Chapter 1 Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Precautions Against Fire

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finish‚ Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Thermal Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 20 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 21 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 23 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 24 Tents‚ Canopies and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 27 Hazardous Materials-General Provisions

Chapter 28 Aerosols

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 33 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 40 Oxidizers

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 44 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 45 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Reserved

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids-Weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Identification of Buildings Utilizing Truss and Type Construction

The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appliances and heating systems, emergency and standby power systems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage battery systems, commercial kitchen hoods, and carbon monoxide alarms.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID.
A system which consists of three interconnected subsystems:

1. A lead-acid battery.
2. A battery charger.
3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters, and associated electrical equipment as required for a particular application.
BATTERY TYPES
Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. An alkaline storage battery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide.
Nonrecombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gasses created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of the battery.
Recombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases created by electrolysis are converted back into water inside the battery instead of venting into the air outside of the battery.
Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for service in a permanent location. The number of cells connected in a series determines the nominal voltage rating of the battery. The size of the cells determines the discharge capacity of the entire battery. After discharge, it may be restored to a fully charged condition by an electric current flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when the battery is discharged.
Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled batteries).
Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydrogen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not ignite the gases inside the cell.
COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appliances used in a commercial food service establishment for heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances include deep fat fryers; upright broilers; griddles; broilers; steam-jacketed kettles; hot-top ranges; under-fired broilers (charbroilers); ovens; barbecues; rotisseries; and similar appliances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service establishment shall include any building or a portion thereof used for the preparation and serving of food. [M]

HOOD.
An air-intake device used to capture by entrapment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and similar contaminants before they enter a duct system. [M]
Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease vapors and smoke.
REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a change of state.

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM.
A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting heat.
The installation of nonportable fuel gas appliances and systems shall comply with the Fuel Gas Code of New York State. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, shall comply with this section and the Mechanical Code of New York State.
The installation shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and applicable federal, state, and local rules and regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify, or alter a manufacturer’s instructions in any way, written approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer.
The design, construction and installation of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the Fuel Gas Code of New York State and the Mechanical Code of New York State .
Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection with oil-burning equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 605 and Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State .
The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in Group F, M and S occupancies, when utilized in equipment listed for use with waste oil and when such equipment is installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the terms of its listing.
The installation shall be readily accessible for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regulators, and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning and lubricating parts.
After installation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combustion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that the burner is in proper operating condition and that all accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function properly.
Contractors installing industrial oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burning equipment and another at an approved location that will be accessible in case of emergency.
After completing the installation, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall also furnish the owner or operator with the name and telephone number of persons to contact for technical information or assistance and routine or emergency services.
Working clearances between oil-fired appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall be in accordance with Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State . Clearances between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accordance with NFPA 31.
Masonry chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the Building Code of New York State. Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State. Metal chimneys shall be constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211. [B, M, FG]
Fuel oil storage systems shall be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel oil piping systems shall be installed in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State.
Where connected to a fuel oil piping system, the maximum amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31.
Where connected to a fuel oil piping system, the maximum amount of fuel oil storage allowed inside any building shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). Where the amount of fuel oil stored inside a building exceeds 660 gallons (2498 L), the storage area shall be in compliance with the Building Code of New York State .
The storage of fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with NFPA 31.
Portable unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4.
In one- and two-family dwellings, listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters shall be permitted. Approved unvented portable kerosene-fired heaters tested and listed in accordance with UL 647 are approved by the Secretary of State for use in New York State if packaged for sale with all provisions required in New York State Real Property Law Article 7A Section 239-a(7).
Emergency and standby power systems required by this code or the Building Code of New York State shall be installed in accordance with this code, NFPA 110 and NFPA 111. Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance with the original approval.
Stationary emergency and standby power generators required by this code shall be listed in accordance with UL 2200.
Emergency and standby power systems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 through 604.2.19.4.
Emergency power shall be provided for emergency voice/alarm communication systems in Group A occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.
Standby power shall be provided for smoke control systems in accordance with Section 909.11.
Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs in accordance with Section 1011.5.3
Emergency power shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accordance with Section 1006.3.
Standby power shall be provided for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1007.4.
Standby power in accordance with this section or ASME A18.1 shall be provided for platform lifts that are part of an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1007.5.
Standby power shall be provided for horizontal sliding doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.3.3.
Emergency power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication facilities in accordance with Section 1803.15.
Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs in temporary tents and membrane structures in accordance with Section 2403.12.6.1. Standby power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in permanent membrane structures in accordance with the Building Code of New York State .
Emergency or standby power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous materials in accordance with Sections 2704.7 and 2705.1.5.
Emergency power shall be provided for occupancies with highly toxic or toxic materials in accordance with Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.2.6.
Standby power shall be provided for occupancies with organic peroxides in accordance with Section 3904.1.11.
Emergency power shall be provided for occupancies with silane gas in accordance with Sections 4106.2.3 and 4106.4.3.
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) shall be provided with standby power systems which are capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication.
Standby power, light and emergency systems in high-rise buildings shall comply with the requirements of Sections 604.2.15.1 through 604.2.15.3.
A standby power system shall be provided. Where the standby system is a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with the Building Code of New York State , or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.
An on-premises fuel supply, sufficient for not less than 2-hour full-demand operation of the system, shall be provided.

