Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Precautions Against Fire

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finish‚ Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Thermal Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 20 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 21 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 23 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 24 Tents‚ Canopies and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 27 Hazardous Materials-General Provisions

Chapter 28 Aerosols

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 33 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 40 Oxidizers

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 44 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 45 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Reserved

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids-Weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Identification of Buildings Utilizing Truss and Type Construction

The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems.
The code enforcement official shall have the authority to require construction documents and calculations for all fire protection systems and to require permits be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation.
Before requesting final approval of the installation, where required by the code enforcement official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written statement to the code enforcement official that the subject fire protection system has been installed in accordance with approved plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and the appropriate installation standard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall be attached to the written statement.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 109.
Fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the original installation standards for that system. Required systems shall be extended, altered, or augmented as necessary to maintain and continue protection whenever the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alterations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance with applicable standards.
Fire protection systems required by this code, the Building Code of New York State or the Existing Building Code of New York State shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and maintained in accordance with this code.
Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code, the Building Code of New York State or the Existing Building Code of New York State shall be allowed to be furnished for partial or complete protection provided such installed system meets the requirements of this code, the Building Code of New York State or the Existing Building Code of New York State .
Any device that has the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protection function, shall be prohibited.
Fire detection and alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant systems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurtenances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained in the installation standards and as approved by the code enforcement official. The code enforcement official shall be notified before any required acceptance testing.
It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the required fire detection, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and approved.
Fire detection, alarm and extinguishing systems shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or removed.
Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1.

TABLE 901.6.1 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

SYSTEM STANDARD
Portable fire extinguishers NFPA 10
Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system NFPA 12
Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems NFPA 12A
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems NFPA 17
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems NFPA 17A
Water-based fire protection systems NFPA 25
Fire alarm systems NFPA 72
Water-mist systems NFPA 750
Clean-agent extinguishing systems NFPA 2001
Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of ten years and shall be copied to the code enforcement official upon request.
Initial records shall include the name of the installation contractor, type of components installed, manufacturer of the components, location and number of components installed per floor. Records shall also include the manufacturers’ operation and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall be maintained on the premises.
Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the code enforcement official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the code enforcement official, the building shall either be evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shut down until the fire protection system has been returned to service.

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.

Exception: The code enforcement official is permitted to waive the requirement for evacuation or a fire watch where there is not a substantial risk to life safety or where alternatives to maintain an equivalent level of safety are prescribed.
The building owner shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator.
A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service.
The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. The code enforcement official shall specify where the tag is to be placed.
Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:
1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.
2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.
3. Recommendations have been submitted to management or building owner/manager.
4. The fire department has been notified.
5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building owner/manager, and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.
6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.
7. A tag impairment system has been implemented.
8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.
When unplanned impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Section 901.7.4.
When impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented:
1. Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.
2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.
3. The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.
4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.
5. The impairment tag has been removed.
It shall be prohibited for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire suppression system, or other fire appliance required by this code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training purposes, recharging or making necessary repairs, or when approved by the code enforcement official.
Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals which have been installed by or at the direction of the code enforcement official shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any manner.
Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The code enforcement official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light, or text display that provides audible, tactile, or visible outputs, or any combination thereof.

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.

ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays, or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.

AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, is a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise, or combustion products.

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment which automatically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire.

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period.

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism.

CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile, or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation.

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.

DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.

DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat produced by burning substances. Heat is the energy produced by combustion that causes substances to rise in temperature.

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities.

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide indication and warning of emergency situations involving hazardous materials.

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a building.

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual fire alarm box."

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices and is capable of supplying power to detection devices and transponder(s) of off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit is capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays of devices.

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, water-flow switch, or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate response to those signals.

FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls, or fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies of a building. [B]

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof.

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for occupants or to control the spread of the harmful effects of fire.

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically or chemically, over the area to be protected.

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an element from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible for the maintenance of a particular fire protection system.

INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch.

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal.

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate.

NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical failure, malfunction, improper installation, or lack of proper maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be determined.

RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that document the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, sequences, wiring methods, and connections of the components of a fire alarm system as installed.

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control equipment, and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units. [B]

SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm responsive to smoke and not connected to a system.

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe classes are as follows:

Class I system. A system providing 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.
Class II system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the building occupants or by the fire department during initial response.
Class III system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants and 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.
STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows:

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water supply that is capable of supplying the system demand automatically.
Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire department connection in order to supply the system demand.
Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the system but which does not have a water supply capable of delivering the system demand attached to the system. Manual wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to supply the system demand.
Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection. A remote control activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.
SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond to these signals.

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life and property.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the fire suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance features of related systems.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiating device such as a valve supervisory switch, water level indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler system whose change of state signals an off-normal condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety system; or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance features of related systems.

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3).

TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or component.

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, forming an extinguishing agent.

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid of wire.

ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area to which a signal can be sent, or an area in which a form of control can be executed.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the code enforcement official .
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in this section.

