Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Hydronic piping shall conform to Table M2101.1. Approved piping, valves, fittings and connections shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Pipe and fittings shall be rated for use at the operating temperature and pressure of the hydronic system. Used pipe, fittings, valves or other materials shall be free of foreign materials.
For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8.
|Brass pipe||1||ASTM B43||Brazed, welded, threaded, mechanical and flanged fittings|
|Brass tubing||1||ASTM B135||Brazed, soldered and mechanical fittings|
|Chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride) (CPVC) pipe and tubing||1, 2, 3||ASTM D2846||Solvent cement joints, compression joints and threaded adapters|
|Copper pipe||1||ASTM B42, B302||Brazed, soldered and mechanical fittings threaded, welded and flanged|
|Copper tubing (type K, L or M)||1, 2||ASTM B75, B88, B251, B306||Brazed, soldered and flared mechanical fittings||Joints embedded in concrete|
|Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX)||1, 2, 3||ASTM F876, F877||(See PEX fittings)||Install in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.|
|Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene-(PEX-AL-PEX) pressure pipe||1, 2||ASTM F1281 or CSA B137.10||Mechanical, crimp/insert||Install in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.|
|PEX Fittings|| ASTM F1807 |
|Copper-crimp/insert fittings, cold expansion fittings, stainless steel clamp, insert fittings||Install in accordance with manufacturer's instructions|
|Plastic fittings PEX||ASTM F1807|
|Polyethylene (PE) pipe, tubing and fittings (for ground source heat pump loop systems)||1, 2, 4|| ASTM D2513; |
|Polyproplylene (PP)||1, 2, 3|| ISO 15874 |
|Heat-fusion joints, mechanical fittings, threaded adapters, compression joints|
|Soldering fluxes||1||ASTM B813||Copper tube joints|
|Steel pipe||1, 2|| ASTM A53; |
|Brazed, welded, threaded, flanged and mechanical fittings||Joints in concrete shall be welded. Galvanized pipe shall not be welded or brazed.|
|Steel tubing||1||ASTM A254||Mechanical fittings, welded|
- Use code:
- Above ground.
- Embedded in radiant systems.
- Temperatures below 180°F only.
- Low temperature (below 130°F) applications only.
- Standards as listed in Chapter 43.
A hydronic piping system shall not be in direct contact with any building material that causes the piping material to degrade or corrode.
Wood-framed structural members shall be drilled, notched or altered in accordance with the provisions of Sections R502.6, R502.8, R602.6, R602.6.1, R802.6 and R802.7. Holes in cold-formed, steel-framed, load-bearing members shall be permitted only in accordance with Sections R505.2, R603.2 and R804.2. In accordance with the provisions of Sections R505.3.5, R603.3.4 and R804.3.5, cutting and notching of flanges and lips of cold-formed, steel-framed, load-bearing members shall not be permitted.
Fluid in the supply side of a hydronic system shall not enter a tee fitting through the branch opening.
Piping shall be installed so that piping, connections and equipment shall not be subjected to excessive strains or stresses. Provisions shall be made to compensate for expansion, contraction, shrinkage and structural settlement.
Hangers and supports shall be of material of sufficient strength to support the piping, and shall be fabricated from materials compatible with the piping material. Piping shall be supported at intervals not exceeding the spacing specified in Table M2101.9.
|PIPING MATERIAL||MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL SPACING (feet)||MAXIMUM VERTICAL SPACING (feet)|
|CPVC ≤ 1 inch pipe or tubing||3||5|
|CPVC ≤ 11/4 inch||4||10|
|Copper or copper alloy pipe||12||10|
|Copper or copper alloy tubing||6||10|
|PE pipe or tubing||2.67||4|
|PP<1 inch pipe or tubing||2.67||4|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Hydronic piping shall be tested hydrostatically at a pressure of not less than 100 pounds per square inch (psi) (690 kPa) for a duration of not less than 15 minutes.
Piping for embedment in concrete or gysum materials shall be standard-weight steel pipe, copper tubing, cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pressure pipe, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing or polypropylene (PP) with a minimum rating of 100 psi at 180°F (690 kPa at 82°C).
Piping joints that are embedded shall be installed in accordance with the following requirements:
- Steel pipe joints shall be welded.
- Copper tubing shall be joined with brazing material having a melting point exceeding 1,000°F (538°C).
- CPVC tubing shall be joined using solvent cement joints.
- Polypropylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings.
- Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing shall be joined using cold expansion, insert or compression fittings.
Piping or tubing to be embedded shall be tested by applying a hydrostatic pressure of not less than 100 psi (690 kPa). The pressure shall be maintained for 30 minutes, during which all joints shall be visually inspected for leaks.
Piping joints (other than those in Section M2103.2) that are embedded shall comply with the following requirements:
- Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) tubing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
- Polyethylene tubing shall be installed with heat fusion joints.
- Polypropylene (PP) tubing shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Joints shall be of the socket-fusion, saddle-fusion or butt-fusion type, fabricated in accordance with the piping manufacturer's instructions. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 2683.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture, and scoured to expose virgin resin. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melt temperatures for the period of time specified by the manufacturer. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM F 1055.
Joint surfaces shall be clean and free of moisture. Pipe ends shall be chamfered and inserted into the fitting to full depth. Fittings shall be manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 2513.
The assembled loop system shall be pressure tested with water at 100 psi (690 kPa) for 30 minutes with no observed leaks before connection (header) trenches are backfilled. Flow rates and pressure drops shall be compared to calculated values. If actual flow rate or pressure drop figures differ from calculated values by more than 10 percent, the problem shall be identified and corrected.