Part I ‒ Administration

Chapter 1 Administration

Part II ‒ Definitions

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part III ‒ Building Planning and Construction

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Part IV ‒ Energy Conservation

Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency

Part V ‒ Mechanical

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Fuel-Burning Equipment

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Systems

Part VI ‒ Fuel Gas

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Part VII ‒ Plumbing

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Part VIII ‒ Electrical

Chapter 33 General Requirements

Chapter 34 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 35 Services

Chapter 36 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 37 Wiring Methods

Chapter 38 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 39 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 40 Appliance Installation

Chapter 41 Swimming Pools

Chapter 42 Class 2 Remote-Control‚ Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Part IX ‒ Referenced Standards

Chapter 43 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped With Draft Hoods

Appendix C Plumbing Sanitary Drainage Fittings

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings

Appendix F Reserved

Appendix G Swimming Pools‚ Spas and Hot Tubs

Appendix H Patio Covers

Appendix I Reserved

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix L Reserved

Appendix M Reserved

Appendix N Structural Safety

Appendix O Reserved

Appendix P Reserved

Appendix Q Reserved

Dwelling units shall be supplied with potable water in the amounts and pressures specified in this chapter.

Exception:
Owner-occupied one family dwellings subject to the approval of the code enforcement official.

In a building where both a potable and nonpotable water-distribution system are installed, each system shall be identified by color marking, metal tag or other appropriate method. Any nonpotable outlet that could inadvertently be used for drinking or domestic purposes shall be posted.
A potable water supply system shall be designed and installed as to prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or gases being introduced into the potable water supply. Connections shall not be made to a potable water supply in a manner that could contaminate the water supply or provide a cross-connection between the supply and a source of contamination unless an approved backflow-prevention device is provided. Cross-connections between an individual water supply and a potable public water supply shall be prohibited, except where an appropriate cross control connection device is installed in accordance with Subpart 5-1.31 of the New York State Sanitary Code (10 NYCRR 5-1).
The supply lines and fittings for every plumbing fixture shall be installed to prevent backflow. Plumbing fixture fittings shall provide backflow protection in accordance with ASME A112.18.1.
A means of protection against backflow shall be provided in accordance with Sections P2902.3.1 through P2902.3.6. Backflow prevention applications shall conform to Table P2902.3, except as specifically stated in Sections P2902.4 through P2902.5.5.

On-site containment is regulated by Subpart 5-1.31 of the New York State Sanitary Code (10 NYCRR) and may be required by the provider of public water, depending on the degree of hazard, to protect public water systems through the use of appropriate backflow prevention device installations.

TABLE P2902.3
APPLICATION FOR BACKFLOW PREVENTERS

DEVICE DEGREE OF HAZARDa APPLICATIONb APPLICABLE
STANDARDS
Air gap High or low hazard Backsiphonage or backpressure ASME A112.1.2
Air gap fittings for use with plumbing fixtures, appliances and appurtenances High or low hazard Backsiphonage or backpressure ASME A112.1.3
Antisiphon-type fill valves for gravity water closet flush tanks High hazard Backsiphonage only ASSE 1002
CSA B125
Backflow preventer with intermediate atmospheric vents Low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 1/4" - 3/4"
ASSE 1012
CSA B64.3
Double check backflow prevention assembly and double check fire protection backflow prevention assembly Low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 3/8"- 16"
ASSE 1015, AWWA C510, CSA B64.5, CSA B64.5.1
Double check detector fire protection backflow prevention assemblies Low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage
(Fire sprinkler systems) Sizes 2" - 16"
ASSE 1048
Dual check-valve-type backflow preventer Low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage
Sizes 1/4" - 1"
ASSE 1024,CSA B64.6
Hose connection backflow preventer High or low hazard Low head backpressure, rated working pressure backpressure or backsiphonage, Sizes 1/2" - 1" ASSE 1052,
CSA B64.2.1.1
Hose connection vacuum breaker High or low hazard Low head backpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 1/2", 3/4", 1" ASSE 1011, CSA B64.2, CSA B64.2.1
Laboratory faucet backflow preventer High or low hazard Low head backpressure and backsiphonage ASSE 1035,
CSA B64.7
Pipe-applied atmospheric-type vacuum breaker High or low hazard Backsiphonage only
Sizes 1/4"- 4"
ASSE 1001
CSA B64.1.1
Pressure vacuum breaker assembly High or low hazard Backsiphonage only
Sizes 1/2" - 2"
ASSE 1020,
CSA B64.1.2
Reduced pressure detector fire protection backflow prevention assemblies High or low hazard Backsiphonage or backpressure
(Fire sprinkler systems)
ASSE 1047
Reduced pressure principle backflow preventer and reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow preventer High or low hazard Backpressure or backsiphonage  Sizes 3/8" - 16" ASSE 1013, AWWA C511, CSA B64.4, CSA B64.4.1
Spillproof vacuum breaker High or low hazard Backsiphonage only Sizes 1/4" - 2" ASSE 1056
Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, frost-resistant, automatic draining type High or low hazard Low head backpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 3/4" - 1" ASSE 1019,
CSA B64.2.2


