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This chapter shall govern the design, installation, construction and repair of refrigeration systems that vaporize and liquefy a fluid during the refrigerating cycle. Refrigerant piping design and installation, including pressure vessels and pressure relief devices, shall conform to this code. Permanently installed refrigerant storage systems and other components shall be considered as part of the refrigeration system to which they are attached.
Listed and labeled self-contained, factory-built equipment and appliances shall be tested in accordance with UL 207, 412, 471 or 1995. Such equipment and appliances are deemed to meet the design, manufacture and factory test requirements of this code if installed in accordance with their listing and the manufacturer's instructions.
Any portion of a refrigeration system that is subject to physical damage shall be protected in an approved manner.
Water supply and discharge connections associated with refrigeration systems shall be made in accordance with this code and the Plumbing Code of New York State.
Fuel gas devices, equipment and appliances used with refrigeration systems shall be installed in accordance with the Fuel Gas Code of New York State.
Refrigeration systems shall comply with the requirements of this code and, except as modified by this code, ASHRAE 15. Ammonia-refrigerating systems shall comply with this code and, except as modified by this code, ASHRAE 15, IIAR 2, IIAR 3, IIAR 4 and IIAR 5.
Mechanical refrigeration systems shall be maintained in proper operating condition, free from accumulations of oil, dirt, waste, excessive corrosion, other debris and leaks.
The type of refrigerant in refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (99.8 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (13.6 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall not be changed without prior notification to the building official and compliance with the applicable code provisions for the new refrigerant type.
Notification of refrigerant discharge shall be provided in accordance with the Fire Code of New York State.
Refrigerant circuit access ports located outdoors shall be fitted with locking-type tamper-resistant caps or shall be otherwise secured to prevent unauthorized access.
Exception: This section shall not apply to refrigerant circuit access ports on equipment installed in controlled areas such as on roofs with locked access hatches or doors.
The system classification, allowable refrigerants, maximum quantity, enclosure requirements, location limitations, and field pressure test requirements shall be determined as follows:
  1. Determine the refrigeration system's classification, in accordance with Section 1103.3.
  2. Determine the refrigerant classification in accordance with Section 1103.1.
  3. Determine the maximum allowable quantity of refrigerant in accordance with Section 1104, based on type of refrigerant, system classification and occupancy.
  4. Determine the system enclosure requirements in accordance with Section 1104.
  5. Refrigeration equipment and appliance location and installation shall be subject to the limitations of Chapter 3.
  6. Nonfactory-tested, field-erected equipment and appliances shall be pressure tested in accordance with Section 1108.
The refrigerant shall be that which the equipment or appliance was designed to utilize or converted to utilize. Refrigerants not identified in Table 1103.1 shall be approved before use.
Refrigerants, including refrigerant blends, with different designations in ASHRAE 34 shall not be mixed in a system.
Exception: Addition of a second refrigerant is allowed where permitted by the equipment or appliance manufacturer to improve oil return at low temperatures. The refrigerant and amount added shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Refrigerants used in refrigeration systems shall be new, recovered or reclaimed refrigerants in accordance with Section 1102.2.2.1, 1102.2.2.2 or 1102.2.2.3. Where required by the equipment or appliance owner or the building official, the installer shall furnish a signed declaration that the refrigerant used meets the requirements of Section 1102.2.2.1, 1102.2.2.2 or 1102.2.2.3.
Exception: The refrigerant used shall meet the purity specifications set by the manufacturer of the equipment or appliance in which such refrigerant is used where such specifications are different from that specified in Sections 1102.2.2.1, 1102.2.2.2 and 1102.2.2.3.
Refrigerants shall be of a purity level specified by the equipment or appliance manufacturer.
Refrigerants that are recovered from refrigeration and air-conditioning systems shall not be reused in other than the system from which they were recovered and in other systems of the same owner. Recovered refrigerants shall be filtered and dried before reuse. Recovered refrigerants that show clear signs of contamination shall not be reused unless reclaimed in accordance with Section 1102.2.2.3.
Used refrigerants shall not be reused in a different owner's equipment or appliances unless tested and found to meet the purity requirements of AHRI 700. Contaminated refrigerants shall not be used unless reclaimed and found to meet the purity requirements of AHRI 700.
Refrigerant access ports shall be protected in accordance with Section 1101.10 whenever refrigerant is added to or recovered from refrigeration or air-conditioning systems.
Refrigerants shall be classified in accordance with ASHRAE 34 as listed in Table 1103.1.
