Building Code of New York State, the 2010 Residential Code of New York State or the Building Code of New York City, as applicable.

TABLE C402.4.9.1 CLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS

CLIMATE ZONE CLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS
PERMITTED FOR
5 Vented cladding over OSB
Vented cladding over Plywood
Vented cladding over Fiberboard
Vented cladding over Gypsum
Insulated sheathing with R-value > = 5 over 2×4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value > = 7.5 over 2×6 wall
6 Vented cladding over Fiberboard
Vented cladding over Gypsum
Insulated sheathing with R-value > = 7.5 over 2×4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value > = 11.25 over 2×6 wall
A vapor retarder shall be classified in accordance with its permeance rating measured in "perm" (1 perm = 5.7 × 10-11 kg/Pa • s • m2) when tested in accordance with the desiccant method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96, as follows:

Class I vapor retarder: a vapor retarder having a permeance rating of 0.1 perm or less.

Class II vapor retarder: a vapor retarder having a permeance rating that is more than 0.1 perm and less than or equal to 1.0 perm.

Class III vapor retarder: a vapor retarder having a permeance rating that is more than 1.0 perm and less than or equal to 10.0 perm.

The vapor retarder class shall be based on the testing of the vapor retarder or an assembly that includes the vapor retarder, such testing to be performed and certified by the manufacturer of the vapor retarder or by an approved independent testing organization. However, in the absence of certified test results indicating that a different class is appropriate, the following materials shall be deemed to be in the class specified:

Class I: Sheet polyethylene, non-perforated aluminum foil

Class II: Kraft faced fiberglass batts

Class III: Latex or enamel paint
For the purposes of this section vented shall include the following minimum clear air spaces. Other openings with the equivalent vent area shall be permitted.

1. Vinyl lap or horizontal aluminum siding applied over a weather resistive barrier installed per Chapter 14 of the New York City Building Code.

2. Brick veneer separated from the sheathing as required by Chapter 14 of the New York City Building Code.

3. Other approved vented claddings.
Where the roof assembly could be subject to damage from moisture and the proposed use will create elevated moisture levels within a building or space, such as swimming pools, gymnasiums, cooking areas and processing plants, the design professional shall be responsible for determining the application of a vapor retarder to protect the roof structure. This determination should be based on the climate zone and the projected interior humidity level in the building space below.
Mechanical systems and equipment serving the building heating, cooling or ventilating needs shall comply with Sections C403.2.1, C403.2.2, C403.2.3, C403.2.4, C403.2.5, C403.2.7, C403.2.8, C403.2.9, and C403.2.11 (referred to as the mandatory provisions) and either:

1. Section C403.3 (Simple systems); or

2. Section C403.4 (Complex systems).
Mechanical systems and equipment serving the building heating, cooling or ventilating needs shall comply with Sections C403.2.1, C403.2.2, C403.2.3, C403.2.4, C403.2.5, C403.2.7, C403.2.8, C403.2.9, and C403.2.11.
Design loads shall be determined in accordance with the procedures described in ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 183. The design loads shall account for the building envelope, lighting, ventilation and occupancy loads based on the project design. Heating and cooling loads shall be adjusted to account for load reductions that are achieved where energy recovery systems are utilized in the HVAC system in accordance with the ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook. Alternatively, design loads shall be determined by an approved equivalent computation procedure, using the design parameters specified in Chapter 3.
The output capacity of heating and cooling equipment and systems shall not exceed the loads calculated in accordance with Section C403.2.1. A single piece of equipment providing both heating and cooling shall satisfy this provision for one function with the capacity for the other function as small as possible, within available equipment options.

Exceptions:

1. Required standby equipment and systems provided with controls and devices that allow such systems or equipment to operate automatically only when the primary equipment is not operating.

2. Multiple units of the same equipment type with combined capacities exceeding the design load and provided with controls that have the capability to sequence the operation of each unit based on load.
Equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Tables C403.2.3(1), C403.2.3(2), C403.2.3(3), C403.2.3(4), C403.2.3(5), C403.2.3(6), C403.2.3(7) and C403.2.3(8) when tested and rated in accordance with the applicable test procedure. Plate-type liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers shall meet the minimum requirements of Table C403.2.3(9). The efficiency shall be verified through certification under an approved certification program or, if no certification program exists, the equipment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data furnished by the manufacturer. Where multiple rating conditions or performance requirements are provided, the equipment shall satisfy all stated requirements. Where components, such as indoor or outdoor coils, from different manufacturers are used, calculations and supporting data shall be furnished by the designer that demonstrates that the combined efficiency of the specified components meets the requirements herein.

TABLE C403.2.3(1) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS

EQUIPMENT
TYPE
SIZE
CATEGORY
HEATING
SECTION
TYPE
SUBCATEGORY
OR
RATING
CONDITION
MINIMUM
EFFICIENCY
TEST
PROCEDUREa
Before
6/1/2011
As of
6/1/2011
Air conditioners,
air cooled
< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 13.0 SEER 13.0 SEER AHRI
210/240
Single Package 13.0 SEER 14.0 SEER
Through-the-wall
(air cooled)
≤ 30,000 Btu/hb All Split system 12.0 SEER 13.0 SEER
Single Package 12.0 SEER 14.0 SEER
Small-duct high-velocity
(air cooled)
< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 10.0 SEER 11.0 SEER
Air conditioners,
air cooled
≥ 65,000 Btu/h
and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.2 EER
11.4 IEER
11.2 EER
11.4 IEER
AHRI
340/360
All other Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
11.2 IEER
11.0 EER
11.2 IEER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
11.2 IEER
11.0 EER
11.2 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
11.0 IEER
10.8 EER
11.0 IEER
≥ 240,000 Btu/h
and
< 760,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
10.0 EER
10.1 IEER
10.0 EER
10.1 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
9.8 EER
9.9 IEER
9.8 EER
9.9 IEER
≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
9.7 EER
9.8 IEER
9.7 EER
9.8 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
9.5 EER
9.6 IEER
9.5 EER
9.6 IEER
Air conditioners,
water cooled
< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System and
Single Package
12.1 EER
12.3 IEER
12.1 EER
12.3 IEER
AHRI
210/240
≥ 65,000 Btu/h
and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.5 EER
11.7 IEER
12.1 EER
12.3 IEER
AHRI
340/360
All other Split System and
Single Package
11.3 EER
11.5 IEER
11.9 EER
12.1 IEER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
11.2 IEER
12.5 EER
12.7 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
11.0 IEER
12.3 EER
12.5 IEER
≥ 240,000 Btu/h
and
< 760,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
11.1 IEER
12.4EER
12.6 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
10.9 IEER
12.2 EER
12.4 IEER
≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
11.1 IEER
12.0 EER
12.4 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
10.9 IEER
12.0 EER
12.2 IEER


(continued)

TABLE C403.2.3(1)‒continued MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS

EQUIPMENT
TYPE
SIZE
CATEGORY
HEATING
SECTION
TYPE
SUB-CATEGORY
OR

RATING
CONDITION
MINIMUM
EFFICIENCY
TEST
PROCEDUREa
Before
6/1/2011
As of
6/1/2011
Air conditioners,
evaporatively cooled
< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System and
Single Package
12.1 EER
12.3 IEER
12.1 EER
12.3 IEER
AHRI
210/240
≥ 65,000 Btu/h
and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.5 EER
11.7 IEER
12.1 EER
12.3 IEER
AHRI
340/360
All other Split System and
Single Package
11.3 EER
11.5 IEER
11.9 EER
12.1 IEER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
11.2 IEER
12.0 EER
12.2 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
11.0 IEER
11.8 EER
12.0 IEER
≥ 240,000 Btu/h
and
< 760,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
11.1 EER
11.9 EER
12.1 EER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
10.9 EER
11.5 EER
11.7 EER
≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
11.1 EER
11.7 EER
11.9 EER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
10.9 EER
11.5 EER
11.7 EER
Condensing units,
air cooled
≥ 135,000 Btu/h 10.1 EER
11.4 IEER
10.5 EER
14.0 IEER
AHRI
365
Condensing units,
water cooled
≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.1 EER
13.6 IEER
13.5 EER
14.0 IEER
Condensing units,
evaporatively cooled
≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.1 EER
13.6 IEER
13.5 EER
14.0 IEER

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
a. Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure.
b. Single-phase, air-cooled air conditioners less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER values are those set by NAECA.


TABLE C403.2.3(2) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AND APPLIED HEAT PUMPS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE
CATEGORY
HEATING
SECTION TYPE
SUBCATEGORY
OR
RATING
CONDITION
MINIMUM
EFFICIENCY
TEST
PROCEDUREa
Air cooled
(cooling mode)
< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 14.0 SEER AHRI
210/240
Single Packaged 14.0 SEER
Through-the-wall,
air cooled
≤ 30,000 Btu/hb All Split System 14.0 SEER
Single Packaged 14.0 SEER
Single-duct high-velocity
air cooled
< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 13.0 SEER
Air cooled
(cooling mode)
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
11.2 IEER
AHRI
340/360
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
11.0 IEER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
10.6 EER
10.7 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.4 EER
10.5 IEER
≥ 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
9.5 EER
9.6 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
9.3 EER
9.4 IEER
Water source
(cooling mode)
< 17,000 Btu/h All 86°F entering water 11.2 EER ISO 13256-1
≥ 17,000 Btu/h and
< 65,000 Btu/h
All 86°F entering water 12.0 EER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
All 86°F entering water 12.0 EER
Ground water source
(cooling mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h All 59°F entering water 16.2 EER
All 77°F entering water 13.4 EER
Water-source water to water (cooling mode) < 135,000 Btu/h All 86°F entering water 10.6 EER ISO 13256-2
59°F entering water 16.3 EER
Ground water source
Brine to water
(cooling mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h All 77°F entering fluid 12.1 EER
Air cooled
(heating mode)
< 65,000 Btu/hb Split System 8.2 HSPF AHRI
210/240
Single Package 8.0 HSPF
Through-the-wall,
(air cooled, heating mode)
≤ 30,000 Btu/hb
(cooling capacity)
Split System 8.2 HSPF
Single Package 8.0 HSPF
Small-duct high velocity
(air cooled, heating mode)
< 65,000 Btu/hb Split System 7.7 HSPF


(continued)

TABLE C403.2.3(2)‒continued MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AND APPLIED HEAT PUMPS

EQUIPMENT
TYPE
SIZE
CATEGORY
HEATING SECTION
TYPE
SUB-CATEGORY
OR
RATING
CONDITION
MINIMUM
EFFICIENCY
TEST
PROCEDUREa
Air cooled
(heating mode)
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb
Outdoor Air
3.3 COP AHRI
340/360
17°F db/15°F wb
Outdoor Air
2.25 COP
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb
Outdoor Air
3.2 COP
17°F db/15°F wb
Outdoor Air
2.05 COP
Water source
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
68°F entering water 4.2 COP ISO 13256-1
Ground water source
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
50°F entering water 3.6 COP
Ground source
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
32°F entering fluid 3.1 COP
Water-source
water to water
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
68°F entering water 3.7 COP ISO 13256-2
50°F entering water 3.1 COP
Ground source
brine to water
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
32°F entering fluid 2.5 COP

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.
a. Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure.
b. Single-phase, air-cooled air conditioners less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER values are those set by NAECA.


TABLE C403.2.3(3) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS, PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMPS, SINGLE-PACKAGE VERTICAL AIR CONDITIONERS, SINGLE VERTICAL HEAT PUMPS, ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS AND ROOM AIR-CONDITIONER HEAT PUMPS

EQUIPMENT
TYPE
SIZE CATEGORY
(INPUT)
SUBCATEGORY
OR
RATING
CONDITION
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa
Before 10/08/2012 As of 10/08/2012
PTAC (cooling mode)
new construction
All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 12.5 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER 13.8 - (0.300 × Cap/1000) EER AHRI
310/380
PTAC (coolingmode)
replacementsb
All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 10.9 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER 10.9 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (cooling mode)
new construction
All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 12.3 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER 14.0 - (0.300 × Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (cooling mode)
replacementsb
All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 10.8 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER 10.8 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (heating mode)
new construction
All Capacities 3.2 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP 3.2 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP
PTHP (heating mode)
replacementsb
All Capacities 2.9 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP 2.9 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP
SPVAC
(cooling mode)
< 65,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb
outdoor air
9.0 EER 9.0 EER AHRI 390
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
95°F db/ 75°F wb
outdoor air
8.9 EER 8.9 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
95°F db/ 75°F wb
outdoor air
8.6 EER 8.6 EER
SPVHP
(cooling mode)
< 65,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb
outdoor air
9.0 EER 9.0 EER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
95°F db/ 75°F wb
outdoor air
8.9 EER 8.9 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
95°F db/ 75°F wb
outdoor air
8.6 EER 8.6 EER
SPVHP
(heating mode)
< 65,000 Btu/h 47°F db/ 43°F wb
outdoor air
3.0 COP 3.0 COP AHRI 390
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
47°F db/ 43°F wb
outdoor air
3.0 COP 3.0 COP
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
47°F db/ 75°F wb
outdoor air
2.9 COP 2.9 COP


(continued)

