Part I ‒ Administration

Chapter 1 Administration

Part II ‒ Definitions

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part III ‒ Building Planning and Construction

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Part IV ‒ Energy Conservation

Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency

Part V ‒ Mechanical

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Fuel-Burning Equipment

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Systems

Part VI ‒ Fuel Gas

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Part VII ‒ Plumbing

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Part VIII ‒ Electrical

Chapter 33 General Requirements

Chapter 34 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 35 Services

Chapter 36 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 37 Wiring Methods

Chapter 38 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 39 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 40 Appliance Installation

Chapter 41 Swimming Pools

Chapter 42 Class 2 Remote-Control‚ Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Part IX ‒ Referenced Standards

Chapter 43 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped With Draft Hoods

Appendix C Plumbing Sanitary Drainage Fittings

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings

Appendix F Reserved

Appendix G Swimming Pools‚ Spas and Hot Tubs

Appendix H Patio Covers

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Reserved

Appendix N Structural Safety

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix P Reserved

Appendix Q Reserved

This chapter covers service conductors and equipment for the control and protection of services and their installation requirements.
In one- and two-family dwellings, each dwelling unit shall be supplied by only one service.
Service conductors supplying a building or other structure shall not pass through the interior of another building or other structure.
Conductors other than service conductors shall not be installed in the same service raceway or service cable.

Exceptions:


1. Grounding conductors and bonding jumpers.
2. Load management control conductors having over-current protection.
Where a service raceway enters from an underground distribution system, it shall be sealed in accordance with Section E3703.6.
Means shall be provided to disconnect all conductors in a building or other structure from the service entrance conductors.
Service disconnects shall be permanently marked as a service disconnect. Service equipment shall be listed for the purpose. Individual meter socket enclosures shall not be considered service equipment.
The service disconnecting means shall be installed at a readily accessible location either outside of a building or inside nearest the point of entrance of the service conductors. Service disconnecting means shall not be installed in bathrooms. Each occupant shall have access to the disconnect serving the dwelling unit in which they reside.
The service disconnecting means shall consist of not more than six switches or six circuit breakers mounted in a single enclosure or in a group of separate enclosures.
Ungrounded service conductors shall have an ampacity of not less than the load served. For one-family dwellings, the ampacity of the ungrounded conductors shall be not less than 100 amperes, 3 wire. For all other installations, the ampacity of the ungrounded conductors shall be not less than 60 amperes.
The minimum load for ungrounded service conductors and service devices that serve 100 percent of the dwelling unit load shall be computed in accordance with Table E3502.2. Ungrounded service conductors and service devices that serve less than 100 percent of the dwelling unit load shall be computed as required for feeders in accordance with Chapter 36.

TABLE E3502.2 MINIMUM SERVICE LOAD CALCULATION


LOADS AND PROCEDURE
3 volt-amperes per square foot of floor area for general lighting and general use receptacle outlets.
Plus
1,500 volt-amperes multiplied by total number of 20-ampere-rated small appliance and laundry circuits.
Plus
The nameplate volt-ampere rating of all fastened-in-place, permanently connected or dedicated circuit-supplied appliances such as ranges, ovens, cooking units, clothes dryers not connected to the laundry branch circuit and water heaters.
Apply the following demand factors to the above subtotal:
The minimum subtotal for the loads above shall be 100 percent of the first 10,000 volt-amperes of the sum of the above loads plus 40 percent of any portion of the sum that is in excess of 10,000 volt-amperes.
Plus the largest of the following:
One-hundred percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the air-conditioning and cooling equipment.
One hundred percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the heat pump where a heat pump is used without any supplemental electric heating.
One-hundred percent of the nameplate rating of the electric thermal storage and other heating systems where the usual load is expected to be continuous at the full nameplate value. Systems qualifying under this selection shall not be figured under any other category in this table.
One-hundred percent of nameplate rating of the heat pump compressor and sixty-five percent of the supplemental electric heating load for central electric space-heating systems. If the heat pump compressor is prevented from operating at the same time as the supplementary heat, the compressor load does not need to be added to the supplementary heat load for the total central electric space-heating load.
Sixty-five percent of nameplate rating(s) of electric space-heating units if less than four separately controlled units.
Forty percent of nameplate rating(s) of electric space-heating units of four or more separately controlled units.
The minimum total load in amperes shall be the volt-ampere sum calculated above divided by 240 volts.
Services that are not required to be 100 amperes shall be sized in accordance with Chapter 36.
The combined rating of all individual service disconnects serving a single dwelling unit shall not be less than the load determined from Table E3502.2 and shall not be less than as specified in Section E3502.1.
Systems shall be three-wire, 120/240-volt, single-phase with a grounded neutral.
Conductors used as ungrounded service entrance conductors, service lateral conductors, and feeder conductors that serve as the main power feeder to a dwelling unit shall be those listed in Table E3503.1. The main power feeder shall be the feeder(s) between the main disconnect and the panelboard that supplies, either by branch circuits or by feeders, or both, all loads that are part of or are associated with the dwelling unit. The feeder conductors to a dwelling unit shall not be required to have an allowable ampacity greater than that of the service-entrance conductors that supply them. Ungrounded service conductors shall have a minimum size in accordance with Table E3503.1. The grounded conductor ampacity shall be not less than the maximum unbalance of the load and its size shall be not smaller than the required minimum grounding electrode conductor size specified in Table E3503.1.

