Part I ‒ Administration

Chapter 1 Administration

Part II ‒ Definitions

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part III ‒ Building Planning and Construction

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Part IV ‒ Energy Conservation

Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency

Part V ‒ Mechanical

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Fuel-Burning Equipment

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Systems

Part VI ‒ Fuel Gas

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Part VII ‒ Plumbing

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Part VIII ‒ Electrical

Chapter 33 General Requirements

Chapter 34 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 35 Services

Chapter 36 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 37 Wiring Methods

Chapter 38 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 39 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 40 Appliance Installation

Chapter 41 Swimming Pools

Chapter 42 Class 2 Remote-Control‚ Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Part IX ‒ Referenced Standards

Chapter 43 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped With Draft Hoods

Appendix C Plumbing Sanitary Drainage Fittings

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings

Appendix F Reserved

Appendix G Swimming Pools‚ Spas and Hot Tubs

Appendix H Patio Covers

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Reserved

Appendix N Structural Safety

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix P Reserved

Appendix Q Reserved

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of sanitary drainage systems. Plumbing materials shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. The drainage, waste and vent (DWV) system shall consist of all piping for conveying wastes from plumbing fixtures, appliances and appurtenances, including fixture traps; above-grade drainage piping; below-grade drains within the building (building drain); below- and above-grade venting systems; and piping to the public sewer or private septic system.
No portion of the above grade DWV system other than vent terminals shall be located outside of a building, in attics or crawl spaces, concealed in outside walls, or in any other place subjected to freezing temperatures unless adequate provision is made to protect them from freezing by insulation or heat or both, except in localities having a winter design temperature above 32°F (0°C) (ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 97.5 percent column, winter, see Chapter 3).
In areas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(1), drainage, waste and vent systems shall be located and installed to prevent infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharges from the systems into floodwaters.
Drain, waste and vent (DWV) piping in buildings shall be as shown in Tables P3002.1(1) and P3002.1(2) except that galvanized wrought- iron or galvanized steel pipe shall not be used underground and shall be maintained not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above ground. Allowance shall be made for the thermal expansion and contraction of plastic piping.

TABLE P3002.1(1)
ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; CSA B181.1
Brass pipe ASTM B 43
Cast-iron pipe ASTM A 74; CISPI 301; ASTM A 888
Coextruded composite ABS DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite ABS DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) ASTM F 1488; ASTM F 891
Coextruded composite PVC IPS-DR, PS140, PS200 DWV ASTM F 1488
Copper or copper-alloy pipe ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, L, M or DWV) ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A 53
Polyolefin pipe CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe (Type DWV) ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; CSA B181.2; ASTM F 1488
Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316L ASME A112.3.1

TABLE P3002.1(2)
UNDERGROUND BUILDING DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; CSA B181.1
Asbestos-cement pipe ASTM C 428
Cast-iron pipe ASTM A 74; CISPI 301; ASTM A 888
Coextruded composite ABS DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite ABS DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC IPS-DR, PS140, PS200 DWV ASTM F 1488
Copper or copper alloy tubing (Type K, L, M or DWV) ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
Polyolefin pipe ASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe (Type DWV) ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; CSA B181.2
Stainless steel drainage systems, Type 316L ASME A112.3.1
Building sewer piping shall be as shown in Table P3002.2. Forced main sewer piping shall conform to one of the standards for ABS plastic pipe, copper or copper-alloy tubing, PVC plastic pipe or pressure-rated pipe listed in Table P3002.2.