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire alarm system and are separated from the remainder of the building by fire barriers consisting of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and 2-hour fire-resistance-rated floor/ ceiling assemblies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3, and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor area where the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and in all floors between the Group A occupancy and the level of exit discharge. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);
2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more;
3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the level of exit discharge; or
4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (465 m2);
2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more; or
3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the level of exit discharge.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);
2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more; or
3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the level of exit discharge.

Exception: Areas used exclusively as participant sports areas where the main floor area is located at the same level as the level of exit discharge of the main entrance and exit.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:
1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);
2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more; or
3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the level of exit discharge.

Exception: Areas used exclusively as participant sports areas where the main floor area is located at the same level as the level of exit discharge of the main entrance and exit.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes, and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:
1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 20,000 square feet (1858 m2) in area.
2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the level of exit discharge.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any fire area or area below the level of exit discharge where every classroom throughout the building has at least one exterior exit door at ground level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
1. Where a Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);
2. Where a Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane; or
3. Where the combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m 2 ) which generate finely divided combustible waste or which use finely divided combustible materials.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.4.1 through 903.2.4.3.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that required under the Building Code of New York State for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.4.2.

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

TABLE 903.2.4.2 GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

LOCATION OCCUPANCY HAZARD
CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areas Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensing Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensing Extra Hazard Group 2
Corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 shall be allowed in Group I-1 facilities.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
1. Where a Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);
2. Where a Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane; or
3. Where the combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided as required in Chapter 23 in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);
2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane;
3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2); or
4. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with the Building Code of New York State , as follows:
1. Buildings two or more stories in height, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
2. One-story buildings with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
3. Buildings with a repair garage servicing vehicles parked in the basement.
Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m 3 ) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.4 of the Building Code of New York State or where located beneath other groups.

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m 2 ).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.10.1 through 903.2.10.1.3.

Exception: Group R-3 and Group U.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in every story or basement of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m 2 ) and where there is not provided at least one of the following types of exterior wall openings:
1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side.
2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side.
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall be provided on at least two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.10.1, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes extending through three or more floors shall have additional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at alternate floors. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 or more that is located 30 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:
1. Airport control towers.
2. Open parking structures.
3. Occupancies in Group F-2.
Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 1413.
Automatic sprinkler protection shall be provided for the hazards indicated in Sections 903.2.12.1 and 903.2.12.2.
Where required by the Mechanical Code of New York State , automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust, flammable or combustible materials.

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in a commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.
In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.13 also require the installation of a suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

TABLE 903.2.13 ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS

SECTION SUBJECT
914.2.1 Covered malls
914.3.1 High rise buildings
914.4.1 Atriums
914.5.1 Underground structures
914.6.1 Stages
914.7.1 Special amusement buildings
914.8.2,
914.8.5
Aircraft hangars
914.9 Flammable finishes
914.10 Drying rooms
1025.6.2.3 Smoke-protected seating
1208.2 Dry cleaning plants
1208.3 Dry cleaning machines
1504.2 Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R
1504.4 Spray booths and spray rooms
1505.2 Dip-tank rooms in Group A, I or R
1505.4.1 Dip tanks
1505.9.4 Hardening and tempering tanks
1803.10 HPM facilities
1803.10.1.1 HPM work station exhaust
1803.10.2 HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures
1803.10.3 HPM exit access corridor
1803.10.4 HPM exhaust ducts
1803.10.4.1 HPM noncombustible ducts
1803.10.4.2 HPM combustible ducts
1907.3 Lumber production conveyor enclosures
1908.7 Recycling facility conveyor enclosures

(continued)


TABLE 903.2.13-continued

ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS


SECTION SUBJECT
2106.1 Class A and B ovens
2106.2 Class C and D ovens
2209.3.2.6.2 Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies
Table 2306.2 Storage fire protection
2306.4 Storage
2703.8.4.1 Gas rooms
2703.8.5.3 Exhausted enclosures
2704.5 Indoor storage of hazardous materials
2705.1.8 Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials
2804.4.1 Aerosol warehouses
2806.3.2 Aerosol display and merchandising areas
2904.5 Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose combustible fibers
3404.3.7.5.1 Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms
3404.3.8.4 Flammable and combustible liquid storage warehouses
3405.3.7.3 Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or H-3 areas
3704.1.2 Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas
3704.1.3 Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas
3704.2.2.6 Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas
3704.3.3 Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas
4106.2.2 Exhausted enclosures or gas cabinets for silane gas
4204.1.1 Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets
4204.1.3 Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults
4204.2 Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.7.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1.
Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from any room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance rated construction or contains electrical equipment.
1. Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
2. Any room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, when approved by the code enforcement official.
3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.
4. In rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.
Where allowed in buildings of Group R, up to and including four stories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units where the building is of Type V construction. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.
Where allowed, automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:
1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing patient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the Building Code of New York State.
2. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R and I-1 occupancies.
3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the Plumbing Code of New York State .
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.
Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to be connected to the domestic service where a wet automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area sprinkler systems connected to domestic water supplies shall comply with each of the following requirements:
1. Valves shall not be installed between the domestic water riser control valve and the sprinklers.

