CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Energy Conservation Code 2018 (IECC 2018)

ECCCNYS — Commercial Provisions

ECCCNYS — Residential Provisions

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The provisions in this chapter are applicable to commercial buildings and their building sites.

Commercial buildings shall comply with one of the following:

  1. ASHRAE Compliance Path: The requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1, as amended by 19 NYCRR Part 1240.
  2. Prescriptive Compliance Path: The requirements of Sections C402 through C405 and C408. In addition, commercial buildings shall comply with Section C406 and tenant spaces shall comply with Section C406.1.1.
  3. The requirements of Sections C402.5, C403.2, C403.3 through C403.3.2, C403.4 through C403.4.2.3, C403.5.5, C403.7, C403.8.1 through C403.8.4, C403.10.1 through C403.10.3, C403.11, C403.12, C404, C405, C407 and C408. The building energy cost shall be equal to or less than 85 percent of the standard reference design building.

Where some or all of an existing fenestration unit is replaced with a new fenestration product, including sash and glazing, the replacement fenestration unit shall meet the applicable requirements for U-factor and SHGC in Table C402.4.

Exception: An area-weighted average of the U-factor of replacement fenestration products being installed in the building for each fenestration product category listed in Table C402.4 shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements for each fenestration product category listed in Table C402.4. Individual fenestration products from different product categories listed in Table C402.4 shall not be combined in calculating the area-weighted average U-factor.

Building thermal envelope assemblies for buildings that are intended to comply with the code on a prescriptive basis in accordance with the compliance path described in Item 2 of Section C401.2, shall comply with the following:

  1. The opaque portions of the building thermal envelope shall comply with the specific insulation requirements of Section C402.2 and the thermal requirements of either the R-value-based method of Section C402.1.3; the U-, C- and F-factor-based method of Section C402.1.4; or the component performance alternative of Section C402.1.5.
  2. Roof solar reflectance and thermal emittance shall comply with Section C402.3.
  3. Fenestration in building envelope assemblies shall comply with Section C402.4.
  4. Air leakage of building envelope assemblies shall comply with Section C402.5.

Alternatively, where buildings have a vertical fenestration area or skylight area exceeding that allowed in Section C402.4, the building and building thermal envelope shall comply with Section C401.2, Item 1 or Section C401.2, Item 3.

Walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with Section C403.10.1 or C403.10.2.

The following low-energy buildings, or portions thereof separated from the remainder of the building by building thermal envelope assemblies complying with this section, shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of Section C402.

  1. Those with a peak design rate of energy usage less than 3.4 Btu/h • ft2 (10.7 W/m2) or 1.0 watt per square foot (10.7 W/m2) of floor area for space conditioning purposes.
  2. Those that do not contain conditioned space.
  3. Greenhouses.

Buildings that comply with the following shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of this code:

  1. Are separate buildings with floor area not more than 500 square feet (50 m2).
  2. Are intended to house electronic equipment with installed equipment power totaling not less than 7 watts per square foot (75 W/m2) and not intended for human occupancy.
  3. Have a heating system capacity not greater than (17,000 Btu/h) (5 kW) and a heating thermostat setpoint that is restricted to not more than 50°F (10°C).
  4. Have an average wall and roof U-factor less than 0.200 in Climate Zones 1 through 5 and less than 0.120 in Climate Zones 6 through 8.
  5. Comply with the roof solar reflectance and thermal emittance provisions for Climate Zone 1.

Building thermal envelope opaque assemblies shall comply with the requirements of Sections C402.2 and C402.4 based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3. For opaque portions of the building thermal envelope intended to comply on an insulation component R-value basis, the R-values for insulation shall be not less than that specified in Table C402.1.3. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the R-values from the "Group R" column of Table C402.1.3. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the R-values from the "All other" column of Table C402.1.3.

[NY] TABLE C402.1.3

OPAQUE THERMAL ENVELOPE INSULATION COMPONENT MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS, R-VALUE METHODa, i

CLIMATE ZONE 4 EXCEPT MARINE 5 AND MARINE 4 6
All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R
Roofs
Insulation entirely
above roof deck
R-30ci R-30ci R-30ci R-30ci R-30ci R-30ci
Metal buildingsb R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-25 +
R-11 LS
R-25 +
R-11 LS
Attic and other R-38 R-38 R-38 R-49 R-49 R-49
Walls, above grade
Massg R-9.5ci R-11.4ci R-11.4ci R-13.3ci R-13.3ci R-15.2ci
Metal building R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
R-13 +
R-13ci
Metal framed R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
Wood framed and
other
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or R-20
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
or R-20
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
or R-20
+ R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
or R-20
+ R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
or R-20
+ R-3.8ci
Walls, below grade
Below-grade wallc R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci
Floors
Masse R-10ci R-10.4ci R-10ci R-12.5ci R-12.5ci R-12.5ci
Joist/framing R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30e
Slab-on-grade floors
Unheated slabs R-10 for
24" below
R-10 for
24" below
R-10 for
24" below
R-10 for
24" below
R-10 for
24" below
R-15 for
24" below
Heated slabsh R-15 for
24" below
+ R-5 full slab
R-15 for
24" below
+ R-5 full slab
R-15 for
36" below
+ R-5 full slab
R-15 for
36" below
+ R-5 full slab
R-15 for
36" below
+ R-5 full slab
R-20 for
48" below
+ R-5 full slab
Opaque doors
Nonswinging R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75 R-4.75

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 4.88 kg/m2, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kg/m3.

ci = Continuous insulation, NR = No Requirement, LS = Liner System.

  1. Assembly descriptions can be found in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Appendix A.
  2. Where using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block shall be provided, otherwise use the U-factor compliance method in Table C402.1.4.
  3. Reserved.
  4. Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the exterior insulation requirements for heated slabs.
  5. "Mass floors" shall be in accordance with Section C402.2.3.
  6. Steel floor joist systems shall be insulated to R-38.
  7. "Mass walls" shall be in accordance with Section C402.2.2.
  8. The first value is for perimeter insulation and the second value is for slab insulation. Perimeter insulation is not required to extend below the bottom of the slab.
  9. Not applicable to garage doors. See Table C402.1.4.

Building thermal envelope opaque assemblies shall meet the requirements of Sections C402.2 and C402.4 based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3. Building thermal envelope opaque assemblies intended to comply on an assembly U-, C- or F-factor basis shall have a U-, C- or F-factor not greater than that specified in Table C402.1.4. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the U-, C- or F-factor from the "Group R" column of Table C402.1.4. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the U-, C- or F-factor from the "All other" column of Table C402.1.4

[NY] TABLE C402.1.4

OPAQUE THERMAL ENVELOPE ASSEMBLY MAXIMUM REQUIREMENTS, U-FACTOR METHODa, b

CLIMATE ZONE 4
EXCEPT MARINE
5
AND MARINE 4
6
All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R
Roofs
Insulation entirely
above roof deck
U-0.032 U-0.032 U-0.032 U-0.032 U-0.032 U-0.032
Metal buildings U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.035 U-0.031 U-0.031
Attic and other U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.027 U-0.021 U-0.021 U-0.021
Walls, above grade
Massg U-0.104 U-0.090 U-0.090 U-0.080 U-0.080 U-0.071
Metal building U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052 U-0.052
Metal framed U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064
Wood framed and
otherc
U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.051 U-0.051
Walls, below grade
Below-grade wallc C-0.119 C-0.119 C-0.119 C-0.119 C-0.119 C-0.119
Floors
Massd U-0.076 U-0.074 U-0.074 U-0.064 U-0.064 U-0.064
Joist/framing U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033 U-0.033
Slab-on-grade floors
Unheated slabs F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.54 F-0.52
Heated slabsf F-0.86
0.64
F-0.86
0.64
F-0.79
0.64
F-0.79
0.64
F-0.79
0.55
F-0.69
0.55
Opaque doors
Swinging door U-0.61 U-0.61 U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37 U-0.37
Garage door <14%
glazing
U-0.31 U-0.31 U-0.31 U-0.31 U-0.31 U-0.31

For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.88 kg/m2, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kg/m3.

ci = Continuous insulation, NR = No Requirement, LS = Liner System.

  1. Where assembly U-factors, C-factors, and F-factors are established in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 Appendix A, such opaque assemblies shall be a compliance alternative where those values meet the criteria of this table, and provided that the construction, excluding the cladding system on walls, complies with the appropriate construction details from ANSI/ASHRAE/ISNEA 90.1 Appendix A.
  2. Where U-factors have been established by testing in accordance with ASTM C1363, such opaque assemblies shall be a compliance alternative where those values meet the criteria of this table. The R-value of continuous insulation shall be permitted to be added to or subtracted from the original tested design.
  3. Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the U-factor requirements for above-grade mass walls.
  4. "Mass floors" shall be in accordance with Section C402.2.3.
  5. Reserved.
  6. The first value is for perimeter insulation and the second value is for full slab insulation.
  7. "Mass walls" shall be in accordance with Section C402.2.2.

U-factors of walls with cold-formed steel studs shall be permitted to be determined in accordance with Equation 4-1:

(Equation 4-1)

where:

Rs = The cumulative R-value of the wall components along the path of heat transfer, excluding the cavity insulation and steel studs.

ER= The effective R-value of the cavity insulation with steel studs as specified in Table C402.1.4.1.

TABLE C402.1.4.1

EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR STEEL STUD WALL ASSEMBLIES

NOMINAL STUD DEPTH
(inches)
SPACING OF FRAMING
(inches)
CAVITY R-VALUE
(insulation)
CORRECTION FACTOR
(Fc)
EFFECTIVE R-VALUE (ER)
(Cavity R-Value × Fc)
31/2 16 13 0.46 5.98
15 0.43 6.45
31/2 24 13 0.55 7.15
15 0.52 7.80
6 16 19 0.37 7.03
21 0.35 7.35
6 24 19 0.45 8.55
21 0.43 9.03
8 16 25 0.31 7.75
24 25 0.38 9.50

Building envelope values and fenestration areas determined in accordance with Equation 4-2 shall be an alternative to compliance with the U-, F- and C-factors in Tables C402.1.4 and C402.4 and the maximum allowable fenestration areas in Section C402.4.1. Fenestration shall meet the applicable SHGC requirements of Section C402.4.3.

(Equation 4-2)

where:

A = Sum of the (UA Dif) values for each distinct assembly type of the building thermal envelope, other than slabs on grade and below-grade walls.

UA Dif = UA Proposed - UA Table.

UA Proposed = Proposed U-value × Area.

UA Table = (U-factor from Table C402.1.3, C402.1.4 or C402.4 × Area.

B = Sum of the (FL Dif) values for each distinct slab-on-grade perimeter condition of the building thermal envelope.

FL Dif = FL Proposed - FL Table.

FL Proposed = Proposed F-value × Perimeter length.

FL Table = (F-factor specified in Table C402.1.4) × Perimeter length.

C = Sum of the (CA Dif) values for each distinct below-grade wall assembly type of the building thermal envelope.

CA Dif = CA Proposed - CA Table.

CA Proposed = Proposed C-value × Area.

CA Table = (Maximum allowable C-factor specified in Table C402.1.4) × Area.

Where the proposed vertical glazing area is less than or equal to the maximum vertical glazing area allowed by Section C402.4.1, the value of D (Excess Vertical Glazing Value) shall be zero. Otherwise:

D = (DA × UV) - (DA × U Wall), but not less than zero.

DA = (Proposed Vertical Glazing Area) - (Vertical Glazing Area allowed by Section C402.4.1).

UA Wall = Sum of the (UA Proposed) values for each opaque assembly of the exterior wall.

U Wall = Area-weighted average U-value of all above-grade wall assemblies.

UAV = Sum of the (UA Proposed) values for each vertical glazing assembly.

UV = UAV/total vertical glazing area.

Where the proposed skylight area is less than or equal to the skylight area allowed by Section C402.4.1, the value of E (Excess Skylight Value) shall be zero. Otherwise:

E = (EA × US) - (EA × U Roof), but not less than zero.

EA = (Proposed Skylight Area) - (Allowable Skylight Area as specified in Section C402.4.1).

U Roof = Area-weighted average U-value of all roof assemblies.

UAS = Sum of the (UA Proposed) values for each skylight assembly.

US = UAS/total skylight area.

Insulation in building thermal envelope opaque assemblies shall comply with Sections C402.2.1 through C402.2.7 and Table C402.1.3.

The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the roof framing or continuously on the roof assembly shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3, based on construction materials used in the roof assembly. Insulation installed on a suspended ceiling having removable ceiling tiles shall not be considered as part of the minimum thermal resistance of the roof insulation. Continuous insulation board shall be installed in not less than 2 layers and the edge joints between each layer of insulation shall be staggered.

Exceptions:

  1. Continuously insulated roof assemblies where the thickness of insulation varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less and where the area-weighted U-factor is equivalent to the same assembly with the R-value specified in Table C402.1.3.
  2. Where tapered insulation is used with insulation entirely above deck, the R-value where the insulation thickness varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less from the minimum thickness of tapered insulation shall comply with the R-value specified in Table C402.1.3.
  3. Two layers of insulation are not required where insulation tapers to the roof deck, such as at roof drains.
  4. The insulation thickness variation is not limited to 1 inch (25 mm) or less where an alternative compliance method is chosen by roof assembly U-Factor (Section C402.1.4) or component performance alternative (C402.1.5).

