Chapter 1 General Requirements

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Regulations

Chapter 4 Ventilation

Chapter 5 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 6 Duct Systems

Chapter 7 Combustion Air

Chapter 8 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 9 Specific Appliances

Chapter 10 Boilers‚ Water Heaters and Pressure Vessels

Chapter 11 Refrigeration

Chapter 12 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 13 Fuel Oil Piping and Storage

Chapter 14 Solar Systems

Chapter 15 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Structural Safety

This chapter shall govern the approval and installation of all equipment and appliances that comprise parts of the building mechanical systems regulated by this code in accordance with Section 101.2.
Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems of all structures shall be designed and installed for efficient utilization of energy in accordance with the Energy Conservation Construction Code of New York State.
The approval and installation of fuel gas distribution piping and equipment, fuel gas-fired appliances and fuel gas-fired appliance venting systems shall be in accordance with the Fuel Gas Code of New York State.
Appliances regulated by this code shall be listed and labeled for the application in which they are installed and used.

Exception:
Listing and labeling of equipment and appliances used for refrigeration shall be in accordance with Section 1101.2.
Labeling shall be in accordance with the procedures set forth in Sections 301.5.1 through 301.5.2.3.
An approved agency shall test a representative sample of the mechanical equipment and appliances being labeled to the relevant standard or standards. The approved agency shall maintain a record of all of the tests performed. The record shall provide sufficient detail to verify compliance with the test standard.
The approved agency shall periodically perform an inspection, which shall be in-plant if necessary, of the mechanical equipment and appliances to be labeled. The inspection shall verify that the labeled mechanical equipment and appliances are representative of the mechanical equipment and appliances tested.
The agency to be approved shall be objective and competent. To confirm its objectivity, the agency shall disclose all possible conflicts of interest.
An approved agency shall have adequate equipment to perform all required tests. The equipment shall be periodically calibrated.
An approved agency shall employ experienced personnel educated in conducting, supervising and evaluating tests.
A permanent factory-applied name-plate(s) shall be affixed to appliances on which shall appear in legible lettering, the manufacturer’s name or trademark, the model number, serial number and the seal or mark of the approved agency. A label shall also include the following:

1. Electrical equipment and appliances: Electrical rating in volts, amperes and motor phase; identification of individual electrical components in volts, amperes or watts, motor phase; Btu/h (W) output; and required clearances.
2. Absorption units: Hourly rating in Btu/h (W); minimum hourly rating for units having step or automatic modulating controls; type of fuel; type of refrigerant; cooling capacity in Btu/h (W); and required clearances.
3. Fuel-burning units: Hourly rating in Btu/h (W); type of fuel approved for use with the appliance; and required clearances.
4. Electric comfort heating appliances: Name and trade-mark of the manufacturer; the model number or equivalent; the electric rating in volts, ampacity and phase; Btu/h (W) output rating; individual marking for each electrical component in amperes or watts, volts and phase; required clearances from combustibles; and a seal indicating approval of the appliance by an approved agency.
Electrical wiring, controls and connections to equipment and appliances regulated by this code shall be in accordance with Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State.
Potable water supply and building drainage system connections to equipment and appliances regulated by this code shall be in accordance with the Plumbing Code of New York State.
Fuel-fired appliances shall be designed for use with the type of fuel to which they will be connected and the altitude at which they are installed. Appliances that comprise parts of the building mechanical system shall not be converted for the usage of a different fuel, except where approved and converted in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The fuel input rate shall not be increased or decreased beyond the limit rating for the altitude at which the appliance is installed.
Where vibration isolation of equipment and appliances is employed, an approved means of supplemental restraint shall be used to accomplish the support and restraint.
Defective material or parts shall be replaced or repaired in such a manner so as to preserve the original approval or listing.
Mechanical equipment, appliances and supports that are exposed to wind shall be designed and installed to resist the wind pressures determined in accordance with the Building Code of New York State.
For structures located in flood hazard areas, mechanical systems, equipment and appliances shall be located at or above the design flood elevation. [B]