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Low hazard—See Pollution (Section 202). High hazard—See Contamination (Section 202).

b. See Backpressure (Section 202). See Backpressure, Low Head (Section 202). See Backsiphonage (Section 202).
Air gaps shall comply with ASME A112.1.2 and air gap fittings shall comply with ASME A112.1.3. The minimum air gap shall be measured vertically from the lowest end of a water supply outlet to the flood level rim of the fixture or receptor into which such potable water outlets discharge. The minimum required air gap shall be twice the diameter of the effective opening of the outlet, but in no case less than the values specified in Table P2902.3.1. An air gap is required at the discharge point of a relief valve or piping. Air gap devices shall be incorporated in dishwashing and clothes washing appliances.

TABLE P2902.3.1
MINIMUM AIR GAPS

FIXTURE MINIMUM AIR GAP
Away from a walla
(inches)
Close to a wall
(inches)
Effective openings greater than 1 inch Two times the diameter of the effective opening Three times the diameter of the effective opening
Lavatories and other fixtures with effective opening not greater than 1/2 inch in diameter 1 1.5
Over-rim bath fillers and other fixtures with effective openings not greater than 1 inch in diameter 2 3
Sink, laundry trays, gooseneck back faucets and other fixtures with effective openings not greater than 3/4 inch in diameter 1.5 2.5


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Applicable where walls or obstructions are spaced from the nearest inside edge of the spout opening a distance greater than three times the diameter of the effective opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls.
Pipe- applied atmospheric-type vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. Hose-connection vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1011, ASSE 1019, ASSE 1035, ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2, CSA B64.2.1, CSA B64.2.1.1, CSA B64.2.2 or CSA B64.7. These devices shall operate under normal atmospheric pressure when the critical level is installed at the required height.
Backflow preventers with intermediate atmospheric vents shall conform to ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.3. These devices shall be permitted to be installed where subject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being submerged.
Pressure- type vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1020 or CSA B64.1.2 and spillproof vacuum breakers shall comply with ASSE 1056. These devices are designed for installation under continuous pressure conditions when the critical level is installed at the required height. Pressure-type vacuum breakers shall not be installed in locations where spillage could cause damage to the structure.
Reduced pressure principle backflow preventers shall conform to ASSE 1013, AWWA C511, CSA B64.4 or CSA B64.4.1. Reduced pressure detector assembly backflow preventers shall conform to ASSE 1047. These devices shall be permitted to be installed where subject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being submerged.
Double check- valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1015, CSA B64.5, CSA B64.5.1 or AWWA C510. Double-detector check-valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1048. These devices shall be capable of operating under continuous pressure conditions.
Potable water openings and outlets shall be protected by an air gap, reduced pressure principle backflow preventer with atmospheric vent, atmospheric-type vacuum breaker, pressure-type vacuum breaker or hose connection backflow preventer.
Flush tanks shall be equipped with an antisiphon fill valve conforming to ASSE 1002 or CSA B125. The fill valve backflow preventer shall be located at least 1 inch (25 mm) above the full opening of the overflow pipe.
Approved deck-mounted vacuum breakers and faucets with integral atmospheric or spill-proof vacuum breakers shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions and the requirements for labeling with the critical level not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the flood level rim.
Sillcocks, hose bibbs, wall hydrants and other openings with a hose connection shall be protected by an atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum breaker or a permanently attached hose connection vacuum breaker.