Exception: An approved indicating control valve supervised in the open position in accordance with Section 903.4.
2. The domestic service shall be capable of supplying the simultaneous domestic demand and the sprinkler demand required to be hydraulically calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or NFPA 13D.
A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.
A secondary on-site water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings in Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by the Building Code of New York State . The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occupancy hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 13.

Exception: Existing buildings.
Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the code enforcement official.
The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the code enforcement official.
All valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures, and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised.

Exceptions:

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.
3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.
Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved central station, remote supervising station or proprietary supervising station as defined in NFPA 72 or, when approved by the code enforcement official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Exceptions:
1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
Approved audible devices shall be connected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall be provided on the exterior of the building in an approved location. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.
The provisions of this section are intended to provide a reasonable degree of safety in existing structures not complying with the minimum requirements of the Building Code of New York State by requiring installation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system.
When work is completed in accordance with the Existing Building Code of New York State , all structures occupied for the manufacture or storage of articles of cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin) plastic shall be equipped with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system. Vaults located within buildings for the storage of raw pyroxylin shall be protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system capable of discharging 1.66 gallons per minute per square foot (68 L/min/m 2 ) over the area of the vault.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the code enforcement official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State .
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1.
Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.10.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems at unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be monitored by an approved supervising station.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.
Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, the following items shall be inspected:
1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.
3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
5. Identification of devices with proper designations.
6. Operating instructions.
Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and their listing.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 25.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall be verified at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced.
The liquid-level gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
Hoses shall be tested at not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in proper operating condition.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of containers shall be checked at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At 5-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating condition.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall be checked at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at 5-year intervals.
The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.
2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.
3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.
4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.
5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the Mechanical Code of New York State.
A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.
The actuation of the fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
When carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. When the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) travel distance of commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment involving vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected by a Class K rated portable extinguisher.
All solid fuel cooking appliances, whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet (0.14 m 3 ) or less in volume shall have a minimum 2.5 gallon (9 L) or two 1.5 gallon (6 L) Class K wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accordance with Section 904.11.5.
When hazard areas include deep fat fryers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:
1. For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: One Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5 gallon ( 6 L) capacity.
2. For every additional group of four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: One additional Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5 gallon (6 L) capacity shall be provided.
3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 m2) in surface area: Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer's recommendations.
Fire protection equipment and systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with this section.
Fire protection equipment protecting commercial cooking systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.6.
904.11.6.4 Extinguishing system service. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least every 6 months and after activation of the system. Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certificate of inspection shall be forwarded to the code enforcement official upon completion.
904.11.6.5 Fusible link and sprinkler head replacement. Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, and other protection devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be replaced annually.
Water-mist systems shall conform with the provisions of NFPA 750 for design, installation, inspection, testing and maintenance. All devices and appurtenances shall be listed and installed in conformance with the terms of the listing.
Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 23.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14.
Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.7 and in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 905.5 and 905.6. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.
Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:
1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider:
5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less, and
5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.
Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

Exceptions:
1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.
2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings where the highest floor surface used for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or less above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
A covered mall building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Covered mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to a sprinkler system. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:
1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways opening directly on the mall.
3. At exterior public entrances to the mall.
The installation of Class I hose connections, when required by Section 905.3.3, shall be sized to deliver 250 gallons per minute (946 L/min) at 100 pounds per square inch (689.4 kPa) from the two most hydraulically remote outlets without sprinkler demand and the single most hydraulically remote outlet with sprinkler demand. This shall be achieved with a maximum supply pressure at the fire department connection of not more than 175 pounds per square inch (1206.6 kPa).
Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 1 1 / 2 -inch and 2 1 / 2 -inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 1 1 / 2 inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.
The 1 1 / 2 -inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 1 1 / 2 -inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a helistop or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall extend the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 1107.5.
Marinas and boatyards shall be equipped throughout with standpipe systems in accordance with NFPA 303.
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved by the code enforcement official. Non-required enclosed stairways are not required to have hose connections. Stairways without hose connections shall have a sign on the door to the stairway stating "No standpipe connections in stairway."
2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.
3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.
4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3 percent slope), each standpipe shall be provided with a hose connection located either on the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection shall be provided at the top of the most hydraulically remote standpipe for testing purposes.
6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the code enforcement official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.
Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.
In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.
In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony, and on each tier of dressing rooms.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the code enforcement official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected at the bottom.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.
Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:
1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.
Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:
1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.
2. Approved locking arrangements.
3. Group I-3 occupancies.
Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.
Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted to the control unit.

Exceptions:

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.
Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 1413.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in the following locations.

1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I , M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.
2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 1415.1.
5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.
6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the code enforcement official.