Exception:
Mechanical systems, equipment and appliances are permitted to be located below the design flood elevation provided that they are designed and installed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components and to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood elevation in compliance with the flood-resistant construction requirements of the Building Code of New York State.
In flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity wave action, mechanical systems and equipment shall not be mounted on or penetrate walls intended to break away under flood loads. [B]
Buildings or structures and the walls enclosing habitable or occupiable rooms and spaces in which persons live, sleep or work, or in which feed, food or foodstuffs are stored, prepared, processed, served or sold, shall be constructed to protect against the entrance of rodents in accordance with the Building Code of New York State.
When earthquake loads are applicable in accordance with the Building Code of New York State, mechanical system supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic forces in accordance with Section 1621 of the Building Code of New York State.
The building or structure shall not be weakened by the installation of mechanical systems. Where floors, walls, ceilings or any other portion of the building or structure are required to be altered or replaced in the process of installing or repairing any system, the building or structure shall be left in a safe structural condition in accordance with sections 302.2 through 302.3.
Penetrations of floor/ceiling assemblies and assemblies required to have a fire-resistance rating shall be protected in accordance with Sections 302.2.1 through 302.2.4.
Where sleeves are used, they shall be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space between the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself and any space between the sleeve and the assembly penetrated shall be protected in accordance with this section. Insulation and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not penetrate the assembly unless the specific material used has been tested as part of the assembly in accordance with this section. [B]
Penetrations into or through fire walls, fire-barrier walls, smoke-barrier walls and fire partitions shall comply with this section. [B]
Through penetrations of fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Section 302.2.2.1.1 or 302.2.2.1.2. [B]

Exception:
Where the penetrating items are steel, ferrous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space between the penetrating item and the fire-resistance-rated wall is permitted to be protected as follows:
1. In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrating item is a maximum 6 inch (152 mm) nominal diameter and the area of the opening through the wall does not exceed 144 square inches (0.0929 m2), concrete, grout or mortar is permitted where it is installed the full thickness of the wall or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating; or
2. The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to ASTM E 119 time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated.
Penetrations shall be installed as tested in an approved fire-resistance-rated assembly. [B]
Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water and shall have an F rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated. [B]
Membrane penetrations shall comply with Section 302.2.2.1. Where walls or partitions are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire resistance will not be reduced.

Exceptions:
1. Membrane penetrations of maximum two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (0.0103 m2) in area, provided the aggregate area of the openings through the membrane does not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m2) in any 100 square feet (9.29m2) of wall area. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be separated by one of the following:
1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm);
1.2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the wall cavity where the wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation;
1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with Section 717.2.1;
1.4. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed putty pads; or
1.5. By other listed materials and methods.
2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any material, provided such boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be separated as follows:
2.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm);
2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with Section 717.2.1;
2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or
2.4. By other listed materials and methods.
3. The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.
Penetrations of fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts that are not protected with dampers shall comply with Sections 302.2.1 through 302.2.2.1. Ducts and air transfer openings that are protected with dampers shall comply with Section 716 of the Building Code of New York State . [B]
Noncombustible penetrating items shall not connect to combustible items beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained. [B]
Penetrations of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 707 of the Building Code of New York State . Penetrations permitted by Exceptions 3 and 4 of Section 707.2 of the Building Code of New York State shall comply with Sections 302.2.3.1 through 302.2.3.3 of this code. [B]
Penetrations of the fire-resistance rated floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall comply with Sections 302.2.3.1.1 through 302.2.3.1.5 [B]
Through penetrations of fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 302.2.3.1.1.1 or 302.2.3.1.1.2. [B]

Exceptions:
1. Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents or concrete or masonry items through a single fire-resistance-rated floor assembly where the annular space is protected with materials that prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to ASTM E 119 time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated. Penetrating items with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter shall not be limited to the penetration of a single fire-resistance-rated floor assembly, provided the aggregate area of the openings through the assembly does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of floor area.
2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter, provided the concrete, grout or mortar is installed the full thickness of the floor or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating. The penetrating items shall not be limited to the penetration of a single concrete floor, provided the area of the opening through each floor does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2).
3. Penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any material, provided such boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing.
Through penetrations shall be installed as tested in the approved fire-resistance-rated assembly. [B]
Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved through-penetration firestop system installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (2.49 Pa). The system shall have an F rating and a T rating of not less than 1 hour but not less than the required rating of the floor penetrated. [B]

Exception:
Floor penetrations contained and located within the cavity of a wall do not require a T-rating.
Penetrations of membranes that are part of a fire-resistance-rated horizontal assembly shall comply with Section 302.2.3.1.1.1 or 302.2.3.1.1.2. Where floor/ceiling assemblies are required to have a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire resistance will not be reduced. [B]