Exception:
When approved, the system shall be allowed to be supplied by natural gas pipelines.
The standby system shall have a capacity and rating that supplies all equipment required to be operational at the same time. The generating capacity is not required to be sized to operate all of the connected electrical equipment simultaneously.
Power and lighting facilities for the fire command center and elevators specified in Sections 403.8 and 403.9 of the Building Code of New York State , as applicable, and electrically powered fire pumps required to maintain pressure, shall be transferable to the standby source. Standby power shall be provided for at least one elevator to serve all floors and be transferable to any elevator.
Separate lighting circuits and luminaires shall be required to provide sufficient light with an intensity of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) measured at floor level in all means of egress corridors, stairways, smokeproof enclosures, elevator cars and lobbies, and other areas that are clearly a part of the escape route.
Circuits supplying lighting for the fire command center and mechanical equipment rooms shall be transferable to the standby source.
Exit signs, exit illumination as required by Chapter 10, and elevator car lighting are classified as emergency systems and shall operate within 10 seconds of failure of the normal power supply and shall be capable of being transferred to the standby source.

Exception:
Exit sign, exit and means of egress illumination are permitted to be powered by a standby source in buildings of Group F and S occupancies.
Emergency and standby power systems in underground buildings covered in Chapter 4 of the Building Code of New York State shall comply with Sections 604.2.16.1 and 604.2.16.2.
A standby power system complying with Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State shall be provided for standby power loads as specified in Section 604.2.16.1.1.
The following loads are classified as standby power loads: [B]
1. Smoke control system.
2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.
3. Fire pumps.
4. Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accordance with Section 3003 of the Building Code of New York State.
The standby power system shall pick up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of the normal power supply. [B]
An emergency power system complying with Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State shall be provided for emergency power loads as specified in Section 604.2.15.2.1
The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:
1. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems.
3. Automatic fire detection systems.
4. Elevator car lighting.
5. Means of egress lighting and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.
Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group I-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be provided.

