DRY-NICHE LUMINAIRE. A luminaire intended for installation in the wall of a pool or fountain in a niche that is sealed against the entry of pool water.
FORMING SHELL. A structure designed to support a wet-niche luminaire assembly and intended for mounting in a pool or fountain structure.
FOUNTAIN. Fountains, ornamental pools, display pools, and reflection pools. The definition does not include drinking fountains.
HYDROMASSAGE BATHTUB. A permanently installed bathtub equipped with a recirculating piping system, pump, and associated equipment. It is designed so it can accept, circulate and discharge water upon each use.
MAXIMUM WATER LEVEL. The highest level that water can reach before it spills out.
NO-NICHE LUMINAIRE. A luminaire intended for installation above or below the water without a niche.
PACKAGED SPA OR HOT TUB EQUIPMENT ASSEMBLY. A factory-fabricated unit consisting of water-circulating, heating and control equipment mounted on a common base, intended to operate a spa or hot tub. Equipment may include pumps, air blowers, heaters, luminaires, controls and sanitizer generators.
PERMANENTLY INSTALLED SWIMMING, WADING, IMMERSION AND THERAPEUTIC POOLS. Those that are constructed in the ground or partially in the ground, and all others capable of holding water with a depth greater than 42 inches (1067 mm), and all pools installed inside of a building, regardless of water depth, whether or not served by electrical circuits of any nature.
POOL. Manufactured or field-constructed equipment designed to contain water on a permanent or semipermanent basis and used for swimming, wading, immersion, or therapeutic purposes.
POOL COVER, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED. Motor-driven equipment designed to cover and uncover the water surface of a pool by means of a flexible sheet or rigid frame.
SELF-CONTAINED SPA OR HOT TUB. A factory-fabricated unit consisting of a spa or hot tub vessel with all water-circulating, heating and control equipment integral to the unit. Equipment may include pumps, air blowers, heaters, luminaires, controls and sanitizer generators.
SPA OR HOT TUB. A hydromassage pool, or tub for recreational or therapeutic use, not located in health care facilities, designed for immersion of users, and usually having a filter, heater, and motor-driven blower. They are installed indoors or outdoors, on the ground or supporting structure, or in the ground or supporting structure. Generally, a spa or hot tub is not designed or intended to have its contents drained or discharged after each use.
STORABLE SWIMMING OR WADING POOL. Those that are constructed on or above the ground and are capable of holding water with a maximum depth of 42 inches (1067 mm), or a pool with nonmetallic, molded polymeric walls or inflatable fabric walls regardless of dimension.
THROUGH-WALL LIGHTING ASSEMBLY. A lighting assembly intended for installation above grade, on or through the wall of a pool, consisting of two interconnected groups of components separated by the pool wall.
WET-NICHE LUMINAIRE. A luminaire intended for installation in a forming shell mounted in a pool or fountain structure where the luminaire will be completely surrounded by water.
| WIRING LOCATION OR PURPOSE |
(Application allowed where marked with an "A")
|AC, FMC, NM, SR, SE||EMT||ENT|| IMCj,RMCj, |
|Panelboard(s) that supply pool equipment: from service equipment to panelboard|| Ab, e |
SR not permitted
|Wet-niche and no-niche luminaires: from branch circuit OCPD to deck or junction box||ACb only||Ac||Ab||A||—||A||—||Ab||—|
|Wet-niche and no-niche luminaires: from deck or junction box to forming shell||—||—||—||Ad||—||A||—||—||Ah|
|Dry niche: from branch circuit OCPD to luminaires||ACb only||Ac||Ab||A||—||A||—||Ab||—|
|Pool-associated motors: from branch circuit OCPD to motor||Ab||Ac||Ab||A||Af||Af||Ab||A||Ah|
|Packaged or self-contained outdoor spas and hot tubs with underwater luminaire: from branch circuit OCPD to spa or hot tub||ACb only||Ac||Ab||A||Af||Af||—||Ab||Ah|
|Packaged or self-contained outdoor spas and hot tubs without underwater luminaire: from branch circuit OCPD to spa or hot tub||Ab||Ac||Ab||A||Af||Af||Ab||A||Ah|
|Indoor spas and hot tubs, hydromassage bathtubs, and other pool, spa or hot tub associated equipment: from branch circuit OCPD to equipment||Ab||Ac||Ab||A||A||A||A||A||Ah|
|Connection at pool lighting transformers||ACb only||Ac||Ab||A||Ag||Ag||—||Ab||—|
- For all wiring methods, see Section E4105 for equipment grounding conductor requirements.