TABLE E3503.1 SERVICE CONDUCTOR AND GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR SIZING


CONDUCTOR TYPES AND SIZES—THHN, THHW, THW, THWN, USE, RHH, RHW, XHHW, RHW-2, THW-2, THWN-2, XHHW-2, SE, USE-2 (Parallel sets of 1/0 and larger conductors are permitted in either a single raceway or in separate raceways) SERVICE OR FEEDER RATING (AMPERES) MINIMUM GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR SIZEa
Copper
(AWG)
Aluminum and copper-clad aluminum
(AWG)
Maximum load
(amps)
Copper
(AWG)
Aluminum
(AWG)
4 2 100 8b 6c
3 1 110 8b 6c
2 1/0 125 8b 6c
1 2/0 150 6c 4
1/0 3/0 175 6c 4
2/0 4/0 or
two sets of 1/0
200 4d 2d
3/0 250 kcmil or
two sets of 2/0
225 4d 2d
4/0 or
two sets of 1/0
300 kcmil or
two sets of 3/0
250 2d 1/0d
250 kcmil
or two sets of 2/0
350 kcmil or
two sets of 4/0
300 2d 1/0d
350 kcmil
or two sets of 3/0
500 kcmil or
two sets of 250 kcmil
350 2d 1/0d
400 kcmil
or two sets of 4/0
600 kcmil or
two sets of 300 kcmil
400 1/0d 3/0d


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Where protected by a ferrous metal raceway, grounding electrode conductors shall be electrically bonded to the ferrous metal raceway at both ends.

b. An 8 AWG grounding electrode conductor shall be protected with metal conduit, nonmetallic conduit, electrical metallic tubing or cable armor.

c. Where not protected, 6 AWG grounding electrode conductor shall closely follow a structural surface for physical protection. The supports shall be spaced not more than 24 inches on center and shall be within 12 inches of any enclosure or termination.

d. Where the sole grounding electrode system is a ground rod or pipe as covered in Section E3508.2, the grounding electrode conductor shall not be required to be larger than 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG aluminum. Where the sole grounding electrode system is the footing steel as covered in Section E3508.1.2, the grounding electrode conductor shall not be required to be larger than 4 AWG copper conductor.
Ungrounded conductors for other than dwelling units shall have an ampacity of not less than 60 amperes and shall be sized as required for feeders in Chapter 36.

Exceptions:


1. For limited loads of a single branch circuit, the service conductors shall have an ampacity of not less than 15 amperes.
2. For loads consisting of not more than two two-wire branch circuits, the service conductors shall have an ampacity of not less than 30 amperes.
Each ungrounded service conductor shall have overload protection.
Overload protection shall be provided by an overcurrent device installed in series with each ungrounded service conductor. The overcurrent device shall have a rating or setting not higher than the allowable service or feeder rating specified in Table E3503.1. A set of fuses shall be considered all the fuses required to protect all of the ungrounded conductors of a circuit. Single pole circuit breakers, grouped in accordance with Section E3501.7, shall be considered as one protective device.