Pounds per 1,000
cubic feet
ppm g/m3 OELe
R-11d CCl3F trichlorofluoromethane A1 0.39 1,100 6.2 C1,000 2-0-0b
R-12d CCl2F2 dichlorodifluoromethane A1 5.6 18,000 90 1,000 2-0-0b
R-13d CClF3 chlorotrifluoromethane A1 1,000 2-0-0b
R-13B1d CBrF3 bromotrifluoromethane A1 1,000 2-0-0b
R-14 CF4 tetrafluoromethane (carbon tetrafluoride) A1 25 110,000 400 1,000 2-0-0b
R-22 CHClF2 chlorodifluoromethane A1 13 59,000 210 1,000 2-0-0b
R-23 CHF3 trifluoromethane (fluoroform) A1 7.3 41,000 120 1,000 2-0-0b
R-30 CH2Cl2 dichloromethane (methylene chloride) B1
R-32 CH2F2 difluoromethane (methylene fluoride) A2f 4.8 36,000 77 1,000 1-4-0
R-40 CH3Cl chloromethane (methyl chloride) B2
R-50 CH4 methane A3 1,000
R-113d CCl2FCClF2 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane A1 1.2 2,600 20 1,000 2-0-0b
R-114d CClF2CClF2 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane A1 8.7 20,000 140 1,000 2-0-0b
R-115 CClF2CF3 chloropentafluoroethane A1 47 120,000 760 1,000
R-116 CF3CF3 hexafluoroethane A1 34 97,000 550 1,000 1-0-0
R-123 CHCl2CF3 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane B1 3.5 9,100 57 50 2-0-0b
R-124 CHClFCF3 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane A1 3.5 10,000 56 1,000 2-0-0b
R-125 CHF2CF3 pentafluoroethane A1 23 75,000 370 1,000 2-0-0b
R-134a CH2FCF3 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane A1 13 50,000 210 1,000 2-0-0b
R-141b CH3CCl2F 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane 0.78 2,600 12 500 2-1-0
R-142b CH3CClF2 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane A2 5.1 20,000 83 1,000 2-4-0
R-143a CH3CF3 1,1,1-trifluoroethane A2f 4.5 21,000 70 1,000 2-0-0b
R-152a CH3CHF2 1,1-difluoroethane A2 2.0 12,000 32 1,000 1-4-0
R-170 CH3CH3 ethane A3 0.54 7,000 8.7 1,000 2-4-0
R-E170 CH3OCH3 Methoxymethane (dimethyl ether) A3 1.0 8,500 16 1,000
R-218 CF3CF2CF3 octafluoropropane A1 43 90,000 690 1,000 2-0-0b
R-227ea CF3CHFCF3 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane A1 36 84,000 580 1,000
R-236fa CF3CH2CF3 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane A1 21 55,000 340 1,000 2-0-0b
R-245fa CHF2CH2CF3 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane B1 12 34,000 190 300 2-0-0b
R-290 CH3CH2CH3 propane A3 0.56 5,300 9.5 1,000 2-4-0
R-C318 -(CF2)4- octafluorocyclobutane A1 41 80,000 660 1,000
R-400d zeotrope R-12/114 (50.0/50.0) A1 10 28,000 160 1,000 2-0-0b
R-400d zeotrope R-12/114 (60.0/40.0) A1 11 30,000 170 1,000
R-401A zeotrope R-22/152a/124 (53.0/13.0/34.0) A1 6.6 27,000 110 1,000 2-0-0b
R-401B zeotrope R-22/152a/124 (61.0/11.0/28.0) A1 7.2 30,000 120 1,000 2-0-0b
R-401C zeotrope R-22/152a/124 (33.0/15.0/52.0) A1 5.2 20,000 84 1,000 2-0-0b
R-402A zeotrope R-125/290/22 (60.0/2.0/38.0) A1 17 66,000 270 1,000 2-0-0b
R-402B zeotrope R-125/290/22 (38.0/2.0/60.0) A1 15 63,000 240 1,000 2-0-0b
R-403A zeotrope R-290/22/218 (5.0/75.0/20.0) A2 7.6 33,000 120 1,000 2-0-0b
R-403B zeotrope R-290/22/218 (5.0/56.0/39.0) A1 18 70,000 290 1,000 2-0-0b
R-404A zeotrope R-125/143a/134a (44.0/52.0/4.0) A1 31 130,000 500 1,000 2-0-0b
R-405A zeotrope R-22/152a/142b/C318 (45.0/7.0/5.5/2.5) 16 57,000 260 1,000
R-406A zeotrope R-22/600a/142b (55.0/4.0/41.0) A2 4.7 21,000 25 1,000
R-407A zeotrope R-32/125/134a (20.0/40.0/40.0) A1 19 83,000 300 1,000 2-0-0b
R-407B zeotrope R-32/125/134a (10.0/70.0/20.0) A1 21 79,000 330 1,000 2-0-0b
R-407C zeotrope R-32/125/134a (23.0/25.0/52.0) A1 18 81,000 290 1,000 2-0-0b
R-407D zeotrope R-32/125/134a (15.0/15.0/70.0) A1 16 68,000 250 1,000 2-0-0b
R-407E zeotrope R-32/125/134a (25.0/15.0/60.0) A1 17 80,000 280 1,000 2-0-0b
R-407F zeotrope R-32/125/134a (30.0/30.0/40.0) A1 20 95,000 320 1,000
R-408A zeotrope R-125/143a/22 (7.0/46.0/47.0) A1 21 95,000 340 1,000 2-0-0b
R-409A zeotrope R-22/124/142b (60.0/25.0/15.0) A1 7.1 29,000 110 1,000 2-0-0b
R-409B zeotrope R-22/124/142b (65.0/25.0/10.0) A1 7.3 30,000 120 1,000 2-0-0b