Exceptions:
1. This section shall not apply to water heater and boiler drain valves that are provided with hose connection threads and that are intended only for tank or vessel draining.
2. This section shall not apply to water supply valves intended for connection of clothes washing machines where backflow prevention is otherwise provided or is integral with the machine.
Connections to the potable water shall conform to Sections P2902.5.1 through P2902.5.5.
The potable supply to the boiler shall be equipped with a backflow preventer with an intermediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.3. Where conditioning chemicals are introduced into the system, the potable water connection shall be protected by an air gap or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer complying with ASSE 1013, CSA B64.3 or AWWA C511.
Heat exchangers using an essentially toxic transfer fluid shall be separated from the potable water by double-wall construction. An air gap open to the atmosphere shall be provided between the two walls. Heat exchangers utilizing an essentially nontoxic transfer fluid shall be permitted to be of single-wall construction.
The potable water supply to lawn irrigation systems shall be protected against backflow by an atmospheric-type vacuum breaker, a pressure-type vacuum breaker or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. A valve shall not be installed downstream from an atmospheric vacuum breaker. Where chemicals are introduced into the system, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.
The potable water supply to automatic fire sprinkler systems shall be protected against backflow by a double check-valve assembly or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.

Exception:
Where systems are installed as a portion of the water distribution system in accordance with the requirements of this code and are not provided with a fire department connection, isolation of the water supply system shall not be required.
Where systems contain chemical additives or antifreeze, or where systems are connected to a nonpotable secondary water supply, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. Where chemical additives or antifreeze is added to only a portion of an automatic fire sprinkler or standpipe system, the reduced pressure principle backflow preventer shall be permitted to be located so as to isolate that portion of the system.
The potable water supply to a solar system shall be equipped with a backflow preventer with intermediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012 or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer complying with ASSE 1013. Where chemicals are used, the potable water supply shall be protected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer.

Exception:
Where all solar system piping is a part of the potable water distribution system, in accordance with the requirements of the Plumbing Code of New York State , and all components of the piping system are listed for potable water use, cross-connection protection measure shall not be required.
Backflow prevention devices shall be accessible for inspection and servicing.
The water service and water distribution systems shall be designed and pipe sizes shall be selected such that under conditions of peak demand, the capacities at the point of outlet discharge shall not be less than shown in Table P2903.1. There shall be adequate provision to drain the water system. The use of compressed air to drain the water system shall be considered an adequate provision.

TABLE P2903.1
REQUIRED CAPACITIES AT POINT OF OUTLET DISCHARGE

FIXTURE AT POINT OF OUTLET FLOW RATE (gpm) FLOW PRESSURE
(psi)
Bathtub 4 8
Bidet 2 4
Dishwasher 2.75 8
Laundry tub 4 8
Lavatory 2 8
Shower 3 8
Shower, temperature controlled 3 20
Sillcock, hose bibb 5 8
Sink 2.5 8
Water closet, flushometer tank 1.6 15
Water closet, tank, close coupled 3 8
Water closet, tank, one-piece 6 20


For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m,

1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
New or repaired potable water systems shall be purged of deleterious matter and disinfected prior to use. The method to be followed shall be in accordance with the applicable New York State Department of Health regulations.
The maximum water consumption flow rates and quantities for all plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall be in accordance with Table P2903.2.

TABLE P2903.2
MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION FOR PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGSb

PLUMBING FIXTURE OR
FIXTURE FITTING
PLUMBING FIXTURE OR
FIXTURE FITTING
Lavatory faucet 2.2 gpm at 60 psi
Shower heada 2.5 gpm at 80 psi
Sink faucet 2.2 gpm at 60 psi
Water closet 1.6 gallons per flushing cycle


For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m,

1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. A handheld shower spray is also a shower head.

b. Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standard
Minimum static pressure (as determined by the local water authority) at the building entrance for either public or private water service shall be 40 psi (276 kPa). Individual residential booster pumps are prohibited by the New York State Department Of Health.
Maximum static pressure shall be 80 psi (551 kPa). When main pressure exceeds 80 psi (551 kPa), an approved pressure-reducing valve conforming to ASSE 1003 shall be installed on the domestic water branch main or riser at the connection to the water-service pipe.
A means for controlling increased pressure caused by thermal expansion shall be installed where required in accordance with Sections P2903.4.1 and P2903.4.2.
For water service system sizes up to and including 2 inches (51 mm), a device for controlling pressure shall be installed where, because of thermal expansion, the pressure on the downstream side of a pressure-reducing valve exceeds the pressure-reducing valve setting.
Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other device is installed on a water supply system using storage water heating equipment such that thermal expansion causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling pressure shall be installed.
The flow velocity of the water distribution system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of water hammer. A water-hammer arrestor shall be installed where quick-closing valves are used. Water-hammer arrestors shall be installed in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications. Water-hammer arrestors shall conform to ASSE 1010.
Supply loads in the building water-distribution system shall be determined by total load on the pipe being sized, in terms of water-supply fixture units (w.s.f.u.), as shown in Table P2903.6, and gallon per minute (gpm) flow rates [see Table P2903.6(1)]. For fixtures not listed, choose a w.s.f.u. value of a fixture with similar flow characteristics.