TABLE C403.2.3(3)‒continued MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS, PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMPS, SINGLE-PACKAGE VERTICAL AIR CONDITIONERS, SINGLE VERTICAL HEAT PUMPS, ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS AND ROOM AIR-CONDITIONER HEAT PUMPS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY
(INPUT)
SUBCATEGORY
OR
RATING
CONDITION
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST
PROCEDUREa
Before
10/08/2012
As of
10/08/2012
Room air conditioners, with louvered slides < 6,000 Btu/h 9.7 SEER 11.0 SEER ANSI/AHAM
RAC-1
≥ 6,000 Btu/h and
< 8,000 Btu/h
9.7 EER 11.0 EER
≥ 8,000 Btu/h and
< 14,000 Btu/h
9.8 EER 10.9 EER
≥ 14,000 Btu/h and
< 20,000 Btu/h
9.7 SEER 10.7 SEER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER 9.4 EER
Room air conditioners, without louvered slides < 8,000 Btu/h 9.0 EER 10.0 EER
≥ 8,000 Btu/h and
< 20,000 Btu/h
8.5 EER 9.5 EER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER 9.4 EER
Room air-conditioner heat pumps with
louvered sides
< 20,000 Btu/h 9.0 EER 9.8 EER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER 9.3 EER
Room air-conditioner heat pumps without
louvered sides
< 14,000 Btu/h 8.5 EER 9.3 EER
≥ 14,000 Btu/h 8.0 EER 8.7 EER
Room air conditioner casement only All capacities 8.7 EER 9.5 EER
Room air conditioner
casement-slider
All capacities 9.5 EER 10.4 EER

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.
"Cap" = The rated cooling capacity of the project in Btu/h. If the unit's capacity is less than 7000 Btu/h, use 7000 Btu/h in the calculation. If the unit's capacity is greater than 15,000 Btu/h, use 15,000 Btu/h in the calculations.
a. Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
b. Replacement unit shall be factory labeled as follows: "MANUFACTURED FOR REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS ONLY: NOT TO BE INSTALLED IN NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS." Replacement efficiencies apply only to units with existing sleeves less than 16 inches (406 mm) in height and less than 42 inches (1067 mm) in width.


TABLE C403.2.3(4) WARM AIR FURNACES AND COMBINATION WARM AIR FURNACES/AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS, WARM AIR DUCT FURNACES AND UNIT HEATERS, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY
(INPUT)
SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
MINIMUM
EFFICIENCYd,e
TEST PROCEDUREa
Warm air furnaces,
gas fired
< 225,000 Btu/h 80% AFUE or
80%Etc
DOE 10 CFR Part 430
or ANSI Z21.47
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityc 81%Etf ANSI Z21.47
Warm air furnaces,
oil fired
< 225,000 Btu/h 80% AFUE or
80%Etc
DOE 10 CFR Part 430
or UL 727
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityb 82%Etg UL 727
Warm air duct furnaces,gas fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm air unit heaters, gas fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm air unit heaters, oil fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec UL 731

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
a. Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
b. Minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.
c. Combination units not covered by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kW]) shall comply with either rating.
d. Et = Thermal efficiency. See test procedure for detailed discussion.
e. Ec = Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See test procedure for detailed discussion.
f. Ec = Combustion efficiency. Units must also include an IID, have jackets not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.
g. Et = Thermal efficiency. Units must also include an IID, have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.


TABLE C403.2.3(5) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: GAS- AND OIL-FIRED BOILERS

EQUIPMENT
TYPE
a
SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
SIZE CATEGORY
(INPUT)
MINIMUM
EFFICIENCY
TEST
PROCEDURE
Boilers, hot water Gas-fired < 300,000 Btu/h 82% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
83% Et 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,00 Btu/ha 85% Ec
Oil-firedc < 300,000 Btu/h 84% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
84% Et 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 85% Ec
Boilers, steam Gas-fired < 300,000 Btu/h 80% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430
Gas-fired- all, except natural draft ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
80% Et 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 80% Et
Gas-fired-natural draft ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
79% Et
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 79% Et
Oil-firedc < 300,000 Btu/h 82% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
83% Et 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 83% Et

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
Ec = Combustion efficiency (100 percent less flue losses). Et = Thermal efficiency. See referenced standard document for detailed information.
a. These requirements apply to boilers with rated input of 8,000,000 Btu/h or less that are not packaged boilers and to all packaged boilers. Minimum efficiency requirements for boilers cover all capacities of packaged boilers.
b. Maximum capacity ‒ minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.
c. Includes oil-fired (residual).


TABLE C403.2.3(6) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY MINIMUM EFFICIENCYb TEST PROCEDUREa
Condensing units, air cooled ≥135,000 Btu/h 10.1 EER
11.2 IPLV
AHRI 365
Condensing units, water or evaporatively cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.1 EER
13.1 IPLV

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
a. Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
b. IPLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.


TABLE C403.2.3(7) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: WATER CHILLING PACKAGESa

EQUIPMENT
TYPE
SIZE
CATEGORY
UNITS BEFORE
1/1/2010
AS OF 1/1/2010b TEST
PROCEDUREc
PATH A PATH B
FULL
LOAD
IPLV FULL
LOAD
IPLV FULL
LOAD
IPLV
Air-cooled chillers < 150 tons EER ≥ 9.562 ≥10.416 ≥ 9.562 ≥ 12.500 NA NA AHRI
550/590
≥ 150 tons EER ≥ 9.562 ≥ 12.750 NA NA
Air cooled without condenser, electrical operated All
capacities
EER ≥10.586 ≥11.782 Air-cooled chillers without condensers shall be rated with matching condensers and comply with the air-cooled chiller efficiency requirements
Water cooled, electrically operated, reciprocating All
capacities
kW/ton ≤ 0.837 ≤0.696 Reciprocating units shall comply with water cooled positive displacement efficiency requirements
Water cooled, electrically operated, positive displacement < 75 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.790 ≤0.676 ≤ 0.780 ≤ 0.630 ≤.800 ≤ 0.600
≥ 75 tons
and
< 150 tons
kW/ton ≤ 0.775 ≤ 0.615 ≤ 0.790 ≤ 0.586
≥ 150 tons
and
< 300 tons
kW/ton ≤ 0.717 ≤0.627 ≤ 0.680 ≤ 0.580 ≤ 0.718 ≤ 0.540
≥ 300 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.639 ≤0.571 ≤ 0.620 ≤ 0.540 ≤ 0.639 ≤ 0.490
Water cooled, electrically operated,
centrifugal
< 150 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.703 ≤0.669 ≤ 0.634 ≤ 0.596 ≤ 0.639 ≤ 0.450
≥ 150 tons
and
< 300 tons
kW/ton ≤ 0.634 ≤0.596
≥ 300 tons
and
< 600 tons
kW/ton ≤ 0.576 ≤0.549 ≤ 0.576 ≤ 0.549 ≤ 0.600 ≤0.400
≥ 600 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.576 ≤0.549 ≤ 0.570 ≤ 0.539 ≤ 0.590 ≤0.400
Air cooled, absorption single effect All
capacities
COP ≥ 0.600 NR ≥ 0.600 NR NA NA AHRI 560
Water cooled, absorption single effect All
capacities
COP ≥ 0.700 NR ≥ 0.700 NR NA NA
Absorption double effect, indirect fired All
capacities
COP ≥ 1.000 ≥1.050 ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.050 NA NA
Absorption double effect, direct fired All
capacities
COP ≥ 1.000 ≥1.000 ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.000 NA NA

For SI: 1 ton = 3517 W, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.
NA = Not applicable, not to be used for compliance; NR = No requirement.
a. The centrifugal chiller equipment requirements, after adjustment in accordance with Section C403.2.3.1 or Section C403.2.3.2, do not apply to chillers used in low-temperature applications where the design leaving fluid temperature is less than 36°F. The requirements do not apply to positive displacement chillers with leaving fluid temperatures less than or equal to 32°F. The requirements do not apply to absorption chillers with design leaving fluid temperatures less than 40°F.
b. Compliance with this standard can be obtained by meeting the minimum requirements of Path A or B. However, both the full load and IPLV shall be met to fulfill the requirements of Path A or B.
c. Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.


TABLE C403.2.3(8) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: HEAT REJECTION EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT
TYPEa
TOTAL SYSTEM
HEAT REJECTION
CAPACITY AT
RATED CONDITIONS
SUBCATEGORY
OR RATING
CONDITION
PERFORMANCE REQUIREDb,c,d TEST PROCEDUREe,f
Propeller or axial fan open circuit cooling towers All 95°F Entering Water
85°F Leaving Water
75°F Entering wb
> 38.2 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105 and CTI STD-201
Centrifugal fan open circuit cooling towers All 95°F Entering Water
85°F Leaving Water
75°F Entering wb
> 20.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105 and CTI STD-201
Propeller or axial fan closed circuit cooling towers All 102°F Entering Water
90°F Leaving Water
75°F Entering wb
> 14.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105S and CTI STD-201
Centrifugal closed circuit cooling towers All 102°F Entering Water
90°F Leaving Water
75°F Entering wb
> 7.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105S and CTI STD-201
Air-cooled condensers All 125°F Condensing Temperature
R-22 Test Fluid
190°F Entering Gas Temperature
15°F Subcooling
95°F Entering db
> 176,000 Btu/h•hp ARI 460

For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8, L/s • kW = (gpm/hp)/(11.83), COP = (Btu/h • hp)/(2550.7).
db = dry bulb temperature, °F, wb = wet bulb temperature, °F.
a. The efficiencies and test procedures for both open and closed circuit cooling towers are not applicable to hybrid cooling towers that contain a combination of wet and dry heat exchange sections.
b. For purposes of this table, open circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition listed in Table 403.2.3(8) divided by the fan nameplate rated motor power.
c. For purposes of this table, closed circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition listed in Table 403.2.3(8) divided by the sum of the fan nameplate rated motor power and the spray pump nameplate rated motor power.
d. For purposes of this table, air-cooled condenser performance is defined as the heat rejected from the refrigerant divided by the fan nameplate rated motor power.
e. Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
f. If a certification program exists for a covered product, and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, then the product shall be listed in the certification program, or, if a certification program exists for a covered product, and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, but the product is not listed in the existing certification program, the ratings shall be verified by an independent laboratory test report.


TABLE C403.2.3(9) HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT TYPE SUBCATEGORY MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa
Liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers Plate type NR AHRI 400

NR = No Requirement
a. Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
Equipment not designed for operation at AHRI Standard 550/590 test conditions of 44°F (7°C) leaving chilled-water temperature and 85°F (29°C) entering condenser water temperature with 3 gpm/ton (0.054 I/s • kW) condenser water flow shall have maximum full-load kW/ton and NPLV ratings adjusted using the equations specified in Section 6.4.1.2.1 of ASHRAE 90.1-2010.
Equipment with a leaving fluid temperature higher than 32°F (0°C), shall meet the requirements of Table C403.2.3(7) when tested or certified with water at standard rating conditions, in accordance with the referenced test procedure.
Each heating and cooling system shall be provided with thermostatic controls as specified in Section C403.2.4.1, C403.2.4.2, C403.2.4.3, C403.2.4.4, C403.4.1, C403.4.2, C403.4.3 or C403.4.4.
The supply of heating and cooling energy to each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls capable of responding to temperature within the zone. Where humidification or dehumidification or both is provided, at least one humidity control device shall be provided for each humidity control system.

Exception: Independent perimeter systems that are designed to offset only building envelope heat losses or gains or both serving one or more perimeter zones also served by an interior system provided:

1. The perimeter system includes at least one thermostatic control zone for each building exposure having exterior walls facing only one orientation (within +/-45 degrees) (0.8 rad) for more than 50 contiguous feet (15 240 mm); and

2. The perimeter system heating and cooling supply is controlled by a thermostats located within the zones served by the system.
Heat pumps having supplementary electric resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplementary heat operation where the heat pump can meet the heating load.
Where used to control both heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall provide a temperature range or deadband of at least 5°F (2.8°C) within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is capable of being shut off or reduced to a minimum.

Exception: Thermostats requiring manual changeover between heating and cooling modes.
Each zone shall be provided with thermostatic setback controls that are controlled by either an automatic time clock or programmable control system.

Exceptions:

1. Zones that will be operated continuously.

2. Zones with a full HVAC load demand not exceeding 6,800 Btu/h (2 kW) and having a readily accessible manual shutoff switch.
Thermostatic setback controls shall have the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C).
Automatic time clock or programmable controls shall be capable of starting and stopping the system for seven different daily schedules per week and retaining their programming and time setting during a loss of power for at least 10 hours. Additionally, the controls shall have a manual override that allows temporary operation of the system for up to 2 hours; a manually operated timer capable of being adjusted to operate the system for up to 2 hours; or an occupancy sensor.
Individual heating and cooling distribution systems with a total design supply air capacity exceeding 10,000 cfm, served by one or more supply fans, shall have optimum start controls. The control algorithm shall, as a minimum, be a function of the difference between space temperature and occupied setpoint and the amount of time prior to scheduled occupancy.
Stairway and shaft vent dampers shall meet the requirements of Section C403.2.4.4.1. Outdoor air supply intakes and exhausts meet the requirements of Section C403.2.4.4.2.
Stairway and shaft vents shall be provided with Class I motorized dampers with a maximum leakage rate of 4 cfm/ft2 (20.3 L/s • m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D. Stairway and shaft vent dampers shall be installed with controls so that they are capable of automatically opening upon:

1. The activation of any fire alarm initiating device of the building's fire alarm system; or

2. The interruption of power to the damper.
Outdoor air supply and exhaust openings in the building envelope, ducts, or equipment shall be provided with Class I motorized dampers with a maximum leakage rate of 4 cfm/ft2 (20.3 L/s • m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D. Outdoor air supply and exhaust motorized dampers shall be configured to close automatically when the systems or spaces served are not in use.