Exception:
Emergency power is not required in facilities where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required as set forth in the Building Code of New York State .
A standby power system shall be provided in airport traffic control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be provided to the following equipment:
1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and lighting.
2. Elevator operating equipment.
3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems.
In buildings and structures where standby power is required or furnished to operate an elevator, the operation shall be in accordance with Sections 604.2.19.1 through 604.2.19.4.
Standby power shall be manually transferable to all elevators in each bank.
Where only one elevator is installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power.
Where two or more elevators are controlled by a common operating system, all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the designated landing and disconnect from the standby power source. After all elevators have been returned to the designated level, at least one elevator shall remain operable from the standby power source.
Where standby power is connected to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air conditioning shall be connected to the standby power source.
Emergency and standby power systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within the time specified for the type and duration required.
Inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall be in accordance with an approved schedule established upon completion and approval of the system installation.
Written records of the inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall include the date of service, name of the servicing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a detailed description of any conditions requiring correction and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be kept on the premises served by the emergency or standby power system and be available for inspection by the code enforcement official.
Emergency and standby power system transfer switches shall be included in the inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by Section 604.3.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with the transfer switch manufacturer’s instructions.
Emergency power systems, including all appurtenant components shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111. Emergency lighting shall be tested in accordance with this section.

Exception:
Where the emergency power system is used for standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for scheduled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate records are maintained.
The test of the transfer switch shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch from the normal position to the alternate position and then return to the normal position.
Emergency lighting systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with this section.
An activation test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed monthly. The activation test shall ensure the emergency lighting activates automatically upon normal electrical disconnect and stays sufficiently illuminated for a minimum of 30 seconds.
The owner or authorized agent of the premises shall retain a record of the activation test that is available to the code enforcement official upon request. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test, and the person completing the test. Records shall be retained for a minimum of 3 years on the premises.
For battery powered emergency lighting, a power test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed annually. The power test shall operate the emergency lighting for a minimum of 90 minutes and shall remain sufficiently illuminated for the duration of the test.
The owner or authorized agent of the premises shall submit the results of the power test to the code enforcement official upon request. The record shall be maintained on the premises. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test, and the person completing the test. Records shall be retained for a minimum of 3 years on the premises.
Routine maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be overseen by a properly instructed individual.
Identified electrical hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical conditions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of the code enforcement official. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used.
Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical panelboards.
A working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working space shall not be less than the width of the equipment. No storage of any materials shall be located within the designated working space.

Exceptions:


1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State.
2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches (559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm).
Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stating "ELECTRICAL ROOM" or similar approved wording. The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident.
Multiplug adapters, such as cube adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying with Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State shall be prohibited.
Relocatable power taps shall be of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with overcurrent protection, and shall be listed in accordance with UL 1363.
Relocatable power taps shall be directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle.
Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or floor coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical damage.
Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with portable appliances.
Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, shall serve only one portable appliance.
The ampacity of the extension cords shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.
Extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage.
Extension cords shall be grounded when serving grounded portable appliances.
Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes.
Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical equipment by an approved agency and installed and maintained in accordance with all instructions included as part of such listing.
Electrical motors shall be maintained free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and debris.
Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the applicable provisions of Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State.

Exception:
Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities.
Temporary wiring attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved manner.
Portable, electric space heaters shall comply with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.4.
Only listed and labeled portable, electric space heaters shall be used.
Portable, electric space heaters shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle.
Portable, electric space heaters shall not be plugged into extension cords.
Portable, electric space heaters shall not be operated within 3 feet (914 mm) of any combustible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be operated only in locations for which they are listed.
Refrigeration systems shall be installed in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State. [M]
The use and purity of new, recovered, and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State. [M]
Refrigerants shall be classified in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State. [M]
A change in the type of refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State. [M]
Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be accessible to the fire department at all times as required by the code enforcement official.
Refrigeration equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section 606.6.1. A written record of required testing shall be maintained on the premises. Tests of emergency devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems.
The following emergency devices or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and as required by the code enforcement official.
1. Treatment and flaring systems.
2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigeration control boxes.
3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems.
4. Detection and alarm systems.
Refrigeration units or systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts, and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State for the classification of refrigerants listed therein.
Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the Mechanical Code of New York State for the refrigerant classification. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations.
Remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in the machinery room shall be provided at an approved location immediately outside the machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type shall provide off-only control of electrically energized equipment and appliances in the machinery room, other than refrigerant leak detectors and machinery room ventilation.