R-410A zeotrope R-32/125 (50.0/50.0) A1 26 140,000 420 1,000 2-0-0b
R-410B zeotrope R-32/125 (45.0/55.0) A1 27 140,000 430 1,000 2-0-0b
R-411A zeotrope R-127/22/152a (1.5/87.5/11.0) A2 2.9 14,000 46 990
R-411B zeotrope R-1270/22/152a (3.0/94.0/3.0) A2 2.8 13,000 45 980
R-412A zeotrope R-22/218/142b (70.0/5.0/25.0) A2 5.1 22,000 82 1,000
R-413A zeotrope R-218/134a/600a (9.0/88.0/3.0) A2 5.8 22,000 94 1,000
R-414A zeotrope R-22/124/600a/142b (51.0/28.5/4.0/16.5) A1 6.4 26,000 100 1,000
R-414B zeotrope R-22/124/600a/142b (50.0/39.0/1.5/9.5) A1 6.0 23,000 95 1,000
R-415A zeotrope R-22/152a (82.0/18.0) A2 2.9 14,000 47 1,000
R-415B zeotrope R-22/152a (25.0/75.0) A2 2.1 12,000 34 1,000
R-416A zeotrope R-134a/124/600 (59.0/39.5/1.5) A1 3.9 14,000 62 1,000 2-0-0b
R-417A zeotrope R-125/134a/600 (46.6/50.0/3.4) A1 3.5 13,000 56 1,000 2-0-0b
R-417B zeotrope R-125/134a/600 (79.0/18.3/2.7) A1 4.3 15,000 70 1,000
R-417C zeotrope R-125/134a/600 (19.5/78.8/1.7) A1 5.4 21,000 87 1,000
R-418A zeotrope R-290/22/152a (1.5/96.0/2.5) A2 4.8 22,000 77 1,000
R-419A zeotrope R-125/134a/E170 (77.0/19.0/4.0) A2 4.2 15,000 67 1,000
R-419B zeotrope R-125/134a/E170 (48.5/48.0/3.5) A2 4.6 17,000 74 1,000
R-420A zeotrope R-134a/142b (88.0/12.0) A1 12 45,000 190 1,000 2-0-0b
R-421A zeotrope R-125/134a (58.0/42.0) A1 17 61,000 280 1,000 2-0-0b
R-421B zeotrope R-125/134a (85.0/15.0) A1 21 69,000 330 1,000 2-0-0b
R-422A zeotrope R-125/134a/600a (85.1/11.5/3.4) A1 18 63,000 290 1,000 2-0-0b
R-422B zeotrope R-125/134a/600a (55.0/42.0/3.0) A1 16 56,000 250 1,000 2-0-0b
R-422C zeotrope R-125/134a/600a (82.0/15.0/3.0) A1 18 62,000 290 1,000 2-0-0b
R-422D zeotrope R-125/134a/600a (65.1/31.5/3.4) A1 16 58,000 260 1,000 2-0-0b
R-422E zeotrope R-125/134a/600a (58.0/39.3/2.7) A1 16 57,000 260 1,000
R-423A zeotrope R-134a/227ea (52.5/47.5) A1 19 59,000 310 1,000 2-0-0b
R-424A zeotrope R-125/134a/600a/600/601a (50.5/47.0/0.9/1.0/0.6) A1 6.2 23,000 100 970 2-0-0b
R-425A zoetrope R-32/134a/227ea (18.5/69.5/12.0) A1 16 72,000 260 1,000 2-0-0b
R-426A zeotrope R-125/134a/600a/601a (5.1/93.0/1.3/0.6) A1 5.2 20,000 83 990
R-427A zeotrope R-32/125/143a/134a (15.0/25.0/10.0/50.0) A1 18 79,000 290 1,000 2-1-0
R-428A zeotrope R-125/143a/290/600a (77.5/20.0/0.6/1.9) A1 23 83,000 370 1,000
R-429A zeotrope R-E170/152a/600a (60.0/10.0/30.0) A3 0.81 6,300 13 1,000
R-430A zeotrope R-152a/600a (76.0/24.0) A3 1.3 8,000 21 1,000
R-431A zeotrope R-290/152a (71.0/29.0) A3 0.69 5,500 11 1,000
R-432A zeotrope R-1270/E170 (80.0/20.0) A3 0.13 1,200 2.1 700
R-433A zeotrope R-1270/290 (30.0/70.0) A3 0.34 3,100 5.5 880
R-433B zeotrope R-1270/290 (5.0-95.0) A3 0.51 4,500 8.1 950
R-433C zeotrope R-1270/290 (25.0-75.0) A3 0.41 3,600 6.6 790
R-434A zeotrope R-125/143a/600a (63.2/18.0/16.0/2.8) A1 20 73,000 320 1,000
R-435A zeotrope R-E170/152a (80.0/20.0) A3 1.1 8,500 17 1,000
R-436A zeotrope R-290/600a (56.0/44.0) A3 0.50 4,000 8.1 1,000
R-436B zeotrope R-290/600a (52.0/48.0) A3 0.51 4,000 8.1 1,000
R-437A zeotrope R-125/134a/600/601 (19.5/78.5/1.4/0.6) A1 5.0 19,000 82 990
R-438A zeotrope R-32/125/134a/600/601a (8.5/45.0/44.2/1.7/0.6) A1 4.9 20,000 79 990
R-439A zeotrope R-32/125/600a (50.0/47.0/3.0) A2 4.7 26,000 76 990
R-440A zeotrope R-290/134a/152a (0.6/1.6/97.8) A2 1.9 12,000 31 1,000
R-441A zeotrope R-170/290/600a/600 (3.1/54.8/6.0/36.1) A3 0.39 3,200 6.3 1,000
R-442A zeotrope R-32/125/134a/152a/227ea (31.0/31.0/30.0/3.0/5.0) A1 21 100,000 330 1,000
R-443A zeotrope R-1270/290/600a (55.0/40.0/5.0) A3 0.19 1,700 3.1 580
R-444A zeotrope R-32/152a/1234ze(E) (12.0/5.0/83.0) A2f 5.1 21,000 81 850
R-444B zeotrope R-32/152a/1234ze(E) (41.5/10.0/48.5) A2f 4.3 23,000 69 890
R-445A zeotrope R-744/134a/1234ze(E) (6.0/9.0/85.0) A2f 4.2 16,000 67 930
R-446A zeotrope R-32/1234ze(E)/600 (68.0/29.0/3.0) A2f 2.5 16,000 39 960