Exceptions:
1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents, or concrete or masonry items where the annular space is protected either in accordance with Section 302.2.3.1.1 or to prevent the free passage of flame and the products of combustion. The aggregate area of the openings through the membrane shall not exceed 100 square inches (64 500 mm2) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of ceiling area in assemblies tested without penetrations.
2. Ceiling membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (10 323 mm2) in area, provided the aggregate area of such penetrations does not exceed 100 square inches (44 500 mm2) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of ceiling area, and the annular space between the ceiling membrane and the box does not exceed 1/8 inch (3.12 mm).
3. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any material, provided such boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the ceiling membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise.
4. The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a metal eschutcheon plate.
Penetrations of horizontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 716 of the Building Code of New York State . [B]
Noncombustible penetrating items shall not connect to combustible materials beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal assembly is maintained. [B]
Floor fire doors used to protect openings in fire-resistance-rated floors shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 288, and shall achieve a fire-resistance rating not less than the assembly being penetrated. Floor fire doors shall be labeled by an approved agency. [B]
Penetrations of horizontal assemblies without a required fire-resistance rating shall meet the requirements of Section 707 of the Building Code of New York State or shall comply with Section 302.2.3.2.1 or 302.2.3.2.2 of this code. [B]
Noncombustible penetrating items that connect not more than three stories are permitted, provided that the annular space is filled with an approved noncombustible material to resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion. [B]
Penetrating items that connect not more than two stories are permitted, provided that the annular space is filled with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion. [B]
Penetrations of horizontal assemblies by ducts that are not protected with dampers shall comply with Section 302.2.1 and Sections 302.2.3 through 302.2.3.2.2. Ducts and air transfer openings that are protected with dampers shall comply with Section 716 of the Building Code of New York State.[B]
Noncombustible penetrating items shall not connect to combustible materials beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal assembly is maintained. [B]
Penetrations in smoke barriers shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of UL 1479 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the penetration assembly shall not exceed 5.0 cfm per square foot (0.025m 3 /s • m 2 ) of penetration opening at 0.30 inch ( 7.47 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests.
The cutting, notching and boring of wood framing members shall comply with Sections 302.3.1 through 302.3.4 and Appendix C. [B]
Notches on the ends of joists shall not exceed one-fourth the joist depth. Holes bored in joists shall not be within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top or bottom of the joist, and the diameter of any such hole shall not exceed one-third the depth of the joist. Notches in the top or bottom of joists shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be located in the middle third of the span. [B]
In exterior walls and bearing partitions, any wood stud is permitted to be cut or notched not to exceed 25 percent of its depth. Cutting or notching of studs not greater than 40 percent of their depth is permitted in nonbearing partitions supporting no loads other than the weight of the partition. [B]
A hole not greater in diameter than 40 percent of the stud depth is permitted to be bored in any wood stud. Bored holes not greater than 60 percent of the depth of the stud are permitted in nonbearing partitions or in any wall where each bored stud is doubled, provided not more than two such successive doubled studs are so bored. In no case shall the edge of the bored hole be nearer than 0.625 inch (15.9 mm) to the edge of the stud. Bored holes shall not be located at the same section of stud as a cut or notch. [B]
Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite veneer lumber, structural glue-laminated members and I-joists are prohibited except where permitted by the manufacturer’s recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member. [B]
Truss members and components shall not be cut, drilled, notched, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without written concurrence and approval of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, water heaters) shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting such additional loading. [B]
The cutting, notching and boring of steel framing members shall comply with Sections 302.5.1 through 302.5.3. [B]
The cutting, notching and boring of holes in structural steel framing members shall be as prescribed by the registered design professional. [B]
Flanges and lips of load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall not be cut or notched. Holes in webs of load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be permitted along the centerline of the web of the framing member and shall not exceed the dimensional limitations, penetration spacing or minimum hole edge distance as prescribed by the registered design professional. Cutting, notching and boring holes of steel floor/roof decking shall be as prescribed by the registered design professional. [B]
Flanges and lips of nonstructural cold-formed steel wall studs shall not be cut or notched. Holes in webs of nonstructural cold-formed steel wall studs shall be permitted along the center-line of the web of the framing member, shall not exceed 1.5 inches (38 mm) in width or 4 inches (102 mm) in length, and shall not be spaced less than 24 inches (610 mm) center to center from another hole or less than 10 inches (254 mm) from the bearing end. [B]
Equipment and appliances shall be located as required by this section, specific requirements elsewhere in this code and the conditions of the equipment and appliance listing.
Appliances shall not be located in a hazardous location unless listed and approved for the specific installation.
Fuel-fired appliances shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air from, any of the following rooms or spaces:

1. Sleeping rooms.
2. Bathrooms.
3. Toilet rooms.
4. Storage closets.
5. Surgical rooms.

Exception:
This section shall not apply to the following appliances:
1. Direct-vent appliances that obtain all combustion air directly from the outdoors.
2. Solid fuel-fired appliances, provided that the room is not a confined space and the building is not of unusually tight construction.
3. Appliances installed in a dedicated enclosure in which all combustion air is taken directly from the outdoors, in accordance with Section 703. Access to such enclosure shall be through a solid door, weather-stripped in accordance with the exterior door air leakage requirements of the Energy Conservation Construction Code of New York State and equipped with an approved self-closing device.
Appliances shall not be installed in a location where subject to mechanical damage unless protected by approved barriers.
Fuel-fired furnaces and boilers installed in closets and alcoves shall be listed for such installation. For purposes of this section, a closet or alcove shall be defined as a room or space having a volume less than 12 times the total volume of fuel-fired appliances other than boilers and less than 16 times the total volume of boilers. Room volume shall be computed using the gross floor area and the actual ceiling height up to a maximum computation height of 8 feet (2438 mm).
Appliances installed in other than indoor locations shall be listed and labeled for outdoor installation.
Appliances installed in pits or excavations shall not come in direct contact with the surrounding soil. The sides of the pit or excavation shall be held back a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) from the appliance. Where the depth exceeds 12 inches (305 mm) below adjoining grade, the walls of the pit or excavation shall be lined with concrete or masonry. Such concrete or masonry shall extend a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) above adjoining grade and shall have sufficient lateral load-bearing capacity to resist collapse. The appliance shall be protected from flooding in an approved manner.
Mechanical systems shall not be located in an elevator shaft. [B]
Equipment and appliances shall be installed as required by the terms of their approval, in accordance with the conditions of the listing, the manufacturer’s installation instructions and this code. Manufacturer’s installation instructions shall be available on the job site at the time of inspection.
Where conflicts between this code and the conditions of listing or the manufacturer’s installation instructions occur, the provisions of this code shall apply.

Exception:
Where a code provision is less restrictive than the conditions of the listing of the equipment or appliance or the manufacturer’s installation instructions, the conditions of the listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions shall apply.
Equipment and appliances having an ignition source and located in hazardous locations and public garages, private garages, repair garages, automotive motor-fuel-dispensing facilities and parking garages shall be elevated such that the source of ignition is not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor surface on which the equipment or appliance rests. Such equipment and appliances shall not be installed in Group H occupancies or control areas where open use, handling or dispensing of combustible, flammable or explosive materials occurs. For the purpose of this section, rooms or spaces that are not part of the living space of a dwelling unit and that communicate directly with a private garage through openings shall be considered to be part of the private garage.
Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation, except that a single door is permitted where the sources of ignition in the appliance are elevated in accordance with Section 304.3.

Exception:
This section shall not apply to appliance installations complying with Section 304.5.
Ventilation shall be required in accordance with Section 304.4.1, 304.4.2 or 304.4.3 in public garages, private garages, repair garages, automotive service stations and parking garages that contain hydrogen-generating appliances or refueling systems. For the purpose of this section, rooms or spaces that are not part of the living space of a dwelling unit and that communicate directly with a private garage through openings shall be considered to be part of the private garage. [FG]
Indoor locations intended for hydrogen-generating or refueling operations shall be limited to a maximum floor area of 850 square feet (79 m 2 ) and shall communicate with the outdoors in accordance with Sections 304.4.1.1 through 304.4.1.2. The maximum rated output capacity of hydrogen generating appliances shall not exceed 4 standard cubic feet per minute (0.00189 m 3 /s) of hydrogen for each 250 square feet (23.2 m 2 ) of floor area in such spaces. The minimum cross-sectional dimension of air openings shall be 3 inches (76 mm). Where ducts are used, they shall be of the same cross-sectional area as the free area of the openings to which they connect. In such locations, equipment and appliances having an ignition source shall be located such that the source of ignition is not within 12 inches (305 mm) of the ceiling. [FG]
Two permanent openings shall be provided within the garage. The upper opening shall be located entirely within 12 inches (305 mm) of the ceiling of the garage. The lower opening shall be located entirely within 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor of the garage. Both openings shall be provided in the same exterior wall. The openings shall communicate directly with the outdoors and shall have a minimum free area of 1 / 2 square foot per 1,000 cubic feet (1 m 2 /610 m 3 ) of garage volume. [FG]
In calculating free area required by Section 304.4.1, the required size of openings shall be based on the net free area of each opening. If the free area through a design of louver or grille is known, it shall be used in calculating the size opening required to provide the free area specified. If the design and free area are not known, it shall be assumed that wood louvers will have 25 percent free area and metal louvers and grilles will have 75 percent free area. Louvers and grilles shall be fixed in the open position. [FG]
Indoor locations intended for hydrogen-generating or refueling operations shall be ventilated in accordance with Section 502.16. In such locations, equipment and appliances having an ignition source shall be located such that the source of ignition is below the mechanical ventilation outlet(s). [FG]
As an alternative to the provisions of Sections 304.4.1 and 304.4.2 the necessary supply of air for ventilation and dilution of flammable gases shall be provided by an approved engineered system. [FG]
Appliances located in public garages, motor fueling dispensing facilities, repair garages or other areas frequented by motor vehicles, shall be installed a minimum of 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor. Where motor vehicles exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height and are capable of passing under an appliance, appliances shall be installed a minimum of 2 feet (610 mm) higher above the floor than the height of the tallest vehicle.