TABLE P2903.6
WATER-SUPPLY FIXTURE—UNIT VALUES FOR VARIOUS PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE GROUPS

TYPE OF FIXTURES
OR GROUP OF FIXTURES
WATER-SUPPLY FIXTURE—UNIT VALUE (w.s.f.u.)
Hot Cold Combined
Bathtub (with/without overhead shower head) 1.0 1.0 1.4
Clothes washer 1.0 1.0 1.4
Dishwasher 1.4 1.4
Full-bath group with bathtub (with/without shower head) or shower stall 1.5 2.7 3.6
Half-bath group (water closet and lavatory) 0.5 2.5 2.6
Hose bibb (sillcock)a 2.5 2.5
Kitchen group
(dishwasher and sink with/
without garbage grinder)
1.9 1.0 2.5
Kitchen sink 1.0 1.0 1.4
Laundry group
(clothes washer standpipe
and laundry tub)
1.8 1.8 2.5
Laundry tub 1.0 1.0 1.4
Lavatory 0.5 0.5 0.7
Shower stall 1.0 1.0 1.4
Water closet (tank type) 2.2 2.2


For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

a. The fixture unit value 2.5 assumes a flow demand of 2.5 gpm, such as for an individual lawn sprinkler device. If a hose bibb/sill cock will be required to furnish a greater flow, the equivalent fixture unit value may be obtained from this table or Table P2903.6(1).

TABLE P2903.6(1)
CONVERSIONS FROM WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT TO GALLON PER MINUTE FLOW RATES

SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS SUPPLY SYSTEM PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES
Load Demand Load Demand
(Water supply
fixture units)
(Gallons per minute) (Cubic feet per minute (Water supply
fixture units)
(Gallons per minute) (Cubic feet per minute)
1 3.0 0.04104
2 5.0 0.0684
3 6.5 0.86892
4 8.0 1.06944
5 9.4 1.256592 5 15.0 2.0052
6 10.7 1.430376 6 17.4 2.326032
7 11.8 1.577424 7 19.8 2.646364
8 12.8 1.711104 8 22.2 2.967696
9 13.7 1.831416 9 24.6 3.288528
10 14.6 1.951728 10 27.0 3.60936
11 15.4 2.058672 11 27.8 3.716304
12 16.0 2.13888 12 28.6 3.823248
13 16.5 2.20572 13 29.4 3.930192
14 17.0 2.27256 14 30.2 4.037136
15 17.5 2.3394 15 31.0 4.14408
16 18.0 2.90624 16 31.8 4.241024
17 18.4 2.459712 17 32.6 4.357968
18 18.8 2.513184 18 33.4 4.464912
19 19.2 2.566656 19 34.2 4.571856
20 19.6 2.620128 20 35.0 4.6788
25 21.5 2.87412 25 38.0 5.07984
30 23.3 3.114744 30 42.0 5.61356
35 24.9 3.328632 35 44.0 5.88192
40 26.3 3.515784 40 46.0 6.14928
45 27.7 3.702936 45 48.0 6.41664
50 29.1 3.890088 50 50.0 6.684


For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s.
The minimum size water service pipe shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm). The size of the water service pipe from a public source shall be determined by the authority regulating the public water supply. The size of water service mains, branch mains and risers shall be determined according to water supply demand [gpm (L/m)], available water pressure [psi (kPa)] and friction loss caused by the water meter and developed length of pipe [feet (m)], including equivalent length of fittings. The size of each water distribution system shall be determined according to the procedure outlined in this section or by Chapter 6 of the Plumbing Code of New York State.

1. Obtain the minimum daily static service pressure [psi (kPa)] available (as determined by the local water authority) at the water meter or other source of supply at the installation location. Adjust this minimum daily static pressure [psi (kPa)] for the following conditions:
1.1. Determine the difference in elevation between the source of supply and the highest water supply outlet. Where the highest water supply outlet is located above the source of supply, deduct 0.5 psi (3.4 kPa) for each foot (305 mm) of difference in elevation. Where the highest water supply outlet is located below the source of supply, add 0.5 psi (3.4 kPa) for each foot (305 mm) of difference in elevation.
1.2. Where a water pressure reducing valve is installed in the water distribution system, the minimum daily static water pressure available is 80 percent of the minimum daily static water pressure at the source of supply or the set pressure downstream of the pressure reducing valve, whichever is smaller.
1.3. Deduct all pressure losses caused by special equipment such as a backflow preventer, water filter or water softener. Pressure loss data for each piece of equipment shall be obtained from the manufacturer of such devices.
1.4. Deduct the pressure in excess of 8 psi (55 kPa) caused by installation of special plumbing fixtures, such as temperature controlled showers and flushometer tank water closets.