R-447A zoetrope R-32/125/1234ze(E) (68.0/3.5/28.5) A2f 2.6 16,000 42 900
R-448A zeotrope R-32/125/1234yf/134a/1234ze(E) (26.0/26.0/20.0/21.0/7.0) A1 24 110,000 390 890
R-449A zeotrope R-32/125/1234yf/134a (24.3/24.7/25.3/25.7) A1 23 100,000 370 830
R-450A zeotrope R-134a/1234ze(E) (42.0/58.0) A1 20 72,000 320 880
R-451A zeotrope R-1234yf/134a (89.8/10.2) A2f 5.3 18,000 81 520
R-451B zeotrope R-1234yf/134a (88.8/11.2) A2f 5.3 18,000 81 530
R-452A zeotrope R-32/125/1234yf (11.0/59.0/30.0) A1 27 100,000 440 780
R-500e azeotrope R-12/152a (73.8/26.2) A1 7.6 30,000 120 1,000 2-0-0b
R-501d azeotrope R-22/12 (75.0/25.0) A1 13 54,000 210 1,000
R-502e azeotrope R-22/115 (48.8/51.2) A1 21 73,000 330 1,000 2-0-0b
R-503e azeotrope R-23/13 (40.1/59.9) 1,000 2-0-0b
R-504d azeotrope R-32/115 (48.2/51.8) 28 140,000 450 1,000
R-507A azeotrope R-125/143a (50.0/50.0) A1 32 130,000 520 1,000 2-0-0b
R-508A azeotrope R-23/116 (39.0/61.0) A1 14 55,000 220 1,000 2-0-0b
R-508B azeotrope R-23/116 (46.0/54.0) A1 13 52,000 200 1,000 2-0-0b
R-509A azeotrope R-22/218 (44.0/56.0) A1 24 75,000 390 1,000 2-0-0b
R-510A azeotrope R-E170/600a (88.0/12.0) A3 0.87 7,300 14 1,000
R-511A azeotrope R-290/E170 (95.0/5.0) A3 0.59 5,300 9.5 1,000
R-512A azeotrope R-134a/152a (5.0/95.0) A2 1.9 11,000 31 1,000
R-513A azeotrope R-1234yf/134a (56.0/44.0) A1 20 72,000 320 650
R-600 CH 3CH2CH2CH3 butane A3 0.15 1,000 2.4 1,000 1-4-0
R-600a CH(CH3)2CH3 2-methylpropane (isobutane) A3 0.59 4,000 9.6 1,000 2-4-0
R-601 CH3CH2CH2 CH2 CH3 pentane A3 0.18 1,000 2.9 600
R-601a (CH3)2CHCH2CH3 2-methylbutane (isopentane) A3 0.18 1,000 2.9 600
R-610 ethoxyethane (ethyl ether) CH3CH2OCH2CH3 400
R-611 methyl formate HCOOCH3 B2 100
R-717 NH3 ammonia B2f 0.014 320 0.22 25 3-3-0c
R-718 H2O water A1 0-0-0
R-744 CO2 carbon dioxide A1 4.5 40,000 72 5,000 2-0-0b
R-1150 CH2=CH2 ethene (ethylene) A3 200 1-4-2
R-1233zd(E) CF3
trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoro-1-propene A1 5.3 16,000 85 800
R-1234yf CF3CF=CH2 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1 propene A2f 4.7 16,000 75 500
R-1234ze(E) CF3CH=CHF trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1 -propene A2f 4.7 16,000 75 800
R-1270 CH3CH=CH2 Propene (propylene) A3 0.1 1,000 1.7 500 1-4-1
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283m3
  1. Degrees of hazard are for health, fire, and reactivity, respectively, in accordance with NFPA 704.
  2. Reduction to 1-0-0 is allowed if analysis satisfactory to the building official shows that the maximum concentration for a rupture or full loss of refrigerant charge would not exceed the IDLH, considering both the refrigerant quantity and room volume.
  3. For installations that are entirely outdoors, use 3-1-0.
  4. Class I ozone depleting substance; prohibited for new installations.
  5. Occupational Exposure Limit based on the OSHA PEL, ACGIH TLV-TWA, the TERA WEEL or consistent value on a time-weighed average (TWA) basis (unless noted C for ceiling) for an 8 hr/d and 40 hr/wk.
  6. The ASHRAE Standard 34 flammability classification for this refrigerant is 2L, which is a subclass of Class 2.
Locations of refrigerating systems are described by occupancy classifications that consider the ability of people to respond to potential exposure to refrigerants. Where equipment or appliances, other than piping, are located outside a building and within 20 feet (6096 mm) of any building opening, such equipment or appliances shall be governed by the occupancy classification of the building. Occupancy classifications shall be defined as follows:
  1. Institutional occupancy is that portion of premises from which occupants cannot readily leave without the assistance of others because they are disabled, debilitated or confined. Institutional occupancies include, among others, hospitals, nursing homes, asylums and spaces containing locked cells.