- Limited to use within buildings.
- Limited to use on or within buildings.
- Metal conduit shall be constructed of brass or other approved corrosion-resistant metal.
- Permitted only for existing installations in accordance with the exception to Section E4105.6.
- Limited to use at pool, spa or hot tub equipment where flexibility is necessary. For spas and hot tubs, the maximum length shall be 6 feet.
- Limited to use in individual lengths not to exceed 6 feet. The total length of all individual runs of LFMC and LFNMC shall not exceed 10 feet. LFNMC Type B shall be limited to lengths not exceeding 10 feet.
- Flexible cord shall be installed in accordance with Section E4102.2.
- Nonmetallic conduit shall be rigid polyvinyl chloride conduit Type PVC or reinforced thermosetting resin conduit Type RTRC.
- Aluminum conduits shall not be permitted in the pool area where subject to corrosion.
- Where installed as direct burial cable or in wet locations, Type MC cable shall be listed and identified for the location.
- See Section E4102.3 for listed, double-insulated pool pump motors.
- For other than underwater luminaires, fixed or stationary equipment shall be permitted to be connected with a flexible cord to facilitate removal or disconnection for maintenance or repair. For other than storable pools, the flexible cord shall not exceed 3 feet (914 mm) in length. Cords that supply swimming pool equipment, shall have a copper equipment grounding conductor not smaller than 12 AWG and shall be provided with a grounding-type attachment plug.
- Flexible cord that is supplied as part of a listed underwater swimming pool lighting luminaire shall be permitted to be installed in any of the permitted wiring methods from the luminaire to a deck box or other enclosure. Splices shall not be made within a raceway. The equipment grounding conductor shall be an insulated copper conductor that is not smaller than the supply conductors and not smaller than 16 AWG.
- A listed packaged spa or hot tub installed outdoors that is GFCI protected shall be permitted to be cord and plug-connected provided that such cord does not exceed 15 feet (4572 mm) in length.
- A listed packaged spa or hot tub rated at 20 amperes or less and installed indoors shall be permitted to be cord and plug-connected to facilitate maintenance and repair.
- For other than underwater and storable pool lighting luminaire, the requirements of Item 1 shall apply to any cord-equipped luminaire that is located within 16 feet (4877 mm) radially from any point on the water surface.
Other receptacles on the property shall be located not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the inside walls of pools and outdoor spas and hot tubs.
- The luminaires are of a totally enclosed type;
- A ground-fault circuit interrupter is installed in the branch circuit supplying the luminaires or ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans; and
- The distance from the bottom of the luminaire or ceiling-suspended (paddle) fan to the maximum water level is not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm).
- Luminaires, lighting outlets, and ceiling-suspended paddle fans located over the spa or hot tub or within 5 feet (1524 mm) from the inside walls of the spa or hot tub shall be a minimum of 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm) above the maximum water level and shall be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.
Luminaires, lighting outlets, and ceiling-suspended paddle fans that are located 12 feet (3658 mm) or more above the maximum water level shall not require ground-fault circuit interrupter protection.
- Luminaires protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter and complying with Item 2.1 or 2.2 shall be permitted to be installed less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm) over a spa or hot tub.
- Recessed luminaires shall have a glass or plastic lens and nonmetallic or electrically isolated metal trim, and shall be suitable for use in damp locations.
- Surface-mounted luminaires shall have a glass or plastic globe and a nonmetallic body or a metallic body isolated from contact. Such luminaires shall be suitable for use in damp locations.