Exception:
Two to six circuit breakers or sets of fuses shall be permitted as the overcurrent device to provide the overload protection. The sum of the ratings of the circuit breakers or fuses shall be permitted to exceed the ampacity of the service conductors, provided that the calculated load does not exceed the ampacity of the service conductors.
Overcurrent devices shall not be connected in series with a grounded service conductor except where a circuit breaker is used that simultaneously opens all conductors of the circuit.
The service overcurrent device shall be an integral part of the service disconnecting means or shall be located immediately adjacent thereto.
The grounding electrode conductors shall be sized based on the size of the service entrance conductors as required in Table E3503.1.
Except where the equipment is marked otherwise, conductor ampacities used in determining equipment termination provisions shall be based on Table E3503.1.
Open conductors and multiconductor cables without an overall outer jacket shall have a clearance of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the sides of doors, porches, decks, stairs, ladders, fire escapes and balconies, and from the sides and bottom of windows that open. See Figure E3504.1.





For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE E3504.1 CLEARANCES FROM BUILDING OPENINGS
Service-drop conductors shall not have ready access and shall comply with Sections E3504.2.1 and E3504.2.2.
Conductors shall have a vertical clearance of not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the roof surface. The vertical clearance above the roof level shall be maintained for a distance of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in all directions from the edge of the roof. See Figure E3504.2.1.

Exceptions:
1. Conductors above a roof surface subject to pedestrian traffic shall have a vertical clearance from the roof surface in accordance with Section E3504.2.2.
2. Where the roof has a slope of 4 inches (102 mm) in 12 inches (305 mm), or greater, the minimum clearance shall be 3 feet (914 mm).
3. The minimum clearance above only the overhanging portion of the roof shall not be less than 18 inches (457 mm) where not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) of conductor length passes over 4 feet (1219 mm) or less of roof surface measured horizontally and such conductors are terminated at a through-the-roof raceway or approved support.
4. The requirement for maintaining the vertical clearance for a distance of 3 feet (914 mm) from the edge of the roof shall not apply to the final conductor span where the service drop is attached to the side of a building.





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE E3504.2.1 CLEARANCES FROM ROOFS
Service-drop conductors shall have the following minimum clearances from final grade:
1. For service-drop cables supported on and cabled together with a grounded bare messenger wire, the minimum vertical clearance shall be 10 feet (3048 mm) at the electric service entrance to buildings, at the lowest point of the drip loop of the building electric entrance, and above areas or sidewalks accessed by pedestrians only. Such clearance shall be measured from final grade or other accessible surfaces.
2. Twelve feet (3658 mm)—over residential property and driveways.
3. Eighteen feet (5486 mm)—over public streets, alleys, roads or parking areas subject to truck traffic.
The point of attachment of the service-drop conductors to a building or other structure shall provide the minimum clearances as specified in Sections E3504.1 through E3504.2.2. In no case shall the point of attachment be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above finished grade.
Multiconductor cables used for service drops shall be attached to buildings or other structures by fittings approved for the purpose.
Where a service mast is used for the support of service-drop conductors, it shall be of adequate strength or be supported by braces or guys to withstand the strain imposed by the service drop. Where raceway-type service masts are used, all equipment shall be approved. Only power service drop conductors shall be permitted to be attached to a service mast.
Service-drop conductors passing over a roof shall be securely supported. Where practicable, such supports shall be independent of the building.
Service-entrance conductors entering or on the exterior of buildings or other structures shall be insulated in accordance with Section E3306.5.

Exceptions:


1. A copper grounded conductor shall not be required to be insulated where it is:
1.1. In a raceway or part of a service cable assembly,
1.2. Directly buried in soil of suitable condition, or
1.3. Part of a cable assembly listed for direct burial without regard to soil conditions.
2. An aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounded conductor shall not be required to be insulated where part of a cable or where identified for direct burial or utilization in underground raceways.
Service-entrance wiring methods shall be installed in accordance with the applicable requirements in Chapter 37.
Service-entrance conductors shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped. Splices shall be made in enclosures or, if directly buried, with listed underground splice kits. Conductor splices shall be made in accordance with Chapters 33, 36, 37 and 38.
Underground service-entrance conductors shall be protected against physical damage in accordance with Chapter 37.
Above-ground service-entrance cables, where subject to physical damage, shall be protected by one or more of the following: rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, Schedule 80 PVC conduit, electrical metallic tubing or other approved means.
Insulated conductors and cables used where exposed to direct rays of the sun shall comply with one of the following:

1. The conductors and cables shall be listed, or listed and marked, as being sunlight resistant.
2. The conductors and cables are covered with insulating material, such as tape or sleeving, that is listed, or listed and marked, as being sunlight resistant.
Service cables shall be supported by straps or other approved means within 12 inches (305 mm) of every service head, gooseneck or connection to a raceway or enclosure and at intervals not exceeding 30 inches (762 mm).
Where exposed to the weather, raceways enclosing service-entrance conductors shall be suitable for use in wet locations and arranged to drain. Where embedded in masonry, raceways shall be arranged to drain.
Connections at service heads shall be in accordance with Sections E3505.9.1 through E3505.9.7.
Service raceways shall be equipped with a rain-tight service head at the point of connection to service-drop conductors. The service head shall comply with the requirements for fittings in Section E3805.12.
Service cable shall be equipped with a rain-tight service head or shall be formed into a gooseneck in an approved manner. The service head shall comply with the requirements for fittings in Section E3805.12.
Service heads, and goosenecks in service-entrance cables, shall be located above the point of attachment of the service-drop conductors to the building or other structure.

Exception:
Where it is impracticable to locate the service head or gooseneck above the point of attachment, the service head or gooseneck location shall be not more than 24 inches (610 mm) from the point of attachment.
Service heads shall have conductors of different potential brought out through separately bushed openings.
Drip loops shall be formed on individual conductors. To prevent the entrance of moisture, service-entrance conductors shall be connected to the service-drop conductors either below the level of the service head or below the level of the termination of the service-entrance cable sheath.
Service-drop conductors and service-entrance conductors shall be arranged so that water will not enter service raceways or equipment.
Service cables shall be held securely in place.
Energized parts of service equipment shall be enclosed.
In no case shall the working space in the vicinity of service equipment be less than that specified in Chapter 33.
Service equipment shall be suitable for the maximum fault current available at its supply terminals, but not less than 10,000 amperes.
Service equipment shall be marked to identify it as being suitable for use as service equipment. Individual meter socket enclosures shall not be considered service equipment.
The premises wiring system shall be grounded at the service with a grounding electrode conductor connected to a grounding electrode system as required by this code. Grounding electrode conductors shall be sized in accordance with Table E3503.1.
The grounding electrode conductor shall be connected to the grounded service conductor at any accessible point from the load end of the service drop or service lateral to and including the terminal or bus to which the grounded service conductor is connected at the service disconnecting means. A grounding connection shall not be made to any grounded circuit conductor on the load side of the service disconnecting means, except as provided in Section E3507.3.2.
Buildings or structures supplied by feeder(s) or branch circuit(s) shall have a grounding electrode or grounding electrode system installed in accordance with Section E3508. The grounding electrode conductor(s) shall be connected in a manner specified in Section E3507.3.1 or, for existing premises wiring systems only, Section E3507.3.2. Where there is no existing grounding electrode, the grounding electrode(s) required in Section E3508 shall be installed.

Exception:
A grounding electrode shall not be required where only one branch circuit, including a multiwire branch circuit, supplies the building or structure and the branch circuit includes an equipment grounding conductor for grounding the noncurrent-carrying parts of all equipment. For the purposes of this section, a multiwire branch circuit shall be considered as a single branch circuit.
An equipment grounding conductor as described in Section E3808 shall be run with the supply conductors and connected to the building or structure disconnecting means and to the grounding electrode(s). The equipment grounding conductor shall be used for grounding or bonding of equipment, structures or frames required to be grounded or bonded. The equipment grounding conductor shall be sized in accordance with Section E3808.12. Any installed grounded conductor shall not be connected to the equipment grounding conductor or to the grounding electrode(s).
This section shall apply only to existing premises wiring systems. Where an equipment grounding conductor is not run with the supply conductors to the building or structure, there are no continuous metallic paths bonded to the grounding system in both buildings or structures involved, and ground-fault protection of equipment has not been installed on the supply side of the feeder(s), the grounded conductor run with the supply to the buildings or structure shall be connected to the building or structure disconnecting means and to the grounding electrode(s) and shall be used for grounding or bonding of equipment, structures, or frames required to be grounded or bonded. Where used for grounding in accordance with this provision, the grounded conductor shall be not smaller than the larger of:
1. That required by Section E3604.3.
2. That required by Section E3808.12.
A grounding electrode conductor shall be used to connect the equipment grounding conductors, the service equipment enclosures, and the grounded service conductor to the grounding electrode(s). This conductor shall be sized in accordance with Table E3503.1.
An unspliced main bonding jumper shall be used to connect the equipment grounding conductor(s) and the service-disconnect enclosure to the grounded conductor of the system within the enclosure for each service disconnect.
Where an ac system is connected to a grounding electrode in or at a building or structure, the same electrode shall be used to ground conductor enclosures and equipment in or on that building or structure. Where separate services, feeders or branch circuits supply a building and are required to be connected to a grounding electrode(s), the same grounding electrode(s) shall be used. Two or more grounding electrodes that are effectively bonded together shall be considered as a single grounding electrode system.
All electrodes specified in Sections E3508.1.1, E3508.1.2, E3508.1.3, E3508.1.4 E3508.1.5 and E3508.1.6 that are present at each building or structure served shall be bonded together to form the grounding electrode system. Where none of these electrodes are present, one or more of the electrodes specified in Sections E3508.1.3, E3508.1.4, E3508.1.5 and E3508.1.6 shall be installed and used.