Using the resulting minimum available pressure, find the corresponding pressure range in Table P2903.7.
2. The maximum developed length for water piping is the actual length of pipe between the source of supply and the most remote fixture, including either hot (through the water heater) or cold water branches multiplied by a factor of 1.2 to compensate for pressure loss through fittings.

Select the appropriate column in Table P2903.7 equal to or greater than the calculated maximum developed length.
3. To determine the size of water service pipe, meter and main distribution pipe to the building using the appropriate table, follow down the selected "maximum developed length" column to a fixture unit equal to, or greater than the total installation demand calculated by using the "combined" water supply fixture unit column of Table P2903.6. Read the water service pipe and meter sizes in the first left-hand column and the main distribution pipe to the building in the second left-hand column on the same row.
4. To determine the size of each water distribution pipe, start at the most remote outlet on each branch (either hot or cold branch) and, working back toward the main distribution pipe to the building, add up the water supply fixture unit demand passing through each segment of the distribution system using the related hot or cold column of Table P2903.6. Knowing demand, the size of each segment shall be read from the second left-hand column of the same table and a maximum developed length column selected in Steps 1 and 2, under the same or next smaller size meter row. In no case does the size of any branch or main need to be larger that the size of the main distribution pipe to the building established in Step 3.

TABLE P2903.7
MINIMUM SIZE OF WATER METERS, MAINS AND DISTRIBUTION PIPING BASED ON WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT VALUES

Pressure Range—30 to 39 psi


METER AND
SERVICE PIPE

(inches)
DISTRIBUTION
PIPE

(inches)
MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet)
40 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 400 500
3/4 1/2a 2.5 2 1.5 1.5 1 1 .5 .5 0 0
3/4 3/4 9.5 7.5 6 5.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5
3/4 1 32 25 20 16.5 11 9 7.5 6.5 5.5 4.5
1 1 32 32 27 21 13.5 10 8 7 5.5 5
3/4 11/4 32 32 32 32 30 24 20 17 13 10.5
1 11/4 80 80 70 61 45 34 27 22 16 12
11/2 11/4 80 80 80 75 54 40 31 25 17.5 13
1 11/2 87 87 87 87 84 73 74 56 45 36
11/2 11/2 151 151 151 151 117 92 79 69 54 43

Pressure Range—40 to 49 psi


METER AND
SERVICE PIPE

(inches)
DISTRIBUTION
PIPE

(inches)
MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet)
40 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 400 500
3/4 1/2a 3 2.5 2 1.5 1.5 1 1 .5 .5 .5
3/4 3/4 9.5 9.5 8.5 7 5.5 4.5 3.5 3 2.5 2
3/4 1 32 32 32 26 18 13.5 10.5 9 7.5 6
1 1 32 32 32 32 21 15 11.5 9.5 7.5 6.5
3/4 11/4 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 21 16.5
1 11/4 80 80 80 80 65 52 42 35 26 20
11/2 11/4 80 80 80 80 75 59 48 39 28 21
1 11/2 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 78 65 55
11/2 11/2 151 151 151 151 151 130 109 93 75 63

Pressure Range—50 to 60 psi


METER AND SERVICE PIPE
(inches)
DISTRIBUTION
PIPE

(inches)
MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet)
40 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 400 500
3/4 1/2a 3 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 1 1 .5 .5
3/4 3/4 9.5 9.5 9.5 8.5 6.5 5 4.5 4 3 2.5
3/4 1 32 32 32 32 25 18.5 14.5 12 9.5 8
1 1 32 32 32 32 30 22 16.5 13 10 8
3/4 11/4 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 29 24
1 11/4 80 80 80 80 80 68 57 48 35 28
11/2 11/4 80 80 80 80 80 75 63 53 39 29
1 11/2 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 82 70
11/2 11/2 151 151 151 151 151 151 139 120 94 79

(continued)


TABLE P2903.7—continued
MINIMUM SIZE OF WATER METERS, MAINS AND DISTRIBUTION PIPING BASED ON WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT VALUES