TABLE P3002.2 BUILDING SEWER PIPE


MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 2751; ASTM F 628
Asbestos-cement pipe ASTM C 428
Cast-iron pipe ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; CISPI 301
Coextruded composite ABS DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite ABS DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (solid) ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe (cellular core) ASTM F 1488; ASTM F 891
Coextruded composite PVC IPS-DR-PS DWV, PS140, PS200 ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite ABS sewer and drain DR-PS in PS35, PS50, PS100, PS140, PS200 ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC sewer and drain DR-PS in PS35, PS50, PS100, PS140, PS200 ASTM F 1488
Coextruded composite PVC sewer and drain PS 25, PS 50, PS 100 (cellular core) ASTM F 891
Concrete pipe ASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; CSA A257.1M; CSA A257.2M
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K or L) ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251
Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe (SDR-PR) ASTM F 714
Polyolefin pipe ASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe (Type DWV, SDR 26, SRD35, SDR41, PS50 or PS100) ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; ASTM D 3034;
ASTM F 1412; CSA B182.2; CSA B182.4
Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316L ASME A112.3.1
Vitrified clay pipe ASTM C 425; ASTM C 700
Fittings shall be approved and compatible with the type of piping being used and shall be of a sanitary or DWV design for drainage and venting as shown in Table P3002.3. Water pipe fittings shall be permitted in engineer- designed systems where the design indicates compliance with Section P3101.2.1.

TABLE P3002.3 PIPE FITTINGS


MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe ASTM D 3311; CSA B181.1; ASTM D 2661
Cast-iron pipe ASME B 16.12; ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; CISPI 301; CISPI 310
Coextruded composite ABS DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe

(solid or cellular core)
ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; ASTM F 628
Coextruded composite ABS DWV Schedule 40 IPS-DR, PS 140, PS 200 (solid or cellular core) ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; ASTM F 891
Coextruded composite ABS sewer and drain DR-PS in PS35, PS50, PS100, PS140, PS200 ASTM D 2751
Coextruded composite PVC DWV Schedule 40 IPS-DR, PS 140, PS200 (solid and cellular core) ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; ASTM F 891
Coextruded composite PVC sewer and drain DR-PS in PS35, PS50, PS100, PS140, PS200 ASTM D 3034
Copper or copper alloy ASME B 16.23; ASME B 16.29
Gray iron and ductile iron AWWA C 110
Polyolefin ASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe ASTM D 3311; ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 1412; ASTM F 1866; CSA B 181.2; CSA B 182.4
Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316L ASME A112.3.1
Drainage fittings shall have a smooth interior waterway of the same diameter as the piping served. All fittings shall conform to the type of pipe used. Drainage fittings shall have no ledges, shoulders or reductions which can retard or obstruct drainage flow in the piping. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the recessed drainage type, black or galvanized. Drainage fittings shall be designed to maintain one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) grade.
Sheet lead, lead bends, lead traps and sheet copper shall comply with Sections P3002.4.1 through P3002.4.3.
Sheet lead for the following uses shall weigh not less than indicated below:
1. Flashing of vent terminals, 3 psf (15 kg/m2).
2. Prefabricated flashing for vent pipes, 21/2 psf (12 kg/m2).
Sheet copper for the following uses shall weigh not less than indicated below:
1. General use, 12 ounces per square feet (4 kg/m2).
2. Flashing for vent pipes, 8 ounces per square feet (2.5 kg/m2).
Joints and connections in the DWV system shall be gas tight and water tight for the intended use or pressure required by test.
Running threads and bands shall not be used in the drainage system. Drainage and vent piping shall not be drilled, tapped, burned or welded.

The following types of joints and connections shall be prohibited:

1. Cement or concrete.
2. Mastic or hot-pour bituminous joints.
3. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific installation.
4. Joints between different diameter pipes made with elastomeric rolling O-rings.
5. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic pipe.
6. Saddle-type fittings.
Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.3.1 through P3003.3.3.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B 602. Mechanical joints shall be installed only in underground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to ASTM D 2235 or CSA B 181.1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B 181.1 and ASTM F 402. Solvent- cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between asbestos-cement pipe or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring conforming to ASTM D 1869.
Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.5.1 through P3003.5.3.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Threads shall conform to ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between cast-iron pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.6.1 through P3003.6.3.
Joints for hub and spigot pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp. Molten lead shall be poured in one operation to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25 mm). The lead shall not recede more than 1 / 8 inch (3 mm) below the rim of the hub and shall be caulked tight. Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be permitted on the jointing material until after the joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and acidproof cement shall be permitted.
Compression gaskets for hub and spigot pipe and fittings shall conform to ASTM C 564. Gaskets shall be compressed when the pipe is fully inserted.
Mechanical joint couplings for hubless pipe and fittings shall comply with CISPI 310 or ASTM C 1277. The elastomeric sealing sleeve shall conform to ASTM C 564 or CSA B602 and shall have a center stop. Mechanical joint couplings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Joints between concrete pipe and fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 443, ASTM C 1173, CSA A 257.3M or CSA B 602.
Joints between coextruded composite pipe with an ABS outer layer or ABS fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.8.1 and P3003.8.2.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B 602. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to ASTM D 2235 or CSA B 181.1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B 181.1. Solvent- cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Joints between coextruded composite pipe with a PVC outer layer or PVC fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.9.1 and P3003.9.2.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 3212. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B137.3 or CSA B 181.2 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.10.1 through P3003.10.4.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Solder joints shall be made in accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32.
Threads shall conform to ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.11.1 through P3003.11.3.
All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Solder joints shall be made in accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. Cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32.
Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.12.1 and P3003.12.2.
Threads shall conform to ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.14.1 through P3003.14.3.
Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B 602. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B 137.3 or CSA B 181.2 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Threads shall conform to ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.
Joints between vitrified clay pipe or fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 1173 or CSA B 602.
Joints between polyolefin plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.16.1 and P3003.16.2.
Heat-fusion joints for polyolefin pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polyolefin fittings or electrofusion polyolefin fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 1412 or CSA B 181.3.
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and fittings shall be underground and shall comply with Section P3003.17.1 or P3003.17.2.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be cut, heated to melting temperature and joined using tools specifically designed for the operation. Joints shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2657 and the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Mechanical joints in drainage piping shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B 602. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joints between different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM C 1460 or ASTM C 1461. Connectors and adapters shall be approved for the application and such joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM C 1440, ASTM D 1869, ASTM F 477, CSA A 257.3M or CSA B 602, or as required in Sections P3003.18.1 through P3003.18.6. Joints between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made with adapters having a TFE seal. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made with a brass ferrule or compression joint. The copper or copper-alloy tubing shall be soldered to the ferrule in an approved manner, and the ferrule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass converter fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be soldered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be screwed to the threaded pipe.
Joints between cast-iron and galvanized steel or brass pipe shall be made by either caulked or threaded joints or with an approved adapter fitting.
Joints between different types of plastic pipe or between plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.
Joints between lead pipe and other piping material shall be made by a wiped joint to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or bushing or shall be made with an approved adapter fitting.
Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and other piping materials shall be made with approved mechanical couplings.
Joints between drainage piping and water closets or similar fixtures shall be made by means of a closet flange compatible with the drainage system material, securely fastened to a structurally firm base. The inside diameter of the drainage pipe shall not be used as a socket fitting for a four by three closet flange. The joint shall be bolted, with an approved gasket, flange to fixture connection complying with ASME A 112.4.3 or setting compound between the fixture and the closet flange.
The load on DWV-system piping shall be computed in terms of drainage fixture unit (d.f.u.) values in accordance with Table P3004.1.

TABLE P3004.1
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (d.f.u.) VALUES FOR VARIOUS PLUMBING FIXTURES

TYPE OF FIXTURE OR GROUP OF FIXTURES DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUE (d.f.u.)a
Bar sink 1
Bathtub (with or without shower head and/or whirlpool attachments) 2
Bidet 1
Clothes washer standpipe 2
Dishwasher 2
Floor drainb 0
Kitchen sink 2
Lavatory 1
Laundry tub 2
Shower stall 2
Water closet (1.6 gallons per flush) 3
Water closet (greater than 1.6 gallons per flush) 4
Full-bath group with bathtub (with 1.6 gallon per flush water closet, and with or without shower head and/or whirlpool attachment on the bathtub or shower stall) 5
Full-bath group with bathtub (water closet greater than 1.6 gallon per flush, and with or without shower head and/or whirlpool attachment on the bathtub or shower stall) 6
Half-bath group (1.6 gallon per flush water closet plus lavatory) 4
Half-bath group (water closet greater than 1.6 gallon per flush plus lavatory) 5
Kitchen group (dishwasher and sink with or without garbage grinder) 2
Laundry group (clothes washer standpipe and laundry tub) 3
Multiple-bath groupsc:
   1.5 baths
   2 baths
   2.5 baths
   3 baths
   3.5 baths