Exception:
Concrete-encased electrodes of existing buildings or structures shall not be required to be part of the grounding electrode system where the steel reinforcing bars or rods are not accessible for use without disturbing the concrete.
A metal underground water pipe that is in direct contact with the earth for 10 feet (3048 mm) or more, including any well casing effectively bonded to the pipe and that is electrically continuous, or made electrically continuous by bonding around insulating joints or insulating pipe to the points of connection of the grounding electrode conductor and the bonding conductors, shall be considered as a grounding electrode (see Section E3508.1). Interior metal water piping located more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to the building shall not be used as part of the grounding electrode system or as a conductor to interconnect electrodes that are part of the grounding electrode system.
Continuity of the grounding path or the bonding connection to interior piping shall not rely on water meters, filtering devices and similar equipment. A metal underground water pipe shall be supplemented by an additional electrode of a type specified in Sections E3508.1.2 through E3508.1.6. The supplemental electrode shall be bonded to the grounding electrode conductor, the grounded service entrance conductor, a nonflexible grounded service raceway or any grounded service enclosure. Where the supplemental electrode is a rod, pipe or plate electrode in accordance with Section E3508.1.4 or E3508.1.5, it shall comply with Section E3508.4.

Where the supplemental electrode is a rod, pipe or plate electrode in accordance with Section E3508.1.4 or E3508.1.5, that portion of the bonding jumper that is the sole connection to the supplemental grounding electrode shall not be required to be larger than 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG aluminum wire.
An electrode encased by at least 2 inches (51 mm) of concrete, located horizontally near the bottom or vertically and within that portion of a concrete foundation or footing that is in direct contact with the earth, consisting of at least 20 feet (6096 mm) of one or more bare or zinc-galvanized or other electrically conductive coated steel reinforcing bars or rods of not less than 1 / 2 inch (12.7 mm) diameter, or consisting of at least 20 feet (6096 mm) of bare copper conductor not smaller than 4 AWG shall be considered as a grounding electrode. Reinforcing bars shall be permitted to be bonded together by the usual steel tie wires or other effective means. Where multiple concrete-encased electrodes are present at a building or structure, only one shall be required to be bonded into the grounding electrode system.
A ground ring encircling the building or structure, in direct contact with the earth at a depth below the earth’s surface of not less than 30 inches (762 mm), consisting of at least 20 feet (6096 mm) of bare copper conductor not smaller than 2 AWG shall be considered as a grounding electrode.
Rod and pipe electrodes not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length and consisting of the following materials shall be considered as a grounding electrode:
1. Grounding electrodes of pipe or conduit shall not be smaller than trade size 3/4 (metric designator 21) and, where of iron or steel, shall have the outer surface galvanized or otherwise metal-coated for corrosion protection.
2. Grounding electrodes of rods of stainless steel and copper or zinc-coated steel shall be at least 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) in diameter. Stainless steel rods less than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) in diameter, nonferrous rods or their equivalent shall be listed and shall be not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in diameter.
The rod and pipe electrodes shall be installed such that at least 8 feet (2438 mm) of length is in contact with the soil. They shall be driven to a depth of not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) except that, where rock bottom is encountered, electrodes shall be driven at an oblique angle not to exceed 45 degrees from the vertical or shall be buried in a trench that is at least 30 inches (762 mm) deep. The upper end of the electrodes shall be flush with or below ground level except where the aboveground end and the grounding electrode conductor attachment are protected against physical damage.
A plate electrode that exposes not less than 2 square feet (0.186 m 2 ) of surface to exterior soil shall be considered as a grounding electrode. Electrodes of iron or steel plates shall be at least 1 / 4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness. Electrodes of nonferrous metal shall be at least 0.06 inch (1.5 mm) in thickness. Plate electrodes shall be installed not less than 30 inches (762 mm) below the surface of the earth.
In addition to the grounding electrodes specified in Sections E3508.1.1 through E3508.1.5, other listed grounding electrodes shall be permitted.
The bonding jumper(s) used to connect the grounding electrodes together to form the grounding electrode system shall be installed in accordance with Sections E3510.2, and E3510.3, shall be sized in accordance with Section E3503.4, and shall be connected in the manner specified in Section E3511.1.
Where practicable, rod, pipe and plate electrodes shall be embedded below permanent moisture level. Such electrodes shall be free from nonconductive coatings such as paint or enamel. Where more than one such electrode is used, each electrode of one grounding system shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) from any other electrode of another grounding system. Two or more grounding electrodes that are effectively bonded together shall be considered as a single grounding electrode system. That portion of a bonding jumper that is the sole connection to a rod, pipe or plate electrode shall not be required to be larger than 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG aluminum wire.
A single electrode consisting of a rod, pipe or plate that does not have a resistance to ground of 25 ohms or less shall be augmented by one additional electrode of any of the types specified in Sections E3508.1.2 through E3508.1.6. Where multiple listed electrodes or rod, pipe or plate electrodes are installed to meet the requirements of this section, they shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) apart.
Aluminum electrodes shall not be permitted.
A metal underground gas piping system shall not be used as a grounding electrode.
Bonding shall be provided where necessary to ensure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any fault current likely to be imposed.
The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of the following equipment shall be effectively bonded together:

1. The service raceways or service cable armor.
2. All service enclosures containing service conductors, including meter fittings, and boxes, interposed in the service raceway or armor.
An intersystem bonding termination for connecting intersystem bonding and grounding conductors required for other systems shall be provided external to enclosures at the service equipment and at the disconnecting means for any additional buildings or structures. The intersystem bonding termination shall be accessible for connection and inspection. The intersystem bonding termination shall have the capacity for connection of not less than three intersystem bonding conductors. The intersystem bonding termination device shall not interfere with the opening of a service or metering equipment enclosure. The intersystem bonding termination shall be one of the following:

1. A set of terminals securely mounted to the meter enclosure and electrically connected to the meter enclosure. The terminals shall be listed as grounding and bonding equipment.
2. A bonding bar near the service equipment enclosure, meter enclosure, or raceway for service conductors. The bonding bar shall be connected with a minimum 6 AWG copper conductor to an equipment grounding conductor(s) in the service equipment enclosure, to a meter enclosure, or to an exposed nonflexible metallic raceway.
3. A bonding bar near the grounding electrode conductor. The bonding bar shall be connected to the grounding electrode conductor with a minimum 6 AWG copper conductor.
Electrical continuity at service equipment, service raceways and service conductor enclosures shall be ensured by one or more of the methods specified in Sections E3509.4.1 through E3509.4.4.

Bonding jumpers meeting the other requirements of this code shall be used around concentric or eccentric knockouts that are punched or otherwise formed so as to impair the electrical connection to ground. Standard locknuts or bushings shall not be the sole means for the bonding required by this section.
Equipment shall be bonded to the grounded service conductor in a manner provided in this code.
Equipment shall be bonded by connections using threaded couplings or threaded bosses on enclosures. Such connections shall be made wrench tight.
Equipment shall be bonded by threadless couplings and connectors for metal raceways and metal-clad cables. Such couplings and connectors shall be made wrench tight. Standard locknuts or bushings shall not be used for the bonding required by this section.
Equipment shall be bonded by other listed devices, such as bonding-type locknuts, bushings and bushings with bonding jumpers.
The bonding jumper shall not be smaller than the sizes shown in Table E3503.1 for grounding electrode conductors. Where the service-entrance conductors are paralleled in two or more raceways or cables, the equipment bonding jumper, where routed with the raceways or cables, shall be run in parallel. The size of the bonding jumper for each raceway or cable shall be based on the size of the service-entrance conductors in each raceway or cable.
The metal water piping system shall be bonded to the service equipment enclosure, the grounded conductor at the service, the grounding electrode conductor where of sufficient size, or to the one or more grounding electrodes used. The bonding jumper shall be sized in accordance with Table E3503.1. The points of attachment of the bonding jumper(s) shall be accessible.
Where installed in or attached to a building or structure, metal piping systems, including gas piping, capable of becoming energized shall be bonded to the service equipment enclosure, the grounded conductor at the service, the grounding electrode conductor where of sufficient size, or to the one or more grounding electrodes used. The bonding jumper shall be sized in accordance with Table E3808.12 using the rating of the circuit capable of energizing the piping. The equipment grounding conductor for the circuit that is capable of energizing the piping shall be permitted to serve as the bonding means. The points of attachment of the bonding jumper(s) shall be accessible.
The grounding electrode conductor shall be unspliced and shall run to any convenient grounding electrode available in the grounding electrode system where the other electrode(s), if any, are connected by bonding jumpers in accordance with Section E3508.2, or to one or more grounding electrode(s) individually. The grounding electrode conductor shall be sized for the largest grounding electrode conductor required among all of the electrodes connected to it.