Pressure Range—greater than 60 psi


METER AND SERVICE PIPE (inches) DISTRIBUTION PIPE (inches) MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet)
40 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 400 500
3/4 1/2a 3 3 3 2.5 2 1.5 1.5 1 1 .5
3/4 3/4 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 7.5 6 5 4.5 3.5 3
3/4 1 32 32 32 32 32 24 19.5 15.5 11.5 9.5
1 1 32 32 32 32 32 28 22 17 12 9.5
3/4 11/4 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 30
1 11/4 80 80 80 80 80 80 69 60 46 36
11/2 11/4 80 80 80 80 80 80 76 65 50 38
1 11/2 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 87 84
11/2 11/2 151 151 151 151 151 151 151 144 114 94


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. Minimum size for building supply is 3/4-inch pipe.
Hot water and cold water manifolds installed with gridded or parallel-connected individual distribution lines to each fixture or fixture fittings shall be designed in accordance with Sections P2903.8.1 through P2903.8.6.
Manifolds shall be sized in accordance with Table P2903.8.1. Total gallons per minute is the demand for all outlets.

TABLE P2903.8.1
MANIFOLD SIZING

PLASTIC METALLIC
Nominal Size ID (inches) Maximuma
gpm
Nominal Size ID
(inches)
Maximuma
gpm
3/4 17 3/4 11
1 29 1 20
11/4 46 11/4 31
11/2 66 11/2 44


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m,

         1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s.

NOTE:
See Table P2903.6 for w.s.f.u and Table 2903.6(1) for gallon-per-minute (gpm) flow rates.

a. Based on velocity limitation: plastic—12 fps; metal—8 fps.
Where the developed length of the distribution line is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or less, and the available pressure at the meter is a minimum of 40 pounds per square inch (276 kPa), the minimum size of individual distribution lines shall be 3 / 8 inch (10 mm). Certain fixtures such as one-piece water closets and whirlpool bathtubs shall require a larger size where specified by the manufacturer. If a water heater is fed from the end of a cold water manifold, the manifold shall be one size larger than the water heater feed.
Manifolds shall be permitted to be installed in a horizontal or vertical position.
Plastic piping bundles shall be secured in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions and supported in accordance with Section P2605. Bundles that have a change in direction equal to or greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) shall be protected from chafing at the point of contact with framing members by sleeving or wrapping.
Fixture valves, when installed, shall be located either at the fixture or at the manifold. If valves are installed at the manifold, they shall be labeled indicating the fixture served.
A readily accessible air bleed shall be installed in hose bibb supplies at the manifold or at the hose bibb exit point.
Valves shall be installed in accordance with Sections P2903.9.1 through P2903.9.3.
Each dwelling unit shall be provided with an accessible main shutoff valve near the entrance of the water service. The valve shall be of a full-open type having nominal restriction to flow, with provision for drainage such as a bleed orifice or installation of a separate drain valve. Additionally, the water service shall be valved at the curb or property line in accordance with local requirements.
A readily accessible full-open valve shall be installed in the cold-water supply pipe to each water heater at or near the water heater.
Valves serving individual fixtures, appliances, risers and branches shall be provided with access. An individual shutoff valve shall be required on the fixture supply pipe to each plumbing fixture other than bathtubs and showers.
Valves shall be of an approved type and compatible with the type of piping material installed in the system. Ball valves, gate valves, globe valves and plug valves intended to supply drinking water shall meet the requirements of NSF 61.
Hose bibbs subject to freezing, including the "frost-proof" type, shall be equipped with an accessible stop-and-waste-type valve inside the building so that they can be controlled and/or drained during cold periods.

Exception:
Frostproof hose bibbs installed such that the stem extends through the building insulation into an open heated or semiconditioned space need not be separately valved (see Figure P2903.10).




FIGURE P2903.10
TYPICAL FROSTPROOF HOSE BIBB INSTALLATION NOT REQUIRING SEPARATE VALUE
The installation of water service pipe, water distribution pipe, fittings, valves, appurtenances and gaskets shall be prohibited in soil and groundwater that is contaminated with solvents, fuels, organic compounds or other detrimental materials that cause permeation, corrosion, degradation or structural failure of the water service or water distribution piping material.
Where detrimental conditions are suspected by or brought to the attention of the building official, a chemical analysis of the soil and groundwater conditions shall be required to ascertain the acceptability of the water service material for the specific installation.
When a detrimental condition exists, approved alternate materials or alternate routing shall be required.
Pipe and fittings used in the water-supply system shall have a maximum of 8 percent lead.
Polyethylene pipe shall be cut square using a cutter designed for plastic pipe. Except where joined by heat fusion, pipe ends shall be chamfered to remove sharp edges. Pipe that has been kinked shall not be installed. For bends, the installed radius of pipe curvature shall be greater than 30 pipe diameters or the coil radius when bending with the coil. Coiled pipe shall not be bent beyond straight. Bends shall not be permitted within 10 pipe diameters of any fitting or valve. Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections P2904.3.1 and P2904.3.2.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melting temperature and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2657.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Water service pipe shall conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table P2904.4. Water service pipe or tubing, installed underground and outside of the structure, shall have a minimum working pressure rating of 160 pounds per square inch at 73°F (1103 kPa at 23°C). Where the water pressure exceeds 160 pounds per square inch (1103 kPa), piping material shall have a rated working pressure equal to or greater than the highest available pressure. Water service piping materials not third-party certified for water distribution shall terminate at or before the full open valve located at the entrance to the structure. Ductile iron water service piping shall be cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA C104.