Exceptions:

1. Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers having a maximum leakage rate of 20 cfm/ft2 (101.6 L/s • m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D are permitted to be used as follows:

1.1 In buildings less than three stories in height above grade for exhaust and relief dampers.

1.2 Where the design outdoor air intake or exhaust capacity does not exceed 300 cfm (141 L/s).

Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers for ventilation air intakes shall be protected from direct exposure to wind.

2. Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers smaller than 24 inches (610 mm) in either dimension shall be permitted to have a leakage of 40 cfm/ft2 (203.2 L/s • m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D.

3. Dampers are not required for:

3.1 Ventilation or exhaust systems serving unconditioned spaces.

3.2 Exhaust systems serving Type 1 kitchen exhaust hoods.
Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy service to the building, shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50°F (10°C) and no precipitation is falling and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F (4°C) so that the potential for snow or ice accumulation is negligible.
Ventilation, either natural or mechanical, shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 4 of the New York City Mechanical Code. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, the system shall provide the capability to reduce the outdoor air supply to the minimum required by Chapter 4 of the New York City Mechanical Code.
Demand control ventilation (DCV) shall be provided for spaces larger than 500 square feet (50 m2) and with an average occupant load of 25 people per 1000 square feet (93 m2) of floor area (as established in Table 403.3 of the New York City Mechanical Code and served by systems with one or more of the following:

1. An air-side economizer;

2. Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air damper; or

3. A design outdoor airflow greater than 3,000 cfm (1400 L/s).

Exception: Demand control ventilation is not required for systems and spaces as follows:

1. Systems with energy recovery complying with Section C403.2.6.

2. Multiple-zone systems without direct digital control of individual zones communicating with a central control panel.

3. System with a design outdoor airflow less than 1,200 cfm (600 L/s).

4. Spaces where the supply airflow rate minus any makeup or outgoing transfer air requirement is less than 1,200 cfm (600 L/s).

5. Ventilation provided for process loads only.
Where the supply airflow rate of a fan system exceeds the values specified in Table C403.2.6, the system shall include an energy recovery system. The energy recovery system shall have the capability to provide a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply of not less than 50 percent of the difference between the outdoor air and return air enthalpies, at design conditions. Where an air economizer is required, the energy recovery system shall include a bypass or controls which permit operation of the economizer as required by Section C403.4.

Exception: An energy recovery ventilation system shall not be required in any of the following conditions:

1. Where energy recovery systems are prohibited by the New York City Mechanical Code.

2. Laboratory fume hood systems that include at least one of the following features:

2.1. Variable-air-volume hood exhaust and room supply systems capable of reducing exhaust and makeup air volume to 50 percent or less of design values.

2.2. Direct makeup (auxiliary) air supply equal to at least 75 percent of the exhaust rate, heated no warmer than 2°F (1.1°C) above room setpoint, cooled to no cooler than 3°F (1.7°C) below room setpoint, no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control.

3. Systems serving spaces that are heated to less than 60°F (15.5°C) and are not cooled.

4. Where more than 60 percent of the outdoor heating energy is provided from site-recovered or site solar energy.

5. Heating energy recovery in Climate Zones 1 and 2.

6. Cooling energy recovery in Climate Zones 3C, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7 and 8.

7. Systems requiring dehumidification that employ energy recovery in series with the cooling coil.

8. Where the largest source of air exhausted at a single location at the building exterior is less than 75 percent of the design outdoor air flow rate.

9. Systems expected to operate less than 20 hours per week at the outdoor air percentage covered by Table C403.2.6.

NOTE: This Section C403.2.6 shall not be included in the "mandatory provisions" applicable to all mechanical systems, but shall be included in the "prescriptive" provisions set applicable to simple and complex HVAC systems and equipment.

TABLE C403.2.6 ENERGY RECOVERY REQUIREMENT

CLIMATE ZONE PERCENT (%) OUTDOOR AIR AT FULL DESIGN AIRFLOW RATE
≥ 30% and <
40%
≥ 40% and <
50%
≥ 50% and <
60%
≥ 60% and <
70%
≥ 70% and <
80%
≥ 80%
DESIGN SUPPLY FAN AIRFLOW RATE (cfm)
3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5B NR NR NR NR ≥ 5000 ≥ 5000
1B, 2B, 5C NR NR ≥ 26000 ≥ 12000 ≥ 5000 ≥ 4000
6B ≥ 11000 ≥ 5500 ≥ 4500 ≥ 3500 ≥ 2500 ≥ 1500
1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A ≥ 5500 ≥ 4500 ≥ 3500 ≥ 2000 ≥ 1000 > 0
7, 8 ≥ 2500 ≥ 1000 > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0

NR = not required
All supply and return air ducts and plenums shall be insulated with a minimum of R-6 insulation where located in unconditioned spaces and a minimum of R-8 insulation where located outside the building. Where located within a building envelope assembly, the duct or plenum shall be separated from the building exterior or unconditioned or exempt spaces by a minimum of R-8 insulation.

Exceptions:

1. Where located within equipment.

2. Where the design temperature difference between the interior and exterior of the duct or plenum does not exceed 15°F (8°C).

All ducts, air handlers and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section 603.9 of the New York City Mechanical Code.
Ductwork shall be constructed and erected in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code.
All longitudinal and transverse joints, seams and connections of supply and return ducts operating at a static pressure less than or equal to 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (500 Pa) shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics (adhesives), mastic-plus-embedded-fabric systems or tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code.

Exception: Continuously welded and locking-type longitudinal joints and seams on ducts operating at static pressures less than 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (500 Pa) pressure classification.
All ducts and plenums designed to operate at a static pressure greater than 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (500 Pa) but less than 3 inches w.g. (750 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.2.7. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code.
Ducts designed to operate at static pressures in excess of 3 inches water gauge (w.g.) (750 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.2.7. In addition, ducts and plenums shall be leak-tested in accordance with the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual with the rate of air leakage (CL) less than or equal to 6.0 as determined in accordance with Equation C4-3.



where:

F = The measured leakage rate in cfm per 100 square feet of duct surface.
P = The static pressure of the test.


Documentation shall be furnished by the designer demonstrating that representative sections totaling at least 25 percent of the duct area have been tested and that all tested sections meet the requirements of this section.
All piping serving as part of a heating or cooling system shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table C403.2.8.

Exceptions:

1. Factory-installed piping within HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with a test procedure referenced by this code.

2. Factory-installed piping within room fan-coils and unit ventilators tested and rated according to AHRI 440 (except that the sampling and variation provisions of Section 6.5 shall not apply) and AHRI 840, respectively.

3. Piping that conveys fluids that have a design operating temperature range between 60°F (15°C) and 105°F (41°C).

4. Piping that conveys fluids that have not been heated or cooled through the use of fossil fuels or electric power.

5. Strainers, control valves, and balancing valves associated with piping 1 inch (25 mm) or less in diameter.

6. Direct buried piping that conveys fluids at or below 60°F (15°C).

TABLE C403.2.8 MINIMUM PIPE INSULATION THICKNESS (thickness in inches)a

FLUID OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE AND USAGE (°F) INSULATION CONDUCTIVITY NOMINAL PIPE OR TUBE SIZE (inches)
Conductivity
Btu • in./(h • ft2 • °F)b
Mean Rating Temperature, °F < 1 1 to < 11/2 11/2 to < 4 4 to < 8 ≤ 8
> 350 0.32 ‒ 0.34 250 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
251 ‒ 350 0.29 ‒ 0.32 200 3.0 4.0 4.5 4.5 4.5
201 ‒ 250 0.27 ‒ 0.30 150 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0
141 ‒ 200 0.25 ‒ 0.29 125 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.0
105 ‒ 140 0.21 ‒ 0.28 100 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5
40 ‒ 60 0.21 ‒ 0.27 75 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0
< 40 0.20 ‒ 0.26 75 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5

a. For piping smaller than 11/2 inches (38 mm) and located in partitions within conditioned spaces, reduction of these thicknesses by 1 inch (25 mm) shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b) but not to a thickness less than 1 inch (25 mm).
b. For insulation outside the stated conductivity range, the minimum thickness (T) shall be determined as follows:
where:
T = minimum insulation thickness,
r = actual outside radius of pipe,
t = insulation thickness listed in the table for applicable fluid temperature and pipe size,
K = conductivity of alternate material at mean rating temperature indicated for the applicable fluid temperature (Btu • in/h • ft2 • °F) and
k = the upper value of the conductivity range listed in the table for the applicable fluid temperature.
c. For direct-buried heating and hot water system piping, reduction of these thicknesses by 11/2 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b but not to thicknesses less than 1 inch (25 mm).
Piping insulation exposed to weather shall be protected from damage, including that due to sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind, and shall provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material. Adhesives tape shall not be permitted.
Mechanical systems shall be commissioned and completed in accordance with Section C408.2.
Each HVAC system having a total fan system motor nameplate horsepower (hp) exceeding 5 horsepower (hp) (3.7 kW) shall meet the provisions of Sections C403.2.10.1 through C403.2.10.2.

NOTE: This Section C403.2.10 shall not be included in the "mandatory provisions" applicable to all mechanical systems, but shall be included in the "prescriptive" provisions set applicable to simple and complex HVAC systems and equipment.
Each HVAC system at fan system design conditions shall not exceed the allowable fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1) or fan system bhp (Option 2) as shown in Table C403.2.10.1(1). This includes supply fans, return/relief fans, and fan-powered terminal units associated with systems providing heating or cooling capability. Single zone variable-air-volume systems shall comply with the constant volume fan power limitation.

Exception: The following fan systems are exempt from allowable fan floor horsepower requirement.

1. Hospital, vivarium and laboratory systems that utilize flow control devices on exhaust and/or return to maintain space pressure relationships necessary for occupant health and safety or environmental control shall be permitted to use variable volume fan power limitation.

2. Individual exhaust fans with motor nameplate horsepower of 1 hp or less.

TABLE C403.2.10.1(1) FAN POWER LIMITATION

LIMIT CONSTANT VOLUME VARIABLE VOLUME
Option 1: Fan system motor nameplate hp Allowable nameplate motor hp hp ≤ CFMS × 0.0011 hp ≤ CFMS × 0.0015
Option 2: Fan system bhp Allowable fan system bhp bhp ≤ CFMS × 0.00094 + A bhp ≤ CFMS × 0.0013 + A

where:
CFMS = The maximum design supply airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system in cubic feet per minute.
hp = The maximum combined motor nameplate horsepower.
Bhp = The maximum combined fan brake horsepower.
A = Sum of [PD × CFMD/4131]
For SI: 1 cfm = 0.471 L/s.
where:
PD = Each applicable pressure drop adjustment from Table C403.2.10.1(2) in. w.c.
CFMD = The design airflow through each applicable device from Table C403.2.10.1(2) in cubic feet per minute.
For SI: 1 bhp = 735.5 W, 1 hp = 745.5 W.


TABLE C403.2.10.1(2) FAN POWER LIMITATION PRESSURE DROP ADJUSTMENT

DEVICE ADJUSTMENT
Credits
Fully ducted return and/or exhaust air systems 0.5 inch w.c. (2.15 in w.c. for laboratory and vivarium systems)
Return and/or exhaust air flow control devices 0.5 inch w.c.
Exhaust filters, scrubbers, or other exhaust treatment. The pressure drop of device calculated at fan system design condition
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 9 thru 12 0.5 inch w.c.
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 13 thru 15 0.9 inch. w.c.
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 16 and greater and electronically enhanced filters Pressure drop calculated at 2x clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition.
Carbon and other gas-phase air cleaners Clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition.
Biosafety cabinet Pressure drop of device at fan system design condition.
Energy recovery device, other than coil runaround loop (2.2 × energy recovery effectiveness) ‒ 0.5 inch w.c. for each airstream
Coil runaround loop 0.6 inch w.c. for each airstream
Evaporative humidifier/cooler in series with another cooling coil Pressure drop of device at fan system design conditions
Sound attenuation section 0.15 inch w.c.
Exhaust system serving fume hoods 0.35 inch w.c.
Laboratory and vivarium exhaust systems in high-rise buildings 0.25 inch w.c./100 feet of vertical duct exceeding 75 feet

w.c. = water column
For SI: 1 inch w.c. = 249 Pa, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
For each fan, the selected fan motor shall be no larger than the first available motor size greater than the brake horsepower (bhp). The fan brake horsepower (bhp) shall be indicated on the design documents to allow for compliance verification by the code official.

Exceptions:

1. For fans less than 6 bhp (4413 W), where the first available motor larger than the brake horsepower has a nameplate rating within 50 percent of the bhp, selection of the next larger nameplate motor size is allowed.

2. For fans 6 bhp (4413 W) and larger, where the first available motor larger than the bhp has a nameplate rating within 30 percent of the bhp, selection of the next larger nameplate motor size is allowed.
Systems installed to provide heat outside a building shall be radiant systems.