  2. Public assembly occupancy is that portion of premises where large numbers of people congregate and from which occupants cannot quickly vacate the space. Public assembly occupancies include, among others, auditoriums, ballrooms, classrooms, passenger depots, restaurants and theaters.
  3. Residential occupancy is that portion of premises that provides the occupants with complete independent living facilities, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation. Residential occupancies include, among others, dormitories, hotels, multiunit apartments and private residences.
  4. Commercial occupancy is that portion of premises where people transact business, receive personal service or purchase food and other goods. Commercial occupancies include, among others, office and professional buildings, markets (but not large mercantile occupancies) and work or storage areas that do not qualify as industrial occupancies.
  5. Large mercantile occupancy is that portion of premises where more than 100 persons congregate on levels above or below street level to purchase personal merchandise.
  6. Industrial occupancy is that portion of premises that is not open to the public, where access by authorized persons is controlled, and that is used to manufacture, process or store goods such as chemicals, food, ice, meat or petroleum.
  7. Mixed occupancy occurs where two or more occupancies are located within the same building. Where each occupancy is isolated from the rest of the building by tight walls, floors and ceilings and by self-closing doors, the requirements for each occupancy shall apply to its portion of the building. Where the various occupancies are not so isolated, the occupancy having the most stringent requirements shall be the governing occupancy.
Refrigeration systems shall be classified according to the degree of probability that refrigerant leaked from a failed connection, seal or component could enter an occupied area. The distinction is based on the basic design or location of the components.
Double-indirect open-spray systems, indirect closed systems and indirect-vented closed systems shall be classified as low-probability systems, provided that all refrigerant-containing piping and fittings are isolated where the quantities in Table 1103.1 are exceeded.
Direct systems and indirect open-spray systems shall be classified as high-probability systems.
Exception: An indirect open-spray system shall not be required to be classified as a high-probability system if the pressure of the secondary coolant is at all times (operating and standby) greater than the pressure of the refrigerant.
The refrigerant, occupancy and system classification cited in this section shall be determined in accordance with Sections 1103.1, 1103.2 and 1103.3, respectively.
Except as provided in Sections 1104.2.1 and 1104.2.2, all components containing the refrigerant shall be located either outdoors or in a machinery room where the quantity of refrigerant in an independent circuit of a system exceeds the amounts shown in Table 1103.1. For refrigerant blends not listed in Table 1103.1, the same requirement shall apply where the amount for any blend component exceeds that indicated in Table 1103.1 for that component. This requirement shall also apply where the combined amount of the blend components exceeds a limit of 69,100 parts per million (ppm) by volume. Machinery rooms required by this section shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with Section 1105 for Group A1 and B1 refrigerants and in accordance with Sections 1105 and 1106 for Group A2, B2, A3 and B3 refrigerants.
  1. Machinery rooms are not required for listed equipment and appliances containing not more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of refrigerant, regardless of the refrigerant's safety classification, where installed in accordance with the equipment's or appliance's listing and the equipment or appliance manufacturer's installation instructions.
  2. Piping in conformance with Section 1107 is allowed in other locations to connect components installed in a machinery room with those installed outdoors.
The amounts shown in Table 1103.1 shall be reduced by 50 percent for all areas of institutional occupancies except kitchens, laboratories and mortuaries. The total of all Group A2, B2, A3 and B3 refrigerants shall not exceed 550 pounds (250 kg) in occupied areas or machinery rooms.
This section applies only to rooms and spaces that: are within industrial occupancies; contain a refrigerant evaporator; are maintained at temperatures below 68°F (20°C); and are used for manufacturing, food and beverage preparation, meat cutting, other processes and storage. Where a machinery room would otherwise be required by Section 1104.2, a machinery room shall not be required where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The space containing the machinery is separated from other occupancies by tight construction with tight-fitting doors.
  2. Access is restricted to authorized personnel.
  3. Refrigerant detectors are installed as required for machinery rooms in accordance with Section 1105.3.
    1. Refrigerant detectors are not required in unoccupied areas that contain only continuous piping that does not include valves, valve assemblies, equipment, or equipment connections.
    2. Where approved alternatives are provided, refrigerant detectors for ammonia refrigeration are not required for rooms or areas that are always occupied, and for rooms or areas that have high humidity or other harsh environmental conditions that are incompatible with detection devices.
  4. Surfaces having temperatures exceeding 800°F (427°C) and open flames are not present where any Group A2, B2, A3 or B3 refrigerant is used (see Section 1104.3.4).
  5. All electrical equipment and appliances conform to Class 1, Division 2, hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70 where the quantity of any Group A2, B2, A3 or B3 refrigerant, other than ammonia, in a single independent circuit would exceed 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) upon release to the space.
  6. All refrigerant-containing parts in systems with a total connected compressor power exceeding 100 horsepower (hp) (74.6 kW)—except evaporators used for refrigeration or dehumidification, condensers used for heating, control and pressure relief valves for either, low-probability pumps and connecting piping—are located either outdoors or in a machinery room.
Refrigerant applications, maximum quantities and use shall be restricted in accordance with Sections 1104.3.1 through 1104.3.4.
In other than industrial occupancies where the quantity in a single independent circuit does not exceed the amount in Table 1103.1, Group B1, B2 and B3 refrigerants shall not be used in high-probability systems for air-conditioning for human comfort.