TABLE E4103.5 OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR CLEARANCES
|INSULATED SUPPLY OR SERVICE DROP CABLES, 0-750 VOLTS TO GROUND, SUPPORTED ON AND CABLED TOGETHER WITH AN EFFECTIVELY GROUNDED BARE MESSENGER OR EFFECTIVELY GROUNDED NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR (feet)||ALL OTHER SUPPLY OR SERVICE DROP CONDUCTORS (feet)|
|Voltage to ground|
|0-15 kV||Greater than 15 to 50 kV|
|A. Clearance in any direction to the water level, edge of water surface, base of diving platform, or permanently-anchored raft||22.5||25||27|
|B. Clearance in any direction to the diving platform||14.5||17||18|
- Pools and the areas extending 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from the inside of the walls of the pool;
- Diving structures; or
- Observation stands, towers, and platforms.
Overhead conductors of network-powered broadband communications systems shall comply with the provisions in Table E4103.5 for conductors operating at 0 to 750 volts to ground.
Utility-owned, -operated and -maintained communications conductors, community antenna system coaxial cables and the supporting messengers shall be permitted at a height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above swimming and wading pools, diving structures, and observation stands, towers, and platforms.
TABLE E4103.6 MINIMUM BURIAL DEPTHS
WIRING METHOD UNDERGROUND WIRING (inches) Rigid metal conduit 6 Intermediate metal conduit 6 Nonmetallic raceways listed for direct burial without concrete encasement 18 Other approved racewaysa 18
- Conductive pool shells. Bonding to conductive pool shells shall be provided as specified in Item 1.1 or 1.2. Poured concrete, pneumatically applied or sprayed concrete, and concrete block with painted or plastered coatings shall be considered to be conductive materials because of their water permeability and porosity. Vinyl liners and fiberglass composite shells shall be considered to be nonconductive materials.
- Structural Reinforcing Steel. Unencapsulated structural reinforcing steel shall be bonded together by steel tie wires or the equivalent. Where structural reinforcing steel is encapsulated in a nonconductive compound, a copper conductor grid shall be installed in accordance with Item 1.2.
- Copper Conductor Grid. A copper conductor grid shall be provided and shall comply with items 1.2.1 through 1.2.4:
- It shall be constructed of minimum 8 AWG bare solid copper conductors bonded to each other at all points of crossing.
- It shall conform to the contour of the pool and the pool deck.
- It shall be arranged in a 12 inch (305 mm) by 12 inch (305 mm) network of conductors in a uniformly spaced perpendicular grid pattern with a tolerance of 4 inches (102 mm).
- It shall be secured within or under the pool not more than 6 inches (152 mm) from the outer contour of the pool shell.
- Perimeter surfaces. The perimeter surface shall extend for 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally beyond the inside walls of the pool and shall include unpaved surfaces, poured concrete and other types of paving. Bonding to perimeter surfaces shall be provided as specified in Item 2.1 or 2.2 and shall be attached to the pool, spa, or hot tub reinforcing steel or copper conductor grid at a minimum of four points uniformly spaced around the perimeter of the pool, spa, or hot tub. For nonconductive pool shells, bonding at four points shall not be required.
- Structural Reinforcing Steel. Structural reinforcing steel shall be bonded in accordance with Item 1.1.
- Alternate Means. Where structural reinforcing steel is not available or is encapsulated in a nonconductive compound, a copper conductor(s) shall be used in accordance with items 2.2.1 through 2.2.5:
- At least one minimum 8 AWG bare solid copper conductor shall be provided.
- The conductors shall follow the contour of the perimeter surface.
- Splices shall be listed.
- The required conductor shall be 18 to 24 inches (457 to 610 mm) from the inside walls of the pool.
- The required conductor shall be secured within or under the perimeter surface 4 to 6 inches (102 mm to 152 mm) below the subgrade.
- Metallic components. All metallic parts of the pool structure, including reinforcing metal not addressed in Item 1.1, shall be bonded. Where reinforcing steel is encapsulated with a nonconductive compound, the reinforcing steel shall not be required to be bonded.
- Underwater lighting. All metal forming shells and mounting brackets of no-niche luminaires shall be bonded.
Exception: Listed low-voltage lighting systems with nonmetallic forming shells shall not require bonding.
- Metal fittings. All metal fittings within or attached to the pool structure shall be bonded. Isolated parts that are not over 4 inches (102 mm) in any dimension and do not penetrate into the pool structure more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) shall not require bonding.