Exception:
The requirements of this section shall not apply where the appliances are protected from motor vehicle impact and installed in accordance with Section 304.3 and NFPA 30A.
Appliances located in private garages and carports shall be installed with a minimum clearance of 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor.

Exception:
The requirements of this section shall not apply where the appliances are protected from motor vehicle impact and installed in accordance with Section 304.3.
Boiler rooms and furnace rooms shall be protected as required by the Building Code of New York State.
Heat-producing equipment and appliances shall be installed to maintain the required clearances to combustible construction as specified in the listing and manufacturer’s instructions. Such clearances shall be reduced only in accordance with Section 308. Clearances to combustibles shall include such considerations as door swing, drawer pull, overhead projections or shelving and window swing, shutters, coverings and drapes. Devices such as doorstops or limits, closers, drapery ties or guards shall not be used to provide the required clearances.
Equipment and appliances installed at grade level shall be supported on a level concrete slab or other approved material extending above adjoining grade or shall be suspended a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above adjoining grade.
Guards shall be provided where appliances, equipment, fans or other components that require service and roof hatch openings are located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) beyond each end of such appliances, equipment, fans, components and roof hatch openings and the top of the guard shall be located not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the elevated surface adjacent to the guard. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a 21-inch-diameter (533 mm) sphere and shall comply with the loading requirements for guards specified in the Building Code of New York State. [B]
Appliances serving different areas of a building other than where they are installed shall be permanently marked in an approved manner that uniquely identifies the appliance and the area it serves.
All mechanical system piping shall be supported in accordance with this section.
Pipe hangers and supports shall have sufficient strength to withstand all anticipated static and specified dynamic loading conditions associated with the intended use. Pipe hangers and supports that are in direct contact with piping shall be of approved materials that are compatible with the piping and that will not promote galvanic action.
Hangers and anchors shall be attached to the building construction in an approved manner.
Piping shall be supported at distances not exceeding the spacing specified in Table 305.4, or in accordance with MSS SP-69.

TABLE 305.4 PIPING SUPPORT SPACINGa


PIPING MATERIAL
MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL SPACING
(feet)
MAXIMUM VERTICAL SPACING
(feet)
ABS pipe 4 10c
Aluminum pipe and tubing 10 15
Brass pipe 10 10
Brass tubing, 11/4-inch diameter and smaller 6 10
Brass tubing, 11/2-inch diameter and larger 10 10
Cast-iron pipeb 5 15
Copper or copper-alloy pipe 12 10
Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 11/4-inch diameter and smaller 6 10
Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 11/2-inch diameter and larger 10 10
CPVC pipe or tubing, 1 inch and smaller 3 10c
CPVC pipe or tubing 11/4-inch and larger 4 10c
PB pipe or tubing 22/3 4
(32 inches)
PEX tubing 22/3 10c
(32 inches)
PVC pipe 4 10c
Steel pipe 12 15
Steel tubing 8 10


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
   
a. See Section 301.15.
   
b. The maximum horizontal spacing of cast-iron pipe hangers shall be increased to 10 feet where 10-foot lengths of pipe are installed.
   
c. Mid-story guide.
In concealed locations where piping, other than cast-iron or steel, is installed through holes or notches in studs, joists, rafters or similar members less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) from the nearest edge of the member, the pipe shall be protected by shield plates. Protective shield plates shall be a minimum of 0.062-inch-thick (1.6 mm) steel, shall cover the area of the pipe where the member is notched or bored, and shall extend a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) above sole plates and below top plates.
Clearances around appliances to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly.
Central furnaces within compartments or alcoves shall have a minimum working space clearance of 3 inches (76 mm) along the sides, back and top with a total width of the enclosing space being at least 12 inches (305 mm) wider than the furnace. Furnaces having a firebox open to the atmosphere shall have at least 6 inches (152 mm) working space along the front combustion chamber side. Combustion air openings at the rear or side of the compartment shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 7.