Exception:
In machinery rooms where only nonflammable refrigerants are used, electrical equipment and appliances, other than compressors, are not required to be provided with a cut-off switch.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type shall provide on-only control of the machinery room ventilation fans.
Refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2.
Each high- and intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a single automatic valve providing a crossover connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic crossover valves shall comply with Sections 606.10.1.1 through 606.10.1.3.
Automatic crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone rises to within 15 psi (103.4 kPa) of the set point for emergency pressure-relief devices.
When required by the code enforcement official, automatic crossover valves shall be capable of manual operation.
Refrigeration system zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by interconnection of the two zones.
An automatic emergency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2.
Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be permitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system provides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis for determining operation of a crossover valve.
The lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in system pressure to within 15 psi (103.4 kPa) of the setpoint for emergency pressure-relief devices. Activation of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop.
Flammable and combustible materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 27, 30, 32 and 34.

Exception:
This provision shall not apply to spare parts, tools, and incidental materials necessary for the safe and proper operation and maintenance of the system.
Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems for refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall be provided with an approved discharge system as required by Sections 606.12.1, 606.12.2 and 606.12.3. Discharge piping and devices connected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event of the fusible plug or rupture member functions.
Systems containing flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.5. Systems containing flammable refrigerants having a density less than the density of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.
Systems containing toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.5.
Systems containing ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4, a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.5, or through an approved ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 606.12.6, or by other approved means.

Exceptions:
1. Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.
2. When the code enforcement official determines, on review of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environmental hazard would not result from discharging ammonia directly to the atmosphere.
Treatment systems shall be designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accordance with Chapter 37.
Flaring systems for incineration of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be designed to prevent blowback, and shall not expose structures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for one and one-half the required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system.
Ammonia diffusion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of water for each pound of ammonia (4 L of water for each 1 kg of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of the tank, but no lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of water and ammonia without overflowing.
Exhaust from mechanical ventilation systems serving refrigeration machinery rooms capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce the discharge concentrations of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants to those values or lower.
The code enforcement official shall be notified immediately when a discharge becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in accordance with Section 2703.3.1.
A written record shall be kept of refrigerant quantities brought into and removed from the premises. Such records shall be available to the code enforcement official.
Where refrigerants of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the Mechanical Code of New York State, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of Chapter 27 of the Building Code of New York State.

Exception:
Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the Mechanical Code of New York State.
When required by the Existing Building Code of New York State, existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above or below the main floor or other level of a building and intended to serve the needs of emergency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall be provided with emergency operation in accordance with ASME A17.3. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation in accordance with ASME A17.1.
An approved pictorial sign of a standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVATOR. USE EXIT STAIRS. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress complying with Section 1007.4. [B]
Keys for the elevator car doors and fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location for immediate use by the fire department.
Stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L) for flooded lead acid, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA), or 1,000 pounds (454 kg) for lithium-ion, used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterrupted power supplies, shall comply with this section and Table 608.1.
Safety caps for stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.2.1 and 608.2.2.
Vented lead acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batteries shall be provided with safety venting caps.
VRLA batteries shall be equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents.
VRLA battery systems shall be provided with a listed device or other approved method to preclude, detect and control thermal runaway.
Enclosure of stationary battery systems shall comply with the Building Code of New York State. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room with the equipment they support.
When stationary batteries are installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance.
When a system of VRLA, lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing batteries is situated in an occupied work center, it shall be allowed to be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to prevent access by unauthorized personnel.
When stationary batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment that they support.
An approved method and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a "spill" is defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte.

Exception:
VRLA, lithium-ion or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill control.
For battery systems containing lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the method and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill from the largest lead-acid battery to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.
For VRLA or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of 3 percent of the capacity of the largest VRLA cell or block in the room to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.

Exception:
Lithium-ion batteries shall not require neutralization.
Ventilation of stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2.
Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State and the following:
1. For flooded lead acid, flooded nickel-cadmium, and VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the room; or
2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [1 ft3/min/ft2 or 0.0051 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area of the room.