Such heating systems shall be controlled by an occupancy sensing device or a timer switch, so that the system is automatically deenergized when no occupants are present.
This section applies to buildings served by unitary or packaged HVAC equipment listed in Tables C403.2.3(1) through C403.2.3(8), each serving one zone and controlled by a single thermostat in the zone served. It also applies to two-pipe heating systems serving one or more zones, where no cooling system is installed.
Each cooling system that has a fan shall include an air economizer meeting the requirements of Sections C403.3.1.1 through C403.3.1.1.4.

Exception: Economizers are not required for the systems listed below.

1. Individual fan-cooling units with a supply capacity less than 54,000 Btu/h for comfort cooling applications.

2. Individual fan-cooling units with a supply capacity less than 135,000 Btu/h for computer room applications in Climate Zones 5A and 6A.

3. Individual fan-cooling units, without regard to supply capacity, for computer room applications in Climate Zone 4A.

4. In Group I-2 occupancies, hospitals, Group B occupancies, and ambulatory care facilities, where more than 75 percent of the air designed to be supplied by the system is to spaces that are required to be humidified above a 35°F (1.7 °C) dew-point temperature to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards. In other occupancies, where more than 25 percent of the air designed to be supplied by the system is to spaces that are designed to be humidified above 35°F (1.7 °C) dew-point temperature to satisfy process needs.

5. Systems that serve residential spaces where the total building residential cooling capacity is less than 270,000 Btu/h.

6. Systems expected to operate less than 20 hours per week.

7. Where the use of outdoor air for cooling will affect supermarket open refrigerated casework systems.

8. Where the cooling efficiency meets or exceeds the efficiency requirements in Table C403.3.1.

9. Systems that include a condenser heat recovery system that is designed to utilize 60 percent of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions and there is a documented need for that rejected heat for either service hot water or space heating during peak heat rejection design conditions.

10. Systems that serve spaces estimated as having a sensible cooling load at design conditions, excluding transmission and infiltration loads, of less than or equal to transmission and infiltration losses at an outdoor temperature of 60°F.

TABLE C403.3.1 EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE EXCEPTION FOR ECONOMIZERS

CLIMATE ZONE COOLING EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCY
IMPROVEMENT (%)a
4A 42
5A 49
6A 56

a. A system qualifies for Exception 8 to the requirements of Section C403.3.1 if:
(1) the energy efficiency of the HVAC unit is rated with a "part load" metric (such as IPLV, IEER or SEER); Tables C403.2.3 (1) through C403.2 (8) specify a required minimum cooling efficiency for such HVAC unit using the same "part load" metric; and the rated efficiency of the HVAC unit exceeds the required minimum efficiency (expressed in the same "part load" metric) by at least the percentage shown in this Table; or
(2) the energy efficiency of the HVAC unit is not rated with any "part load" metric but is rated with a "full load" metric (such as EER or COP); Tables C403.2.3 (1) through C403.2 (8) specify a required minimum cooling efficiency for such HVAC unit using the same "full load" metric; and the rated efficiency of the HVAC unit exceeds the required minimum efficiency (expressed in the same "full load" metric) by at least the percentage shown in this table.
Air economizers shall comply with Sections C403.3.1.1.1 through C403.3.1.1.4.
Air economizer systems shall be capable of modulating outdoor air and return air dampers to provide up to 100 percent of the design supply air quantity as outdoor air for cooling.
Economizer dampers shall be capable of being sequenced with the mechanical cooling equipment and shall not be controlled by only mixed air temperature.

Exception: The use of mixed air temperature limit control shall be permitted for systems controlled from space temperature (such as single-zone systems).
Air economizers shall be capable of automatically reducing outdoor air intake to the design minimum outdoor air quantity when outdoor air intake will no longer reduce cooling energy usage. High-limit shutoff control types for specific climates shall be chosen from Table C403.3.1.1.3(1). High-limit shutoff control settings for these control types shall be those specified in Table C403.3.1.1.3(2).

TABLE C403.3.1.1.3(1) HIGH-LIMIT SHUTOFF CONTROL OPTIONS FOR AIR ECONOMIZERS

CLIMATE ZONES ALLOWED CONTROL TYPES PROHIBITED CONTROL TYPES
1B, 2B, 3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7, 8 Fixed dry bulb
Differential dry bulb
Electronic enthalpya
Differential enthalpy
Dew-point and dry-bulb temperatures
Fixed enthalpy
1A, 2A, 3A, 4A Fixed dry bulb
Fixed enthalpy
Electronic enthalpya
Differential enthalpy
Dew-point and dry-bulb temperatures
Differential dry bulb
All other climates Fixed dry bulb
Differential dry bulb
Fixed enthalpy
Electronic enthalpya
Differential enthalpy
Dew-point and dry-bulb temperatures

a. Electronic enthalpy controllers are devices that use a combination of humidity and dry-bulb temperature in their switching algorithm.


TABLE C403.3.1.1.3(2) HIGH-LIMIT SHUTOFF CONTROL SETTING FOR AIR ECONOMIZERS

DEVICE TYPE CLIMATE ZONE REQUIRED HIGH LIMIT
(ECONOMIZER OFF WHEN):
Fixed dry bulb 1B, 2B, 3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7, 8 EQUATION DESCRIPTION
TOA > 75°F Outdoor air temperature exceeds 75°F
5A, 6A, 7A TOA > 70°F Outdoor air temperature exceeds 70°F
All other zones TOA > 65°F Outdoor air temperature exceeds 65°F
Differential dry bulb 1B, 2B, 3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5A, 5B, 5C, 6A, 6B, 7, 8 TOA > TRA Outdoor air temperature exceeds
return air temperature
Fixed enthalpy All hOA > 28 Btu/lba Outdoor air enthalpy exceeds
28 Btu/lb of dry aira
Electronic Enthalpy All (TOA,RHOA) > A Outdoor air temperature/RH exceeds the "A" setpoint curveb
Differential enthalpy All hOA > hRA Outdoor air enthalpy exceeds
return air enthalpy
Dew-point and dry bulb temperatures All DPOA > 55°F or TOA > 75°F Outdoor air dry bulb exceeds 75°F or outside dew point exceeds 55°F (65 gr/lb)

For SI: °C = (°F - 32) × 5/9, 1 Btu/lb = 2.33 kJ/kg. 5/9
a. At altitudes substantially different than sea level, the Fixed Enthalpy limit shall be set to the enthalpy value at 75°F and 50-percent relative humidity. As an example, at approximately 6,000 feet elevation the fixed enthalpy limit is approximately 30.7 Btu/lb.
b. Setpoint "A" corresponds to a curve on the psychometric chart that goes through a point at approximately 75°F and 40-percent relative humidity and is nearly parallel to dry-bulb lines at low humidity levels and nearly parallel to enthalpy lines at high humidity levels.
Systems shall be capable of relieving excess outdoor air during air economizer operation to prevent over-pressurizing the building. The relief air outlet shall be located to avoid recirculation into the building.
Exhaust/relief and outdoor air dampers shall meet the requirements of Section C403.2.4.4.2.
Hydronic systems of at least 300,000 Btu/h (87 930 W) design output capacity supplying heated and chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that meet the requirements of Section C403.4.3.
All air-conditioning equipment and air-handling units with direct expansion cooling and a cooling capacity of at least 110,000 Btu/h that serve single zones shall have their supply fans controlled by multi-speed motors or variable-speed drives. The supply fan controls shall be configured to reduce the airflow to no more than the larger of the following at cooling demands no larger than 50 percent of the cooling capacity:

1. Two-thirds of the full fan speed, or

2. The volume of outdoor air required to meet the ventilation requirements of the 2010 Mechanical Code of New York State (or, in New York City, the corresponding portion of the Mechanical Code of New York City).
In Group R-1 occupancies, each sleeping room shall be provided with a dedicated system to control automatically the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control the energy consumption during unoccupied periods. The controls shall be designed to (change) raise cooling and lower heating temperature set points by at least 4°F (2.22°C) during periods when the sleeping room is unoccupied.

Exception:

Automatic controls are not required in Group R-1 occupancies with fewer than 20 sleeping rooms.
The provisions of Section C403.2.6 shall apply to simple HVAC systems and equipment.
The provisions of Section C403.2.10 shall apply to simple HVAC systems and equipment.
This section applies to buildings served by HVAC equipment and systems not covered in Section C403.3.
Each cooling system that has a fan shall include either an air economizer meeting the requirements of Sections C403.3.1.1 through C403.3.1.1.4 or a water economizer meeting the requirements of Sections C403.4.1.1 through C403.4.1.4.
Water economizer systems shall be capable of cooling supply air by indirect evaporation and providing up to 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at outdoor air temperatures of 50°F dry bulb (10°C dry bulb)/45°F wet bulb (7.2°C wet bulb) and below.

Exception: Systems in which a water economizer is used and where dehumidification requirements cannot be met using outdoor air temperatures of 50°F dry bulb (10°C dry bulb)/45°F wet bulb (7.2°C wet bulb) shall satisfy 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at 45°F dry bulb (7.2°C dry bulb)/40°F wet bulb (4.5°C wet bulb).
Precooling coils and water-to-water heat exchangers used as part of a water economizer system shall either have a water-side pressure drop of less than 15 feet (4572 mm) of water or a secondary loop shall be created so that the coil or heat exchanger pressure drop is not seen by the circulating pumps when the system is in the normal cooling (noneconomizer) mode.
Economizer systems shall be integrated with the mechanical cooling system and be capable of providing partial cooling even where additional mechanical cooling is required to meet the remainder of the cooling load.

Exceptions:

1. Direct expansion systems that include controls that reduce the quantity of outdoor air required to prevent coil frosting at the lowest step of compressor unloading, provided this lowest step is no greater than 25 percent of the total system capacity.

2. Individual direct expansion units that have a rated cooling capacity less than 54,000 Btu/h (15 827 W) and use nonintegrated economizer controls that preclude simultaneous operation of the economizer and mechanical cooling.
HVAC system design and economizer controls shall be such that economizer operation does not increase the building heating energy use during normal operation.

Exception: Economizers on VAV systems that cause zone level heating to increase due to a reduction in supply air temperature.
HVAC systems with fans shall meet the requirements of C403.3.3 or C403.4.2.1.
Individual VAV fans with motors of 5 horsepower (3.7 kW) or greater shall be:

1. Driven by a mechanical or electrical variable speed drive;

2. Driven by a vane-axial fan with variable-pitch blades; or

3. The fan shall have controls or devices that will result in fan motor demand of no more than 30 percent of their design wattage at 50 percent of design airflow when static pressure set point equals one-third of the total design static pressure, based on manufacturer's certified fan data.
Static pressure sensors used to control VAV fans shall be placed in a position such that the controller setpoint is no greater than one-third the total design fan static pressure, except for systems with zone reset control complying with Section C403.4.2.2. For sensors installed down-stream of major duct splits, at least one sensor shall be located on each major branch to ensure that static pressure can be maintained in each branch.
For systems with direct digital control of individual zone boxes reporting to the central control panel, the static pressure set point shall be reset based on the zone requiring the most pressure, i.e., the set point is reset lower until one zone damper is nearly wide open.
The heating of fluids that have been previously mechanically cooled and the cooling of fluids that have been previously mechanically heated shall be limited in accordance with Sections C403.4.3.1 through C403.4.3.3. Hydronic heating systems comprised of multiple-packaged boilers and designed to deliver conditioned water or steam into a common distribution system shall include automatic controls capable of sequencing operation of the boilers. Hydronic heating systems comprised of a single boiler and greater than 500,000 Btu/h (146 550 W) input design capacity shall include either a multistaged or modulating burner.
Hydronic systems that use a common return system for both hot water and chilled water are prohibited.
Systems that use a common distribution system to supply both heated and chilled water shall be designed to allow a dead band between changeover from one mode to the other of at least 15°F (8.3°C) outside air temperatures; be designed to and provided with controls that will allow operation in one mode for at least 4 hours before changing over to the other mode; and be provided with controls that allow heating and cooling supply temperatures at the changeover point to be no more than 30°F (16.7°C) apart.
Hydronic heat pump systems shall comply with Sections C403.4.3.3.1 through C403.4.3.3.3.
Hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection and heat addition shall have controls that are capable of providing a heat pump water supply temperature dead band of at least 20°F (11.1°C) between initiation of heat rejection and heat addition by the central devices.

Exception: Where a system loop temperature optimization controller is installed and can determine the most efficient operating temperature based on realtime conditions of demand and capacity, dead bands of less than 20°F (11°C) shall be permitted.
Heat rejection equipment shall comply with Sections C403.4.3.3.2.1 and C403.4.3.3.2.2.

Exception: Where it can be demonstrated that a heat pump system will be required to reject heat throughout the year.
For Climate Zones 3 and 4:

1. If a closed-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, either an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all but a minimal flow of water around the tower, or lower leakage positive closure dampers shall be provided.