Exception:
This section shall not apply to replacement appliances installed in existing compartments and alcoves where the working space clearances are in accordance with the equipment or appliance manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Rooms containing appliances requiring access shall be provided with a door and an unobstructed passageway measuring not less than 36 inches (914 mm) wide and 80 inches (2032 mm) high.

Exception:
Within a dwelling unit, appliances installed in a compartment, alcove, basement or similar space shall be accessed by an opening or door and an unobstructed passageway measuring not less than 24 inches (610 mm) wide and large enough to allow removal of the largest appliance in the space, provided that a level service space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) deep and the height of the appliance, but not less than 30 inches (762 mm), is present at the front or service side of the appliance with the door open.
Attics containing appliances requiring access shall be provided with an opening and unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest appliance. The passageway shall not be less than 30 inches (762 mm) high and 22 inches (559 mm) wide and not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length measured along the center line of the passageway from the opening to the appliance. The passageway shall have continuous solid flooring not less than 24 inches (610 mm) wide. A level service space not less than 30 inches (762 mm) deep and 30 inches (762 mm) wide shall be present at the front or service side of the appliance. The clear access opening dimensions shall be a minimum of 20 inches by 30 inches (508 mm by 762 mm), where such dimensions are large enough to allow removal of the largest appliance.

Exceptions:


1. The passageway and level service space are not required where the appliance is capable of being serviced and removed through the required opening.
2. Where the passageway is unobstructed and not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) high and 22 inches wide for its entire length, the passageway shall be not greater than 50 feet (15 250 mm) in length.
A luminaire controlled by a switch located at the required passageway opening and a receptacle outlet shall be provided at or near the appliance location in accordance with the Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State .
Underfloor spaces containing appliances requiring access shall be provided with an access opening and unobstructed passageway large enough to remove the largest appliance. The passageway shall not be less than 30 inches (762 mm) high and 22 inches (559 mm) wide, nor more than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length measured along the centerline of the passageway from the opening to the appliance. A level service space not less than 30 inches (762 mm) deep and 30 inches (762 mm) wide shall be present at the front or service side of the appliance. If the depth of the passageway or the service space exceeds 12 inches (305 mm) below the adjoining grade, the walls of the passageway shall be lined with concrete or masonry. Such concrete or masonry shall extend a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) above the adjoining grade and shall have sufficient lateral-bearing capacity to resist collapse. The clear access opening dimensions shall be a minimum of 22 inches by 30 inches (559 mm by 762 mm), where such dimensions are large enough to allow removal of the largest appliance.

Exceptions:


1. The passageway is not required where the level service space is present when the access is open and the appliance is capable of being serviced and removed through the required opening.
2. Where the passageway is unobstructed and not less than 6 feet high (1929 mm) and 22 inches wide for its entire length, the passageway shall not be limited in length.
A luminaire controlled by a switch located at the required passageway opening and a receptacle outlet shall be provided at or near the appliance location in accordance with Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State .
Where equipment and appliances requiring access are installed on roofs or elevated structures at a height exceeding 16 feet (4877 mm), such access shall be provided by a permanent approved means of access, the extent of which shall be from grade or floor level to the equipment and appliances’ level service space. Such access shall not require climbing over obstructions greater than 30 inches (762 mm) high or walking on roofs having a slope greater than 4 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope).

Permanent ladders installed to provide the required access shall comply with the following minimum design criteria:

1. The side railing shall extend above the parapet or roof edge not less than 30 inches (762 mm).
2. Ladders shall have rung spacing not to exceed 14 inches (356 mm) on center.
3. Ladders shall have a toe spacing not less than 6 inches (152 mm) deep.
4. There shall be a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) between rails.
5. Rungs shall have a minimum 0.75-inch (19 mm) diameter and be capable of withstanding a 300-pound (136.1 kg) load.
6. Ladders over 30 feet (9144 mm) in height shall be provided with offset sections and landings capable of withstanding 100 pounds (488.2 kg/m2) per square foot.
7. Ladders shall be protected against corrosion by approved means.

Catwalks installed to provide the required access shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) wide and shall have railings as required for service platforms.