Exception:
Lithium-ion batteries shall not require ventilation.

TABLE 608.1 BATTERY REQUIREMENTS


REQUIREMENT NONRECOMBINANT BATTERIES RECOMBINANT BATTERIES
Flooded Lead
Acid Batteries
Flooded Nickel-
Cadmium (Ni-Cd) Batteries
Valve Regulated Lead
Acid (VRLA) Batteries
Lithium-Ion Batteries
Safety cap Venting caps (608.2.1) Venting caps (608.2.1) Self-resealing flame-arresting caps (608.2.2) No caps
Thermal runaway management Not required Not required Required (608.3) Not required
Spill control Required (608.5) Required (608.5) Not required Not required
Neutralization Required (608.5.1) Required (608.5.1) Required (608.5.2) Not required
Ventilation Required (608.6.1; 608.6.2) Required (608.6.1; 608.6.2) Required (608.6.1; 608.6.2) Not required
Signage Required (608.7) Required (608.7) Required (608.7) Required (608.7)
Seismic protection Required (608.8) Required (608.8) Required (608.8) Required (608.8)
Smoke detection Required (608.9) Required (608.9) Required (608.9) Required (608.9)
When VRLA batteries are installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or naturally vented by one of the following methods:
1. The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of simultaneous "boost" charging of all the batteries in the cabinet; or
2. When calculations are not available to substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [1 ft3/min/ft2 or 0.0051 m3/(s• m2)] of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in which the cabinet is installed shall also be ventilated as required in Section 608.6.1.
Signs shall comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 608.7.2.
Doors into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing stationary battery systems shall be provided with approved signs. The signs shall state that:
1. The room contains energized battery systems.
2. The room contains energized electrical circuits.
3. The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are corrosive liquids.
Cabinets shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the contained battery system. There shall be signs within the cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and fire hazards.
The battery systems shall be seismically braced in accordance with the Building Code of New York State.
An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2 in rooms containing stationary battery systems.
Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall comply with the requirements of the Mechanical Code of New York State. [M]
A Type I hood shall be installed at or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that produce grease vapors. [M]
A fire-extinguishing system in conformance with Section 904.11 shall be provided for Type 1 commercial kitchen exhaust hoods.
Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with NFPA 96.
Section 610 covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detectors, and their components, in new and existing one- and two-family dwellings; multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses); buildings owned as condominiums or cooperatives and containing dwelling units; bed and breakfast dwellings; and other buildings and structures which contain one or more dwelling units, sleeping units or sleeping areas and which are classified, in whole or in part, in one or more of the following occupancy Groups: E, I-1, I-2 (except hospitals), I-4, R-1, R-2, R-3 or R-4. Carbon monoxide alarms (or, where permitted, carbon monoxide detectors) shall be provided in all new and existing buildings and structures described in Section 610.1, without regard to the date of construction of the building or structure and without regard to whether such building or structure shall or shall not have been offered for sale. Carbon monoxide alarms (or, where permitted, carbon monoxide detectors) shall installed, operated and maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 610 or, in the alternative, in accordance with the provisions of NFPA 720.

Exception:
Carbon monoxide alarms and/or carbon monoxide detectors shall not be required in a building or structure that contains no carbon monoxide source.
For the purposes of this Section 610, the following terms shall have the following meanings:

Carbon monoxide alarm.
A single or multiple-station device that has (1) a sensor capable of detecting the presence of carbon monoxide and (2) an alarm that sounds when carbon monoxide is detected.

Carbon monoxide detector.
A device that (1) has a sensor capable of detecting the presence of carbon monoxide and (2) is connected to an alarm control unit that sounds an alarm when carbon monoxide is detected.