Skylight curbs shall be insulated to the level of roofs with insulation entirely above the deck or R-5, whichever is less.

Exception: Unit skylight curbs included as a component of a skylight listed and labeled in accordance with NFRC 100 shall not be required to be insulated.

The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of materials installed in the wall cavity between framing members and continuously on the walls shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3, based on framing type and construction materials used in the wall assembly. The R-value of integral insulation installed in concrete masonry units shall not be used in determining compliance with Table C402.1.3 except as otherwise noted in the table. In determining compliance with Table C402.1.4, the use of the U-factor of concrete masonry units with integral insulation shall be permitted.

"Mass walls" where used as a component in the thermal envelope of a building shall comply with one of the following:

  1. Weigh not less than 35 pounds per square foot (171 kg/m2) of wall surface area.
  2. Weigh not less than 25 pounds per square foot (122 kg/m2) of wall surface area where the material weight is not more than 120 pcf (1900 kg/m3).
  3. Have a heat capacity exceeding 7 Btu/ft2 • °F (144 kJ/m2 • K).
  4. Have a heat capacity exceeding 5 Btu/ft2 • °F (103 kJ/m2 • K), where the material weight is not more than 120 pcf (1900 kg/m3).

The thermal properties (component R-values or assembly U-, C- or F-factors) of floor assemblies over outdoor air or unconditioned space shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3 or C402.1.4 based on the construction materials used in the floor assembly. Floor framing cavity insulation or structural slab insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of the subfloor decking or structural slabs.

"Mass floors" where used as a component of the thermal envelope of a building shall provide one of the following weights:

  1. 35 pounds per square foot (171 kg/m2) of floor surface area.
  2. 25 pounds per square foot (122 kg/m2) of floor surface area where the material weight is not more than 120 pounds per cubic foot (1923 kg/m3).

Exceptions:

  1. The floor framing cavity insulation or structural slab insulation shall be permitted to be in contact with the top side of sheathing or continuous insulation installed on the bottom side of floor assemblies where combined with insulation that meets or exceeds the minimum R-value in Table C402.1.3 for "Metal framed" or "Wood framed and other" values for "Walls, Above Grade" and extends from the bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing or floor assembly members.
  2. Insulation applied to the underside of concrete floor slabs shall be permitted an airspace of not more than 1 inch (25 mm) where it turns up and is in contact with the underside of the floor under walls associated with the building thermal envelope.

Where the slab on grade is in contact with the ground, the minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulation around the perimeter of unheated or heated slab-on-grade floors designed in accordance with the R-value method of Section C402.1.3 shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3. The perimeter insulation shall be placed on the outside of the foundation or on the inside of the foundation wall. The perimeter insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for the minimum distance shown in the table or to the top of the footing, whichever is less, or downward to not less than the bottom of the slab and then horizontally to the interior or exterior for the total distance shown in the table. Insulation extending away from the building shall be protected by pavement or by not less than of 10 inches (254 mm) of soil.

Exception: Where the slab-on-grade floor is greater than 24 inches (61 mm) below the finished exterior grade, perimeter insulation is not required.

The C-factor for the below-grade exterior walls shall be in accordance with Table C402.1.4. The R-value of the insulating material installed continuously within or on the below-grade exterior walls of the building envelope shall be in accordance with Table C402.1.3. The C-factor or R-value required shall extend to a depth of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the outside finished ground level, or to the level of the lowest floor of the conditioned space enclosed by the below-grade wall, whichever is less.

Radiant heating system panels, and their associated components that are installed in interior or exterior assemblies shall be insulated to an R-value of not less than R-3.5 on all surfaces not facing the space being heated. Radiant heating system panels that are installed in the building thermal envelope shall be separated from the exterior of the building or unconditioned or exempt spaces by not less than the R-value of insulation installed in the opaque assembly in which they are installed or the assembly shall comply with Section C402.1.4.

Exception: Heated slabs on grade insulated in accordance with Section C402.2.4.

Where the thermal properties of airspaces are used to comply with this code in accordance with Section C401.2, such airspaces shall be enclosed in an unventilated cavity constructed to minimize airflow into and out of the enclosed airspace. Airflow shall be deemed minimized where the enclosed airspace is located on the interior side of the continuous air barrier and is bounded on all sides by building components.

Exception: The thermal resistance of airspaces located on the exterior side of the continuous air barrier and adjacent to and behind the exterior wall-covering material shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C1363 modified with an airflow entering the bottom and exiting the top of the airspace at an air movement rate of not less than 70 mm/second.

New wood-burning fireplaces shall have tight-fitting flue dampers or doors, and outdoor combustion air. Where using tight-fitting doors on factory-built fireplaces listed and labeled in accordance with UL 127, the doors shall be tested and listed for the fireplace.

Low-sloped roofs directly above cooled conditioned spaces in Climate Zones 1, 2 and 3 shall comply with one or more of the options in Table C402.3.

Exceptions: The following roofs and portions of roofs are exempt from the requirements of Table C402.3:

  1. Portions of the roof that include or are covered by the following:

    1. 1.1. Photovoltaic systems or components.
    2. 1.2. Solar air or water-heating systems or components.
    3. 1.3. Roof gardens or landscaped roofs.
    4. 1.4. Above-roof decks or walkways.
    5. 1.5. Skylights.
    6. 1.6. HVAC systems and components, and other opaque objects mounted above the roof.
  2. Portions of the roof shaded during the peak sun angle on the summer solstice by permanent features of the building or by permanent features of adjacent buildings.
  3. Portions of roofs that are ballasted with a minimum stone ballast of 17 pounds per square foot [74 kg/m2] or 23 psf [117 kg/m2] pavers.
  4. Roofs where not less than 75 percent of the roof area complies with one or more of the exceptions to this section.

TABLE C402.3

MINIMUM ROOF REFLECTANCE AND EMITTANCE OPTIONSa

Three-year-aged solar reflectance indexb of 55 and 3-year aged thermal emittancec of 0.75
Three-year-aged solar reflectance indexd of 64
  1. The use of area-weighted averages to comply with these requirements shall be permitted. Materials lacking 3-year-aged tested values for either solar reflectance or thermal emittance shall be assigned both a 3-year-aged solar reflectance in accordance with Section C402.3.1 and a 3-year-aged thermal emittance of 0.90.
  2. Aged solar reflectance tested in accordance with ASTM C1549, ASTM E903 or ASTM E1918 or CRRC-S100.
  3. Aged thermal emittance tested in accordance with ASTM C1371 or ASTM E408 or CRRC-S100.
  4. Solar reflectance index (SRI) shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E1980 using a convection coefficient of 2.1 Btu/h • ft2 •°F (12W/m2 • K). Calculation of aged SRI shall be based on aged tested values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance.

Where an aged solar reflectance required by Section C402.3 is not available, it shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-3.

(Equation 4-3)

where:

Raged = The aged solar reflectance.

Rinitial = The initial solar reflectance determined in accordance with CRRC-S100.

Fenestration shall comply with Sections C402.4.1 through C402.4.5 and Table C402.4. Daylight responsive controls shall comply with this section and Section C405.2.3.1.

[NY] TABLE C402.4

BUILDING ENVELOPE FENESTRATION MAXIMUM U-FACTOR AND SHGC REQUIREMENTS

CLIMATE ZONE 4 5 6
Vertical fenestration
U-factor
Fixed fenestration 0.38 0.38 0.36
Operable fenestration 0.45 0.45 0.43
Entrance doors 0.77 0.77 0.77
SHGC
PF < 0.2 0.36 0.38 0.40
0.2 ≤ PF < 0.5 0.43 0.46 0.48
PF ≥ 0.5 0.58 0.61 0.64
Skylights
U-factor 0.50 0.50 0.50
SHGC 0.40 0.40 0.40

PF = Projection Factor.

The vertical fenestration area, not including opaque doors and opaque spandrel panels, shall be not greater than 30 percent of the gross above-grade wall area. The skylight area shall be not greater than 3 percent of the gross roof area.

In Climate Zones 1 through 6, not more than 40 percent of the gross above-grade wall area shall be vertical fenestration, provided that all of the following requirements are met:

  1. In buildings not greater than two stories above grade, not less than 50 percent of the net floor area is within a daylight zone.
  2. In buildings three or more stories above grade, not less than 25 percent of the net floor area is within a daylight zone.
  3. Daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 are installed in daylight zones.
  4. Visible transmittance (VT) of vertical fenestration is not less than 1.1 times solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC).

    Exception: Fenestration that is outside the scope of NFRC 200 is not required to comply with Item 4.

The skylight area shall be not more than 6 percent of the roof area provided that daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 are installed in toplit zones.

In an enclosed space greater than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in floor area, directly under a roof with not less than 75 percent of the ceiling area with a ceiling height greater than 15 feet (4572 mm), and used as an office, lobby, atrium, concourse, corridor, storage space, gymnasium/exercise center, convention center, automotive service area, space where manufacturing occurs, nonrefrigerated warehouse, retail store, distribution/sorting area, transportation depot or workshop, the total toplit daylight zone shall be not less than half the floor area and shall provide one of the following:

  1. A minimum skylight area to toplit daylight zone of not less than 3 percent where all skylights have a VT of not less than 0.40 as determined in accordance with Section C303.1.3.
  2. A minimum skylight effective aperture of not less than 1 percent, determined in accordance with Equation 4-4.

    (Equation 4-4)

    where:

    Skylight area = Total fenestration area of skylights.

    Skylight VT = Area-weighted average visible transmittance of skylights.

    WF = Area-weighted average well factor, where well factor is 0.9 if light well depth is less than 2 feet (610 mm), or 0.7 if light well depth is 2 feet (610 mm) or greater.

    Light well depth = Measure vertically from the underside of the lowest point of the skylight glazing to the ceiling plane under the skylight.

Exception: Skylights above daylight zones of enclosed spaces are not required in:

  1. Buildings in Climate Zones 6 through 8.
  2. Spaces where the designed general lighting power densities are less than 0.5 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2).
  3. Areas where it is documented that existing structures or natural objects block direct beam sunlight on not less than half of the roof over the enclosed area for more than 1,500 daytime hours per year between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.
  4. Spaces where the daylight zone under rooftop monitors is greater than 50 percent of the enclosed space floor area.
  5. Spaces where the total area minus the area of sidelight daylight zones is less than 2,500 square feet (232 m2), and where the lighting is controlled in accordance with Section C405.2.3.
Daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 shall be provided to control all electric lights within toplit zones.

Skylights in office, storage, automotive service, manufacturing, nonrefrigerated warehouse, retail store and distribution/sorting area spaces shall have a glazing material or diffuser with a haze factor greater than 90 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D1003.

Exception: Skylights designed and installed to exclude direct sunlight entering the occupied space by the use of fixed or automated baffles or the geometry of skylight and light well.

The maximum U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) for fenestration shall be as specified in Table C402.4.

The window projection factor shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-5.

(Equation 4-5)

where:

PF= Projection factor (decimal).

A = Distance measured horizontally from the farthest continuous extremity of any overhang, eave or permanently attached shading device to the vertical surface of the glazing.

B = Distance measured vertically from the bottom of the glazing to the underside of the overhang, eave or permanently attached shading device.

Where different windows or glass doors have different PF values, they shall each be evaluated separately.

In Climate Zones 1 through 6, skylights shall be permitted a maximum SHGC of 0.60 where located above daylight zones provided with daylight responsive controls.
Where skylights are installed above daylight zones provided with daylight responsive controls, a maximum U-factor of 0.9 shall be permitted in Climate Zones 1 through 3 and a maximum U-factor of 0.75 shall be permitted in Climate Zones 4 through 8.

Where dynamic glazing is intended to satisfy the SHGC and VT requirements of Table C402.4, the ratio of the higher to lower labeled SHGC shall be greater than or equal to 2.4, and the dynamic glazing shall be automatically controlled to modulate the amount of solar gain into the space in multiple steps. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.

Exception: Dynamic glazing is not required to comply with this section where both the lower and higher labeled SHGC already comply with the requirements of Table C402.4.

An area-weighted average shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements for each fenestration product category listed in Table C402.4. Individual fenestration products from different fenestration product categories listed in Table C402.4 shall not be combined in calculating area-weighted average U-factor.
Daylight zones referenced in Sections C402.4.1.1 through C402.4.3.2 shall comply with Sections C405.2.3.2 and C405.2.3.3, as applicable. Daylight zones shall include toplit zones and sidelit zones.
Opaque swinging doors shall comply with Table C402.1.4. Opaque nonswinging doors shall comply with Table C402.1.3. Opaque doors shall be considered as part of the gross area of above-grade walls that are part of the building thermal envelope. Other doors shall comply with the provisions of Section C402.4.3 for vertical fenestration.
The thermal envelope of buildings shall comply with Sections C402.5.1 through C402.5.8, or the building thermal envelope shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E779 at a pressure differential of 0.3 inch water gauge (75 Pa) or an equivalent method approved by the building official and deemed to comply with the provisions of this section when the tested air leakage rate of the building thermal envelope is not greater than 0.40 cfm/ft2 (2.0 L/s • m2). Where compliance is based on such testing, the building shall also comply with Sections C402.5.5, C402.5.6 and C402.5.7.