7
8
9
10
11


For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. For a continuous or semicontinuous flow into a drainage system, such as from a pump or similar device, 1.5 fixture units shall be allowed per gpm of flow. For a fixture not listed, use the highest d.f.u. value for a similar listed fixture.

b. A floor drain itself adds no hydraulic load. However, where used as a receptor, the fixture unit value of the fixture discharging into the receptor shall be applicable.

c. Add 2 d.f.u. for each additional full bath.
Changes in direction in drainage piping shall be made by the appropriate use of sanitary tees, wyes, sweeps, bends or by a combination of these drainage fittings in accordance with Table P3005.1. Change in direction by combination fittings, heel or side inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance with Table P3005.1 and Sections P3005.1.1 through P3005.1.4. based on the pattern of flow created by the fitting.

TABLE P3005.1
FITTINGS FOR CHANGE IN DIRECTION

TYPE OF FITTING PATTERN CHANGE IN DIRECTION
Horizontal to verticalc Vertical to horizontal Horizontal
to horizontal
Sixteenth bend X X X
Eighth bend X X X
Sixth bend X X X
Quarter bend X Xa Xa
Short sweep X Xa,b Xa
Long sweep X X X
Sanitary tee Xc
Wye X X X
Combination wye and eighth bend X X X


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. The fittings shall only be permitted for a 2-inch or smaller fixture drain.

b. Three inches and larger.

c. For a limitation on multiple connection fittings, see Section P3005.1.1.
Double fittings such as double sanitary tees and tee-wyes or approved multiple connection fittings and back-to-back fixture arrangements that connect two or more branches at the same level shall be permitted as long as directly opposing connections are the same size and the discharge into directly opposing connections is from similar fixture types or fixture groups. Double sanitary tee patterns shall not receive the discharge of back-to-back water closets and fixtures or appliances with pumping action discharge.

Exception:
Back-to-back water closet connections to double sanitary tee patterns shall be permitted where the horizontal developed length between the outlet of the water closet and the connection to the double sanitary tee is 18 inches (457 mm) or greater.
Heel-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection, except where the quarter bends serves a water closet. A low-heel inlet shall not be used as a wet-vented connection. Side-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection for both drainage, wet venting and stack venting arrangements.
Heel-inlet or side-inlet quarter bends, or any arrangement of pipe and fittings producing a similar effect, shall be acceptable as a dry vent where the inlet is placed in a vertical position. The inlet is permitted to be placed in a horizontal position only where the entire fitting is part of a dry vent arrangement.
One-quarter bends 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter shall be acceptable for water closet or similar connections, provided a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) flange is installed to receive the closet fixture horn. Alternately, a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) elbow shall be acceptable with a 4-inch (102 mm) flange.
Dead ends shall be prohibited except where necessary to extend a cleanout or as an approved part of a rough-in more than 2 feet (610 mm) in length.
Where drainage has been roughed-in for future fixtures, the drainage unit values of the future fixtures shall be considered in determining the required drain sizes. Such future installations shall be terminated with an accessible permanent plug or cap fitting.
The size of the drainage piping shall not be reduced in size in the direction of the flow. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) water closet connection shall not be considered as a reduction in size.
Drainage pipe cleanouts shall comply with Sections P3005.2.1 through P3005.2.11.