Carbon monoxide source.
Any appliance, equipment, device or system that may emit carbon monoxide (including, but not limited to, fuel fired furnaces; fuel fired boilers; space heaters with pilot lights or open flames; kerosene heaters; wood stoves; fireplaces; and stoves, ovens, dryers, water heaters and refrigerators that use gas or liquid fuel), garages, and other motor vehicle related occupancies.

Dwelling unit.
A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation. Dwelling units include, but are not limited to, one-family dwellings, each unit in a two-family dwelling, each unit in a multiple single-family dwelling (townhouse), bed and breakfast dwellings, apartments, and dormitory suites having living areas, bedrooms, bathrooms and kitchens.

Sleeping area.
A room or space that can be used, either on an occasional or permanent basis, for sleeping. Sleeping areas include, but are not limited to, bedrooms and places where children sleep in a daycare facility.

Sleeping unit.
A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units. Sleeping units include, but are not limited to, dormitory suites with living areas, bedrooms and bathrooms.
Carbon monoxide alarms shall be provided in the locations determined pursuant to Section 610.3.

Exceptions:


1. Where coverage at a location is required by more than one provision of Section 610.3, providing one carbon monoxide alarm at such location shall be deemed to satisfy all such provisions.
2. In lieu of a carbon monoxide alarm, a carbon monoxide detector may be provided at any location where coverage is required, provided that such carbon monoxide detector is part of a system that causes an alarm to sound at such location when carbon monoxide is detected at such location.
A carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on each story containing a sleeping area, within 15 feet of the sleeping area. More than one carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided where necessary to assure that no sleeping area on such story is more than 15 feet away from a carbon monoxide alarm.
A carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on each story that contains a carbon monoxide source.
A carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on the lowest story containing a sleeping area, within 15 feet of the sleeping area. More than one carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided where necessary to assure that no sleeping area on such story is more than 15 feet away from a carbon monoxide alarm.
Within each dwelling unit:
A carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on every story containing a sleeping area, within 15 feet of the sleeping area. More than one carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided where necessary to assure that no sleeping area on such story is more than 15 feet away from a carbon monoxide alarm.
A carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on every story that contains a carbon monoxide source.
Within each dwelling unit, a carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on the lowest story containing a sleeping area, within 15 feet of the sleeping area. More than one carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided where necessary to assure that no sleeping area on such story is more than 15 feet away from a carbon monoxide alarm.
Within each dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is located on the same story as a carbon monoxide source (and within each multiple story dwelling unit or sleeping unit, any part of which is located on the same story as a carbon monoxide source), a carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on every story containing a sleeping area, within 15 feet of the sleeping area. More than one carbon monoxide alarm or detector shall be provided where necessary to assure that no sleeping area on such story is more than 15 feet away from a carbon monoxide alarm or detector.
A carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided within every sleeping area that is located on the same story as a carbon monoxide source.
Within each dwelling unit or sleeping unit that contains a carbon monoxide source, a carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on every story containing a sleeping area, within 15 feet of the sleeping area. More than one carbon monoxide alarm or detector shall be provided where necessary to assure that no sleeping area on such story is more than 15 feet away from a carbon monoxide alarm or detector.
A carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided within every sleeping area that contains a carbon monoxide source.
Within each dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is located on the same story as a carbon monoxide source (and within each multiple story dwelling unit or sleeping unit, any part of which is located on the same story as a carbon monoxide source), a carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on the lowest story containing a sleeping area, within 15 feet of the sleeping area. More than one carbon monoxide alarm or detector shall be provided where necessary to assure that no sleeping area on such story is more than 15 feet away from a carbon monoxide alarm or detector.
A carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided within every sleeping area that is located on the same story as a carbon monoxide source.
Within each dwelling unit or sleeping unit that contains a carbon monoxide source, a carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided on the lowest story containing a sleeping area, within 15 feet of the sleeping area. More than one carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided where necessary to assure that no sleeping area on such story is more than 15 feet away from a carbon monoxide alarm.
A carbon monoxide alarm shall be provided within every sleeping area that contains a carbon monoxide source.
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