A continuous air barrier shall be provided throughout the building thermal envelope. The air barriers shall be permitted to be located on the inside or outside of the building envelope, located within the assemblies composing the envelope, or any combination thereof. The air barrier shall comply with Sections C402.5.1.1 and C402.5.1.2.

Exception: Air barriers are not required in buildings located in Climate Zone 2B.

The continuous air barrier shall be constructed to comply with the following:

  1. The air barrier shall be continuous for all assemblies that are the thermal envelope of the building and across the joints and assemblies.
  2. Air barrier joints and seams shall be sealed, including sealing transitions in places and changes in materials. The joints and seals shall be securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation.
  3. Penetrations of the air barrier shall be caulked, gasketed or otherwise sealed in a manner compatible with the construction materials and location. Sealing shall allow for expansion, contraction and mechanical vibration. Joints and seams associated with penetrations shall be sealed in the same manner or taped. Sealing materials shall be securely installed around the penetration so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair the penetrations' ability to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation. Sealing of concealed fire sprinklers, where required, shall be in a manner that is recommended by the manufacturer. Caulking or other adhesive sealants shall not be used to fill voids between fire sprinkler cover plates and walls or ceilings.
  4. Recessed lighting fixtures shall comply with Section C402.5.8. Where similar objects are installed that penetrate the air barrier, provisions shall be made to maintain the integrity of the air barrier.
A continuous air barrier for the opaque building envelope shall comply with Section C402.5.1.2.1 or C402.5.1.2.2.

Materials with an air permeability not greater than 0.004 cfm/ft2 (0.02 L/s • m2) under a pressure differential of 0.3 inch water gauge (75 Pa) when tested in accordance with ASTM E2178 shall comply with this section. Materials in Items 1 through 16 shall be deemed to comply with this section, provided that joints are sealed and materials are installed as air barriers in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

  1. Plywood with a thickness of not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm).
  2. Oriented strand board having a thickness of not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm).
  3. Extruded polystyrene insulation board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
  4. Foil-back polyisocyanurate insulation board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
  5. Closed-cell spray foam having a minimum density of 1.5 pcf (2.4 kg/m3) and having a thickness of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm).
  6. Open-cell spray foam with a density between 0.4 and 1.5 pcf (0.6 and 2.4 kg/m3) and having a thickness of not less than 4.5 inches (113 mm).
  7. Exterior or interior gypsum board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
  8. Cement board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
  9. Built-up roofing membrane.
  10. Modified bituminous roof membrane.
  11. Fully adhered single-ply roof membrane.
  12. A Portland cement/sand parge, or gypsum plaster having a thickness of not less than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm).
  13. Cast-in-place and precast concrete.
  14. Fully grouted concrete block masonry.
  15. Sheet steel or aluminum.
  16. Solid or hollow masonry constructed of clay or shale masonry units.

Assemblies of materials and components with an average air leakage not greater than 0.04 cfm/ft2(0.2 L/s • m2) under a pressure differential of 0.3 inch of water gauge (w.g.)(75 Pa) when tested in accordance with ASTM E2357, ASTM E1677 or ASTM E283 shall comply with this section. Assemblies listed in Items 1 through 3 shall be deemed to comply, provided that joints are sealed and the requirements of Section C402.5.1.1 are met.

  1. Concrete masonry walls coated with either one application of block filler or two applications of a paint or sealer coating.
  2. Masonry walls constructed of clay or shale masonry units with a nominal width of 4 inches (102 mm) or more.
  3. A Portland cement/sand parge, stucco or plaster not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness.

The air leakage of fenestration assemblies shall meet the provisions of Table C402.5.2. Testing shall be in accordance with the applicable reference test standard in Table C402.5.2 by an accredited, independent testing laboratory and labeled by the manufacturer.

Exceptions:

  1. Field-fabricated fenestration assemblies that are sealed in accordance with Section C402.5.1.
  2. Fenestration in buildings that comply with the testing alternative of Section C402.5 are not required to meet the air leakage requirements in Table C402.5.2.

TABLE C402.5.2

MAXIMUM AIR LEAKAGE RATE FOR FENESTRATION ASSEMBLIES

FENESTRATION ASSEMBLY MAXIMUM
RATE (CFM/FT2)
TEST PROCEDURE
Windows 0.20 a AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440
or
NFRC 400
Sliding doors 0.20 a
Swinging doors 0.20 a
Skylights — with condensation
weepage openings
0.30
Skylights — all other 0.20 a
Curtain walls 0.06 NFRC 400
or
ASTM E283 at 1.57 psf
(75 Pa)
Storefront glazing 0.06
Commercial glazed
swinging entrance doors
1.00
Power-operated sliding
doors and power
operated folding doors
1.00
Revolving doors 1.00
Garage doors 0.40 ANSI/DASMA 105,
NFRC 400, or
ASTM E283 at 1.57 psf
(75 Pa)
Rolling doors 1.00
High-speed doors 1.30

For SI: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47 L/s, 1 square foot = 0.093 m2.

  1. The maximum rate for windows, sliding and swinging doors, and skylights is permitted to be 0.3 cfm per square foot of fenestration or door area when tested in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440 at 6.24 psf (300 Pa).

In Climate Zones 3 through 8, where combustion air is supplied through openings in an exterior wall to a room or space containing a space-conditioning fuel-burning appliance, one of the following shall apply:

  1. The room or space containing the appliance shall be located outside of the building thermal envelope.
  2. The room or space containing the appliance shall be enclosed and isolated from conditioned spaces inside the building thermal envelope. Such rooms shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 2.1. The walls, floors and ceilings that separate the enclosed room or space from conditioned spaces shall be insulated to be not less than equivalent to the insulation requirement of below-grade walls as specified in Table C402.1.3 or C402.1.4.
    2. 2.2. The walls, floors and ceilings that separate the enclosed room or space from conditioned spaces shall be sealed in accordance with Section C402.5.1.1.
    3. 2.3. The doors into the enclosed room or space shall be shall be fully gasketed.
    4. 2.4. Water lines and ducts in the enclosed room or space shall be insulated in accordance with Section C403.
    5. 2.5. Where an air duct supplying combustion air to the enclosed room or space passes through conditioned space, the duct shall be insulated to an R-value of not less than R-8.

Exception: Fireplaces and stoves complying with Sections 901 through 905 of the Mechanical Code of New York State, and Section 2111.14 of the Building Code of New York State (or in the case of a fireplace or stove located in a building that is subject to the New York City Construction Codes, complying with the corresponding provisions of the New York City Construction Codes).

Doors and access openings from conditioned space to shafts, chutes stairways and elevator lobbies not within the scope of the fenestration assemblies covered by Section C402.5.2 shall be gasketed, weatherstripped or sealed.

Exceptions:

  1. Door openings required to comply with Section 716 of the Building Code of New York State.
  2. Doors and door openings required to comply with UL 1784 by the Building Code of New York State.
Stairway enclosures, elevator shaft vents and other outdoor air intakes and exhaust openings integral to the building envelope shall be provided with dampers in accordance with Section C403.7.7.
Cargo door openings and loading door openings shall be equipped with weatherseals that restrict infiltration and provide direct contact along the top and sides of vehicles that are parked in the doorway.

Building entrances shall be protected with an enclosed vestibule, with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices. Vestibules shall be designed so that in passing through the vestibule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time. The installation of one or more revolving doors in the building entrance shall not eliminate the requirement that a vestibule be provided on any doors adjacent to revolving doors.

Exceptions: Vestibules are not required for the following:

  1. Buildings in Climate Zones 1 and 2.
  2. Doors not intended to be used by the public, such as doors to mechanical or electrical equipment rooms, or intended solely for employee use.
  3. Doors opening directly from a sleeping unit or dwelling unit.
  4. Doors that open directly from a space less than 3,000 square feet (298 m2) in area.
  5. Revolving doors.
  6. Doors used primarily to facilitate vehicular movement or material handling and adjacent personnel doors.
  7. Doors that have an air curtain with a velocity of not less than 6.56 feet per second (2 m/s) at the floor that have been tested in accordance with ANSI/AMCA 220 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Manual or automatic controls shall be provided that will operate the air curtain with the opening and closing of the door. Air curtains and their controls shall comply with Section C408.2.3.

Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be all of the following:

  1. IC-rated.
  2. Labeled as having an air leakage rate of not more 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) when tested in accordance with ASTM E283 at a 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential.
  3. Sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and interior wall or ceiling covering.
Mechanical systems and equipment serving the building heating, cooling, ventilating or refrigerating needs shall comply with this section.
Design loads associated with heating, ventilating and air conditioning of the building shall be determined in accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 183 or by an approved equivalent computational procedure using the design parameters specified in Chapter 3. Heating and cooling loads shall be adjusted to account for load reductions that are achieved where energy recovery systems are utilized in the HVAC system in accordance with the ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook by an approved equivalent computational procedure.
Mechanical systems shall be designed to comply with Sections C403.2.1 and C403.2.2. Where elements of a building's mechanical systems are addressed in Sections C403.3 through C403.12, such elements shall comply with the applicable provisions of those sections.

HVAC systems serving zones that are over 25,000 square feet (2323 m2) in floor area or that span more than one floor and are designed to operate or be occupied nonsimultaneously shall be divided into isolation areas. Each isolation area shall be equipped with isolation devices and controls configured to automatically shut off the supply of conditioned air and outdoor air to and exhaust air from the isolation area. Each isolation area shall be controlled independently by a device meeting the requirements of Section C403.4.2.2. Central systems and plants shall be provided with controls and devices that will allow system and equipment operation for any length of time while serving only the smallest isolation area served by the system or plant.

Exceptions:

  1. Exhaust air and outdoor air connections to isolation areas where the fan system to which they connect is not greater than 5,000 cfm (2360 L/s).
  2. Exhaust airflow from a single isolation area of less than 10 percent of the design airflow of the exhaust system to which it connects.
  3. Isolation areas intended to operate continuously or intended to be inoperative only when all other isolation areas in a zone are inoperative.
Ventilation, either natural or mechanical, shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 4 of the Mechanical Code of New York State. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, the system shall provide the capability to reduce the outdoor air supply to the minimum required by Chapter 4 of the Mechanical Code of New York State.
Heating and cooling equipment installed in mechanical systems shall be sized in accordance with Section C403.3.1 and shall be not less efficient in the use of energy than as specified in Section C403.3.2.

The output capacity of heating and cooling equipment shall be not greater than that of the smallest available equipment size that exceeds the loads calculated in accordance with Section C403.1.1. A single piece of equipment providing both heating and cooling shall satisfy this provision for one function with the capacity for the other function as small as possible, within available equipment options.

Exceptions:

  1. Required standby equipment and systems provided with controls and devices that allow such systems or equipment to operate automatically only when the primary equipment is not operating.
  2. Multiple units of the same equipment type with combined capacities exceeding the design load and provided with controls that are configured to sequence the operation of each unit based on load.

Equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Tables C403.3.2(1) through C403.3.2(9) when tested and rated in accordance with the applicable test procedure. Plate-type liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers shall meet the minimum requirements of Table C403.3.2(10). The efficiency shall be verified through certification under an approved certification program or, where a certification program does not exist, the equipment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data furnished by the manufacturer. Where multiple rating conditions or performance requirements are provided, the equipment shall satisfy all stated requirements. Where components, such as indoor or outdoor coils, from different manufacturers are used, calculations and supporting data shall be furnished by the designer that demonstrates that the combined efficiency of the specified components meets the requirements herein.

TABLE C403.3.2(1)

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY HEATING
SECTION TYPE
SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST
PROCEDUREa
Air conditioners, air cooled < 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 13.0 SEER AHRI 210/240
Single Package 14.0 SEER
Through-the-wall (air cooled) ≤ 30,000 Btu/hb All Split system 12.0 SEER
Single Package 12.0 SEER
Small-duct high-velocity
(air cooled)
< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 11.0 SEER
Air conditioners, air cooled ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.2 EER
12.8 IEER
AHRI 340/360
All other Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
12.6 IEER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
12.4 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
12.2 IEER
≥ 240,000 Btu/h and
< 760,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
10.0 EER
11.6 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
9.8 EER
11.4 IEER
≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
9.7 EER
11.2 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
9.5 EER
11.0 IEER
Air conditioners, water cooled < 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System and
Single Package
12.1 EER
12.3 IEER
AHRI 210/240
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
12.1 EER
13.9 IEER
AHRI 340/360
All other Split System and
Single Package
11.9 EER
13.7 IEER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
12.5 EER
13.9 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
12.3 EER
13.7 IEER
≥ 240,000 Btu/h and
< 760,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
12.4 EER
13.6 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
12.2 EER
13.4 IEER
≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
12.2 EER
13.5 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
12.0 EER
13.3 IEER
Air conditioners,
evaporatively cooled
< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System and
Single Package
12.1 EER
12.3 IEER
AHRI 210/240
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
12.1 EER
12.3 IEER
AHRI 340/360
All other Split System and
Single Package
11.9 EER
12.1 IEER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
12.0 EER
12.2 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
11.8 EER
12.0 IEER
≥ 240,000 Btu/h and
< 760,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.9 EER
12.1 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
11.7 EER
11.9 IEER
≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.7 EER
11.9 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
11.5 EER
11.7 IEER
Condensing units, air cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 10.5 EER
11.8 IEER
AHRI 365
Condensing units, water cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.5 EER
14.0 IEER
Condensing units,
evaporatively cooled
≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.5 EER
14.0 IEER

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

  1. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure.
  2. Single-phase, air-cooled air conditioners less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER values are those set by NAECA.