TABLE 906.1 ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

SECTION SUBJECT
303.5 Asphalt kettles
307.5 Open burning
308.4 Open flames—torches
309.4 Powered industrial trucks
1105.2 Aircraft towing vehicles
1105.3 Aircraft welding apparatus
1105.4 Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
1105.5 Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
1105.6 Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
1107.7 Heliports and helistops
1208.4 Dry cleaning plants
1415.1 Buildings under construction or demolition
1417.3 Roofing operations
1504.4.1 Spray-finishing operations
1505.4.2 Dip-tank operations
1506.4.2 Powder-coating areas
1904.2 Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
1908.8 Recycling facilities
1909.5 Exterior lumber storage
2003.5 Organic-coating areas
2106.3 Industrial ovens
2205.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2210.6.4 Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2211.6 Repair garages
2306.10 Rack storage
2404.12 Tents, canopies and membrane structures
2508.2 Tire rebuilding/storage
2604.2.6 Welding and other hot work
2903.6 Combustible fibers
3403.2.1 Flammable and combustible liquids, general
3404.3.3.1 Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
3404.3.7.5.2 Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids
3405.4.9 Solvent distillation units
3406.2.7 Farms and construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage
3406.4.10.1 Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids
3406.5.4.5 Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing
3406.6.4 Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
3606.5.7 Flammable solids
Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.

Exceptions:

1. The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
2. 30-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.
2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.
2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.
2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every three years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.
2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to ensure that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.
For occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1). Fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2). Fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) or involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10. Extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or Class B hazard.

TABLE 906.3(1) FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

  LIGHT (Low)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
ORDINARY
(Moderate)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
EXTRA
(High)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
Minimum Rated Single
Extinguisher
2-Ac 2-A 4-Aa
Maximum Floor Area Per
Unit of A
3,000
square feet
1,500
square feet
1,000
square feet
Maximum Floor Area For
Extinguisherb
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
Maximum Trave
Distance to Extinguisher
75 feet 75 feet 75 feet


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. Two 2.5-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.

b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.

c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

TABLE 906.3(2) FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCH


TYPE OF HAZARD BASIC MINIMUM
EXTINGUISHER

RATING
MAXIMUM TRAVEL
DISTANCE TO

EXTINGUISHERS (feet)
Light (Low) 5-B 30
10-B 50
Ordinary (Moderate) 10-B 30
20-B 50
Extra (High) 40-B 30
80-B 50


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

NOTE. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 4.3 of NFPA 10
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.11.5.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the code enforcement official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.

Exceptions:

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.
2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that its top is not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that its top is not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor. The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components in new and existing buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.3 are applicable to existing buildings and structures.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation. Construction documents shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following:
1. A floor plan which indicates the use of all rooms.
2. Locations of alarm-initiating and notification appliances.
3. Alarm control and trouble signaling equipment.
4. Annunciation.
5. Power connection.
6. Battery calculations.
7. Conductor type and sizes.
8. Voltage drop calculations.
9. Manufacturers, model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.
10. Details of ceiling height and construction.
11. The interface of fire safety control functions.
Systems and their components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.
An approved manual fire alarm system, automatic fire detection system or automatic heat detection system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.10 unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code. Where automatic sprinkler protection installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 is provided and connected to the building fire alarm system, automatic heat detection required by this section shall not be required.

The automatic fire detectors shall be smoke detectors. Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of automatic smoke detection, other automatic fire detection shall be allowed.
A manual fire alarm system and automatic fire detection system shall be installed in Group A occupancies. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.
Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.
Emergency voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided with an approved emergency power source.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
Areas of Group B buildings that are not protected by an automatic sprinkler system and that have an occupant load of more than 100 persons shall be provided with automatic fire detection or automatic heat detection installed in accordance with NFPA 72.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exceptions:
1. Group E occupancies with an occupant load of less than 50.
2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:
2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors with alarm verification.
2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and the like are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
2.4. Off-premises monitoring is provided.
2.5. The capability to activate the evacuation signal from a central point is provided.
2.6. In buildings where normally occupied spaces are provided with a two-way communication system between such spaces and a constantly attended receiving station from where a general evacuation alarm can be sounded, except in locations specifically designated by the code enforcement official.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group F occupancies that have an occupant load of 100 or more.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic fire detection system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 37, 39 and 40, respectively.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic fire detection system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1 and 907.2.6.2.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.4.1 are not exceeded.
Corridors, habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens, and waiting areas that are open to corridors shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detection system.

Exceptions:
1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior balconies.
Corridors in nursing homes (both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 of the Building Code of New York State shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.2 of the Building Code of New York State.

Exceptions:
1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain patient sleeping units where patient sleeping units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each patient sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the nursing station attending each unit.
2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain patient sleeping units where patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic fire detection system installed for alerting staff.
Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal which automatically notifies staff. Pre-signal systems shall not be used.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.

Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.
An approved automatic fire detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to residents.

Exceptions:
1. Other approved smoke-detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.
2. Sleeping units in Use conditions 2 and 3.
3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group M occupancies having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. The initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box shall initiate alarm notification appliances as required by Section 907.10.

Exceptions:
1. Covered mall buildings complying with Section 402.
2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped thoughout with an automatic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appliances with automatically activate upon sprinkler water flow.
During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a water flow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.

The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.
Areas of Group M buildings that are not protected by an automatic sprinkler system and that have an occupant load of more than 100 persons shall be provided with automatic smoke detection or automatic heat detection installed in accordance with NFPA 72.
Fire alarm systems shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies.

Exception: A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.
An automatic fire detection system shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.