Group A2 and B2 refrigerants shall not be used in high-probability systems where the quantity of refrigerant in any independent refrigerant circuit exceeds the amount shown in Table 1104.3.2. Group A3 and B3 refrigerants shall not be used except where approved.
Exception: This section does not apply to laboratories where the floor area per occupant is not less than 100 square feet (9.3 m2).
Institutional Assembly Residential All other occupancies
Sealed absorption system
In exit access 0 0 3.3 3.3
In adjacent outdoor locations 0 0 22 22
In other than exit access 0 6.6 6.6 6.6
Unit systems
In other than exit access 0 0 6.6 6.6
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
The total of all Group A2, B2, A3 and B3 refrigerants other than R-717, ammonia, shall not exceed 1,100 pounds (499 kg) except where approved.
Where any device having an open flame or surface temperature greater than 800°F (427°C) is used in a room containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of refrigerant in a single independent circuit, a hood and exhaust system shall be provided in accordance with Section 510. Such exhaust system shall exhaust combustion products to the outdoors.
Exception: A hood and exhaust system shall not be required where any of the following apply:
  1. The refrigerant is R-717, R-718 or R-744.
  2. The combustion air is ducted from the outdoors in a manner that prevents leaked refrigerant from being combusted.
  3. A refrigerant detector is used to stop the combustion in the event of a refrigerant leak (see Sections 1105.3 and 1105.5).
Volume calculations shall be in accordance with Sections 1104.4.1 through 1104.4.3.
Where the refrigerant-containing parts of a system are located in one or more spaces that do not communicate through permanent openings or HVAC ducts, the volume of the smallest, enclosed occupied space shall be used to determine the permissible quantity of refrigerant in the system.
Where an evaporator or condenser is located in an air duct system, the volume of the smallest, enclosed occupied space served by the duct system shall be used to determine the maximum allowable quantity of refrigerant in the system.
Exception: If airflow to any enclosed space cannot be reduced below one-quarter of its maximum, the entire space served by the air duct system shall be used to determine the maximum allowable quantity of refrigerant in the system.
Where the space above a suspended ceiling is continuous and part of the supply or return air plenum system, this space shall be included in calculating the volume of the enclosed space.
Machinery rooms shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the Building Code of New York State and this section.
Ducts and air handlers in the machinery room that operate at a lower pressure than the room shall be sealed to prevent any refrigerant leakage from entering the airstream.
Refrigerant detectors in machinery rooms shall be provided as required by Sections 605.8 and 605.17 of the Fire Code of New York State.
Periodic tests of the mechanical ventilating system shall be performed in accordance with manufacturer's specifications and as required by the building official.
Fuel-burning appliances and equipment having open flames and that use combustion air from the machinery room shall not be installed in a machinery room.
  1. Where the refrigerant is carbon dioxide or water.
  2. Fuel-burning appliances shall not be prohibited in the same machinery room with refrigerant-containing equipment or appliances where combustion air is ducted from outside the machinery room and sealed in such a manner as to prevent any refrigerant leakage from entering the combustion chamber, or where a refrigerant vapor detector is employed to automatically shut off the combustion process in the event of refrigerant leakage.
Machinery rooms shall be mechanically ventilated to the outdoors.
Exception: Where a refrigerating system is located outdoors more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any building opening and is enclosed by a penthouse, lean-to or other open structure, natural or mechanical ventilation shall be provided. Location of the openings shall be based on the relative density of the refrigerant to air. The free-aperture cross section for the ventilation of the machinery room shall be not less than:
(Equation 11-1)
F = The free opening area in square feet (m2).
G = The mass of refrigerant in pounds (kg) in the largest system, any part of which is located in the machinery room.
The discharge of the air shall be to the outdoors in accordance with Chapter 5. Exhaust from mechanical ventilation systems shall be discharged not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from a property line or openings into buildings.
Upcodes Diagrams
Indoor mechanical exhaust intake openings shall be located where refrigerant leakage is likely to concentrate based on the refrigerant's relative density to air, and the locations of the air current paths and refrigerating machinery.
Provisions shall be made for makeup air to replace that being exhausted. Openings for makeup air shall be located to avoid intake of exhaust air. Supply and exhaust ducts to the machinery room shall not serve any other area, shall be constructed in accordance with Chapter 5 and shall be covered with corrosion-resistant screen of not less than 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) mesh.
For other than ammonia systems, the mechanical ventilation systems shall be capable of exhausting the minimum quantity of air both at normal operating and emergency conditions, as required by Sections 1105.6.3.1 and 1105.6.3.2. The minimum required emergency ventilation rate for ammonia shall be 30 air changes per hour in accordance with IIAR2. Multiple fans or multispeed fans shall be allowed to produce the emergency ventilation rate and to obtain a reduced airflow for normal ventilation.
During occupied conditions, the mechanical ventilation system shall exhaust the larger of the following:
  1. Not less than 0.5 cfm per square foot (0.0025 m3/s • m2) of machinery room area or 20 cfm (0.009 m3/s) per person.
  2. A volume required to limit the room temperature rise to 18°F (10°C) taking into account the ambient heating effect of all machinery in the room.
Upon actuation of the refrigerant detector required in Section 1105.3, the mechanical ventilation system shall exhaust air from the machinery room in the following quantity:
(Equation 11-2)
Q = The airflow in cubic feet per minute (m3/s).