TABLE C403.3.2(2)

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AND APPLIED HEAT PUMPS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY HEATING
SECTION TYPE
SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
MINIMUM
EFFICIENCY
TEST
PROCEDUREa
Air cooled (cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 14.0 SEER AHRI 210/240
Single Package 14.0 SEER
Through-the-wall, air cooled ≤ 30,000 Btu/hb All Split System 12.0 SEER
Single Package 12.0 SEER
Single-duct high-velocity air cooled < 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 11.0 SEER
Air cooled (cooling mode) ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
11.0 EER
12.0 IEER
AHRI 340/360
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.8 EER
11.8 IEER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
10.6 EER
11.6 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
10.4 EER
11.4 IEER
≥ 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance
(or None)
Split System and
Single Package
9.5 EER
10.6 IEER
All other Split System and
Single Package
9.3 EER
9.4 IEER
Water to Air: Water Loop
(cooling mode)
< 17,000 Btu/h All 86°F entering water 12.2 EER ISO 13256-1
≥ 17,000 Btu/h and
< 65,000 Btu/h
All 86°F entering water 13.0 EER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
All 86°F entering water 13.0 EER
Water to Air: Ground Water
(cooling mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h All 59°F entering water 18.0 EER ISO 13256-1
Brine to Air: Ground Loop
(cooling mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h All 77°F entering water 14.1 EER ISO 13256-1
Water to Water: Water Loop
(cooling mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h All 86°F entering water 10.6 EER ISO 13256-2
Water to Water: Ground Water
(cooling mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h All 59°F entering water 16.3 EER
Brine to Water: Ground Loop
(cooling mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h All 77°F entering fluid 12.1 EER
Air cooled (heating mode) < 65,000 Btu/hb Split System 8.2 HSPF AHRI 210/240
Single Package 8.0 HSPF
Through-the-wall, (air cooled,
heating mode)
≤ 30,000 Btu/hb (cooling capacity) Split System 7.4 HSPF
Single Package 7.4 HSPF
Small-duct high velocity
(air cooled, heating mode)
< 65,000 Btu/hb Split System 6.8 HSPF
Air cooled (heating mode) ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb
outdoor air
3.3 COP AHRI 340/360
17°Fdb/15°F wb
outdoor air
2.25 COP
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb
outdoor air
3.2 COP
17°Fdb/15°F wb
outdoor air
2.05 COP
Water to Air: Water Loop
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
68°F entering water 4.3 COP ISO 13256-1
Water to Air: Ground Water
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
50°F entering water 3.7 COP
Brine to Air: Ground Loop
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
32°F entering fluid 3.2 COP
Water to Water: Water Loop
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
68°F entering water 3.7 COP ISO 13256-2
Water to Water: Ground Water
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
50°F entering water 3.1 COP
Brine to Water: Ground Loop
(heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(cooling capacity)
32°F entering fluid 2.5 COP

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

  1. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure.
  2. Single-phase, air-cooled heat pumps less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER and HSPF values are those set by NAECA.

TABLE C403.3.2(3)

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS, PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMPS, SINGLE-PACKAGE VERTICAL AIR CONDITIONERS, SINGLE VERTICAL HEAT PUMPS, ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS AND ROOM AIR-CONDITIONER HEAT PUMPS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY (INPUT) SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST
PROCEDUREa
PTAC (cooling mode)
new construction
All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 14.0 — (0.300 × Cap/1000) EER AHRI 310/380
PTAC (cooling mode)
replacementsb
All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 10.9 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (cooling mode)
new construction
All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 14.0 - (0.300 × Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (cooling mode)
replacementsb
All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 10.8 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (heating mode)
new construction
All Capacities 3.2 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP
PTHP (heating mode)
replacementsb
All Capacities 2.9 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP
SPVAC (cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 9.0 EER AHRI 390
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 8.9 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 8.6 EER
SPVHP (cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 9.0 EER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 8.9 EER
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 8.6 EER
SPVHP (heating mode) < 65,000 Btu/h 47°F db/ 43°F wb outdoor air 3.0 COP AHRI 390
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and
< 135,000 Btu/h
47°F db/ 43°F wb outdoor air 3.0 COP
≥ 135,000 Btu/h and
< 240,000 Btu/h
47°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 2.9 COP
Room air conditioners,
with louvered sides
< 6,000 Btu/h 11.0 CEER ANSI/AHAM RAC-1
≥ 6,000 Btu/h and
< 8,000 Btu/h
11.0 CEER
≥ 8,000 Btu/h and
< 14,000 Btu/h
10.9 CEER
≥ 14,000 Btu/h and
< 20,000 Btu/h
10.7 CEER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h and
≤ 25,000 Btu/h
9.4 CEER
> 25,000 Btu/h 9.0 CEER
Room air conditioners,
without louvered sides
< 6,000 Btu/h 10.0 CEER
≥ 6,000 Btu/h and
< 8,000 Btu/h
10.0 CEER
≥ 8,000 Btu/h and
< 11,000 Btu/h
9.6 CEER
≥ 11,000 Btu/h and
< 14,000 Btu/h
9.5 CEER
≥ 14,000 Btu/h and
< 20,000 Btu/h
9.3 CEER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 9.4 CEER
Room air-conditioner
heat pumps with
louvered sides
< 20,000 Btu/h 9.8 CEER
≥ 20,000 Btu/h 9.3 CEER
Room air-conditioner
heat pumps without
louvered sides
< 14,000 Btu/h 9.3 CEER
≥ 14,000 Btu/h 8.7 CEER
Room air conditioner casement only All capacities 9.5 CEER ANSI/AHAM RAC-1
Room air conditioner casement-slider All capacities 10.4 CEER

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, wb = wet bulb, db = dry bulb.

"Cap" = The rated cooling capacity of the project in Btu/h. Where the unit's capacity is less than 7000 Btu/h, use 7000 Btu/h in the calculation. Where the unit's capacity is greater than 15,000 Btu/h, use 15,000 Btu/h in the calculations.

  1. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
  2. Replacement unit shall be factory labeled as follows: "MANUFACTURED FOR REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS ONLY: NOT TO BE INSTALLED IN NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS." Replacement efficiencies apply only to units with existing sleeves less than 16 inches (406 mm) in height and less than 42 inches (1067 mm) in width.

TABLE C403.3.2(4)

WARM-AIR FURNACES AND COMBINATION WARM-AIR FURNACES/AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS, WARM-AIR DUCT FURNACES AND UNIT HEATERS, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY
(INPUT)
SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
MINIMUM
EFFICIENCYd, e
TEST PROCEDUREa
Warm-air furnaces,
gas fired
< 225,000 Btu/h 80% AFUE or
80%Etc
DOE 10 CFR Part 430 or
ANSI Z21.47
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityc 80%Etf ANSI Z21.47
Warm-air furnaces,
oil fired
< 225,000 Btu/h 83% AFUE or
80%Etc
DOE 10 CFR Part 430
or UL 727
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityb 81%Etg UL 727
Warm-air duct furnaces,
gas fired
All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm-air unit heaters,
gas fired
All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm-air unit heaters,
oil fired
All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec UL 731

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

  1. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
  2. Minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.
  3. Combination units not covered by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kW]) shall comply with either rating.
  4. Et = Thermal efficiency. See test procedure for detailed discussion.
  5. Ec = Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See test procedure for detailed discussion.
  6. Ec = Combustion efficiency. Units shall also include an IID, have jackets not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.
  7. Et = Thermal efficiency. Units shall also include an IID, have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.

TABLE C403.3.2(5)

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: GAS- AND OIL-FIRED BOILERS

EQUIPMENT TYPEa SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
SIZE CATEGORY (INPUT) MINIMUM EFFICIENCYd, e TEST PROCEDURE
Boilers, hot water Gas-fired < 300,000 Btu/hf, g 82% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
80% Et 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 82% Ec
Oil-firedc < 300,000 Btu/hg 84% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
82% Et 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 84% Ec
Boilers, steam Gas-fired < 300,000 Btu/hf 80% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430
Gas-fired- all, except natural draft ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
79% Et 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 79% Et
Gas-fired-natural draft ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
77% Et
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 77% Et
Oil-firedc < 300,000 Btu/h 82% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb
81% Et 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha 81% Et

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

  1. These requirements apply to boilers with rated input of 8,000,000 Btu/h or less that are not packaged boilers and to all packaged boilers. Minimum efficiency requirements for boilers cover all capacities of packaged boilers.
  2. Maximum capacity — minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.
  3. Includes oil-fired (residual).
  4. Ec = Combustion efficiency (100 percent less flue losses).
  5. Et = Thermal efficiency. See referenced standard for detailed information.
  6. Boilers shall not be equipped with a constant-burning ignition pilot.
  7. A boiler not equipped with a tankless domestic water heating coil shall be equipped with an automatic means for adjusting the temperature of the water such that an incremental change in inferred heat load produces a corresponding incremental change in the temperature of the water supplied.

TABLE C403.3.2(6)

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY MINIMUM EFFICIENCYb TEST PROCEDUREa
Condensing units, air cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 10.1 EER
11.2 IPLV
AHRI 365
Condensing units, water or evaporatively cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.1 EER
13.1 IPLV

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

  1. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
  2. IPLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.

TABLE C403.3.2(7)

WATER CHILLING PACKAGES - EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTSa, b, d

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY UNITS BEFORE 1/1/2015 AS OF 1/1/2015 TEST
PROCEDUREc
Path A Path B Path A Path B
Air-cooled chillers < 150 Tons EER
(Btu/W)
≥ 9.562 FL NAc ≥ 10.100 FL ≥ 9.700 FL AHRI 550/590
≥ 12.500 IPLV ≥ 13.700 IPLV ≥ 15,800 IPLV
≥ 150 Tons ≥ 9.562 FL NAc ≥ 10.100 FL ≥ 9.700 FL
≥ 12.500 IPLV ≥ 14.000 IPLV ≥ 16.100 IPLV
Air cooled without
condenser,
electrically operated
All capacities EER
(Btu/W)
Air-cooled chillers without condenser shall be rated with
matching condensers and complying with air-cooled chiller
efficiency requirements.
Water cooled,
electrically operated
positive displacement
< 75 Tons kW/ton ≤ 0.780 FL ≤ 0.800 FL ≤ 0.750 FL ≤ 0.780 FL
≤ 0.630 IPLV ≤ 0.600 IPLV ≤ 0.600 IPLV ≤ 0.500 IPLV
≥ 75 tons and < 150 tons ≤ 0.775 FL ≤ 0.790 FL ≤ 0.720 FL ≤ 0.750 FL
≤ 0.615 IPLV ≤ 0.586 IPLV ≤ 0.560 IPLV ≤ 0.490 IPLV
≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons ≥ 0.680 FL ≥ 0.718 FL ≥ 0.660 FL ≥ 0.680 FL
≥ 0.580 IPLV ≥ 0.540 IPLV ≥ 0.540 IPLV ≥ 0.440 IPLV
≥ 300 tons and < 600 tons ≤ 0.620 FL ≤ 0.639 FL ≤ 0.610 FL ≤ 0.625 FL
≤ 0.540 IPLV ≤ 0.490 IPLV ≤ 0.520 IPLV ≤ 0.410 IPLV
≥ 600 tons ≤ 0.620 FL ≤ 0.639 FL ≤ 0.560 FL ≤ 0.585 FL
≤ 0.540 IPLV ≤ 0.490 IPLV ≤ 0.500 IPLV ≤ 0.380 IPLV
Water cooled,
electrically operated
centrifugal
< 150 Tons kW/ton ≤ 0.634 FL ≤ 0.639 FL ≤ 0.610 FL ≤ 0.695 FL
≤ 0.596 IPLV ≤ 0.450 IPLV ≤ 0.550 IPLV ≤ 0.440 IPLV
≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons ≤ 0.634 FL ≤ 0.639 FL ≤ 0.610 FL ≤ 0.635 FL
≤ 0.596 IPLV ≤ 0.450 IPLV ≤ 0.550 IPLV ≤ 0.400 IPLV
≥ 300 tons and < 400 tons ≤ 0.576 FL ≤ 0.600 FL ≤ 0.560 FL ≤ 0.595 FL
≤ 0.549 IPLV ≤ 0.400 IPLV ≤ 0.520 IPLV ≤ 0.390 IPLV
≥ 400 tons and < 600 tons ≤ 0.576 FL ≤ 0.600 FL ≤ 0.560 FL ≤ 0.585 FL
≤ 0.549 IPLV ≤ 0.400 IPLV ≤ 0.500 IPLV ≤ 0.380 IPLV
≥ 600 Tons ≤ 0.570 FL ≤ 0.590 FL ≤ 0.560 FL ≤ 0.585 FL
≤ 0.539 IPLV ≤ 0.400 IPLV ≤ 0.500 IPLV ≤ 0.380 IPLV
Air cooled, absorption,
single effect
All capacities COP ≥ 0.600 FL NAc ≥ 0.600 FL NAc AHRI 560
Water cooled
absorption, single
effect
All capacities COP ≥ 0.700 FL NAc ≥ 0.700 FL NAc
Absorption, double
effect, indirect fired
All capacities COP ≥ 1.000 FL NAc ≥ 1.000 FL NAc
≥ 1.050 IPLV ≥ 1.050 IPLV
Absorption double effect
direct fired
All capacities COP ≥ 1.000 FL NAc ≥ 1.000 FL NAc
≥ 1.000 IPLV ≥ 1.050 IPLV
  1. The requirements for centrifugal chiller shall be adjusted for nonstandard rating conditions in accordance with Section C403.3.2.1 and are only applicable for the range of conditions listed in Section C403.3.2.1. The requirements for air-cooled, water-cooled positive displacement and absorption chillers are at standard rating conditions defined in the reference test procedure.
  2. Both the full-load and IPLV requirements shall be met or exceeded to comply with this standard. Where there is a Path B, compliance can be with either Path A or Path B for any application.
  3. NA means the requirements are not applicable for Path B and only Path A can be used for compliance.
  4. FL represents the full-load performance requirements and IPLV the part-load performance requirements.