2. If an open-circuit tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the tower.

3. If an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, then heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop.
For Climate Zones 5 through 8, if an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used, then a separate heat exchanger shall be provided to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, and heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop and providing an automatic valve to stop the flow of fluid.
Each hydronic heat pump on the hydronic system having a total pump system power exceeding 10 horsepower (hp) (7.5 kW) shall have a two-position valve.
Hydronic systems greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h (87 930 W) in design output capacity supplying heated or chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that have the capability to:

1. Automatically reset the supply-water temperatures using zone-return water temperature, building-return water temperature, or outside air temperature as an indicator of building heating or cooling demand. The temperature shall be capable of being reset by at least 25 percent of the design supply-to-return water temperature difference; or

2. Reduce system pump flow by at least 50 percent of design flow rate utilizing adjustable speed drive(s) on pump(s), or multiple-staged pumps where at least one-half of the total pump horsepower is capable of being automatically turned off or control valves designed to modulate or step down, and close, as a function of load, or other approved means.
Chilled water plants including more than one chiller shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the chiller plant when a chiller is shut down. Chillers piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential shall be considered as one chiller.

Boiler plants including more than one boiler shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the boiler plant when a boiler is shut down.
Each fan powered by a motor of 7.5 hp (5.6 kW) or larger shall have the capability to operate that fan at two-thirds of full speed or less, and shall have controls that automatically change the fan speed to control the leaving fluid temperature or condensing temperature/pressure of the heat rejection device.

Exception: Factory-installed heat rejection devices within HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with Tables C403.2.3(6) and C403.2.3(7).
Sections C403.4.5.1 through C403.4.5.5 shall apply to complex mechanical systems serving multiple zones. Supply air systems serving multiple zones shall be VAV systems which, during periods of occupancy, are designed and capable of being controlled to reduce primary air supply to each zone to one of the following before reheating, recooling or mixing takes place:

1. Thirty percent of the maximum supply air to each zone.

2. Three hundred cfm (142 L/s) or less where the maximum flow rate is less than 10 percent of the total fan system supply airflow rate.

3. The minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the New York City Mechanical Code.

4. Any higher rate that can be demonstrated to reduce overall system annual energy use by offsetting reheat/recool energy losses through a reduction in outdoor air intake for the system, as approved by the code official.

5. The air flow rate required to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards, such as pressure relationships or minimum air change rates.

Exception: The following define where individual zones or where entire air distribution systems are exempted from the requirement for VAV control:

1. Zones or supply air systems where at least 75 percent of the energy for reheating or for providing warm air in mixing systems is provided from a site-recovered or site-solar energy source.

2. Zones where special humidity levels are required to satisfy process needs.

3. Zones with a peak supply air quantity of 300 cfm (142 L/s) or less and where the flow rate is less than 10 percent of the total fan system supply airflow rate.

4. Zones where the volume of air to be reheated, recooled or mixed is no greater than the volume of outside air required to meet the minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the New York City Mechanical Code.

5. Zones or supply air systems with thermostatic and humidistatic controls capable of operating in sequence the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zones and which are capable of preventing reheating, recooling, mixing or simultaneous supply of air that has been previously cooled, either mechanically or through the use of economizer systems, and air that has been previously mechanically heated.
Single duct VAV systems shall use terminal devices capable of reducing the supply of primary supply air before reheating or recooling takes place.
Systems that have one warm air duct and one cool air duct shall use terminal devices which are capable of reducing the flow from one duct to a minimum before mixing of air from the other duct takes place.
Individual dual duct or mixing heating and cooling systems with a single fan and with total capacities greater than 90,000 Btu/h [(26 375 W) 7.5 tons] shall not be equipped with air economizers.
Multiple zone HVAC systems shall include controls that automatically reset the supply-air temperature in response to representative building loads, or to outdoor air temperature. The controls shall be capable of resetting the supply air temperature at least 25 percent of the difference between the design supply-air temperature and the design room air temperature.

Exceptions:

1. Systems that prevent reheating, recooling or mixing of heated and cooled supply air.

2. Seventy five percent of the energy for reheating is from site-recovered or site solar energy sources.

3. Zones with peak supply air quantities of 300 cfm (142 L/s) or less.
Multiple-zone VAV systems with DDC of individual zone boxes reporting to a central control panel shall have automatic controls configured to reduce outdoor air intake flow below design rates in response to changes in the system ventilation efficiency (Ev) as defined by ASHRAE 90.1, Section 6.5.3.3.

Exceptions:

1. VAV systems with zonal transfer fans that recirculate air from other zones without directly mixing it with outdoor air, dual-duct dual-fan VAV systems, and VAV systems with fan-powered terminal units.

2. Systems having exhaust air energy recovery complying with Section C403.2.6.

3. Systems where total design exhaust airflow is more than 70 percent of total design outdoor air intake flow requirements.
Condenser heat recovery shall be installed for heating or reheating of service hot water provided the facility operates 24 hours a day, the total installed heat capacity of water-cooled systems exceeds 6,000,000 Btu/hr (1 758 600 W) of heat rejection, and the design service water heating load exceeds 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 100 W).

The required heat recovery system shall have the capacity to provide the smaller of:

1. Sixty percent of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions; or

2. The preheating required to raise the peak service hot water draw to 85°F (29°C).

Exceptions:

1. Facilities that employ condenser heat recovery for space heating or reheat purposes with a heat recovery design exceeding 30 percent of the peak water-cooled condenser load at design conditions.

2. Facilities that provide 60 percent of their service water heating from site solar or site recovered energy or from other sources.
Cooling systems shall not use hot gas bypass or other evaporator pressure control systems unless the system is designed with multiple steps of unloading or continuous capacity modulation. The capacity of the hot gas bypass shall be limited as indicated in Table C403.4.7

Exception: Unitary packaged systems with cooling capacities not greater than 90,000 Btu/h (26 379 W).

TABLE C403.4.7 MAXIMUM HOT GAS BYPASS CAPACITY

RATED CAPACITY MAXIMUM HOT GAS BYPASS CAPACITY
(% of total capacity)
≤ 240,000 Btu/h 50
> 240,000 Btu/h 25

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
The provisions of Section C403.2.6 shall apply to complex HVAC systems and equipment.
The provisions of Section C403.2.10 shall apply to complex HVAC systems and equipment.
This section covers the minimum efficiency of, and controls for, service water-heating equipment and insulation of service hot water piping.
Water-heating equipment and hot water storage tanks shall meet the requirements of Table C404.2. The efficiency shall be verified through data furnished by the manufacturer or through certification under an approved certification program.

TABLE C404.2 MINIMUM PERFORMANCE OF WATER-HEATING EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY
(input)
SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
PERFORMANCE
REQUIREDa,b
TEST
PROCEDURE
Water heaters,
electric
≤ 12 kW Resistance 0.97 - 0.00 132V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
> 12 kW Resistance 1.73V+ 155 SL, Btu/h ANSI Z21.10.3
≤ 24 amps and
≤ 250 volts
Heat pump 0.93 - 0.00 132V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
Storage water heaters,
gas
≤ 75,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gal 0.67 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
> 75,000 Btu/h and
≤ 155,000 Btu/h
< 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et
ANSI Z21.10.3
> 155,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et
Instantaneous
water heaters,
gas
> 50,000 Btu/h and
< 200,000 Btu/hc
≥ 4,000 (Btu/h)/gal
and < 2 gal
0.62 - 0.00 19V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal
and < 10 gal
80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3
≥ 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
≥ 10 gal
80% Et
Storage water heaters
oil
≤ 105,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gal 0.59 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 105,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 78% Et
ANSI Z21.10.3
Instantaneous
water heaters,
oil
≤ 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 2 gal
0.59 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
> 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 10 gal
80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3
> 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
≥ 10 gal
78% Et
Hot water supply boilers,
gas and oil
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
< 12,500,000 Btu/h
≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 10 gal
80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3
Hot water supply boilers,
gas
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
< 12,500,000 Btu/h
≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
≥ 10 gal
80% Et
Hot water supply boilers,
oil
> 300,000 Btu/h and
< 12,500,000 Btu/h
> 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
> 10 gal
78% Et
Pool heaters,
gas and oil
All 78% Et ASHRAE 146
Heat pump pool heaters All 4.0 COP AHRI 1160
Unfired storage tanks All Minimum insulation
requirement R-12.5
(h ft2 °F)/Btu
(none)

For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 British thermal unit per hour per gallon = 0.078 W/L.
a. Energy factor (EF) and thermal efficiency (Et) are minimum requirements. In the EF equation, V is the rated volume in gallons.
b. Standby loss (SL) is the maximum Btu/h based on a nominal 70°F temperature difference between stored water and ambient requirements. In the SL equation, Q is the nameplate input rate in Btu/h. In the SL equation for electric water heaters, V is the rated volume in gallons. In the SL equation for oil and gas water heaters and boilers,V is the rated volume in gallons.
c. Instantaneous water heaters with input rates below 200,000 Btu/h must comply with these requirements if the water heater is designed to heat water to temperatures 180°F or higher.
Service water-heating equipment shall be provided with controls to allow a setpoint of 110°F (43°C) for equipment serving dwelling units and 90°F (32°C) for equipment serving other occupancies. The outlet temperature of lavatories in public facility rest rooms shall be limited to 110°F (43°C).
Water-heating equipment not supplied with integral heat traps and serving noncirculating systems shall be provided with heat traps on the supply and discharge piping associated with the equipment.
For automatic-circulating hot water and heat-traced systems, piping shall be insulated with not less than 1 inch (25 mm) of insulation having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h • ft2 • °F (1.53 W per 25 mm/m2 • K). The first 8 feet (2438 mm) of piping in non-hot-water-supply temperature maintenance systems served by equipment without integral heat traps shall be insulated with 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of material having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h • ft2 • °F (1.53 W per 25 mm/m2 • K).

Exception: Heat-traced piping systems shall meet the insulation thickness requirements per the manufacturer's installation instructions. Untraced piping within a heat traced system shall be insulated with not less than 1 inch (25 mm) of insulation having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h • ft2 • °F (1.53 W per 25 mm/m2 × K).
Circulating hot water system pumps or heat trace shall be arranged to be turned off either automatically or manually when there is limited hot water demand. Ready access shall be provided to the operating controls.
Pools and inground permanently installed spas shall comply with Sections C404.7.1 through C404.7.3.
All heaters shall be equipped with a readily accessible on-off switch that is mounted outside of the heater to allow shutting off the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Gas-fired heaters shall not be equipped with constant burning pilot lights.
Time switches or other control method that can automatically turn off and on heaters and pumps according to a preset schedule shall be installed on all heaters and pumps. Heaters, pumps and motors that have built in timers shall be deemed in compliance with this requirement.

Exceptions:

1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation.

2. Where pumps are required to operate solar- and waste-heat-recovery pool heating systems.
Heated pools and inground permanently installed spas shall be provided with a vapor-retardant cover.

Exception: A vapor-retardant cover is not required for pools deriving over 70 percent of the energy for heating from site-recovered energy, such as a heat pump or solar energy source computed over an operating season.
This section covers lighting system controls, the connection of ballasts, the maximum lighting power for interior applications, electrical energy consumption, and minimum acceptable lighting equipment for exterior applications.

Exception: Dwelling units within commercial buildings shall not be required to comply with Sections C405.2 through C405.5 provided that a minimum of 75 percent of the permanently installed lighting fixtures, other than low-voltage lighting, shall be high efficacy lamps.
Lighting systems shall be provided with controls as specified in Sections C405.2.1, C405.2.2, C405.2.3 and C405.2.4.
All buildings shall include manual lighting controls that meet the requirements of Sections C405.2.1.1 and C405.2.1.2.
Each area enclosed by walls or floor-to-ceiling partitions shall have at least one manual control for the lighting serving that area. The required controls shall be located within the area served by the controls or be a remote switch that identifies the lights served and indicates their status.

Exceptions:

1. Areas designated as security or emergency areas that need to be continuously lighted.

2. Lighting in stairways or corridors that are elements of the means of egress.
Each area that is required to have a manual control shall also allow the occupant to reduce the connected lighting load in a reasonably uniform illumination pattern by at least 50 percent. Lighting reduction shall be achieved by one of the following or other approved method:

1. Controlling all lamps or luminaires;

2. Dual switching of alternate rows of luminaires, alternate luminaires or alternate lamps;

3. Switching the middle lamp luminaires independently of the outer lamps; or

4. Switching each luminaire or each lamp.

Exception: Light reduction controls need not be provided in the following areas and spaces:

1. Areas that have only one luminaire, with rated power less than 100 watts.

2. Areas that are controlled by an occupant-sensing device.

3. Corridors, equipment rooms, storerooms, restrooms, public lobbies, electrical or mechanical rooms.

4. Sleeping unit (see Section C405.2.3).

5. Spaces that use less than 0.6 watts per square foot (6.5 W/m2).

6. Daylight spaces complying with Section C405.2.2.3.2.
Each area that is required to have a manual control shall also have controls that meet the requirements of Sections C405.2.2.1, C405.2.2.2 and C405.2.2.3.

Exception: Additional lighting controls need not be provided in the following spaces:

1. Sleeping units.

2. Spaces where patient care is directly provided.

3. Spaces where an automatic shutoff would endanger occupant safety or security.

4. Lighting intended for continuous operation.
Automatic time switch controls shall be installed to control lighting in all areas of the building.