G = The design mass of refrigerant in pounds (kg) in the largest system, any part of which is located in the machinery room.
Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems located within the machinery room shall terminate outside of the structure at a location not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.
Upcodes Diagrams
Pressure relief valves for ammonia systems shall discharge in accordance with ASHRAE 15.
Permanently installed refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with Section 605.10 of the Fire Code of New York State.
Where required by Section 1104.2, the machinery room shall meet the requirements of this section in addition to the requirements of Section 1105.
There shall not be an open flame-producing device or continuously operating hot surface over 800°F (427°C) permanently installed in the room.
Ventilation systems in ammonia machinery rooms shall be operated continuously at the ventilation rate specified in Section 1105.6.3.
  1. Machinery rooms equipped with a vapor detector that will automatically start the ventilation system at the ventilation rate specified in Section 1105.6.3, and that will actuate an alarm at a detection level not to exceed 1,000 ppm.
  2. Machinery rooms conforming to the Class 1, Division 2, hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70.
Where refrigerants of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3 are used, the machinery room shall conform to the Class 1, Division 2, hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70.
  1. Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3.
  2. Machinery rooms for systems containing Group A2L refrigerants that are in accordance with Section 1106.5.
Machinery rooms for systems containing Group A2L refrigerants shall comply with Sections 1106.5.1 through 1106.5.3.
Exception: Machinery rooms conforming to the Class I, Division 2, hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70 are not required to comply with Sections 1106.5.1 and 1106.5.2.
The machinery room shall be provided with a refrigerant detection system. The refrigerant detection system shall be in accordance with Section 605.8 of the Fire Code of New York State and all of the following:
  1. The detectors shall activate at or below a refrigerant concentration of 25% of the LFL.
  2. Upon activation, the detection system shall activate the emergency ventilation system required by Section 1106.5.2.
  3. The detection, signaling and control circuits shall be supervised.
An emergency ventilation system shall be provided at the minimum exhaust rate specified in ASHRAE 15 or Table 1106.5.2. Shutdown of the emergency ventilation system shall be by manual means.
REFRIGERANT Q(m/sec) Q(cfm)
R32 15.4 32,600
R143 13.6 28,700
R444A 6.46 13,700
R444B 10.6 22,400
R445A 7.83 16,600
R446A 23.9 50,700
R447A 23.8 50,400
R451A 7.04 15,000
R451B 7.05 15,000
R1234yf 7.80 16,600
R1234ze(E) 5.92 12,600
The emergency ventilation system point of discharge to the atmosphere shall be located outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.
Remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in the machinery room shall comply with Sections 1106.6.1 and 1106.6.2.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide off-only control of refrigerant compressors, refrigerant pumps, and normally closed, automatic refrigerant valves located in the machinery room. Additionally, this equipment shall be automatically shut off whenever the refrigerant vapor concentration in the machinery room exceeds the vapor detector's upper detection limit or 25 percent of the LEL, whichever is lower.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamperresistant cover shall provide on-only control of the machinery room ventilation fans.
Refrigeration units and systems shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts, and labels in accordance with the Fire Code of New York State.
The design of refrigerant piping shall be in accordance with ASME B31.5. Refrigerant piping shall be installed, tested and placed in operation in accordance with this chapter.
Refrigerant piping that crosses an open space that affords passageway in any building shall be not less than 7 feet 3 inches (2210 mm) above the floor unless the piping is located against the ceiling of such space. Refrigerant piping shall not be placed in any of the following:
  1. A fire-resistance-rated exit access corridor.
  2. An interior exit stairway.
  3. An interior exit ramp.
  4. An exit passageway.
  5. An elevator, dumbwaiter or other shaft containing a moving object.
  6. A shaft that has one or more openings into a fire-resistance-rated exit access corridor, interior exit stairway or ramp or exit passageway.
Refrigerant piping installed in concrete floors shall be encased in pipe ducts. The piping shall be isolated and supported to prevent damaging vibration, stress and corrosion.
Refrigerant piping shall not penetrate floors, ceilings or roofs.
  1. Penetrations connecting the basement and the first floor.
  2. Penetrations connecting the top floor and a machinery penthouse or roof installation.
  3. Penetrations connecting adjacent floors served by the refrigeration system.
  4. Penetrations by piping in a direct system where the refrigerant quantity does not exceed Table 1103.1 for the smallest occupied space through which the piping passes.
  5. In other than industrial occupancies and where the refrigerant quantity exceeds Table 1103.1 for the smallest space, penetrations for piping that connects separate pieces of equipment that are either:
    1. 5.1. Enclosed by an approved gas-tight, fire-resistive duct or shaft with openings to those floors served by the refrigeration system.
    2. 5.2. Located on the exterior of the building where vented to the outdoors or to the space served by the system and not used as an air shaft, closed court or similar space.
Rigid or flexible metal enclosures or pipe ducts shall be provided for soft, annealed copper tubing and used for refrigerant piping erected on the premises and containing other than Group A1 or B1 refrigerants. Enclosures shall not be required for connections between condensing units and the nearest riser box(es), provided such connections do not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in length.
Refrigerating piping and fittings, brine piping and fittings that, during normal operation, will reach a surface temperature below the dew point of the surrounding air, and are located in spaces or areas where condensation will cause a safety hazard to the building occupants, structure, electrical equipment or any other equipment or appliances, shall be protected in an approved manner to prevent such damage.