TABLE C403.3.2(8)

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: HEAT REJECTION EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT TYPEa TOTAL SYSTEM HEAT
REJECTION
CAPACITY AT RATED
CONDITIONS
SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITIONi PERFORMANCE
REQUIREDb, c, d, g, h
TEST PROCEDUREe, f
Propeller or axial fan
open-circuit cooling
towers
All 95°F entering water
85°F leaving water
75°F entering wb
≥ 40.2 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105 and
CTI STD-201 RS
Centrifugal fan
open-circuit cooling
towers
All 95°F entering water
85°F leaving water
75°F entering wb
≥ 20.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105 and
CTI STD-201 RS
Propeller or axial fan
closed-circuit cooling
towers
All 102°F entering water
90°F leaving water
75°F entering wb
≥ 16.1 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105S and
CTI STD-201 RS
Centrifugal fan
closed- circuit cooling
towers
All 102°F entering water
90°F leaving water
75°F entering wb
≥ 7.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105S and
CTI STD-201 RS
Propeller or axial fan
evaporative condensers
All Ammonia Test Fluid
140°F entering gas temperature
96.3°F condensing temperature
75°F entering wb
≥ 134,000 Btu/h × hp CTI ATC-106
Centrifugal fan
evaporative condensers
All Ammonia Test Fluid
140°F entering gas temperature
96.3°F condensing temperature
75°F entering wb
≥ 110,000 Btu/h × hp CTI ATC-106
Propeller or axial fan
evaporative condensers
All R-507A Test Fluid
165°F entering gas temperature
105°F condensing temperature
75°F entering wb
≥ 157,000 Btu/h × hp CTI ATC-106
Centrifugal fan
evaporative condensers
All R-507A Test Fluid
165°F entering gas temperature
105°F condensing temperature
75°F entering wb
≥ 135,000 Btu/h × hp CTI ATC-106
Air-cooled condensers All 125°F Condensing Temperature
190°F Entering Gas Temperature
15°F subcooling 95°F entering db
≥ 176,000 Btu/h × hp AHRI 460

For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, L/s • kW = (gpm/hp)/(11.83), COP = (Btu/h • hp)/(2550.7),

db = dry bulb temperature, °F, wb = wet bulb temperature, °F.

  1. The efficiencies and test procedures for both open- and closed-circuit cooling towers are not applicable to hybrid cooling towers that contain a combination of wet and dry heat exchange sections.
  2. For purposes of this table, open circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition, divided by the fan nameplate-rated motor power.
  3. For purposes of this table, closed-circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition, divided by the sum of the fan nameplate-rated motor power and the spray pump nameplate-rated motor power.
  4. For purposes of this table, air-cooled condenser performance is defined as the heat rejected from the refrigerant divided by the fan nameplate-rated motor power.
  5. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. The certification requirements do not apply to field-erected cooling towers.
  6. Where a certification program exists for a covered product and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, then the product shall be listed in the certification program; or, where a certification program exists for a covered product, and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, but the product is not listed in the existing certification program, the ratings shall be verified by an independent laboratory test report.
  7. Cooling towers shall comply with the minimum efficiency listed in the table for that specific type of tower with the capacity effect of any project-specific accessories or options included in the capacity of the cooling tower.
  8. For purposes of this table, evaporative condenser performance is defined as the heat rejected at the specified rating condition in the table divided by the sum of the fan motor nameplate power and the integral spray pump nameplate power.
  9. Requirements for evaporative condensers are listed with ammonia (R-717) and R-507A as test fluids in the table. Evaporative condensers intended for use with halocarbon refrigerants other than R-507A shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements listed in this table with R-507A as the test fluid.

TABLE C403.3.2(9)

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS SERVING COMPUTER ROOMS

EQUIPMENT TYPE NET SENSIBLE COOLING CAPACITYa MINIMUM SCOP-127b EFFICIENCY
DOWNFLOW UNITS / UPFLOW UNITS
TEST PROCEDURE
Air conditioners, air cooled < 65,000 Btu/h 2.20 / 2.09 ANSI/ASHRAE 127
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.10 / 1.99
≥ 240,000 Btu/h 1.90 / 1.79
Air conditioners, water cooled < 65,000 Btu/h 2.60 / 2.49
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.50 / 2.39
≥ 240,000 Btu/h 2.40 / 2.29
Air conditioners, water cooled with
fluid economizer
< 65,000 Btu/h 2.55 / 2.44
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.45 / 2.34
≥ 240,000 Btu/h 2.35 / 2.24
Air conditioners, glycol cooled
(rated at 40% propylene glycol)
< 65,000 Btu/h 2.50 / 2.39
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.15 / 2.04
≥ 240,000 Btu/h 2.10 / 1.99
Air conditioners, glycol cooled
(rated at 40% propylene glycol)
with fluid economizer
< 65,000 Btu/h 2.45 / 2.34
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.10 / 1.99
≥ 240,000 Btu/h 2.05 / 1.94

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

  1. Net sensible cooling capacity: the total gross cooling capacity less the latent cooling less the energy to the air movement system. (Total Gross — latent — Fan Power).
  2. Sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP-127): a ratio calculated by dividing the net sensible cooling capacity in watts by the total power input in watts (excluding reheaters and humidifiers) at conditions defined in ASHRAE Standard 127. The net sensible cooling capacity is the gross sensible capacity minus the energy dissipated into the cooled space by the fan system.

TABLE C403.3.2(10)

HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT TYPE SUBCATEGORY MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa
Liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers Plate type NR AHRI 400

NR = No Requirement.

  1. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.

Equipment not designed for operation at AHRI Standard 550/590 test conditions of 44°F (7°C) leaving chilled-water temperature and 2.4 gpm/ton evaporator fluid flow and 85°F (29°C) entering condenser water temperature with 3 gpm/ton (0.054 I/s • kW) condenser water flow shall have maximum full-load kW/ton (FL) and part-load ratings requirements adjusted using Equations 4-6 and 4-7.

(Equation 4-6)
(Equation 4-7)

where:

Kadj = A × B

FL = Full-load kW/ton value as specified in Table C403.3.2(7).

FLadj = Maximum full-load kW/ton rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions.

IPLV = Value as specified in Table C403.3.2(7).

PLVadj = Maximum NPLV rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions.

A = 0.00000014592 × (LIFT)4 - 0.0000346496 × (LIFT)3 + 0.00314196 × (LIFT)2 - 0.147199 × (LIFT) + 3.9302

B = 0.0015 × LvgEvap + 0.934

LIFT = LvgCond - LvgEvap

LvgCond = Full-load condenser leaving fluid temperature (°F).

LvgEvap = Full-load evaporator leaving temperature (°F).

The FLadj and PLVadj values are only applicable for centrifugal chillers meeting all of the following full-load design ranges:

  1. Minimum evaporator leaving temperature: 36°F.
  2. Maximum condenser leaving temperature: 115°F.
  3. 20°F ≤ LIFT ≤ 80°F.
Equipment with a leaving fluid temperature higher than 32°F (0°C) and water-cooled positive displacement chilling packages with a condenser leaving fluid temperature below 115°F (46°C) shall meet the requirements of Table C403.3.2(7) when tested or certified with water at standard rating conditions, in accordance with the referenced test procedure.

Cooling systems shall not use hot gas bypass or other evaporator pressure control systems unless the system is designed with multiple steps of unloading or continuous capacity modulation. The capacity of the hot gas bypass shall be limited as indicated in Table C403.3.3, as limited by Section C403.5.1.

TABLE C403.3.3

MAXIMUM HOT GAS BYPASS CAPACITY

RATED CAPACITY MAXIMUM HOT GAS BYPASS CAPACITY
(% of total capacity)
≤ 240,000 Btu/h 50
> 240,000 Btu/h 25

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

Boiler systems with design input of greater than 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 kW) shall comply with the turndown ratio specified in Table C403.3.4.

The system turndown requirement shall be met through the use of multiple single-input boilers, one or more modulating boilers or a combination of single-input and modulating boilers.

TABLE C403.3.4

BOILER TURNDOWN

BOILER SYSTEM DESIGN INPUT (Btu/h) MINIMUM
TURNDOWN
RATIO
≥ 1,000,000 and less than or equal to 5,000,000 3 to 1
> 5,000,000 and less than or equal to 10,000,000 4 to 1
> 10,000,000 5 to 1

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

Each heating and cooling system shall be provided with controls in accordance with Sections C403.4.1 through C403.4.5.

The supply of heating and cooling energy to each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls capable of responding to temperature within the zone. Where humidification or dehumidification or both is provided, not fewer than one humidity control device shall be provided for each humidity control system.

Exception: Independent perimeter systems that are designed to offset only building envelope heat losses, gains or both serving one or more perimeter zones also served by an interior system provided that both of the following conditions are met:

  1. The perimeter system includes not fewer than one thermostatic control zone for each building exposure having exterior walls facing only one orientation (within ± 45 degrees) (0.8 rad) for more than 50 contiguous feet (15 240 mm).
  2. The perimeter system heating and cooling supply is controlled by thermostats located within the zones served by the system.
Heat pumps having supplementary electric resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplementary heat operation where the heat pump can provide the heating load.

Where used to control both heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall be configured to provide a temperature range or deadband of not less than 5°F (2.8°C) within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is shut off or reduced to a minimum.

Exceptions:

  1. Thermostats requiring manual changeover between heating and cooling modes.
  2. Occupancies or applications requiring precision in indoor temperature control as approved by the building official.
Where a zone has a separate heating and a separate cooling thermostatic control located within the zone, a limit switch, mechanical stop or direct digital control system with software programming shall be configured to prevent the heating setpoint from exceeding the cooling setpoint and to maintain a deadband in accordance with Section C403.4.1.2.

The heating system for heated vestibules and air curtains with integral heating shall be provided with controls configured to shut off the source of heating when the outdoor air temperature is greater than 45°F (7°C). Vestibule heating and cooling systems shall be controlled by a thermostat located in the vestibule configured to limit heating to a temperature not greater than 60°F (16°C) and cooling to a temperature not less than 85°F (29°C).

Exception: Control of heating or cooling provided by site-recovered energy or transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted.

Hot water boilers that supply heat to the building through one- or two-pipe heating systems shall have an outdoor setback control that lowers the boiler water temperature based on the outdoor temperature.

Each zone shall be provided with thermostatic setback controls that are controlled by either an automatic time clock or programmable control system.

Exceptions:

  1. Zones that will be operated continuously.
  2. Zones with a full HVAC load demand not exceeding 6,800 Btu/h (2 kW) and having a manual shutoff switch located with ready access.
Thermostatic setback controls shall be configured to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C).
Automatic time clock or programmable controls shall be capable of starting and stopping the system for seven different daily schedules per week and retaining their programming and time setting during a loss of power for not fewer than 10 hours. Additionally, the controls shall have a manual override that allows temporary operation of the system for up to 2 hours; a manually operated timer configured to operate the system for up to 2 hours; or an occupancy sensor.
Automatic start controls shall be provided for each HVAC system. The controls shall be configured to automatically adjust the daily start time of the HVAC system in order to bring each space to the desired occupied temperature immediately prior to scheduled occupancy.
The heating of fluids that have been previously mechanically cooled and the cooling of fluids that have been previously mechanically heated shall be limited in accordance with Sections C403.4.3.1 through C403.4.3.3. Hydronic heating systems comprised of multiple-packaged boilers and designed to deliver conditioned water or steam into a common distribution system shall include automatic controls configured to sequence operation of the boilers. Hydronic heating systems composed of a single boiler and greater than 500,000 Btu/h (146.5 kW) input design capacity shall include either a multistaged or modulating burner.
Hydronic systems that use a common return system for both hot water and chilled water are prohibited.
Systems that use a common distribution system to supply both heated and chilled water shall be designed to allow a deadband between changeover from one mode to the other of not less than 15°F (8.3°C) outside air temperatures; be designed to and provided with controls that will allow operation in one mode for not less than 4 hours before changing over to the other mode; and be provided with controls that allow heating and cooling supply temperatures at the changeover point to be not more than 30°F (16.7°C) apart.
Hydronic heat pump systems shall comply with Sections C403.4.3.3.1 through C403.4.3.3.3.

Hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection and heat addition shall have controls that are configured to provide a heat pump water supply temperature deadband of not less than 20°F (11°C) between initiation of heat rejection and heat addition by the central devices.

Exception: Where a system loop temperature optimization controller is installed and can determine the most efficient operating temperature based on real-time conditions of demand and capacity, deadbands of less than 20°F (11°C) shall be permitted.

The following shall apply to hydronic water loop heat pump systems in Climate Zones 3 through 8:

  1. Where a closed-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, either an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass the flow of water around the closed-circuit cooling tower, except for any flow necessary for freeze protection, or low-leakage positive-closure dampers shall be provided.
  2. Where an open-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the open-circuit cooling tower.
  3. Where an open-circuit cooling tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the open-circuit cooling tower from the heat pump loop, heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop.

Exception: Where it can be demonstrated that a heat pump system will be required to reject heat throughout the year.

Each hydronic heat pump on the hydronic system having a total pump system power exceeding 10 hp (7.5 kW) shall have a two-position valve.

Hydronic systems greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h (87.9 kW) in design output capacity supplying heated or chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that are configured to do all of the following:

  1. Automatically reset the supply-water temperatures in response to varying building heating and cooling demand using coil valve position, zone-return water temperature, building-return water temperature or outside air temperature. The temperature shall be reset by not less than 25 percent of the design supply-to-return water temperature difference.
  2. Automatically vary fluid flow for hydronic systems with a combined pump motor capacity of 2 hp (1.5 kW) or larger with three or more control valves or other devices by reducing the system design flow rate by not less than 50 percent or the maximum reduction allowed by the equipment manufacturer for proper operation of equipment by valves that modulate or step open and close, or pumps that modulate or turn on and off as a function of load.
  3. Automatically vary pump flow on heating-water systems, chilled-water systems and heat rejection loops serving water-cooled unitary air conditioners as follows:

    1. 3.1. Where pumps operate continuously or operate based on a time schedule, pumps with nominal output motor power of 2 hp or more shall have a variable speed drive.
    2. 3.2. Where pumps have automatic direct digital control configured to operate pumps only when zone heating or cooling is required, a variable speed drive shall be provided for pumps with motors having the same or greater nominal output power indicated in Table C403.4.4 based on the climate zone and system served.
  4. Where a variable speed drive is required by Item 3 of this Section, pump motor power input shall be not more than 30 percent of design wattage at 50 percent of the design water flow. Pump flow shall be controlled to maintain one control valve nearly wide open or to satisfy the minimum differential pressure.

Exceptions:

  1. Supply-water temperature reset is not required for chilled-water systems supplied by off-site district chilled water or chilled water from ice storage systems.
  2. Variable pump flow is not required on dedicated coil circulation pumps where needed for freeze protection.
  3. Variable pump flow is not required on dedicated equipment circulation pumps where configured in primary/secondary design to provide the minimum flow requirements of the equipment manufacturer for proper operation of equipment.
  4. Variable speed drives are not required on heating water pumps where more than 50 percent of annual heat is generated by an electric boiler.

[NY] TABLE C403.4.4

VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE (VSD) REQUIREMENTS FOR DEMAND-CONTROLLED PUMPS

CHILLED WATER AND HEAT REJECTION LOOP
PUMPS IN THESE CLIMATE ZONES
HEATING WATER PUMPS IN THESE CLIMATE ZONES VSD REQUIRED FOR MOTORS WITH
RATED OUTPUT OF:
4A ≥ 5 hp
5A, 6A 5A, 6A ≥ 7.5 hp
4 ≥ 10 hp

Chilled water plants including more than one chiller shall be capable of and configured to reduce flow automatically through the chiller plant when a chiller is shut down. Chillers piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential shall be considered as one chiller.

Boiler systems including more than one boiler shall be capable of and configured to reduce flow automatically through the boiler system when a boiler is shut down.

Economizers shall comply with Sections C403.5.1 through C403.5.5.

An air or water economizer shall be provided for the following cooling systems:

  1. Chilled water systems with a total cooling capacity, less cooling capacity provided with air economizers, as specified in Table C403.5(1).
  2. Individual fan systems with cooling capacity greater than or equal to 54,000 Btu/h (15.8 kW) serving other than a Group R occupancies.

    The total supply capacity of all fan cooling units not provided with economizers shall not exceed 20 percent of the total supply capacity of all fan cooling units in the building or 300,000 Btu/h (88 kW), whichever is greater.

  3. Individual fan systems with cooling capacity greater than or equal to 270,000 Btu/h (79.1 kW) serving Group R occupancies.

    The total supply capacity of all fan cooling units not provided with economizers shall not exceed 20 percent of the total supply capacity of all fan cooling units in the building or 1,500,000 Btu/h (440 kW), whichever is greater.

Exceptions: Economizers are not required for the following systems.

  1. Individual fan systems not served by chilled water for buildings located in Climate Zones 1A and 1B.
  2. Where more than 25 percent of the air designed to be supplied by the system is to spaces that are designed to be humidified above 35°F (1.7°C) dew-point temperature to satisfy process needs.
  3. Systems expected to operate less than 20 hours per week.
  4. Systems serving supermarket areas with open refrigerated casework.
  5. Where the cooling efficiency is greater than or equal to the efficiency requirements in Table C403.5(2).
  6. Systems that include a heat recovery system in accordance with Section C403.9.5.

[NY] TABLE C403.5(1)

MINIMUM CHILLED-WATER SYSTEM COOLING CAPACITY FOR DETERMINING ECONOMIZER COOLING REQUIREMENTS

CLIMATE ZONES
(COOLING)
TOTAL CHILLED-WATER SYSTEM CAPACITY LESS CAPACITY OF COOLING UNITS WITH AIR ECONOMIZERS
Local Water-cooled Chilled-water Systems Air-cooled Chilled-water Systems or District Chilled-Water Systems
4A 720,000 Btu/h 940,000 Btu/h
5A, 6A 1,320,000 Btu/h 1,720,000 Btu/h

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

[NY] TABLE C403.5(2)

EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE EXCEPTION FOR ECONOMIZERS

CLIMATE
ZONES
COOLING EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE
IMPROVEMENT (EER OR IPLV)
4A 20% efficiency improvement

Economizer systems shall be integrated with the mechanical cooling system and be configured to provide partial cooling even where additional mechanical cooling is required to provide the remainder of the cooling load. Controls shall not be capable of creating a false load in the mechanical cooling systems by limiting or disabling the economizer or any other means, such as hot gas bypass, except at the lowest stage of mechanical cooling.

Units that include an air economizer shall comply with the following:

  1. Unit controls shall have the mechanical cooling capacity control interlocked with the air economizer controls such that the outdoor air damper is at the 100-percent open position when mechanical cooling is on and the outdoor air damper does not begin to close to prevent coil freezing due to minimum compressor run time until the leaving air temperature is less than 45°F (7°C).
  2. Direct expansion (DX) units that control 75,000 Btu/h (22 kW) or greater of rated capacity of the capacity of the mechanical cooling directly based on occupied space temperature shall have not fewer than two stages of mechanical cooling capacity.
  3. Other DX units, including those that control space temperature by modulating the airflow to the space, shall be in accordance with Table C403.5.1.

TABLE C403.5.1

DX COOLING STAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR MODULATING AIRFLOW UNITS

RATING CAPACITY MINIMUM NUMBER
OF MECHANICAL COOLING STAGES
MINIMUM
COMPRESSOR DISPLACEMENTa
≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 3 stages ≤ 35% of full load
≥ 240,000 Btu/h 4 stages ≤ 25% full load

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

  1. For mechanical cooling stage control that does not use variable compressor displacement, the percent displacement shall be equivalent to the mechanical cooling capacity reduction evaluated at the full load rating conditions for the compressor.

HVAC system design and economizer controls shall be such that economizer operation does not increase building heating energy use during normal operation.

Exception: Economizers on variable air volume (VAV) systems that cause zone level heating to increase because of a reduction in supply air temperature.

Where economizers are required by Section C403.5, air economizers shall comply with Sections C403.5.3.1 through C403.5.3.5.
Air economizer systems shall be configured to modulate outdoor air and return air dampers to provide up to 100 percent of the design supply air quantity as outdoor air for cooling.

Economizer controls and dampers shall be configured to sequence the dampers with the mechanical cooling equipment and shall not be controlled by only mixed-air temperature.

Exception: The use of mixed-air temperature limit control shall be permitted for systems controlled from space temperature (such as single-zone systems).

Air economizers shall be configured to automatically reduce outdoor air intake to the design minimum outdoor air quantity when outdoor air intake will not reduce cooling energy usage. High-limit shutoff control types for specific climates shall be chosen from Table C403.5.3.3. High-limit shutoff control settings for these control types shall be those specified in Table C403.5.3.3.

TABLE C403.5.3.3

HIGH-LIMIT SHUTOFF CONTROL SETTING FOR AIR ECONOMIZERSb

DEVICE TYPE CLIMATE ZONE REQUIRED HIGH LIMIT
(ECONOMIZER OFF WHEN):
Equation Description
Fixed dry bulb 5A, 6A TOA > 70°F Outdoor air temperature exceeds 70°F
4A TOA > 65°F Outdoor air temperature exceeds 65°F
Differential dry bulb 5A, 6A TOA > TRA Outdoor air temperature exceeds
return air temperature
Fixed enthalpy with fixed
dry-bulb temperatures
All hOA > 28 Btu/lba or
TOA > 75°F
Outdoor air enthalpy exceeds
28 Btu/lb of dry aira or
Outdoor air temperature exceeds 75°F
Differential enthalpy with
fixed dry-bulb
temperature
All hOA > hRA or
TOA > 75°F
Outdoor air enthalpy exceeds
return air enthalpy or
Outdoor air temperature exceeds 75°F

For SI: 1 foot = 305 mm, °C = (°F - 32)/1.8, 1 Btu/lb = 2.33 kJ/kg.

  1. At altitudes substantially different than sea level, the fixed enthalpy limit shall be set to the enthalpy value at 75°F and 50-percent relative humidity. As an example, at approximately 6,000 feet elevation, the fixed enthalpy limit is approximately 30.7 Btu/lb.
  2. Devices with selectable setpoints shall be capable of being set to within 2°F and 2 Btu/lb of the setpoint listed.
Systems shall be capable of relieving excess outdoor air during air economizer operation to prevent overpressurizing the building. The relief air outlet shall be located to avoid recirculation into the building.
Return, exhaust/relief and outdoor air dampers used in economizers shall comply with Section C403.7.7.
Where economizers are required by Section C403.5, water-side economizers shall comply with Sections C403.5.4.1 and C403.5.4.2.

Water economizer systems shall be configured to cool supply air by indirect evaporation and providing up to 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at outdoor air temperatures of not greater than 50°F (10°C) dry bulb/45°F (7°C) wet bulb.

Exceptions:

  1. Systems primarily serving computer rooms in which 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at 40°F (4°C) dry bulb/35°F (1.7°C) wet bulb is met with evaporative water economizers.
  2. Systems primarily serving computer rooms with dry cooler water economizers that satisfy 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at 35°F (1.7°C) dry bulb.
  3. Systems where dehumidification requirements cannot be met using outdoor air temperatures of 50°F (10°C) dry bulb/45°F (7°C) wet bulb and where 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at 45°F (7°C) dry bulb/40°F (4°C) wet bulb is met with evaporative water economizers.
Precooling coils and water-to-water heat exchangers used as part of a water economizer system shall either have a water-side pressure drop of less than 15 feet (45 kPa) of water or a secondary loop shall be created so that the coil or heat exchanger pressure drop is not seen by the circulating pumps when the system is in the normal cooling (noneconomizer) mode.

Air-cooled unitary direct-expansion units listed in Tables C403.3.2(1) through C403.3.2(3) and variable refrigerant flow (VRF) units that are equipped with an economizer in accordance with Sections C403.5 through C403.5.4 shall include a fault detection and diagnostics system complying with the following:

  1. The following temperature sensors shall be permanently installed to monitor system operation:

    1. 1.1. Outside air.
    2. 1.2. Supply air.
    3. 1.3. Return air.
  2. Temperature sensors shall have an accuracy of ±2°F (1.1°C) over the range of 40°F to 80°F (4°C to 26.7°C).
  3. Refrigerant pressure sensors, where used, shall have an accuracy of ±3 percent of full scale.
  4. The unit controller shall be configured to provide system status by indicating the following:

    1. 4.1. Free cooling available.
    2. 4.2. Economizer enabled.
    3. 4.3. Compressor enabled.
    4. 4.4. Heating enabled.
    5. 4.5. Mixed air low limit cycle active.
    6. 4.6. The current value of each sensor.
  5. The unit controller shall be capable of manually initiating each operating mode so that the operation of compressors, economizers, fans and the heating system can be independently tested and verified.
  6. The unit shall be configured to report faults to a fault management application available for access by day-to-day operating or service personnel, or annunciated locally on zone thermostats.
  7. The fault detection and diagnostics system shall be configured to detect the following faults:

    1. 7.1. Air temperature sensor failure/fault.
    2. 7.2. Not economizing when the unit should be economizing.
    3. 7.3. Economizing when the unit should not be economizing.
    4. 7.4. Damper not modulating.
    5. 7.5. Excess outdoor air.
Sections C403.6.1 through C403.6.9 shall apply to mechanical systems serving multiple zones.