- Electrical equipment. Metal parts of electrical equipment associated with the pool water circulating system, including pump motors and metal parts of equipment associated with pool covers, including electric motors, shall be bonded.
Exception: Metal parts of listed equipment incorporating an approved system of double insulation shall not be bonded.
- Double-Insulated Water Pump Motors. Where a double-insulated water pump motor is installed under the provisions of this item, a solid 8 AWG copper conductor of sufficient length to make a bonding connection to a replacement motor shall be extended from the bonding grid to an accessible point in the vicinity of the pool pump motor. Where there is no connection between the swimming pool bonding grid and the equipment grounding system for the premises, this bonding conductor shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor of the motor circuit.
- Pool Water Heaters. For pool water heaters rated at more than 50 amperes and having specific instructions regarding bonding and grounding, only those parts designated to be bonded shall be bonded and only those parts designated to be grounded shall be grounded.
- Metal wiring methods and equipment. Metal-sheathed cables and raceways, metal piping, and all fixed metal parts shall be bonded.
- Those separated from the pool by a permanent barrier shall not be required to be bonded.
- Those greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the inside walls of the pool shall not be required to be bonded.
- Those greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) measured vertically above the maximum water level of the pool, or as measured vertically above any observation stands, towers, or platforms, or any diving structures, shall not be required to be bonded.
- All metal fittings within or attached to the hot tub or spa structure.
- Metal parts of electrical equipment associated with the hot tub or spa water circulating system, including pump motors.
- Metal raceway and metal piping that are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the inside walls of the hot tub or spa and that are not separated from the spa or hot tub by a permanent barrier.
- All metal surfaces that are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the inside walls of the hot tub or spa and that are not separated from the hot tub or spa area by a permanent barrier.
- Small conductive surfaces not likely to become energized, such as air and water jets and drain fittings, where not connected to metallic piping, towel bars, mirror frames, and similar nonelectrical equipment, shall not be required to be bonded.
- Metal parts of electrical equipment associated with the water circulating system, including pump motors that are part of a listed self-contained hot tub or spa.
- Electrical devices and controls that are not associated with the hot tubs or spas and that are located less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from such units.
- The interconnection of threaded metal piping and fittings.
- Metal-to-metal mounting on a common frame or base.
- The provision of an insulated, covered or bare solid copper bonding jumper not smaller than 8 AWG. It shall not be the intent to require that the 8 AWG or larger solid copper bonding conductor be extended or attached to any remote panelboard, service equipment, or any electrode, but only that it shall be employed to eliminate voltage gradients in the hot tub or spa area as prescribed.
- Through-wall lighting assemblies and underwater luminaires other than those low-voltage lighting products listed for the application without a grounding conductor.
- All electrical equipment located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the inside wall of the pool, spa or hot tub.
- All electrical equipment associated with the recirculating system of the pool, spa or hot tub
- Junction boxes.
- Transformer enclosures.
- Ground-fault circuit-interrupters.
- Panelboards that are not part of the service equipment and that supply any electrical equipment associated with the pool, spa or hot tub.
- Where more than one underwater luminaire is supplied by the same branch circuit, the equipment grounding conductor, installed between the junction boxes, transformer enclosures, or other enclosures in the supply circuit to wet-niche luminaires, or between the field-wiring compartments of dry-niche luminaires, shall be permitted to be terminated on grounding terminals.
- Where an underwater luminaire is supplied from a transformer, ground-fault circuit-interrupter, clock-operated switch, or a manual snap switch that is located between the panelboard and a junction box connected to the conduit that extends directly to the underwater luminaire, the equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted to terminate on grounding terminals on the transformer, ground-fault circuit-interrupter, clock-operated switch enclosure, or an outlet box used to enclose a snap switch.
Exception: An existing feeder between an existing remote panelboard and service equipment shall be permitted to run in flexible metal conduit or an approved cable assembly that includes an equipment grounding conductor within its outer sheath. The equipment grounding conductor shall not be connected to the grounded conductor in the remote panelboard.
4105.8 Other equipment. Other electrical equipment shall be grounded in accordance with Section E3808.
The end of flexible-cord jackets and flexible-cord conductor terminations within a luminaire shall be covered with, or encapsulated in, a suitable potting compound to prevent the entry of water into the luminaire through the cord or its conductors. In addition, the grounding connection within a luminaire shall be similarly treated to protect such connection from the deteriorating effect of pool water in the event of water entry into the luminaire.