TABLE P2904.4
WATER SERVICE PIPE

MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe ASTM D 1527; ASTM D 2282
Asbestos-cement pipe ASTM C 296
Brass pipe ASTM B 43
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6
Copper or copper-alloy pipe ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe ASTM F 1281; CSA B137.10
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE) ASTM F 1986
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing ASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; CSA B137.5
Ductile iron water pipe AWWA C151; AWWA C115
Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A 53
Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe ASTM F 1282; CSA B137.9M
Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe ASTM D 2104; ASTM D 2239; CSA-B137.1
Polyethylene (PE) plastic tubing ASTM D 2737; CSA B137.1
Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.11
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe ASTM D 1785; ASTM D 2241; ASTM D 2672; CSA B137.3
Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) pipe ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778
Stainless steel (Type 316/316L) pipe ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778
Where a dual check-valve backflow preventer is installed on the water supply system, it shall comply with ASSE 1024 or CSA B64.6.
Trenching, pipe installation and backfilling shall be in accordance with Section P2604. Water-service pipe is permitted to be located in the same trench with a building sewer provided such sewer is constructed of materials listed for underground use within a building in Section P3002.1. If the building sewer is not constructed of materials listed in Section P3002.1, the water-service pipe shall be separated from the building sewer by a minimum of 5 feet (1524 mm), measured horizontally, of undisturbed or compacted earth or placed on a solid ledge at least 12 inches (305 mm) above and to one side of the highest point in the sewer line.

Exception:
The required separation distance shall not apply where a water service pipe crosses a sewer pipe, provided that the water service pipe is sleeved to at least 5 feet (1524 mm), horizontally from the sewer pipe centerline, on both sides of the crossing with pipe materials listed in Tables P2904.4, P3002.1(1), P3002.1(2) or P3002.2.
Water-distribution piping within dwelling units shall conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table P2904.5. All hot-water-distribution pipe and tubing shall have a minimum pressure rating of 100 psi at 180°F (689 kPa at 82°C).

TABLE P2904.5 WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE


MATERIAL STANDARD
Brass pipe ASTM B 43
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6
Copper or copper-alloy pipe ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302
Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447
Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing ASTM F 877; CSA B137.5
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe ASTM F 1281; CSA-B137.10
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE) ASTM F 1986
Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A 53
Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) composite pipe ASTM F 1282
Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.11
Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) pipe ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778
Stainless steel (Type 316/316L) pipe ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778
Inaccessible water distribution piping under slabs shall be copper water tube minimum Type M, brass, ductile iron pressure pipe, cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX- AL-PEX) pressure pipe, polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pressure pipe, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic pipe or tubing or polypropylene (PP) pipe or tubing, all to be installed with approved fittings or bends. The minimum pressure rating for plastic pipe or tubing installed under slabs shall be 100 pounds per square inch at 180°F (689 kPa at 82°C).
Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping material installed, and shall conform to the respective pipe standards listed in Table P2904.6. Pipe fittings used in the water supply system shall also conform to NSF 61.