Supply air systems serving multiple zones shall be variable air volume (VAV) systems that have zone controls configured to reduce the volume of air that is reheated, recooled or mixed in each zone to one of the following:

  1. Twenty percent of the zone design peak supply for systems with DDC and 30 percent for other systems.
  2. Systems with DDC where all of the following apply:

    1. 2.1. The airflow rate in the deadband between heating and cooling does not exceed 20 percent of the zone design peak supply rate or higher allowed rates under Items 3, 4 and 5 of this section.
    2. 2.2. The first stage of heating modulates the zone supply air temperature setpoint up to a maximum setpoint while the airflow is maintained at the deadband flow rate.
    3. 2.3. The second stage of heating modulates the airflow rate from the deadband flow rate up to the heating maximum flow rate that is less than 50 percent of the zone design peak supply rate.
  3. The outdoor airflow rate required to meet the minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the Mechanical Code of New York State.
  4. Any higher rate that can be demonstrated to reduce overall system annual energy use by offsetting reheat/recool energy losses through a reduction in outdoor air intake for the system as approved by the building official.
  5. The airflow rate required to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards such as pressure relationships or minimum air change rates.

Exception: The following individual zones or entire air distribution systems are exempted from the requirement for VAV control:

  1. Zones or supply air systems where not less than 75 percent of the energy for reheating or for providing warm air in mixing systems is provided from a site-recovered, including condenser heat, or site-solar energy source.
  2. Systems that prevent reheating, recooling, mixing or simultaneous supply of air that has been previously cooled, either mechanically or through the use of economizer systems, and air that has been previously mechanically heated.
Single-duct VAV systems shall use terminal devices capable of and configured to reduce the supply of primary supply air before reheating or recooling takes place.
Systems that have one warm air duct and one cool air duct shall use terminal devices that are configured to reduce the flow from one duct to a minimum before mixing of air from the other duct takes place.
Individual dual-duct or mixing heating and cooling systems with a single fan and with total capacities greater than 90,000 Btu/h [(26.4 kW) 7.5 tons] shall not be equipped with air economizers.

Multiple-zone HVAC systems shall include controls that automatically reset the supply-air temperature in response to representative building loads, or to outdoor air temperature. The controls shall be configured to reset the supply air temperature not less than 25 percent of the difference between the design supply-air temperature and the design room air temperature.

Exceptions:

  1. Systems that prevent reheating, recooling or mixing of heated and cooled supply air.
  2. Seventy-five percent of the energy for reheating is from site-recovered or site-solar energy sources.
  3. Zones with peak supply air quantities of 300 cfm (142 L/s) or less.

Multiple-zone VAV systems with direct digital control of individual zone boxes reporting to a central control panel shall have automatic controls configured to reduce outdoor air intake flow below design rates in response to changes in system ventilation efficiency (Ev) as defined by the Mechanical Code of New York State.

Exceptions:

  1. VAV systems with zonal transfer fans that recirculate air from other zones without directly mixing it with outdoor air, dual-duct dual-fan VAV systems, and VAV systems with fan-powered terminal units.
  2. Systems where total design exhaust airflow is more than 70 percent of total design outdoor air intake flow requirements.

Parallel-flow fan-powered VAV air terminals shall have automatic controls configured to:

  1. Turn off the terminal fan except when space heating is required or where required for ventilation.
  2. Turn on the terminal fan as the first stage of heating before the heating coil is activated.
  3. During heating for warmup or setback temperature control, either:

    1. 3.1. Operate the terminal fan and heating coil without primary air.
    2. 3.2. Reverse the terminal damper logic and provide heating from the central air handler by primary air.

For systems with direct digital control of individual zones reporting to the central control panel, the static pressure setpoint shall be reset based on the zone requiring the most pressure. In such case, the setpoint is reset lower until one zone damper is nearly wide open. The direct digital controls shall be capable of monitoring zone damper positions or shall have an alternative method of indicating the need for static pressure that is configured to provide all of the following:

  1. Automatic detection of any zone that excessively drives the reset logic.
  2. Generation of an alarm to the system operational location.
  3. Allowance for an operator to readily remove one or more zones from the reset algorithm.
Static pressure sensors used to control VAV fans shall be located such that the controller setpoint is not greater than 1.2 inches w.c. (299 Pa). Where this results in one or more sensors being located downstream of major duct splits, not less than one sensor shall be located on each major branch to ensure that static pressure can be maintained in each branch.
In addition to other requirements of Section C403 applicable to the provision of ventilation air or the exhaust of air, ventilation and exhaust systems shall be in accordance with Sections C403.7.1 through C403.7.7.

Demand control ventilation (DCV) shall be provided for spaces larger than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) and with an average occupant load of 25 people or greater per 1,000 square feet (93 m2) of floor area, as established in Table 403.3.1.1 of the Mechanical Code of New York State, and served by systems with one or more of the following:

  1. An air-side economizer.
  2. Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air damper.
  3. A design outdoor airflow greater than 3,000 cfm (1416 L/s).

Exceptions:

  1. Systems with energy recovery complying with Section C403.7.4.
  2. Multiple-zone systems without direct digital control of individual zones communicating with a central control panel.
  3. Systems with a design outdoor airflow less than 1,200 cfm (566 L/s).
  4. Spaces where the supply airflow rate minus any makeup or outgoing transfer air requirement is less than 1,200 cfm (566 L/s).
  5. Ventilation provided only for process loads.

Enclosed parking garages used for storing or handling automobiles operating under their own power shall employ contamination-sensing devices and automatic controls configured to stage fans or modulate fan average airflow rates to 50 percent or less of design capacity, or intermittently operate fans less than 20 percent of the occupied time or as required to maintain acceptable contaminant levels in accordance with Mechanical Code of New York State provisions. Failure of contamination-sensing devices shall cause the exhaust fans to operate continuously at design airflow.

Exceptions:

  1. Garages with a total exhaust capacity less than 22,500 cfm (10 620 L/s) with ventilation systems that do not utilize heating or mechanical cooling.
  2. Garages that have a garage area to ventilation system motor nameplate power ratio that exceeds 1125 cfm/hp (710 L/s/kW) and do not utilize heating or mechanical cooling.
Units that provide ventilation air to multiple zones and operate in conjunction with zone heating and cooling systems shall not use heating or heat recovery to warm supply air to a temperature greater than 60°F (16°C) when representative building loads or outdoor air temperatures indicate that the majority of zones require cooling.

Where the supply airflow rate of a fan system exceeds the values specified in Tables C403.7.4(1) and C403.7.4(2), the system shall include an energy recovery system. The energy recovery system shall be configured to provide a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply of not less than 50 percent of the difference between the outdoor air and return air enthalpies, at design conditions. Where an air economizer is required, the energy recovery system shall include a bypass or controls that permit operation of the economizer as required by Section C403.5.

Exception: An energy recovery ventilation system shall not be required in any of the following conditions:

  1. Where energy recovery systems are prohibited by the Mechanical Code of New York State.
  2. Laboratory fume hood systems that include not fewer than one of the following features:

    1. 2.1. Variable-air-volume hood exhaust and room supply systems configured to reduce exhaust and makeup air volume to 50 percent or less of design values.
    2. 2.2. Direct makeup (auxiliary) air supply equal to or greater than 75 percent of the exhaust rate, heated not warmer than 2°F (1.1°C) above room setpoint, cooled to not cooler than 3°F (1.7°C) below room setpoint, with no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control.
  3. Systems serving spaces that are heated to less than 60°F (15.5°C) and that are not cooled.
  4. Where more than 60 percent of the outdoor heating energy is provided from site-recovered or site-solar energy.
  5. Heating energy recovery in Climate Zones 1 and 2.
  6. Cooling energy recovery in Climate Zones 3C, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7 and 8.
  7. Systems requiring dehumidification that employ energy recovery in series with the cooling coil.
  8. Where the largest source of air exhausted at a single location at the building exterior is less than 75 percent of the design outdoor air flow rate.
  9. Systems expected to operate less than 20 hours per week at the outdoor air percentage covered by Table C403.7.4(1).
  10. Systems exhausting toxic, flammable, paint or corrosive fumes or dust.
  11. Commercial kitchen hoods used for collecting and removing grease vapors and smoke.

[NY] TABLE C403.7.4(1)

ENERGY RECOVERY REQUIREMENT (Ventilation systems operating less than 8,000 hours per year)

CLIMATE ZONE PERCENT (%) OUTDOOR AIR AT FULL DESIGN AIRFLOW RATE
≥ 10% and < 20% ≥ 20% and < 30% ≥ 30% and < 40% ≥ 40% and <
50%
≥ 50% and <
60%
≥ 60% and <
70%
≥ 70% and <
80%
≥ 80%
DESIGN SUPPLY FAN AIRFLOW RATE (cfm)
4A, 5A, 6A ≥ 26,000 ≥ 16,000 ≥ 5,500 ≥ 4,500 ≥ 3,500 ≥ 2,000 ≥ 1,000 > 120

For SI: 1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s.

NR = Not Required.

[NY] TABLE C403.7.4(2)

ENERGY RECOVERY REQUIREMENT (Ventilation systems operating not less than 8,000 hours per year)

CLIMATE ZONE PERCENT (%) OUTDOOR AIR AT FULL DESIGN AIRFLOW RATE
≥ 10% and
< 20%
≥ 20% and
< 30%
≥ 30% and
< 40%
≥ 40% and
< 50%
≥ 50% and
< 60%
≥ 60% and
< 70%
≥ 70% and
< 80%
≥ 80%
Design Supply Fan Airflow Rate (cfm)
4A, 5A, 6A ≥ 200 ≥ 130 ≥ 100 ≥ 80 ≥ 70 ≥ 60 ≥ 50 ≥ 40

For SI: 1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s.

NR = Not Required.

Replacement air introduced directly into the exhaust hood cavity shall not be greater than 10 percent of the hood exhaust airflow rate. Conditioned supply air delivered to any space shall not exceed the greater of the following:

  1. The ventilation rate required to meet the space heating or cooling load.
  2. The hood exhaust flow minus the available transfer air from adjacent space where available transfer air is considered to be that portion of outdoor ventilation air not required to satisfy other exhaust needs, such as restrooms, and not required to maintain pressurization of adjacent spaces.

Where total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate is greater than 5,000 cfm (2360 L/s), each hood shall be a factory-built commercial exhaust hood listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory in compliance with UL 710. Each hood shall have a maximum exhaust rate as specified in Table C403.7.5 and shall comply with one of the following:

  1. Not less than 50 percent of all replacement air shall be transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted.
  2. Demand ventilation systems on not less than 75 percent of the exhaust air that are configured to provide not less than a 50-percent reduction in exhaust and replacement air system airflow rates, including controls necessary to modulate airflow in response to appliance operation and to maintain full capture and containment of smoke, effluent and combustion products during cooking and idle.
  3. Listed energy recovery devices with a sensible heat recovery effectiveness of not less than 40 percent on not less than 50 percent of the total exhaust airflow.

Where a single hood, or hood section, is installed over appliances with different duty ratings, the maximum allowable flow rate for the hood or hood section shall be based on the requirements for the highest appliance duty rating under the hood or hood section.

Exception: Where not less than 75 percent of all the replacement air is transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted.

TABLE C403.7.5

MAXIMUM NET EXHAUST FLOW RATE, CFM PER LINEAR FOOT OF HOOD LENGTH

TYPE OF HOOD LIGHT-DUTY
EQUIPMENT
MEDIUM-DUTY
EQUIPMENT
HEAVY-DUTY
EQUIPMENT
EXTRA-HEAVY-DUTY
EQUIPMENT
Wall-mounted canopy 140 210 280 385
Single island 280 350 420 490
Double island (per side) 175 210 280 385
Eyebrow 175 175 NA NA
Backshelf/Pass-over 210 210 280 NA

For SI:1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s; 1 foot = 305 mm.

NA = Not Allowed.

In Group R-1 buildings containing more than 50 guestrooms, each guestroom shall be provided with controls complying with the provisions of Sections C403.7.6.1 and C403.7.6.2. Card key controls comply with these requirements.
Controls shall be provided on each HVAC system that are capable of and configured to automatically raise the cooling setpoint and lower the heating setpoint by not less than 4°F (2°C) from the occupant setpoint within 30 minutes after the occupants have left the guestroom. The controls shall be capable of and configured to automatically raise the cooling setpoint to not lower than 80°F (27°C) and lower the heating setpoint to not higher than 60°F (16°C) when the guestroom is unrented or has not been continuously occupied for more than 16 hours or a networked guestroom control system indicates that the guestroom is unrented and the guestroom is unoccupied for more than 30 minutes. A networked guestroom control system that is capable of returning the thermostat setpoints to default occupied setpoints 60 minutes prior to the time a guestroom is scheduled to be occupied is not precluded by this section. Cooling that is capable of limiting relative humidity with a setpoint not lower than 65-percent relative humidity during unoccupied periods is not precluded by this section.