Luminaires shall be bonded to and secured to the forming shell by a positive locking device that ensures a low-resistance contact and requires a tool to remove the luminaire from the forming shell.
- Listed as a swimming pool junction box;
- Equipped with threaded entries or hubs or a nonmetallic hub;
- Constructed of copper, brass, suitable plastic, or other approved corrosion-resistant material;
- Provided with electrical continuity between every connected metal conduit and the grounding terminals by means of copper, brass, or other approved corrosion-resistant metal that is integral with the box; and
- Located not less than 4 inches (102 mm), measured from the inside of the bottom of the box, above the ground level, or pool deck, or not less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the maximum pool water level, whichever provides the greatest elevation, and shall be located not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the inside wall of the pool, unless separated from the pool by a solid fence, wall or other permanent barrier. Where used on a lighting system operating at 15 volts or less, a flush deck box shall be permitted provided that an approved potting compound is used to fill the box to prevent the entrance of moisture; and the flush deck box is located not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the inside wall of the pool.
- Listed and labeled for the purpose, comprised of copper, brass, suitable plastic, or other approved corrosion-resistant material;
- Equipped with threaded entries or hubs or a nonmetallic hub;
- Provided with an approved seal, such as duct seal at the conduit connection, that prevents circulation of air between the conduit and the enclosures;
- Provided with electrical continuity between every connected metal conduit and the grounding terminals by means of copper, brass or other approved corrosion-resistant metal that is integral with the enclosures; and
- Located not less than 4 inches (102 mm), measured from the inside bottom of the enclosure, above the ground level or pool deck, or not less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the maximum pool water level, whichever provides the greater elevation, and shall be located not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the inside wall of the pool, except where separated from the pool by a solid fence, wall or other permanent barrier.
4107.1 Pumps. A cord and plug-connected pool filter pump for use with storable pools shall incorporate an approved system of double insulation or its equivalent and shall be provided with means for grounding only the internal and nonaccessible noncurrent-carrying metal parts of the appliance.
The means for grounding shall be an equipment grounding conductor run with the power-supply conductors in a flexible cord that is properly terminated in a grounding-type attachment plug having a fixed grounding contact. Cord and plug-connected pool filter pumps shall be provided with a ground-fault circuit interrupter that is an integral part of the attachment plug or located in the power supply cord within 12 inches (305 mm) of the attachment plug.
E4107.2 Ground-fault circuit-interrupters required. Electrical equipment, including power-supply cords, used with storable pools shall be protected by ground-fault circuit-interrupters. All 125-volt receptacles located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the inside walls of a storable pool shall be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter. In determining these dimensions, the distance to be measured shall be the shortest path that the supply cord of an appliance connected to the receptacle would follow without passing through a floor, wall, ceiling, doorway with hinged or sliding door, window opening, or other effective permanent barrier.
E4107.3 Luminaires. Luminaires for storable pools shall not have exposed metal parts and shall be listed for the purpose as an assembly. In addition, luminaires for storable pools shall comply with the requirements of Section E4107.3.1 or E4107.3.2.
- Have a luminaire lamp that operates at 15 volts or less;
- Have an impact-resistant polymeric lens, luminaire body, and transformer enclosure;
- Have a transformer meeting the requirements of section E4106.1 with a primary rating not over 150 volts; and
- Have no exposed metal parts.
- It has an impact-resistant polymeric lens and luminaire body.
- A ground-fault circuit interrupter with open neutral conductor protection is provided as an integral part of the assembly.
- The luminaire lamp is permanently connected to the ground-fault circuit interrupter with open-neutral protection.
- It complies with the requirements of Section E4106.4.
- It has no exposed metal parts.
A listed self-contained unit or listed packaged equipment assembly marked to indicate that integral ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection is provided for all electrical parts within the unit or assembly, including pumps, air blowers, heaters, luminaires, controls, sanitizer generators and wiring, shall not require that the outlet supply be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.
A combination pool/hot tub or spa assembly commonly bonded need not be protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.