Exception:
This section shall not apply to Group R-3 occupancies.
Where appliances, equipment, fans or other components that require service are installed on a roof having a slope of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope) or greater and having an edge more than 30 inches (762 mm) above grade at such edge, a level platform shall be provided on each side of the appliance to which access is required for service, repair or maintenance. The platform shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in any dimension and shall be provided with guards. The guards shall extend not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the platform, shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a 21-inch-diameter (533 mm) sphere and shall comply with the loading requirements for guards specified in the Building Code of New York State .
A receptacle outlet shall be provided at or near the equipment location in accordance with Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State.
Liquid combustion by-products of condensing appliances shall be collected and discharged to an approved plumbing fixture or disposal area in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Condensate piping shall be of approved corrosion-resistant material and shall not be smaller than the drain connection on the appliance. Such piping shall maintain a minimum horizontal slope in the direction of discharge of not less than one-eighth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope).
Condensate drain systems shall be provided for equipment and appliances containing evaporators or cooling coils. Condensate drain systems shall be designed, constructed and installed in accordance with Sections 307.2.1 through 307.2.4.
Condensate from all cooling coils and evaporators shall be conveyed from the drain pan outlet to an approved plumbing fixture or disposal area outdoors. Condensate shall not discharge into a street, alley or other areas so as to cause a nuisance.
Components of the condensate disposal system shall be cast iron, galvanized steel, copper, cross-linked polyethylene, polybutylene, polyethylene, ABS, CPVC or PVC pipe or tubing. All components shall be selected for the pressure and temperature rating of the installation. Condensate waste and drain line size shall be not less than 3 / 4 -inch (19 mm) internal diameter and shall not decrease in size from the drain pan connection to the place of condensate disposal. Where the drain pipes from more than one unit are manifolded together for condensate drainage, the pipe or tubing shall be sized in accordance with an approved method. All horizontal sections of drain piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at a uniform slope.
In addition to the requirements of Section 307.2.1, a secondary drain or auxiliary drain pan shall be required for each cooling or evaporator coil or fuel-fired appliance that produces condensate where damage to any building components will occur as a result of overflow from the equipment drain pan or stoppage in the condensate drain piping. One of the following methods shall be used:
1. An auxiliary drain pan with a separate drain shall be provided under the coils on which condensation will occur. The auxiliary pan drain shall discharge to a conspicuous point of disposal to alert occupants in the event of a stoppage of the primary drain. The pan shall have a minimum depth of 1.5 inches (38 mm), shall not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) larger than the unit or the coil dimensions in width and length and shall be constructed of corrosion-resistant material. Metallic pans shall have a minimum thickness of not less than 0.0276-inch (0.7 mm) galvanized sheet metal. Nonmetallic pans shall have a minimum thickness of not less than 0.0625 inch (1.6 mm).
2. A separate overflow drain line shall be connected to the drain pan provided with the equipment. Such overflow drain shall discharge to a conspicuous point of disposal to alert occupants in the event of a stoppage of the primary drain. The overflow drain line shall connect to the drain pan at a higher level than the primary drain connection.
3. An auxiliary drain pan without a separate drain line shall be provided under the coils on which condensate will occur. Such pan shall be equipped with a water-level detection device conforming to UL 508 that will shut off the equipment served prior to overflow of the pan. The auxiliary drain pan shall be constructed in accordance with Item 1 of this section.
4. A water level detection device conforming to UL 508 shall be provided that will shut off the equipment served in the event that the primary drain is blocked. The device shall be installed in the primary drain line, the overflow drain line, or in the equipment-supplied drain pan, located at a point higher than the primary drain line connection and below the overflow rim of such pan.

Exception:
Fuel-fired appliances that automatically shut down operation in the event of a stoppage in the condensate drainage system.
On down-flow units and all other coils that do not have a secondary drain and do not have a means to install an auxiliary drain pan, a water-level monitoring device shall be installed inside the primary drain pan. This device shall shut off the equipment served in the event that the primary drain becomes restricted. Externally installed devices and devices installed in the drain line shall not be permitted.
Condensate drains shall be trapped as required by the equipment or appliance manufacturer.
This section shall govern the reduction in required clearances to combustible materials and combustible assemblies for chimneys, vents, kitchen exhaust equipment, mechanical appliances, and mechanical devices and equipment.
The reduction of the required clearances to combustibles for listed and labeled appliances and equipment shall be in accordance with the requirements of this section except that such clearances shall not be reduced where reduction is specifically prohibited by the terms of the appliance or equipment listing.
Reduced clearance protective assemblies, including structural and support elements, shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Spacers utilized to maintain an airspace between the protective assembly and the protected material or assembly shall be noncombustible. Where a space between the protective assembly and protected combustible material or assembly is specified, the same space shall be provided around the edges of the protective assembly and the spacers shall be placed so as to allow air circulation by convection in such space. Protective assemblies shall not be placed less than 1 inch (25 mm) from the mechanical appliances, devices or equipment, regardless of the allowable reduced clearance.
The reduction of required clearances to combustible assemblies or combustible materials shall be based on the utilization of a reduced clearance protective assembly in accordance with Section 308.5 or 308.6.
The allowable clearance reduction shall be based on an approved reduced clearance protective assembly that has been tested and bears the label of an approved agency.
The allowable clearance reduction shall be based on one of the methods specified in Table 308.6. Where required clearances are not listed in Table 308.6, the reduced clearances shall be determined by linear interpolation between the distances listed in the table. Reduced clearances shall not be derived by extrapolation below the range of the table.