Exception:
These provisions shall not apply to pressurized building drains and building sewers that convey the discharge of automatic pumping equipment to a gravity drainage system.
Cleanouts shall be liquid and gas tight. Cleanout plugs shall be brass or plastic.
Cleanouts shall be installed not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) apart in horizontal drainage lines measured from the upstream entrance of the cleanout.
When installed in underground drains, cleanouts shall be extended vertically to or above finished grade either inside or outside the building.
Cleanouts shall be installed at each fitting with a change of direction more than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) in the building sewer, building drain and horizontal waste or soil lines. Where more than one change of direction occurs in a run of piping, only one cleanout shall be required in each 40 feet (12 192 mm) of developed length of the drainage piping.
Cleanouts shall be accessible. Minimum clearance in front of cleanouts shall be 18 inches (457 mm) on 3-inch (76 mm) and larger pipes, and 12 inches (305 mm) on smaller pipes. Concealed cleanouts shall be provided with access of sufficient size to permit removal of the cleanout plug and rodding of the system. Cleanout plugs shall not be concealed by permanent finishing material.
Accessible cleanouts shall be provided near the base of each vertical waste or soil stack. Alternatively, such cleanouts shall be installed outside the building within 3 feet (914 mm) of the building wall.
There shall be a cleanout near the junction of the building drain and building sewer. This cleanout shall be either inside or outside the building wall, provided that it is brought up to finish grade or to the lowest floor level. An approved two-way cleanout shall be permitted to serve as the required cleanout for both the building drain and the building sewer. The cleanout at the junction of the building drain and building sewer shall not be required where a cleanout on a 3-inch (76 mm) or larger diameter soil stack is located within a developed length of 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building drain and building sewer junction.
Cleanouts shall be installed so that the cleanout opens to allow cleaning in the direction of the flow of the drainage line.
Cleanouts shall be the same nominal size as the pipe they serve up to 4 inches (102 mm). For pipes larger than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal size, the minimum size of the cleanout shall be 4 inches (102 mm).

Exceptions:
1. "P" trap connections with slip joints or ground joint connections, or stack cleanouts that are not more than one pipe diameter smaller than the drain served, shall be permitted.
2. Cast-iron cleanouts sized in accordance with the referenced standards in Table P3002.3, ASTM A 74 for hub and spigot fittings or ASTM A 888 or CISPI 301 for hubless fittings.
A fixture trap or a fixture with integral trap, readily removable without disturbing concealed piping shall be acceptable as a cleanout equivalent.
Clean- out openings shall not be used for the installation of new fixtures except where approved and an acceptable alternate cleanout is provided.
Horizontal drainage piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uniform slopes not less than 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for 21/2-inch (64 mm) diameter and less, and not less than 1/8 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope) for diameters of 3 inches (76 mm) or more.
Drain pipes shall be sized according to drainage fixture unit (d.f.u.) loads. The size of the drainage piping shall not be reduced in size in the direction of flow. The following general procedure is permitted to be used:

1. Draw an isometric layout or riser diagram denoting fixtures on the layout.
2. Assign d.f.u. values to each fixture group plus individual fixtures using Table P3004.1.
3. Starting with the top floor or most remote fixtures, work downstream toward the building drain accumulating d.f.u. values for fixture groups plus individual fixtures for each branch. Where multiple bath groups are being added, use the reduced d.f.u. values in Table P3004.1, which take into account probability factors of simultaneous use.
4. Size branches and stacks by equating the assigned d.f.u. values to pipe sizes shown in Table P3005.4.1.
5. Determine the pipe diameter and slope of the building drain and building sewer based on the accumulated d.f.u. values, using Table P3005.4.2.
1. Branches and stacks shall be sized according to Table P3005.4.1. Below grade drain pipes shall not be less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter.
2. Minimum stack size. Drain stacks shall not be smaller than the largest horizontal branch connected.

Exceptions:
1. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) closet bend or flange.
2. A 4-inch (102 mm) closet bend into a 3-inch (76 mm) stack tee shall be acceptable (see Section P3005.1.4).