Exceptions:

1. Emergency egress lighting does not need to be controlled by an automatic time switch.

2. Lighting in spaces controlled by occupancy sensors does not need to be controlled by automatic time switch controls.

The automatic time switch control device shall include an override switching device that complies with the following:

1. The override switch shall be in a readily accessible location;

2. The override switch shall be located where the lights controlled by the switch are visible; or the switch shall provide a mechanism which announces the area controlled by the switch;

3. The override switch shall permit manual operation;

4. The override switch, when initiated, shall permit the controlled lighting to remain on for a maximum of 2 hours; and

5. Any individual override switch shall control the lighting for a maximum area of 5,000 square feet (465 m2).

Exception: Within malls, arcades, auditoriums, single tenant retail spaces, industrial facilities and arenas:

1. The time limit shall be permitted to exceed 2 hours provided the override switch is a captive key device; and

2. The area controlled by the override switch is permitted to exceed 5,000 square feet (465 m2), but shall not exceed 20,000 square feet (1860 m2).
Automatic control devices shall be installed in the following spaces to automatically turn off lights within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the space as follows:

1. Occupancy sensors shall be installed in all classrooms (not including shop classrooms, laboratory classrooms, and preschool classrooms), conference/meeting rooms, employee lunch and break rooms, and offices smaller than 200 square feet (18.5 m2) in area. These shall be manual-on switches. Such sensors and controls shall not have an override switch that converts from manual-on to automatic-on functionality. The occupancy sensor may have a grace period of up to 30 seconds to turn on the lighting automatically after the sensor has turned off the lighting if occupancy is detected.

2. Occupancy sensors shall be installed in restrooms, storage rooms, private offices 200 square feet (18.5 m2) in area or greater, janitorial closets, and other spaces 300 square feet in area or less enclosed by floor-to-ceiling height partitions, except for spaces listed in Item 1. These automatic control devices shall be installed to automatically turn off lights within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the space, and shall either be manual-on or shall be controlled to automatically turn the lighting on to not more than 50 percent power.

Exception: Full automatic-on controls shall be permitted to control lighting in public corridors, stairways, restrooms, primary building entrance areas and lobbies, and areas where manual-on operation would endanger the safety or security of the room or building occupants.
Daylight zones shall be designed such that lights in the daylight zone are controlled independently of general area lighting and are controlled in accordance with either Section C405.2.2.3.1 or Section C405.2.2.3.2. Each daylight control zone shall not exceed 2,500 square feet (232 m2). Contiguous daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestration are allowed to be controlled by a single controlling device provided that they do not include zones facing more than two adjacent cardinal orientations (i.e., north, east, south, west). Daylight zones under skylights more than 15 feet (4572 mm) from the perimeter shall be controlled separately from daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestration.

Exception: Daylight zones enclosed by walls or ceiling height partitions and containing two or fewer light fixtures are not required to have a separate switch for general area lighting.
Manual controls shall be installed in daylight zones unless automatic controls are installed in accordance with Section C405.2.2.3.2.
Set-point and other controls for calibrating the lighting control device shall be readily accessible.

Daylighting controls device shall be capable of automatically reducing the lighting power in response to available daylight by either one of the following methods:

1. Continuous dimming using dimming ballasts and daylight-sensing automatic controls that are capable of reducing the power of general lighting in the daylit zone continuously to less than 35 percent of rated power at maximum light output.

2. Stepped dimming using multi-level switching and daylight-sensing controls that are capable of reducing lighting power automatically. The system shall provide a minimum of two control channels per zone and be installed in a manner such that at least one control step is between 50 percent and 70 percent of design lighting power and another control step is no greater than 35 percent of design power.
Where multi-level lighting controls are required by this code, the general lighting in the daylight zone shall be separately controlled by at least one multi-level lighting control that reduces the lighting power in response to daylight available in the space. Where the daylit illuminance in the space is greater than the rated illuminance of the general lighting of daylight zones, the general lighting shall be automatically controlled so that its power draw is no greater than 35 percent of its rated power. The multi-level lighting control shall be located so that calibration and set point adjustment controls are readily accessible and separate from the light sensor.
Specific application controls shall be provided for the following:

1. Display and accent light shall be controlled by a dedicated control which is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space.

2. Lighting in cases used for display case purposes shall be controlled by a dedicated control which is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space.

3. Hotel and motel sleeping units and guest suites shall have a master control device at the main room entry that controls all permanently installed luminaires and switched receptacles.

4. Supplemental task lighting, including permanently installed under-shelf or under-cabinet lighting, shall have a control device integral to the luminaires or be controlled by a wall-mounted control device provided the control device is readily accessible.

5. Lighting for nonvisual applications, such as plant growth and food warming, shall be controlled by a dedicated control which is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space.

6. Lighting equipment that is for sale or for demonstrations in lighting education shall be controlled by a dedicated control which is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space.
All exterior lighting shall be provided with a control that automatically turns off the lighting when daylight is available. Where lighting the building façade or landscape, the lighting shall also be provided with controls that automatically shut off the lighting from 12 midnight or within one hour of the end of business operations, whichever is later until 6 a.m. or business opening whichever is earlier. Exterior lighting other than building façade or landscape lighting shall be provided with controls configured to automatically reduce the connected lighting power by at least 30 percent from 12 midnight or within one hour of the end of business operations, whichever is later until 6 a.m. or business opening whichever is earlier or during any period when no activity has been detected for a time of no longer than 15 minutes. All controls that operate as a function of time shall be capable of retaining programming and the time setting during a loss of power of at least 10 hours.

Exceptions:

1. Emergency lighting that is intended to be automatically off during building operation.

2. Lighting specifically required to satisfy health and life safety requirements.

3. Decorative gas lighting systems.

4. Lighting for covered vehicle entrances or exits from buildings or parking structures where required for safety, security, or eye adaptation.
Internally illuminated exit signs shall not exceed 5 watts per side.
A building complies with this section if its total connected lighting power calculated under Section C405.5.1 is no greater than the interior lighting power calculated under Section C405.5.2.
The total connected interior lighting power (watts) shall be the sum of the watts of all interior lighting equipment as determined in accordance with Sections C405.5.1.1 through C405.5.1.4.

Exceptions:

1. The connected power associated with the following lighting equipment is not included in calculating total connected lighting power.

1.1. Professional sports arena playing field lighting.

1.2. Sleeping unit lighting in hotels, motels, boarding houses or similar buildings.

1.3. Emergency lighting automatically off during normal building operation.

1.4. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by occupants with special lighting needs including the visually impaired and other medical and age-related issues.

1.5. Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as a registered interior historic landmark.

1.6. Casino gaming areas.

2. Lighting equipment used for the following shall be exempt provided that it is in addition to general lighting and is controlled by an independent control device:

2.1. Task lighting for medical and dental purposes.

2.2. Display lighting for exhibits in galleries, museums and monuments.

3. Lighting for theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production.

4. Lighting for photographic processes.

5. Lighting integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by the manufacturer.

6. Task lighting for plant growth or maintenance.

7. Advertising signage or directional signage.

8. In restaurant buildings and areas, lighting for food warming or integral to food preparation equipment.

9. Lighting equipment that is for sale.

10. Lighting demonstration equipment in lighting education facilities.

11. Lighting approved because of safety or emergency considerations, inclusive of exit lights.

12. Lighting integral to both open and glass-enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.

13. Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.

14. Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shutoff.
The wattage shall be the maximum labeled wattage of the luminaire.
The wattage of all other lighting equipment including luminaries with integral or remote ballasts, transformers, or similar devices shall be the wattage of the lighting equipment verified through data furnished by the manufacturer or other approved sources.
The wattage shall be:

1. The specified wattage of the luminaires included in the system with a minimum of 30 W/lin ft. (98 W/lin. m); or

2. The wattage limit of the system's circuit breaker; or

3. The wattage limit of other permanent current limiting device(s) on the system; or

4. For low-voltage systems, the maximum wattage of the transformer supplying the system.
The total interior lighting power allowance (watts) is determined according to Table C405.5.2(1) using the Building Area Method, or Table C405.5.2(2) using the Space-by-Space Method, for all areas of the building covered in this permit. For the Building Area Method, the interior lighting power allowance is the floor area for each building area type listed in Table C405.5.2(1) times the value from Table C405.5.2(1) for that area. For the purposes of this method, an "area" shall be defined as all contiguous spaces that accommodate or are associated with a single building area type as listed in Table C405.5.2(1). Where this method is used to calculate the total interior lighting power for an entire building, each building area type shall be treated as a separate area. For the Space-by-Space Method, the interior lighting power allowance is determined by multiplying the floor area of each space times the value for the space type in Table C405.5.2(2) that most closely represents the proposed use of the space, and then summing the lighting power allowances for all spaces. Tradeoffs among spaces are permitted.

TABLE C405.5.2(1) INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: BUILDING AREA METHOD

BUILDING AREA TYPE LPD (w/ft2)
Automotive facility 0.9
Convention center 1.2
Courthouse 1.2
Dining: bar lounge/leisure 1.3
Dining: cafeteria/fast food 1.4
Dining: family 1.6
Dormitory 1.0
Exercise center 1.0
Fire station 0.8
Gymnasium 1.1
Health care clinic 1.0
Hospital 1.2
Hotel 1.0
Library 1.3
Manufacturing facility 1.3
Motel 1.0
Motion picture theater 1.2
Multifamily 0.7
Museum 1.1
Office 0.9
Parking garage 0.3
Penetentiary 1.0
Performing arts theater 1.6
Police station 1.0
Post office 1.1
Religious building 1.3
Retail 1.4
School/university 1.2
Sports arena 1.1
Town hall 1.1
Transportation 1.0
Warehouse 0.6
Workshop 1.4


TABLE C405.5.2(2) INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: SPACE-BY-SPACE METHOD

COMMON SPACE-BY-SPACE TYPES LPD (w/ft2)
Atrium ‒ First 40 feet in height 0.03 per ft. ht.
Atrium ‒ Above 40 feet in height 0.02 per ft. ht.
Audience/seating area ‒ permanent
For auditorium
For performing arts theater
For motion picture theater
Classroom/lecture/training
Conference/meeting/multipurpose
Corridor/transition

0.9
2.6
1.2
1.30
1.2
0.7
Dining area
Bar/lounge/leisure dining
Family dining area

1.40
1.40
Dressing/fitting room performing arts theater 1.1
Electrical/mechanical 1.10
Food preparation 1.20
Laboratory for classrooms 1.3
Laboratory for medical/industrial/research 1.8
Lobby 1.10
Lobby for performing arts theater 3.3
Lobby for motion picture theater 1.0
Locker room 0.80
Lounge recreation 0.8
Office ‒ enclosed 1.1
Office ‒ open plan 1.0
Restroom 1.0
Sales area 1.6a
Stairway 0.70
Storage 0.8
Workshop 1.60
Courthouse/police station/penetentiary
Courtroom
Confinement cells
Judge chambers
Penitentiary audience seating
Penitentiary classroom
Penitentiary dining

1.90
1.1
1.30
0.5
1.3
1.1
BUILDING SPECIFIC SPACE-BY-SPACE TYPES
Automotive ‒ service/repair 0.70
Bank/office ‒ banking activity area 1.5
Dormitory living quarters 1.10
Gymnasium/fitness center
Fitness area
Gymnasium audience/seating
Playing area

0.9
0.40
1.40
Healthcare clinic/hospital
Corridors/transition
Exam/treatment
Emergency
Public and staff lounge
Medical supplies
Nursery
Nurse station
Physical therapy
Patient room
Pharmacy
Radiology/imaging
Operating room
Recovery
Lounge/recreation
Laundry ‒ washing

1.00
1.70
2.70
0.80
1.40
0.9
1.00
0.90
0.70
1.20
1.3
2.20
1.2
0.8
0.60


(continued)

TABLE C405.5.2(2)‒continued INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: SPACE-BY-SPACE METHOD

BUILDING SPECIFIC SPACE-BY-SPACE TYPES
Hotel
Dining area
Guest rooms
Hotel lobby
Highway lodging dining
Highway lodging guest rooms

1.30
1.10
2.10
1.20
1.10
Library
Stacks
Card file and cataloguing
Reading area

1.70
1.10
1.20
Manufacturing
Corridors/transition
Detailed manufacturing
Equipment room
Extra high bay (> 50-foot floor-ceiling height)
High bay (25- ‒ 50-foot floor-ceiling height)
Low bay (< 25-foot floor-ceiling height)

0.40
1.3
1.0
1.1
1.20
1.2
Museum
General exhibition
Restoration

1.00
1.70
Parking garage ‒ garage areas 0.2
Convention center
Exhibit space
Audience/seating area

1.50
0.90
Fire stations
Engine room
Sleeping quarters

0.80
0.30
Post office
Sorting area
0.9
Religious building
Fellowship hall
Audience seating
Worship pulpit/choir

0.60
2.40
2.40
Retail
Dressing/fitting area
Mall concourse
Sales area

0.9
1.6
1.6a
Sports arena
Audience seating
Court sports area ‒ Class 4
Court sports area ‒ Class 3
Court sports area ‒ Class 2
Court sports area ‒ Class 1
Ring sports area

0.4
0.7
1.2
1.9
3.0
2.7
Transportation
Air/train/bus baggage area
Airport concourse
Terminal ‒ ticket counter

1.00
0.60
1.50
Warehouse
Fine material storage
Medium/bulky material

1.40
0.60

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = 11 W/m2.
a. Where lighting equipment is specified to be installed to highlight specific merchandise in addition to lighting equipment specified for general lighting and is switched or dimmed on circuits different from the circuits for general lighting, the smaller of the actual wattage of the lighting equipment installed specifically for merchandise, or additional lighting power as determined below shall be added to the interior lighting power determined in accordance with this line item.
Calculate the additional lighting power as follows:
Additional Interior Lighting Power Allowance = 500 watts + (Retail Area 1 × 0.6 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 2 × 0.6 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 3 × 1.4 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 4 × 2.5 W/ft2).
where:
Retail Area 1 = The floor area for all products not listed in Retail Area 2, 3 or 4.
Retail Area 2 = The floor area used for the sale of vehicles, sporting goods and small electronics.
Retail Area 3 = The floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics and artwork.
Retail Area 4 = The floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal and china.
Exception: Other merchandise categories are permitted to be included in Retail Areas 2 through 4 above, provided that justification documenting the need for additional lighting power based on visual inspection, contrast, or other critical display is approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
Where the power for exterior lighting is supplied through the energy service to the building, all exterior lighting shall comply with Section C405.6.2.