Exception: An automatic fire detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Smoke alarms shall be installed as required by Section 907.2.10. In buildings that are not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the smoke alarms in sleeping units shall be connected to an emergency electrical system and shall be annunciated by sleeping unit at a constantly attended location from which the fire alarm system is capable of being manually activated.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where:
1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge;
2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit; or
3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.

Exceptions:
1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.
2. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1023.6, Exception 4.
An approved automatic fire detection system shall be installed in all Group R-2 occupancies used as dormitories, fraternities, sororities and similar student housing in accordance with this section.
Automatic fire detection shall be provided in common and utility spaces outside of dwelling and sleeping units including but not limited to recreation rooms, lounges, dining rooms, laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms and storage rooms.
Automatic fire detection shall be required in corridors and exits.
Automatic fire detection shall be installed in dwelling units and sleeping units. The automatic fire detectors shall be installed to send a supervisory signal upon activation of one fire detector. For sleeping units or dwelling units that are equipped with more than one fire detector, a fire alarm signal shall be sent upon activation of two or more fire detectors within a sleeping unit or dwelling unit.
Notification devices shall be provided in dwelling units and sleeping units meeting the audible requirements of this code and NFPA 72. The notification appliances in dwelling units and sleeping units shall activate when an initiation device activates within the dwelling unit or sleeping unit or when the building fire alarm system is activated.

Exception: In high-rise buildings, the building fire alarm shall activate in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and the household fire-warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in the locations described in Sections 907.2.10.1.1 through 907.2.10.1.3.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:
1. In sleeping areas.
2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.
3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:
1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.
2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.
3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

Exception: Group R-2 occupancies used as dormitories, fraternities, sororities and similar student housing meeting the requirements of 907.2.9.1.3.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in sleeping areas in Group I-1 occupancies.

Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall not be required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.6.
In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup in Group R-1 where they are connected to an emergency electrical system.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-2, R-3 or R-4, or within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-1, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.
When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each detector and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the household fire warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72.
An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special amusement buildings in accordance with this section.

Exception: In areas where ambient conditions will cause a smoke detection system to alarm, an approved alternative type of automatic detector shall be installed.
Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.11.2.
The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector with alarm verification, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically:
1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking surface level;
2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions; and
3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency.

Such system response shall also include activation of a prerecorded message, clearly audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.

The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
Buildings with a floor used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be provided with an automatic fire alarm system and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.

Exceptions:
1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the Building Code of New York State.
2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3 of the Building Code of New York State.
3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1 of the Building Code of New York State.
4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1 of the Building Code of New York State.
5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the Building Code of New York State.
Smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall operate the emergency voice/alarm communication system. Smoke detectors shall be located as follows:
1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room which is not provided with sprinkler protection, elevator machine rooms, and in elevator lobbies.
2. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
3. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return-air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.
The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler water-flow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation on a minimum of the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below in accordance with the building’s fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. As a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:
1. Elevator groups.
2. Exit stairways.
3. Each floor.
4. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002.1.

Exception: In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.
A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall also have the capability to broadcast live voice messages through paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.
An approved two-way, fire department communication system designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 shall be provided for fire department use. It shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 509 and elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the enclosed exit stairway.

Exception: Fire department radio systems where approved by the fire department.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.7. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.2.12.2.
An automatic fire detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 2306.5.
Where delayed egress locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.8.6, an automatic smoke or heat detection system shall be installed as required by that section.
Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by this code.
Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system.
Where a smoke exhaust system is installed in an underground building in accordance with the Building Code of New York State , automatic fire detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section.
A minimum of one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in the following areas:
1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.
2. Elevator lobbies.
3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return-air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air inlet openings.
Activation of the smoke exhaust system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location.
Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
Where a fire alarm system is not required by Section 907.2, a public address system shall be provided which shall be capable of transmitting voice communications to the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the structure and all levels below.
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
A minimum of one listed smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in the Building Code of New York State and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm which will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.
An automatic fire detection system shall be provided in airport traffic control towers.
An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems having a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L). The detection system shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary, or remote station service or a local alarm which will sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in existing buildings in accordance with Sections 907.3.1 and 907.3.2.
Existing Building Code of New York State. When required by the Existing Building Code of New York State , an approved manual fire alarm system, automatic fire detection system, or heat detection system shall be provided in the occupancies listed in Sections 907.3.1.1 through 907.3.1.8 and installed in accordance with this Code and NFPA 72. Where automatic sprinkler protection is provided in accordance with 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and connected to the building fire alarm, automatic heat detection shall not be required.

Exception: Occupancies with an existing, previously approved fire alarm system.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group E occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.3.

Exceptions:
1. A building with a maximum area of 1,000 square feet (93 m2) that contains a single classroom and is located no closer than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from another building.
2. Group E with an occupant load less than 50.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group I-1 residential care/assisted living facilities.

Exception: Where each sleeping room has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior egress balcony that leads directly to the exits in accordance with Section 1014.5, and the building is not more than three stories in height.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group I-2 occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.6.2.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group I-3 occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group R-1 hotels and motels more than three stories or with more than 20 sleeping units.