Piping materials shall be as set forth in Sections 1107.5.1 through 1107.5.5.
Carbon steel pipe with a wall thickness not less than Schedule 80 shall be used for Group A2, A3, B2 or B3 refrigerant liquid lines for sizes 1.5 inches (38 mm) and smaller. Carbon steel pipe with a wall thickness not less than Schedule 40 shall be used for Group A1 or B1 refrigerant liquid lines 6 inches (152 mm) and smaller, Group A2, A3, B2 or B3 refrigerant liquid lines sizes 2 inches (51 mm) through 6 inches (152 mm) and all refrigerant suction and discharge lines 6 inches (152 mm) and smaller. Type F steel pipe shall not be used for refrigerant lines having an operating temperature less than -20°F (-29°C).
Standard ironpipe size, copper and copper-alloy (not less than 80-percent copper) pipe shall conform to ASTM B42 and ASTM B43.
Copper tube used for refrigerant piping erected on the premises shall be seamless copper tube of Type ACR (hard or annealed) complying with ASTM B280 or ASTM B819. Annealed temper copper tube shall not be used in sizes larger than a 2-inch (51 mm) nominal size. Mechanical joints other than press-connect joints listed for refrigerant piping shall not be used on annealed temper copper tube in sizes larger than 7/8-inch (22.2 mm) OD size.
Copper tubing joints used in refrigerating systems containing Group A2, A3, B2 or B3 refrigerants shall be brazed. Soldered joints shall not be used in such refrigerating systems.
Type 3003-0 aluminum tubing with high-pressure fittings shall not be used with methyl chloride and other refrigerants known to attack aluminum.
Joints and all refrigerant-containing parts of a refrigerating system located in an air duct of an air-conditioning system carrying conditioned air to and from human-occupied space shall be constructed to withstand, without leakage, a pressure of 150 percent of the higher of the design pressure or pressure relief device setting.
Refrigerant pipe joints erected on the premises shall be exposed for visual inspection prior to being covered or enclosed.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of a refrigerant in systems using positive-displacement compressors shall have stop valves installed as follows:
  1. At the inlet of each compressor, compressor unit or condensing unit.
  2. At the discharge outlet of each compressor, compressor unit or condensing unit and of each liquid receiver.
    1. Systems that have a refrigerant pumpout function capable of storing the entire refrigerant charge in a receiver or heat exchanger.
    2. Systems that are equipped with provisions for pumpout of the refrigerant using either portable or permanently installed recovery equipment.
    3. Self-contained systems.
Systems containing 100 pounds (45 kg) or more of a refrigerant, other than systems utilizing nonpositive displacement compressors, shall have stop valves, in addition to those required by Section 1107.8, on each inlet of each liquid receiver. Stop valves shall not be required on the inlet of a receiver in a condensing unit, nor on the inlet of a receiver that is an integral part of the condenser.
Stop valves used with soft annealed copper tubing or hard-drawn copper tubing 7/8-inch (22.2 mm) OD standard size or smaller shall be securely mounted, independent of tubing fastenings or supports.
Stop valves shall be identified where their intended purpose is not obvious. Numbers shall not be used to label the valves, unless a key to the numbers is located near the valves.
Every refrigerant-containing part of every system that is erected on the premises, except compressors, condensers, vessels, evaporators, safety devices, pressure gauges and control mechanisms that are listed and factory tested, shall be tested and proved tight after complete installation, and before operation. Tests shall include both the high- and low-pressure sides of each system at not less than the lower of the design pressures or the setting of the pressure relief device(s). The design pressures for testing shall be those listed on the condensing unit, compressor or compressor unit nameplate, as required by ASHRAE 15.
  1. Gas bulk storage tanks that are not permanently connected to a refrigeration system.
  2. Systems erected on the premises with copper tubing not exceeding 5/8-inch (15.8 mm) OD, with wall thickness as required by ASHRAE 15, shall be tested in accordance with Section 1108.1, or by means of refrigerant charged into the system at the saturated vapor pressure of the refrigerant at 70°F (21°C) or higher.
  3. Limited-charge systems equipped with a pressure relief device, erected on the premises, shall be tested at a pressure not less than one and one-half times the pressure setting of the relief device. If the equipment or appliance has been tested by the manufacturer at one and one-half times the design pressure, the test after erection on the premises shall be conducted at the design pressure.
Where a compressor is used as a booster to obtain an intermediate pressure and discharges into the suction side of another compressor, the booster compressor shall be considered to be a part of the low side, provided that it is protected by a pressure relief device.
In field-testing systems using centrifugal or other nonpositive displacement compressors, the entire system shall be considered as the low-side pressure for field test purposes.
Tests shall be performed with an inert dried gas including, but not limited to, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen, air, combustible gases and mixtures containing such gases shall not be used.
Exception: The use of air is allowed to test R-717, ammonia, systems provided that they are subsequently evacuated before charging with refrigerant.
The means used to build up the test pressure shall have either a pressure-limiting device or a pressure-reducing device and a gauge on the outlet side.
A certificate of test shall be provided for all systems containing 55 pounds (25 kg) or more of refrigerant. The certificate shall give the name of the refrigerant and the field test pressure applied to the high side and the low side of the system. The certification of test shall be signed by the installer and shall be made part of the public record.
The following emergency devices and systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and as required by the building official:
  1. Treatment and flaring systems.
  2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigeration control boxes.
  3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems.
  4. Detection and alarm systems.