Exception: Where approved because of historical, safety, signage or emergency considerations.
The total exterior lighting power allowance for all exterior building applications is the sum of the base site allowance plus the individual allowances for areas that are to be illuminated and are permitted in Table C405.6.2(2) for the applicable lighting zone. Tradeoffs are allowed only among exterior lighting applications listed in Table C405.6.2(2), Tradable Surfaces section. The lighting zone for the building exterior is determined from Table C405.6.2(1) unless otherwise specified by the local jurisdiction. Exterior lighting for all applications (except those included in the exceptions to Section C405.6.2) shall comply with the requirements of Section C405.6.

Exception: Lighting used for the following exterior applications is exempt where equipped with a control device independent of the control of the nonexempt lighting:

1. Specialized signal, directional and marker lighting associated with transportation;

2. Advertising signage or directional signage;

3. Integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer;

4. Theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production;

5. Athletic playing areas;

6. Temporary lighting;

7. Industrial production, material handling, transportation sites and associated storage areas;

8. Theme elements in theme/amusement parks; and

9. Used to highlight features of public monuments and registered historic landmark structures or buildings.

TABLE C405.6.2(1) EXTERIOR LIGHTING ZONES

LIGHTING ZONE DESCRIPTION
1 Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas
2 Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited nighttime use and residential mixed use areas
3 All other areas
4 High-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designated by the local land use planning authority


TABLE C405.6.2(2) INDIVIDUAL LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS

LIGHTING ZONES
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
Base Site Allowance (Base allowance is usable in tradable or nontradable surfaces.) 500 W 600 W 750 W 1300 W
Tradable Surfaces (Lighting power densities for uncovered parking areas, building grounds, building entrances and exits, canopies and overhangs and outdoor sales areas are tradable.) Uncovered Parking Areas
Parking areas and drives 0.04 W/ft2 0.06 W/ft2 0.10 W/ft2 0.13 W/ft2
Building Grounds
Walkways less than
10 feet wide
0.7 W/linear foot 0.7 W/linear foot 0.8 W/linear foot 1.0 W/linear foot
Walkways 10 feet wide
or greater, plaza areas
special feature areas
0.14 W/ft2 0.14 W/ft2 0.16 W/ft2 0.2 W/ft2
Stairways 0.75 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2
Pedestrian tunnels 0.15 W/ft2 0.15 W/ft2 0.2 W/ft2 0.3 W/ft2
Building Entrances and Exits
Main entries 20 W/linear foot
of door width
20 W/linear foot
of door width
30 W/linear foot
of door width
30 W/linear foot
of door width
Other doors 20 W/linear foot
of door width
20 W/linear foot
of door width
20 W/linear foot
of door width
20 W/linear foot
of door width
Entry canopies 0.25 W/ft2 0.25 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2
Sales Canopies
Free-standing and
attached
0.6 W/ft2 0.6 W/ft2 0.8 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2
Outdoor Sales
Open areas (including
vehicle sales lots)
0.25 W/ft2 0.25 W/ft2 0.5 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2
Street frontage for
vehicle sales lots in
addition to "open area"
allowance
No allowance 10 W/linear foot 10 W/linear foot 30 W/linear foot


(continued)


TABLE C405.6.2(2)‒continued INDIVIDUAL LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS

LIGHTING ZONES
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
Nontradable Surfaces (Lighting power density calculations for the following applications can be used only for the specific application and cannot be traded between surfaces or with other exterior lighting. The following allowances are in addition to any allowance otherwise permitted in the "Tradable Surfaces" section of this table.) Building facades No allowance 0.1 W/ft2 for each
illuminated wall or
surface or 2.5 W/linear foot for each illuminated
wall or surface length
0.15 W/ft2 for each
illuminated wall or
surface or 3.75 W/linear
foot for each illuminated
wall or surface length
0.2 W/ft2 for each
illuminated wall or
surface or 5.0 W/linear
foot for each illuminated
wall or surface length
Automated teller
machines and night
depositories
270 W per location plus
90 W per additional
ATM per location
270 W per location plus
90 W per additional
ATM per location
270 W per location plus
90 W per additional
ATM per location
270 W per location plus
90 W per additional
ATM per location
Entrances and gatehouse
inspection stations at
guarded facilities
0.75 W/ft2 of covered
and uncovered area
0.75 W/ft2 of covered
and uncovered area
0.75 W/ft2 of covered
and uncovered area
0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area
Loading areas for law
enforcement, fire,
ambulance and other
emergency service
vehicles
0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.5 W/ft2 of covered
and uncovered area
Drive-up windows/doors 400 W per drive-through 400 W per drive-through 400 W per drive-through 400 W per drive-through
Parking near 24-hour
retail entrances
800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m2.
In buildings having individual dwelling units, provisions shall be made to determine the electrical energy consumed by each tenant by separately metering individual dwelling units.
The terms meter, submeter, covered building, tenant space and covered tenant space shall be as defined in Section 28-311.2 of the Administrative Code of the city of New York. Each covered tenant space in a building where plans were filed with the department on and after January 1, 2016 shall be equipped with a separate meter or sub-meter to measure the electrical consumption of such space when let or sublet. Where the covered tenant space is a floor with multiple tenancies, each tenancy that is 10,000 gross square feet (929 m2) in area or less shall (i) be equipped with a separate meter or sub-meter, (ii) share a meter or sub-meter with other tenant spaces on the floor, or (iii) share a meter or sub-meter covering the entire floor. As new covered tenant spaces are created, they shall be equipped with meters or sub-meters as provided in this section.

Exception: Covered tenant space for which the electrical consumption within such space is measured by a meter dedicated exclusively to that space.
Buildings shall comply with at least one of the following:

1. Efficient HVAC Performance in accordance with Section C406.2.

2. Efficient Lighting System in accordance with Section C406.3.

3. On-Site Supply of Renewable Energy in accordance with Section C406.4.

Individual tenant spaces shall comply with either Section C406.2 or Section C406.3 unless documentation can be provided that demonstrates compliance with Section C406.4 for the entire building.
Equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Tables C406.2.(1) through C406.2(7) in addition to the requirements in Section C403. This section shall only be used where the equipment efficiencies in Tables C406.2.(1) through C406.2(7) are greater than the equipment efficiencies listed in Table C403.2.3(1) through 403.2.3(7) for the equipment type.

TABLE C406.2(1) UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
MINIMUM EFFICIENCYa
CLIMATE ZONES
1 - 5
CLIMATE ZONES
6 - 8
Air conditioners,
air cooled
< 65,000 Btu/h Split system 15.0 SEER
12.5 EER
14 SEER
12 EER
Single package 15.0 SEER
12.0 EER
14.0 SEER
11.6 EER
≥ 65,000 Btuh/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 12.0 EERb
12.54 IEERb
11.5 EERb
12.0 IEERb
≥ 240,000 Btu/h and
< 760,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 10.8 EERb
11.3 IEERb
10.5 EERb
11.0 IEERb
≥ 760,000 Btu/h 10.2 EERb
10.7 IEERb
9.7 EERb
10.2 IEERb
Air conditioners, water
and evaporatively cooled
Split system and single package 14.0 EER 14.0 EER

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
a. IEERs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.
b. Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and IPLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat.


TABLE C406.2(2) UNITARY AND APPLIED HEAT PUMPS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCYa
CLIMATE
ZONES
1 - 5
CLIMATE
ZONES
6 - 8
Air cooled
(Cooling mode)
< 65,000 Btu/h Split system 15.0 SEER,
12.5 EER
14.0 SEER,
12.0 EER
Single package 15.0 SEER,
12.0 EER
14.0 SEER
11.6 EER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 12.0 SEER,
12.4 EER
11.5 EERb,
12.0 IEERb
≥ 240,000 Btu/h Split system and single package 12.0 SEER,
12.4 EER
10.5 EERb,
10.5 IEERb
Water sources
(Cooling mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h 85°F entering water 14.0 EER 14.0 EER
Air cooled
(Heating mode)
< 65,000 Btu/h
(Cooling capacity)
Split system 9.0 HSPF 8.5 HSPF
Single package 8.5 HSPF 8.0 HSPF
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
(Cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb outdoor air 3.4 COP 3.4 COP
17°F db/15°F wb outdoor air 2.4 COP 2.4 COP
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
(Cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb outdoor air 3.2 COP 3.2 COP
77°F db/15°F wb outdoor air 2.1 COP 2.1 COP
Water sources
(Heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(Cooling capacity)
70°F entering water 4.6 COP 4.6 COP

For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32] / 1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
db = dry-bulb temperature, °F; wb = wet-bulb temperature, °F.
a. IEERs and Part load rating conditions are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.
b. Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and IPLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat.


TABLE C406.2(3) PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS AND PACKAGED TERMINALHEAT PUMPS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY MINIMUM EFFICIENCY
Air conditioners and heat pumps
(cooling mode)
< 7,000 Btu/h 11.9 EER
7,000 Btu/h and < 10,000 Btu/h 11.3 EER
10,000 Btu/h and ≤ 13,000 Btu/h 10.7 EER
> 13,000 Btu/h 9.5 EER


TABLE C406.2(4) WARM AIR FURNACES AND COMBINATION WARM AIR FURNACES/AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS, WARM AIR DUCT FURNACES AND UNIT HEATERS, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY (INPUT) SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDURE
Warm air furnaces,
gas fireda
< 225,000 Btu/h For Climate Zones 1 and 2 NR DOE 10 CFR Part 430
or ANSI Z21.47
For Climate Zones 3 and 4
90 AFUE or 90 Etc
For Climate Zones 4 ‒ 8
92 AFUE or 92 Etc
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacity 90% Ecb ANSI Z21.47
Warm air furnaces,
oil fireda
< 225,000 Btu/h For Climate Zones 1 and 2 NR DOE 10 CFR Part 430
or UL 727
For Climate Zones 3 ‒ 8
85 AFUE or 85 Etc
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacity 85% Etb UL 727
Warm air duct furnaces, gas fireda All capacities Maximum capacity 90% Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm air unit heaters, gas fired All capacities Maximum capacity 90% Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm air unit heaters, oil fired All capacities Maximum capacity 85% Ec UL 731

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
Et= Thermal efficiency. Ec = Combustion efficiency (100 percent less flue losses).
a. Efficient furnace fan:Fossil fuel furnaces in climate zones 3 to 8 shall have a furnace electricity ratio not greater than 2 percent and shall include a manufacturer's designation of the furnace electricity ratio.
b. Units shall also include an IID (intermittent ignition device), have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.
c. Where there are two ratings for units not covered by NAECA (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kW]), units shall be permitted to comply with either rating.


TABLE C406.2(5) BOILER, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE FUEL SIZE CATEGORY TEST PROCEEDURE MINIMUM
EFFICIENCY
Steam Gas < 300,000 Btu/h DOE 10 CFR Part 430 83% AFUE
> 300,000 Btu/h and > 2.5 m Btu/h DOE 10 CFR Part 431 81% Et
> 2.5 m Btu/h 82% Ec
Oil < 300,000 Btu/h DOE 10 CFR Part 430 85% AFUE
> 300,000 Btu/h and > 2.5 m Btu/h DOE 10 CFR Part 431 83% Et
> 2.5 m Btu/h 84% Ec
Hot water Gas < 300,000 Btu/h DOE 10 CFR Part 430 92% AFUE
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and < 2.5 m Btu/h DOE 10 CFR Part 431 92% Et
≥ 2.5 m Btu/h 92% Ec
Oil < 300,000 Btu/h DOE 10 CFR Part 430 85% AFUE
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and < 2.5 m Btu/h DOE 10 CFR Part 431 85% Et
≥ 2.5 m Btu/h 85% Ec

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.
Et = Thermal efficiency. Ec = Combustion efficiency (100 percent less flue losses).