Exception: Buildings less than two stories in height where all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are separated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction and each sleeping unit has direct access to a public way, exit court or yard.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group R-1 boarding and rooming houses.

Exception: Buildings that have single-station smoke alarms meeting or exceeding the requirements of Section 907.2.10.1 and where the fire alarm system includes at least one manual fire alarm box per floor arranged to initiate the alarm.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group R-2 occupancies more than three stories in height or with more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.

Exceptions:
1. Where each living unit is separated from other contiguous living units by fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 0.75 hour, and where each living unit has either its own independent exit or its own independent stairway or ramp discharging at grade.
2. A separate fire alarm system is not required in buildings that are equipped throughout with an approved supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and having a local alarm to notify all occupants.
3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1023.6, Exception 4.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group R-4 residential care/assisted living facilities.

Exceptions:
1. Where there are interconnected smoke alarms meeting the requirements of Section 907.2.10 and there is at least one manual fire alarm box per floor arranged to sound continuously the smoke alarms.
2. Other manually activated, continuously sounding alarms approved by the code enforcement official.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in existing Group R occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.3.2.1 through 907.3.2.3.
Existing Group R occupancies not already provided with single-station smoke alarms shall be provided with approved single-station smoke alarms. Installation shall be in accordance with Section 907.2.10, except as provided in Sections 907.3.2.2 and 907.3.2.3.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit in Group R-2, R-3 or R-4, or within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-1, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

Exceptions:
1. Interconnection is not required in buildings that are not undergoing alterations, repairs or construction of any kind.
2. Smoke alarms in existing areas are not required to be interconnected where alterations or repairs do not result in the removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for interconnection without the removal of interior finishes.
In Group R occupancies, single-station smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring provided that such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery operated: in existing buildings where no construction is taking place; in buildings that are not served from a commercial power source; and in existing areas of buildings undergoing alterations or repairs that do not result in the removal of interior walls or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basement available which could provide access for building wiring without the removal of interior finishes.
In addition to all other requirements, portable smoke alarms of both audible and visual design shall be provided in all buildings of Group R-1 occupancy. The number of smoke alarms available shall be three percent of the number of sleeping units with a minimum of one operational smoke alarm per building. Proprietors shall post conspicuously a sign, with letters at least 3 inches (76 mm) in height, at the main desk or other similar station advising of the availability of such smoke alarms. Such smoke alarms shall be in conformity with NFPA 72 and shall have a minimum visible effective intensity rating of 100 candela. Hard wiring of audible/visual smoke alarms into an existing central fire system shall be permitted in lieu of such portable smoke alarms. Where a fire alarm system is required by this code or other applicable law or regulation, visual indicating smoke alarms shall be incorporated into or connected to the fire alarm system, such that visual notification is activated by the system.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 907.4.5.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

Exception: In buildings protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the travel distance to the nearest box shall not apply.
The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.
Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.
The code enforcement official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved.
The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.
Wiring shall comply with the requirements of the Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.
Where an alarm notification system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:

1. Required automatic fire alarm system.
2. Sprinkler water-flow devices.
3. Required manual fire alarm boxes.
Presignal systems shall not be installed unless approved by the code enforcement official and the fire department. Where a presignal system is installed, 24-hour personnel supervision shall be provided at a location approved by the fire department, in order that the alarm signal can be actuated in the event of fire or other emergency.
Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direction.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13.
A zoning indicator panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible alarm silencing switch.
In buildings with a floor used for human occupancy that is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for all of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided:
1. Smoke detectors.
2. Sprinkler water-flow devices.
3. Manual fire alarm boxes.
4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection devices or suppression systems.
Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose.
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.10.1.1 through 907.10.1.4.

Exceptions:
1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.
2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Section 1002.1.
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public areas and common areas.
Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with a minimum of 20 percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing impaired employee(s).
Group I-1 and R-1 sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.10.1.3 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

TABLE 907.10.1.3 VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS

NUMBER OF SLEEPING UNITS SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS
WITH VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE

ALARMS
6 to 25 2
26 to 50 4
51 to 75 7
76 to 100 9
101 to 150 12
151 to 200 14
201 to 300 17
301 to 400 20
401 to 500 22
501 to 1,000 5% of total
1,001 and over 50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000
In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with ICC A117.1.
Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and sound a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm. The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupied space within the building. The minimum sound pressure levels shall be: 70 dBA in occupancies in Groups R and I-1; 90 dBA in mechanical equipment rooms; and 60 dBA in other occupancies. The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 120 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 105 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.