Exception:
Splicing of the grounding electrode conductor by irreversible compression-type connectors listed as grounding and bonding equipment or by the exothermic welding process shall not be prohibited.
Where exposed, a grounding electrode conductor or its enclosure shall be securely fastened to the surface on which it is carried. A 4 AWG or larger conductor shall be protected where exposed to physical damage. A 6 AWG grounding conductor that is free from exposure to physical damage shall be permitted to be run along the surface of the building construction without metal covering or protection where it is and securely fastened to the construction; otherwise, it shall be in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, electrical metallic tubing or cable armor. Grounding electrode conductors smaller than 6 AWG shall be in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid nonmetallic conduit, electrical metallic tubing or cable armor.

Bare aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounding conductors shall not be used where in direct contact with masonry or the earth or where subject to corrosive conditions. Where used outside, aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounding conductors shall not be installed within 18 inches (457 mm) of the earth.
Ferrous metal enclosures for grounding electrode conductors shall be electrically continuous from the point of attachment to cabinets or equipment to the grounding electrode, and shall be securely fastened to the ground clamp or fitting. Nonferrous metal enclosures shall not be required to be electrically continuous. Ferrous metal enclosures that are not physically continuous from cabinet or equipment to the grounding electrode shall be made electrically continuous by bonding each end to the grounding conductor. The bonding jumper for a grounding electrode conductor raceway shall be the same size or larger than the required enclosed grounding electrode conductor.

Where a raceway is used as protection for a grounding conductor, the installation shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 37.
The grounding or bonding conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode by exothermic welding, listed lugs, listed pressure connectors, listed clamps or other listed means. Connections depending on solder shall not be used. Ground clamps shall be listed for the materials of the grounding electrode and the grounding electrode conductor and, where used on pipe, rod or other buried electrodes, shall also be listed for direct soil burial or concrete encasement. Not more than one conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode by a single clamp or fitting unless the clamp or fitting is listed for multiple conductors. One of the methods indicated in the following items shall be used:

1. A pipe fitting, pipe plug or other approved device screwed into a pipe or pipe fitting.
2. A listed bolted clamp of cast bronze or brass, or plain or malleable iron.
3. For indoor telecommunications purposes only, a listed sheet metal strap-type ground clamp having a rigid metal base that seats on the electrode and having a strap of such material and dimensions that it is not likely to stretch during or after installation.
4. Other equally substantial approved means.
All mechanical elements used to terminate a grounding electrode conductor or bonding jumper to the grounding electrodes that are not buried or concrete encased shall be accessible.
The connection of the grounding electrode conductor or bonding jumper shall be made in a manner that will ensure a permanent and effective grounding path. Where necessary to ensure effective grounding for a metal piping system used as a grounding electrode, effective bonding shall be provided around insulated joints and sections and around any equipment that is likely to be disconnected for repairs or replacement. Bonding jumpers shall be of sufficient length to permit removal of such equipment while retaining the integrity of the grounding path.
Ground clamps or other fittings shall be approved for applications without protection or shall be protected from physical damage by installing them where they are not likely to be damaged or by enclosing them in metal, wood or equivalent protective coverings.
Nonconductive coatings (such as paint, enamel and lacquer) on equipment to be grounded shall be removed from threads and other contact surfaces to ensure good electrical continuity or shall be connected by fittings that make such removal unnecessary
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