TABLE P2904.6
PIPE FITTINGS

MATERIAL STANDARD
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic ASTM D 2468
Brass ASTM F1974
Cast-iron ASME B16.4; ASME B16.12
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic ASTM F 437; ASTM F 438; ASTM F 439; CSA B137.6
Copper or copper alloy ASME B16.15; ASME B16.18; ASME B16.22; ASME B16.23; ASME B16.26; ASME B16.29
Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE) ASTM F 1986
Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing ASTM F 877; ASTM F 1807; ASTM F 1960; ASTM F 2080; ASTM F 2159; CSA B137.5
Gray iron and ductile iron AWWA C110; AWWA C153
Malleable iron ASME B16.3
Polyethylene (PE) plastic ASTM D 2609; CSA B137.1
Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.11
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic ASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466; ASTM D 2467; CSA B137.2
Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) pipe ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778
Stainless steel (Type 316/316L) pipe ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778
Steel ASME B16.9; ASME B16.11; ASME B16.28
Flexible water connectors, exposed to continuous pressure, shall conform to ASME A112.18.6. Access shall be provided to all flexible water connectors.
Joints and connections in the plumbing system shall be gas tight and water tight for the intended use or required test pressure.
Joints in plastic piping shall be made with approved fittings by solvent cementing, heat fusion, corrosion-resistant metal clamps with insert fittings or compression connections. Flared joints for polyethylene pipe are permitted in accordance with Section P2904.3.
Solvent-cemented joints shall comply with Sections P2904.9.1.1 through P2904.9.1.3 and ASTM F 402.
Solvent cement for ABS plastic pipe conforming to ASTM D 2235 shall be applied to all joint surfaces.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture and an approved primer shall be applied. Solvent cement for CPVC plastic pipe, orange in color and conforming to ASTM F 493, shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The parts shall be joined while the cement is wet and in accordance with ASTM D 2846 or ASTM F 493 and ASTM F 402. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.

Exception:
A primer is not required where all of the following conditions apply:
1. The solvent cement used is third-party certified as conforming to ASTM F 493.
2. The solvent cement used is yellow in color.
3. The solvent cement is used only for joining 1/2-inch (13 mm) through 2-inch (51 mm) diameter CPVC pipe and fittings.
4. The CPVC pipe and fittings are manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 2846.
A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied to PVC solvent cemented joints. Solvent cement for PVC plastic pipe conforming to ASTM D 2564 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855 and ASTM F 402. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.
Joints between cross-linked polyethylene plastic tubing or fittings shall comply with Section P2904.9.1.4.1 or Section P2904.9.1.4.2.
Flared pipe ends shall be made by a tool designed for that operation.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing as described in ASTM F 877, ASTM F 1807, ASTM F 1960, and ASTM F 2080 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Metallic lock rings and insert fittings complying with ASTMF 1974 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between PP plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Section P2904.10.1 or P2904.10.2.
Heat fusion joints for polypropylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings, butt-fusion polypropylene fittings or electrofusion polypropylene fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 2389.
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Joints between stainless steel pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections P2904.11.1 and P2904.11.2.
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joint surfaces shall be cleaned. The joint shall be welded autogenously or with an approved filler metal in accordance with ASTM A 312.
Threaded joints shall conform to American National Taper Pipe Thread specifications. Pipe ends shall be deburred and chips removed. Pipe joint compound shall be used only on male threads.
Soldered joints in tubing shall be made with fittings approved for water piping and shall conform to ASTM B 828. Surfaces to be soldered shall be cleaned bright. The joints shall be properly fluxed and made with approved solder. Solders and fluxes used in potable water-supply systems shall have a maximum of 0.2 percent lead. Fluxes shall conform to ASTM B 813.
Flared joints in water tubing shall be made with approved fittings. The tubing shall be reamed and then expanded with a flaring tool.
Joints in copper pipe or tube installed in a concrete floor slab or under a concrete floor slab on grade shall be installed using wrought-copper fittings and brazed joints.
Joints within the building between copper pipe or CPVC tubing, in any combination with compatible outside diameters, are permitted to be made with the use of approved push-in mechanical fittings of a pressure-lock design.
Joints between different piping materials shall be made in accordance with Sections P2904.17.1, P2904.17.2 and P2904.17.3 or with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical sealing type having an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 1869 or ASTM F 477. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be joined to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be screwed to the threaded pipe.
Joints between different grades of plastic pipe or between plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.
Joints between stainless steel and different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type or a dielectric fitting.
Press-type mechanical joints in copper tubing shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions using approved tools which affix the copper fitting with integral O-ring to the tubing.
Changes in direction in copper tubing are permitted to be made with bends having a radius of not less than four diameters of the tube, providing such bends are made by use of forming equipment that does not deform or create loss in cross-sectional area of the tube.
Pipe and tubing support shall conform to Section P2605.
Drinking water treatment units shall meet the requirements of NSF 42, NSF 44 or NSF 53.
Point-of-use reverse osmosis drinking water treatment units, designed for residential use, shall meet the requirements of NSF 58. Waste or discharge from reverse osmosis drinking water treatment units shall enter the drainage system through an air gap or an air gap device that meets the requirements of NSF 58.
The tubing to and from drinking water treatment units shall be of a size and material as recommended by the manufacturer. The tubing shall comply with NSF 14, NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 58 or NSF 61.
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