Exception: Visible alarm notification appliances shall be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appliances in critical care areas of Group I-2 occupancies.
Automatic fire detectors utilized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control panel where a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be located in accordance with of NFPA 72.
Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control panel when a fire alarm system is provided. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. Duct smoke detectors shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

Exceptions:

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building’s alarm notification appliances.
2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.
Access shall be provided to each detector for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be connected to the building fire alarm system where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code or is otherwise installed.
Fire alarm systems required by this chapter or by the Building Code of New York State shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Supervisory service is not required for:

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.10.
2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.
3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.
Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number unless approved by the fire chief.
Upon completion of the installation of the fire alarm system, alarm notification appliances and circuits, alarm-initiating devices and circuits, supervisory-signal initiating devices and circuits, signaling line circuits, and primary and secondary power supplies shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72.
A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided.
Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings ("as builts") and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location.
The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with this section and NFPA 72.
Whenever or wherever any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection or any other feature is required for compliance with the provisions of this code, such device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection or other feature shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as directed by the code enforcement official.
Testing shall be performed in accordance with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where required by the code enforcement official. Where automatic testing is performed at least weekly by a remotely monitored fire alarm control unit specifically listed for the application, the manual testing frequency shall be permitted to be extended to annual.

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the code enforcement official, but not less than every 18 months.
Detector sensitivity shall be checked within one year after installation and every alternate year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4-percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the length of time between calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to a maximum of five years. Where the frequency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed.
To ensure that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using either a calibrated test method, the manufacturer’s calibrated sensitivity test instrument, listed control equipment arranged for the purpose, a smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where its sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range or other calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the code enforcement official. Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced.

Exceptions:
1. Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced.
2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.
Detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured using a device that administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the detector.
The building owner shall be responsible for ensuring that the fire and life safety systems are maintained in an operable condition at all times. Service personnel shall meet the qualification requirements of NFPA 72 for maintaining, inspecting and testing such systems. A written record shall be maintained and shall be made available to the code enforcement official.
Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 27.
Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 1803.12. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 1803.13.
Where required by Section 3704.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed gases.
A gas detection system shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance with Section 3705.3.2.
A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 2211.7.2.
Refrigeration system machinery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in accordance with Section 606.8.
This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems when they are required for new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the Building Code of New York State or this code. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations, or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heat-venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the Mechanical Code of New York State.
The following definitions are added for the purposes of this section only.

PRESSURIZATION. The creation and maintenance of pressure levels in zones of a building, including elevator shafts and stairwells, that are higher than the pressure level at the smoke source, such pressure levels being produced by positive pressures of a supply of uncontaminated air, by exhausting air and smoke at the smoke source, or by a combination of these methods.

SMOKE. Airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases evolve when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion, including the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.

SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor or ceiling assembly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke.

SMOKE-CONTROL MODE. A predefined operational configuration of a system or device for the purpose of smoke control.

SMOKE-CONTROL SYSTEM, MECHANICAL. An engineered system that uses mechanical fans to produce pressure differences across smoke barriers or to establish air flows to limit and direct smoke movement.

SMOKE-CONTROL SYSTEM, PASSIVE. A system of smoke barriers arranged to limit the migration of smoke.

SMOKE-CONTROL ZONE. A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers.

SMOKE DAMPER. A device that meets the requirements of approved recognized standards and that is designed to resist the passage of air or smoke. A combination fire and smoke damper shall meet the requirements of approved recognized standards.

SMOKE-EXHAUST SYSTEM. A mechanical or gravity system intended to move smoke from the smoke zone to the exterior of the building, including smoke removal, purging and venting systems, as well as the function of exhaust fans used to reduce the pressure in a smoke zone.

STACK EFFECT. The vertical airflow within buildings caused by temperature differences.

TENABLE ENVIRONMENT. An environment in which the quantity and location of smoke is limited or otherwise restricted to allow for ready evacuation through the space.

ZONED SMOKE CONTROL. A smoke-control system using pressure differences between adjacent smoke-control zones.
Buildings, structures, or parts thereof required by the Building Code of New York State or this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to describe adequately the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.
In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements to which buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1704 of the Building Code of New York State.
A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their operations, the systems supporting them, and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6.
The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.
Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities.
The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of the Building Code of New York State .
The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems.
The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.
All portions of active or passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is less.
Smoke barriers shall comply with the Building Code of New York State. Smoke barriers shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:

1. Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100
2. Exit enclosures: A/Aw = 0.00035
3. All other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050

where:

 

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m2).
 
AF = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).
 
Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).


The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be included in calculating the total leakage area.
Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive smoke control systems tested using other approved means, such as door fan testing, shall be as approved by the code enforcement official.
Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 715.4.3 of the Building Code of New York State .

Exceptions:
1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.10.
2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.
3. In Group I-2, where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3 of the Building Code of New York State. Positive-latching devices are not required.
4. Group I-3.
5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 716 of the Building Code of New York State .
The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin.
The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.

In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences at least two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.
The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:

F = Fdc + K(WADP)/2(W- d)(Equation 9-1)


where:

A = Door area, square feet (m2).
 
d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).
 
F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).
 
Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).
 
K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
 
W = Door width, feet (m).
 
DP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).
When approved by the code enforcement official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke-control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects.
The minimum average velocity through a fixed opening shall not be less than:

v = 217.2 [h (Tf - To)/(Tf + 460)]1/2(Equation 9-2)


For SI: = 119.9 [h (Tf - To)/Tf]1/2


where:

h = Height of opening, feet (m).
 
Tf = Temperature of smoke, °F (K).
 
To = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K).
 
v = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).
This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflows to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.
When approved by the code enforcement official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B.
The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be maintained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.
The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the code enforcement official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section.
The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire, and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.
Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.
The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.
A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.
Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as approved by the code enforcement official.
Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:

Ts = (Qc/mc) + (Ta) (Equation 9-3)

where:

c = Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature, Btu/lb°F • (kJ/kg • K).
 
m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
 
Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
 
Ta = Ambient temperature, °F (K).
 
Ts = Smoke temperature, °F (K).


Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.
Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State . Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of vibration isolation) complying with the Mechanical Code of New York State and which are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.
Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.
Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved recognized standards.
In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the structural design requirements of Chapter 16 of the Building Code of New York State . Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from measurement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.
The smoke control system shall be supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be from the normal building power system. Secondary power shall be from an approved standby source complying with Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State. The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a separate room from the normal power transformers and switch gear and shall be enclosed in a room constructed of not less than 1-hour fire barriers ventilated directly to and from the exterior. Power distribution from the two sources shall be by independent routes. Transfer to full standby power shall be automatic and within 60 seconds of failure of the primary power. The systems shall comply with this code or Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State.
Elements of the smoke management system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke management system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.
In addition to meeting requirements of Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State , all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.
Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.
Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.
Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.
Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire department, and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analysis.
Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.
Control air tubing shall be hard drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices, provided all of the following conditions are met:
1. Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for flame and smoke characteristics.
2. Tubing and the connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure of not less than 0.030 inch (0.76 mm) (No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) thickness. Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable brass compression to male-barbed adapter.
3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or moveable device shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.
Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.
The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.
Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the code enforcement official, the fire department and in the fire command center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief.
A fire-fighter’s smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command center complying with Section 509 in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3.
Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire-fighter’s control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:
1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.
2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.
3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.
4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.
The fire-fighter’s control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke-control system equipment within the building as follows:
1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.
2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building.
3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire-fighter’s control panel.

Exceptions:
1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.
2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.
The fire-fighter’s control panel actions shall be as follows:
1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter’s control panel, no automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire-fighter’s control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire-fighter’s control panel switch position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

Exception: Power disconnects required by Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State .
2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire-fighter’s control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described above. When directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire-fighter’s control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.
Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.
Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. When applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.
Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.
Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.
Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.
Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute and belt tension shall be made.
Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.
Each smoke zone, equipped with an automatic-initiation device, shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire-fighter’s control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector.
Special inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the following:
1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.
2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.
Special inspection agencies for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers.
A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the special inspector or special inspection agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall seal, sign and date the report.
A copy of the final report shall be filed with the code enforcement official and an identical copy shall be maintained in an approved location at the building.
Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating each component of the smoke control system, and describing their proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.
Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the code enforcement official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system.

Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the code enforcement official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent buildings.
Smoke control systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.5.
A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established.
A written record of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises. The written record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.
Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows.
Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually. The system shall also be tested under standby power conditions.
Nondedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall also be tested under standby power conditions.
Where required by this code or otherwise installed, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke exhaust systems and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements of this section.

Exceptions:

1. Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of Class I and II commodities where protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
2. Where areas of buildings are equipped with early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, automatic smoke and heat vents shall not be required within these areas.
Smoke and heat vents shall be installed in the roofs of one-story buildings or portions thereof occupied for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2.1 through 910.2.3.
Buildings and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more than 50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) of undivided area.

Exception: Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars.
Buildings and portions thereof containing high-piled combustible stock or rack storage in any occupancy group when required by Section 2306.7.
Buildings and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy where the maximum exit access travel distance is increased in accordance with Section 1016.2.
The design and installation of smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified in Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.5.2 and Table 910.3.

TABLE 910.3 REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTSa

OCCUPANCY GROUP AND
COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION
DESIGNATED
STORAGE
HEIGHT

(feet)
MINIMUM DRAFT
CURTAIN DEPTH

(feet)
MAXIMUM AREA
FORMED BY
DRAFT CURTAINS

(square feet)
VENT-AREA TO
FLOOR-AREA
RATIO
MAXIMUM SPACING
OF VENT CENTERS
(feet)
MAXIMUM
DISTANCE TO
VENTS FROM
WALL OR DRAFT
CURTAINb

(feet)
Group F-1 and S-1 - 0.2 × Hd but ≥ 4 50,000 1:100 120 60
High-piled storage (see
Section 910.2.2)
I-IV(Option 1)
≤ 20 6 10,000 1:100 100 60
> 20 ≤ 40 6 8,000 1:75 100 55
High-piled storage (see
Section 910.2.2)
I-IV (Option 2)
≤ 20 4 3,000 1:75 100 55
> 20 ≤ 40 4 3,000 1:50 100 50
High-piled storage see
Section 910.2.2) High
hazard (Option 1)
≤ 20 6 6,000 1:50 100 50
> 20 ≤ 30 6 6,000 1:40 90 45
High-piled storage (see
Section 910.2.2) High
hazard (Option 2)
≤ 20 4 4,000 1:50 100 50
> 20 ≤ 30 4 2,000