TABLE C406.2(6) CHILLERS‒EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY UNITS MINIMUM EFFICIENCYa (I-P) Test Procedureb
Path A Path Bc
Full Load IPLV Full Load IPLV
Air-cooled chillers with condenser, electrically operated < 150 tons EER 10.000 12.500 NA NA AHRI 550/
590f
≥ 150 tons EER 10.000 12.750 NA NA
Air-cooled without condenser, electrical operated All capacities EER Condenserless units shall be rated with matched condensers AHRI 550
/590f
Water-cooled, electrically operated, positive displacement (reciprocating) All capacities kw/ton Reciprocating units required to comply with water
cooled positive displacement requirements
AHRI 550/
590f
Water-cooled electrically operated, positive displacement < 75 tons kw/ton 0.780 0.630 0.800 0.600 AHRI 550/
590f
≥ 75 tons and < 150 tons kw/ton 0.775 0.615 0.790 0.586
≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons kw/ton 0.680 0.580 0.718 0.540
≥ 300 tons kw/ton 0.620 0.540 0.639 0.490
Water-cooled electrically operated, centrifugald < 150 tons kw/ton 0.634 0.596 0.639 0.450 AHRI 550/
590f
≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons kw/ton 0.634 0.596 0.639 0.450
≥ 300 tons and < 600 tons kw/ton 0.576 0.549 0.600 0.400
≥ 600 tons kw/ton 0.570 0.539 0.590 0.400
Air-cooled absorption single effecte All capacities COP 0.600 NR NA NA AHRI 560
Water-cooled absorption single effecte All capacities COP 0.700 NR NA NA
Absorption double effect indirect-fired All capacities COP 1.000 1.050 NA NA
Absorption double effect direct fired All capacities COP 1.000 1.000 NA NA

For SI: 1 Ton = 3516 W.
NA = Not applicable and cannot be used for compliance. NR = No minimum requirements.
a. Compliance with this standard can be obtained by meeting the minimum requirements of Path A or Path B. However both the full load and IPLV shall be met to fulfill the requirements of Path A and Path B.
b. Chapter 6 of the referenced standard contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
c. Path B is intended for applications with significant operating time at part load. All Path B machines shall be equipped with demand limiting capable controls.
d. The chiller equipment requirements do not apply for chillers used in low-temperature applications where the design leaving fluid temperature is greater than 40°F.
e. Only allowed to be used in heat recovery applications.
f. Packages that are not designed for operation at ARI Standard 550/590 test conditions (and, thus, cannot be tested to meet the requirements of Table C-3) of 44°F leaving chilled-water temperature and 85°F entering condenser-water temperature with 3 gpm/ton condenser-water flow shall have maximum full-load kW/ton and NPLV ratings adjusted using the following equation:
Adjusted maximum full load kW/ton rating = (full load kW/ton from Table C-3)/Kadj
Adjusted maximum NPLV rating = (IPLV from Table C-3)/Kadj
where:
Kadj = 6.174722 ‒ 0.303668(X) + 0.00629466(X)2 ‒ 0.000045780(X)3
X = DTstd+ LIFT (°F)
DTstd = [(24 + (full load kW/ton from Table C-3) × 6.83)]/flow (°F)
Flow = condenser-water flow (gpm) / cooling full load capacity (tons)
LIFT = CEWT ‒ CLWT (°F)
LIFT = CEWT ‒ CLWT (°F)
CEWT = full load entering condenser-water temperature (°F)
CLWT = full load leaving chilled-water temperature (°F)
The adjusted full load and NPLV values are only applicable over the following full-load design ranges:
Minimum leaving chilled-water temperature: 38°F
Maximum condenser entering water temperature: 102°F
Condenser-water flow: 1 to 6 gpm/ton
X ≥ 39°F and ≤ 60°F


TABLE C406.2(7) ABSORPTION CHILLERS‒EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE MINIMUM EFFICIENCY
FULL LOAD COP (IPLV)
Air cooled, single effect 0.60, allowed only in
heat recovery applications
Water cooled, single effect 0.70, allowed only in
heat recovery applications
Double effect ‒ direct fired 1.0 (1.05 )
Double effect ‒ indirect fired 1.20
Whole building lighting power density (Watts/sf) shall comply with the requirements of Section C406.3.1.

TABLE C406.3 REDUCED INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER

BUILDING AREA TYPEa LPD (w/ft2)
Automotive facility 0.82
Convention center 1.08
Courthouse 1.05
Dining: bar lounge/leisure 0.99
Dining: cafeteria/fast food 0.90
Dining: family 0.89
Dormitory 0.61
Exercise center 0.88
Fire station 0.71
Gymnasium 1.0
Health care clinic 0.87
Hospital 1.10
Library 1.18
Manufacturing facility 1.11
Hotel/motel 0.88
Motion picture theater 0.83
Museum 1.06
Multifamily 0.60
Office 0.90/0.85b
Performing arts theater 1.39
Police station 0.96
Post office 0.87
Religious building 1.05
Retail 1.4/1.3b
School/ university 0.99
Sports arena 0.78
Town hall 0.92
Transportation 0.77
Warehousec 0.6
Workshop 1.2

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m2.
a. In cases where both a general building area type and a more specific building area type are listed, the more specific building area type shall apply.
b First LPD value applies if no less than 30 percent of conditioned floor area is in daylight zones. Automatic daylighting controls shall be installed in daylight zones and shall meet the requirements of Section C405.2.2.3. In all other cases, second LPD value applies.
c. No less than 70 percent of the floor area shall be in the daylight zone. Automatic daylighting controls shall be installed in daylight zones and shall meet the requirements of Section C405.2.2.3.
The total interior lighting power (watts) of the building shall be determined by using the reduced whole building interior lighting power in Table C406.3 times the floor area for the building types.
Total minimum ratings of on-site renewable energy systems shall comply with one of the following:

1. Provide not less than 1.75 Btu (1850 W), or not less than 0.50 watts per square foot (5.4 W/m2) of conditioned floor area.

2. Provide not less than 3 percent of the energy used within the building for building mechanical and service water heating equipment and lighting regulated in this chapter.
This section establishes criteria for compliance using total building performance. Buildings following the total buildingperformance path must comply with ASHRAE 90.1-2010 as amended by Appendix A of this code, demonstrating compliance under Section 11 or Appendix G of such standard.
This section covers the commissioning of building mechanicalsystems in Section C403, service water heating systems in Section C404, and electrical power and lighting systems in Section C405.
Prior to passing the final mechanical inspection, the registered design professional shall provide evidence of mechanical systems commissioning and completion in accordance the provisions of this section.

Construction document notes shall clearly indicate provisions for commissioning and completion requirements in accordance with this section and are permitted to refer to specifications for further requirements. Copies of all documentation shall be given to the owner and shall be made available to the code official upon request in accordance with Sections C408.2.4 and C408.2.5.

Mechanical systems, renewable energy, and service water heating systems shall include but are not limited to, at a minimum, the following heating, ventilating, air conditioning, service water heating, indoor air quality and refrigeration systems (mechanical and/or passive) and associated controls:

1. Heating, cooling, air handling and distribution, ventilation, and exhaust systems, and their related air quality monitoring systems.

2. Air, water, and other energy recovery systems.

3. Manual or automatic controls, whether local or remote, on energy using systems including but not limited to temperature controls, setback sequences, and occupancy based control, including energy management functions of the building management system.

4. Plumbing, including insulation of piping and associated valves, domestic and process water pumping, and mixing systems.

5. Mechanical heating systems and service water heating systems.

6. Refrigeration systems.

7. Renewable energy and energy storage systems.

8. Other systems, equipment and components that are used for heating, cooling or ventilation and that affect energy use.

Exception: Mechanical, renewable energy, and service hot water systems in buildings where the total mechanical equipment capacity being installed is less than 480,000 Btu/h (140 690 W) cooling capacity and 600,000 Btu/h (175 860 W) heating capacity are exempt from the commissioning requirements.
A commissioning plan shall be developed by a registered design professional or approved agency and shall include the following items:

1. A narrative description of the activities that will be accomplished during each phase of commissioning, including the personnel intended to accomplish each of the activities.

2. A listing of the specific equipment, appliances or systems to be tested, their full sequences of operation, and a description of the tests to be performed, including prerequisite activities and reference to specific checklists or worksheets which are necessary or required by the department.

3. Functions to be tested, including, but not limited to calibrations and economizer controls.

4. Conditions under which the test will be performed. At a minimum, testing shall affirm winter and summer design conditions and full outside air conditions.

5. Measurable criteria for performance.
HVAC systems shall be balanced in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards. Air and water flow rates shall be measured and adjusted to deliver final flow rates within the tolerances provided in the product specifications. Test and balance activities shall include air system and hydronic system balancing.
Each supply air outlet and zone terminal device shall be equipped with means for air balancing in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of the New York City Mechanical Code. Discharge dampers are prohibited on constant volume fans and variable volume fans with motors 10 hp (18.6 kW) and larger. Air systems shall be balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses then, for fans with system power of greater than 1 hp (0.74 kW), fan speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions.

Exception: Fans with fan motors of 1 hp (0.74 kW) or less.
Individual hydronic heating and cooling coils shall be equipped with means for balancing and measuring flow. Hydronic systems shall be proportionately balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses, then the pump impeller shall be trimmed or pump speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions. Each hydronic system shall have either the capability to measure pressure across the pump, or test ports at each side of each pump.

Exceptions:

1. Pumps with pump motors of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less.

2. Where throttling results in no greater than five percent of the nameplate horsepower draw above that required if the impeller were trimmed.
Functional performance testing specified in Sections C408.2.3.1 through C408.2.3.3 shall be conducted.
Equipment functional performance testing shall demonstrate the installation and operation of components, systems, and system-to-system interfacing relationships in accordance with approved plans and specifications such that operation, function, and maintenance serviceability for each of the commissioned systems is confirmed.

Testing shall include all modes and sequence of operation, including under full-load, part-load and the following emergency conditions:

1. All modes as described in the sequence of operation;

2. Redundant or automatic back-up mode;

3. Performance of alarms; and

4. Mode of operation upon a loss of power and restoration of power.

Exception: Unitary or packaged HVAC equipment listed in Tables C403.2.3(1) through C403.2.3(3) that do not require supply air economizers shall only be required to demonstrate functioning under full-load and part-load conditions.
HVAC control systems shall be tested to document that control devices, components, equipment, and systems are calibrated, adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of operation shall be functionally tested to document they operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications.
Air economizers shall undergo a functional test to determine that they operate in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.
A preliminary report of commissioning test procedures and results shall be completed and certified by the registered design professional or approved agency and provided to the building owner. The report shall be identified as "Preliminary Commissioning Report" and shall identify:

1. Itemization of deficiencies found during testing required by this section that have not been corrected at the time of report preparation.

2. Deferred tests that cannot be performed at the time of report preparation because of climatic conditions.

3. Climatic conditions required for performance of the deferred tests.
Buildings, or portions thereof, shall not pass the final mechanical inspection until such time as the code official has received a letter of transmittal from the building owner acknowledging that the building owner has received the Preliminary Commissioning Report.
The code official shall be permitted to require that a copy of the Preliminary Commissioning Report be made available for review by the code official.
The construction documents shall specify that the documents described in this section be provided to the building owner within 90 days of the date of receipt of the certificate of occupancy.
Construction documents shall include the location and performance data on each piece of equipment.
An operating and maintenance manual shall be provided and include all of the following:

1. Submittal data stating equipment size and selected options for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance.

2. Manufacturer's operation manuals and maintenance manuals for each piece of equipment requiring maintenance, except equipment not furnished as part of the project. Required routine maintenance actions shall be clearly identified.

3. Name and address of at least one service agency.

4. HVAC controls system maintenance and calibration information, including wiring diagrams, schematics, and control sequence descriptions. Desired or field-determined setpoints shall be permanently recorded on control drawings at control devices or, for digital control systems, in system programming instructions.

5. A narrative of how each system is intended to operate, including recommended setpoints.
A written report describing the activities and measurements completed in accordance with Section C408.2.2.
Within 30 months for buildings 500,000 gross square feet (46 452 m2) or greater, excluding R-2 occupancies, or within 18 months for R-2 occupancies and all other buildings, of the issuance of the certificate of occupancy or letter of completion, a registered design professional or approved agency shall prepare a report of test procedures and results, including test procedures and results performed after occupancy, identified as the "Final Commissioning Report", provide such report to the building owner, and submit a certification to the department with applicable fees in accordance with department rules. The owner of a building 500,000 gross square feet (46452 m2) or greater may apply for an extension of time to the code official based on good cause, in accordance with department rules. Such report shall include:

1. Results of functional performance tests.

2. Disposition of deficiencies found during testing, including details of corrective measures used or proposed.

3. Functional performance test procedures used during the commissioning process including measurable criteria for test acceptance, provided herein for repeatability.

Exception: Deferred tests which cannot be performed at the time of report preparation due to climatic conditions.
Controls for automatic lighting systems shall comply with Section C408.3.
Testing shall ensure that control hardware and software are calibrated, adjusted, programmed and in proper working condition in accordance with the construction documents and manufacturer's installation instructions. The construction documents shall state the party who will conduct the required functional testing. Where required by the code official, an approved party independent from the design or construction of the project shall be responsible for the functional testing and shall provide documentation to the code official certifying that the installed lighting controls meet the provisions of Section C405.

Where occupant sensors, time switches, programmable schedule controls, photosensors or daylighting controls are installed, the following procedures shall be performed:

1. Confirm that the placement, sensitivity and time-out adjustments for occupant sensors yield acceptable performance.

2. Confirm that the time switches and programmable schedule controls are programmed to turn the lights off.

3. Confirm that the placement and sensitivity adjustments for photosensor controls reduce electric light based on the amount of usable daylight in the space as specified.
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