TABLE P3005.4.1
MAXIMUM FIXTURE UNITS ALLOWED TO BE CONNECTED TO BRANCHES AND STACKS

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (inches) ANY HORIZONTAL FIXTURE BRANCH ANY ONE VERTICAL STACK OR DRAIN
11/4a
11/2b 3 4
2b 6 10
21/2b 12 20
3 20 48
4 160 240


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. 11/4-inch pipe size limited to a single-fixture drain or trap arm. See Table P3201.7.

b. No water closets.
Pipe sizes and slope shall be determined from Table P3005.4.2 on the basis of drainage load in fixture units (d.f.u.) computed from Table P3004.1.

TABLE P3005.4.2
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FIXTURE UNITS ALLOWED TO BE CONNECTED TO THE BUILDING DRAIN, BUILDING DRAIN BRANCHES OR THE BUILDING SEWER

DIAMETER OF PIPE (inches) SLOPE PER FOOT
1/8 inch 1/4 inch 1/2 inch
11/2 a,b Note a Note a
2b 21 27
21/2b 24 31
3 36 42 50
4 180 216 250


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. 11/2-inch pipe size limited to a building drain branch serving not more than two waste fixtures, or not more than one waste fixture if serving a pumped discharge fixture or garbage grinder discharge.

b. No water closets.
Horizontal branches shall connect to the bases of stacks at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the stack. Horizontal branches shall connect to horizontal stack offsets at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the upper stack.
An offset in a vertical drain, with a change of direction of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or less from the vertical, shall be sized as a straight vertical drain.
A stack with an offset of more than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical shall be sized as follows:

1. The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as for a regular stack based on the total number of fixture units above the offset.
2. The offset shall be sized as for a building drain in accordance with Table P3005.4.2.
3. The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized as for the offset or based on the total number of fixture units on the entire stack, whichever is larger.
In soil or waste stacks below the lowest horizontal branch, there shall be no change in diameter required if the offset is made at an angle not greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical. If an offset greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical is made, the offset and stack below it shall be sized as a building drain (see Table P3005.4.2).
A sewage ejector, sewage pump, or grinder pump receiving discharge from a water closet shall have minimum discharge velocity of 1.9 feet per second (0.579 m/s) throughout the discharge piping to the point of connection with a gravity building drain, gravity sewer or pressure sewer system. A nongrinding pump or ejector shall be capable of passing a 11/2-inch-diameter (38 mm) solid ball, and the discharge piping shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter. The discharge piping of grinding pumps shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in diameter. A check valve and a gate valve located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be installed in the pump or ejector discharge piping between the pump or ejector and the drainage system. Access shall be provided to such valves. Such valves shall be located above the sump cover or, where the discharge pipe from the ejector is below grade, the valves shall be accessibly located outside the sump below grade in an access pit with a removeable access cover.

Exception:
Macerating toilet systems shall be permitted to have the discharge pipe sized in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions, but not less than 0.75 inch (19 mm) in diameter.
Building drains which cannot be discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall be discharged into a tightly covered and vented sump from which the contents shall be lifted and discharged into the building gravity drainage system by automatic pumping equipment.
The system of drainage piping below the sewer level shall be installed and vented in a manner similar to that of the gravity system. Only such drains that must be lifted for discharge shall be discharged into sumps. All other drains shall be discharged by gravity.

Exception:
Macerating toilet systems shall be permitted as an alternate to the sewage pump or ejector system. The macerating toilet shall comply with ASME A 112.3.4 or CSA B 45.9 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions.
Water assisted backup sump pumps shall be equiped with an alarm which provides notification upon activation and is manually reset.
Fixtures that have flood level rims located below the elevation of the next upstream manhole cover of the public sewer serving such fixtures shall be protected from backflow of sewage by installing an approved backwater valve. Fixtures having flood level rims above the elevation of the next upstream manhole shall not discharge through the backwater valve. Backwater valves shall be provided with access.

Exception:
Except as otherwise permitted by the code enforcement official, in accordance with the authority regulating the public sewer system.
Backwater valves shall have noncorrosive bearings, seats and self-aligning discs, and shall be constructed to ensure a positive mechanical seal. Valve access covers shall be water tight.
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