TABLE 308.6 CLEARANCE REDUCTION METHODS


TYPE OF PROTECTIVE ASSEMBLYa
REDUCED CLEARANCE WITH PROTECTION (inches)a
Horizontal combustible assemblies located above the heat source Horizontal combustible assemblies located beneath the heat source and all vertical combustible assemblies
Required clearance to combustibles without protection (inches)a Required clearance to combustibles without protection (inches)a
36 18 9 6 36 18 9 6
Galvanized sheet metal, minimum nominal thickness of 0.024 inch (No. 24 Gage), mounted on 1-inch
glass fiber or mineral wool batt reinforced with wire
on the back, 1 inch off the combustible assembly
18 9 5 3 12 6 3 3
Galvanized sheet metal, minimum nominal thickness
of 0.024 inch (No. 24 Gage), spaced 1 inch off the combustible assembly
18 9 5 3 12 6 3 2
Two layers of galvanized sheet metal, minimum
nominal thickness of 0.024 inch (No. 24 Gage), hav-ing a 1-inch airspace between layers, spaced 1 inch off the combustible assembly
18 9 5 3 12 6 3 3
Two layers of galvanized sheet metal, minimum nominal thickness of 0.024 inch (No. 24 Gage), hav-ing 1 inch of fiberglass insulation between layers, spaced 1 inch off the combustible assembly 18 9 5 3 12 6 3 3
0.5-inch inorganic insulating board, over 1 inch of fiberglass or mineral wool batt, against the combustible assembly 24 12 6 4 18 9 5 3
3.5-inch brick wall, spaced 1 inch off the combustible wall 12 6 6 6
3.5-inch brick wall, against the combustible wall 24 12 6 5


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3, 1.0 Btu in/ft2 h °F = 0.144 W/m2 K.
   
a. Mineral wool and glass fiber batts (blanket or board) shall have a minimum density of 8 pounds per cubic foot and a minimum melting point of 1,500°F. Insulation material utilized as part of a clearance reduction system shall have a thermal conductivity of 1.0 Btu in./(ft2 h °F) or less. Insulation board shall be formed of noncombustible material.
The clearance reduction methods specified in Table 308.6 shall not be utilized to reduce the clearance required for solid fuel-burning appliances that are labeled for installation with clearances of 12 inches (305 mm) or less. Where appliances are labeled for installation with clearances of greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the clearance reduction methods of Table 308.6 shall not reduce the clearance to less than 12 inches (305 mm).
The clearance reduction methods specified in Table 308.6 shall not be utilized to reduce the clearances required for masonry chimneys as specified in Chapter 8 and the Building Code of New York State.
The clearance reduction methods specified in Table 308.6 shall not be utilized to reduce the clearances required for chimney connector pass-throughs as specified in Section 803.10.4.
The clearance reduction methods specified in Table 308.6 shall not be utilized to reduce the clearances required for masonry fireplaces as specified in Chapter 8 and the Building Code of New York State.
The clearance reduction methods specified in Table 308.6 shall not be utilized to reduce the minimum clearances required by Section 506.3.10 for kitchen exhaust ducts enclosed in a shaft.
Interior spaces intended for human occupancy shall be provided with active or passive space-heating systems capable of maintaining a minimum indoor temperature of 68°F (20°C) at a point 3 feet (914 mm) above floor on the design heating day. The installation of portable space heaters shall not be used to achieve compliance with this section. [B]

Exception:
Interior spaces where the primary purpose is not associated with human comfort.
Structures occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards shall be provided with explosion control where required by the Fire Code of New York State. Explosion control systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 911 of the Fire Code of New York State. [F]
Approved smoke and heat vents shall be installed in the roofs of one-story buildings where required by the Fire Code of New York State. Smoke and heat vents shall be designed and installed in accordance with the Fire Code of New York State. [F]
Heating and cooling system design loads for the purpose of sizing systems, appliances and equipment shall be determined in accordance with the procedures described in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. Heating and cooling loads shall be adjusted to account for load reductions that are achieved when energy recovery systems are utilized in the HVAC system in accordance with the ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment. Alternatively, design loads shall be determined by an approved equivalent computation procedure, using the design parameters specified in Chapter 3 of the Energy Conservation Construction Code of New York State.

  
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