Controls shall be provided on each HVAC system that are capable of and configured to automatically turn off the ventilation and exhaust fans within 30 minutes of the occupants leaving the guestroom, or isolation devices shall be provided to each guestroom that are capable of automatically shutting off the supply of outdoor air to and exhaust air from the guestroom.

Exception: Guestroom ventilation systems are not precluded from having an automatic daily pre-occupancy purge cycle that provides daily outdoor air ventilation during unrented periods at the design ventilation rate for 60 minutes, or at a rate and duration equivalent to one air change.

Outdoor air intake and exhaust openings and stairway and shaft vents shall be provided with Class I motorized dampers. The dampers shall have an air leakage rate not greater than 4 cfm/ft2 (20.3 L/s • m2) of damper surface area at 1.0 inch water gauge (249 Pa) and shall be labeled by an approved agency when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D for such purpose.

Outdoor air intake and exhaust dampers shall be installed with automatic controls configured to close when the systems or spaces served are not in use or during unoccupied period warm-up and setback operation, unless the systems served require outdoor or exhaust air in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State or the dampers are opened to provide intentional economizer cooling.

Stairway and shaft vent dampers shall be installed with automatic controls configured to open upon the activation of any fire alarm initiating device of the building's fire alarm system or the interruption of power to the damper.

Exception: Nonmotorized gravity dampers shall be an alternative to motorized dampers for exhaust and relief openings as follows:

  1. In buildings less than three stories in height above grade plane.
  2. In buildings of any height located in Climate Zones 1, 2 or 3.
  3. Where the design exhaust capacity is not greater than 300 cfm (142 L/s).

Nonmotorized gravity dampers shall have an air leakage rate not greater than 20 cfm/ft2 (101.6 L/s • m2) where not less than 24 inches (610 mm) in either dimension and 40 cfm/ft2 (203.2 L/s • m2) where less than 24 inches (610 mm) in either dimension. The rate of air leakage shall be determined at 1.0 inch water gauge (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D for such purpose. The dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency.

Fans in HVAC systems shall comply with Sections C403.8.1 through C403.8.5.1.

Each HVAC system having a total fan system motor nameplate horsepower exceeding 5 hp (3.7 kW) at fan system design conditions shall not exceed the allowable fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1) or fan system bhp (Option 2) shown in Table C403.8.1(1). This includes supply fans, exhaust fans, return/relief fans, and fan-powered terminal units associated with systems providing heating or cooling capability. Single-zone variable air volume systems shall comply with the constant volume fan power limitation.

Exceptions:

  1. Hospital, vivarium and laboratory systems that utilize flow control devices on exhaust or return to maintain space pressure relationships necessary for occupant health and safety or environmental control shall be permitted to use variable volume fan power limitation.
  2. Individual exhaust fans with motor nameplate horsepower of 1 hp (0.746 kW) or less are exempt from the allowable fan horsepower requirement.

TABLE C403.8.1(1)

FAN POWER LIMITATION

LIMIT CONSTANT VOLUME VARIABLE VOLUME
Option 1: Fan system motor nameplate hp Allowable nameplate motor hp hp ≤ CFMS × 0.0011 hp ≤ CFMS × 0.0015
Option 2: Fan system bhp Allowable fan system bhp bhp ≤ CFMS × 0.00094 + A bhp ≤ CFMS × 0.0013 + A

For SI: 1 bhp = 735.5 W, 1 hp = 745.5 W, 1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s.

where:

CFMS=The maximum design supply airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system in cubic feet per minute.
hp=The maximum combined motor nameplate horsepower.
bhp=The maximum combined fan brake horsepower.
A=Sum of [PD × CFMD / 4131].

where:

PD=Each applicable pressure drop adjustment from Table C403.8.1(2) in. w.c.
CFMD=The design airflow through each applicable device from Table C403.8.1(2) in cubic feet per minute.

TABLE C403.8.1(2)

FAN POWER LIMITATION PRESSURE DROP ADJUSTMENT

DEVICE ADJUSTMENT
Credits
Return air or exhaust systems required by code or accreditation
standards to be fully ducted, or systems required to maintain
air pressure differentials between adjacent rooms
0.5 inch w.c. (2.15 inches w.c. for laboratory and vivarium systems)
Return and exhaust airflow control devices 0.5 inch w.c.
Exhaust filters, scrubbers or other exhaust treatment The pressure drop of device calculated at fan system design condition
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 9 thru 12 0.5 inch w.c.
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 13 thru 15 0.9 inch w.c.
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 16 and greater and
electronically enhanced filters
Pressure drop calculated at 2x clean filter pressure drop at
fan system design condition.
Carbon and other gas-phase air cleaners Clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition.
Biosafety cabinet Pressure drop of device at fan system design condition.
Energy recovery device, other than coil runaround loop For each airstream, (2.2 × energy recovery effectiveness — 0.5) inch w.c.
Coil runaround loop 0.6 inch w.c. for each airstream.
Evaporative humidifier/cooler in series with another
cooling coil
Pressure drop of device at fan system design conditions.
Sound attenuation section (fans serving spaces with design
background noise goals below NC35)
0.15 inch w.c.
Exhaust system serving fume hoods 0.35 inch w.c.
Laboratory and vivarium exhaust systems in high-rise buildings 0.25 inch w.c./100 feet of vertical duct exceeding 75 feet.
Deductions
Systems without central cooling device - 0.6 inch w.c.
Systems without central heating device - 0.3 inch w.c.
Systems with central electric resistance heat - 0.2 inch w.c.

For SI: 1 inch w.c. = 249 Pa, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

w.c. = water column, NC = Noise criterion.

For each fan, the fan brake horsepower shall be indicated on the construction documents and the selected motor shall be not larger than the first available motor size greater than the following:

  1. For fans less than 6 bhp (4413 W), 1.5 times the fan brake horsepower.
  2. For fans 6 bhp (4413 W) and larger, 1.3 times the fan brake horsepower.
  3. Systems complying with Section C403.8.1 fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1).

Exception: Fans with motor nameplate horsepower less than 1 hp (746 W) are exempt from this section.

Fans shall have a fan efficiency grade (FEG) of not less than 67, as determined in accordance with AMCA 205 by an approved, independent testing laboratory and labeled by the manufacturer. The total efficiency of the fan at the design point of operation shall be within 15 percentage points of the maximum total efficiency of the fan.

Exception: The following fans are not required to have a fan efficiency grade:

  1. Fans of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less as follows:

    1. 1.1. Individual fans with a motor nameplate horsepower of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less, unless Exception 1.2 applies.
    2. 1.2. Multiple fans in series or parallel that have a combined motor nameplate horsepower of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less and are operated as the functional equivalent of a single fan.
  2. Fans that are part of equipment covered in Section C403.3.2.
  3. Fans included in an equipment package certified by an approved agency for air or energy performance.
  4. Powered wall/roof ventilators.
  5. Fans outside the scope of AMCA 205.
  6. Fans that are intended to operate only during emergency conditions.

Motors for fans that are not less than 1/12 hp (0.062 kW) and less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) shall be electronically commutated motors or shall have a minimum motor efficiency of 70 percent, rated in accordance with DOE 10 CFR 431. These motors shall have the means to adjust motor speed for either balancing or remote control. The use of belt-driven fans to sheave adjustments for airflow balancing instead of a varying motor speed shall be permitted.

Exceptions: The following motors are not required to comply with this section:

  1. Motors in the airstream within fan coils and terminal units that only provide heating to the space served.
  2. Motors in space-conditioning equipment that comply with Section C403.3.2 or Sections C403.8.1. through C403.8.3.
  3. Motors that comply with Section C405.7.
Controls shall be provided for fans in accordance with Section C403.8.5.1 and as required for specific systems provided in Section C403.

Each cooling system listed in Table C403.8.5.1 shall be designed to vary the indoor fan airflow as a function of load and shall comply with the following requirements:

  1. Direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling units that control the capacity of the mechanical cooling directly based on space temperature shall have not fewer than two stages of fan control. Low or minimum speed shall not be greater than 66 percent of full speed. At low or minimum speed, the fan system shall draw not more than 40 percent of the fan power at full fan speed. Low or minimum speed shall be used during periods of low cooling load and ventilation-only operation.
  2. Other units including DX cooling units and chilled water units that control the space temperature by modulating the airflow to the space shall have modulating fan control. Minimum speed shall be not greater than 50 percent of full speed. At minimum speed the fan system shall draw not more than 30 percent of the power at full fan speed. Low or minimum speed shall be used during periods of low cooling load and ventilation-only operation.
  3. Units that include an air-side economizer in accordance with Section C403.5 shall have not fewer than two speeds of fan control during economizer operation.

Exceptions:

  1. Modulating fan control is not required for chilled water and evaporative cooling units with fan motors of less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) where the units are not used to provide ventilation air and the indoor fan cycles with the load.
  2. Where the volume of outdoor air required to comply with the ventilation requirements of the Mechanical Code of New York State at low speed exceeds the air that would be delivered at the speed defined in Section C403.8.5, the minimum speed shall be selected to provide the required ventilation air.

TABLE C403.8.5.1

COOLING SYSTEMS

COOLING
SYSTEM TYPE
FAN
MOTOR SIZE
MECHANICAL
COOLING CAPACITY
DX cooling Any ≥ 65,000 Btu/h
Chilled water and
evaporative cooling
1/4 hp Any

For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W; 1 hp = 0.746 kW.

Heat rejection equipment, including air-cooled condensers, dry coolers, open-circuit cooling towers, closed-circuit cooling towers and evaporative condensers, shall comply with this section.

Exception: Heat rejection devices where energy usage is included in the equipment efficiency ratings listed in Tables C403.3.2(6) and C403.3.2(7).

Each fan system powered by an individual motor or array of motors with connected power, including the motor service factor, totaling 5 hp (3.7 kW) or more shall have controls and devices configured to automatically modulate the fan speed to control the leaving fluid temperature or condensing temperature and pressure of the heat rejection device. Fan motor power input shall be not more than 30 percent of design wattage at 50 percent of the design airflow.

Exceptions:

  1. Fans serving multiple refrigerant or fluid cooling circuits.
  2. Condenser fans serving flooded condensers.
Multiple-cell heat rejection equipment with variable speed fan drives shall be controlled to operate the maximum number of fans allowed that comply with the manufacturer's requirements for all system components and so that all fans operate at the same fan speed required for the instantaneous cooling duty, as opposed to staged on and off operation. The minimum fan speed shall be the minimum allowable speed of the fan drive system in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

Centrifugal fan open-circuit cooling towers with a combined rated capacity of 1,100 gpm (4164 L/m) or greater at 95°F (35°C) condenser water return, 85°F (29°C) condenser water supply, and 75°F (24°C) outdoor air wet-bulb temperature shall meet the energy efficiency requirement for axial fan open-circuit cooling towers listed in Table C403.3.2(8).

Exception: Centrifugal open-circuit cooling towers that are designed with inlet or discharge ducts or require external sound attenuation.

Open-circuit cooling towers used on water-cooled chiller systems that are configured with multiple- or variable-speed condenser water pumps shall be designed so that all open- circuit cooling tower cells can be run in parallel with the larger of the flow that is produced by the smallest pump at its minimum expected flow rate or at 50 percent of the design flow for the cell.

Condenser heat recovery shall be installed for heating or reheating of service hot water provided that the facility operates 24 hours a day, the total installed heat capacity of water-cooled systems exceeds 6,000,000 Btu/hr (1758 kW) of heat rejection, and the design service water heating load exceeds 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 kW).

The required heat recovery system shall have the capacity to provide the smaller of the following:

  1. Sixty percent of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions.
  2. The preheating required to raise the peak service hot water draw to 85°F (29°C).

Exceptions:

  1. Facilities that employ condenser heat recovery for space heating or reheat purposes with a heat recovery design exceeding 30 percent of the peak water-cooled condenser load at design conditions.
  2. Facilities that provide 60 percent of their service water heating from site solar or site recovered energy or from other sources.
Refrigeration equipment shall have an energy use in kWh/day not greater than the values of Tables C403.10.1(1) and C403.10.1(2) when tested and rated in accordance with AHRI Standard 1200. The energy use shall be verified through certification under an approved certification program or, where a certification program does not exist, the energy use shall be supported by data furnished by the equipment manufacturer.

Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with this section. Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers that are neither site assembled nor site constructed shall comply with the following:

  1. Be equipped with automatic door-closers that firmly close walk-in doors that have been closed to within 1 inch (25 mm) of full closure.

    Exception: Automatic closers are not required for doors more than 45 inches (1143 mm) in width or more than 7 feet (2134 mm) in height.

  2. Doorways shall have strip doors, curtains, spring-hinged doors or other method of minimizing infiltration when doors are open.
  3. Walk-in coolers and refrigerated warehouse coolers shall contain wall, ceiling, and door insulation of not less than R-25 and walk-in freezers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall contain wall, ceiling and door insulation of not less than R-32.

    Exception: Glazed portions of doors or structural members need not be insulated.

  4. Walk-in freezers shall contain floor insulation of not less than R-28.
  5. Transparent reach-in doors for walk-in freezers and windows in walk-in freezer doors shall be of triple-pane glass, either filled with inert gas or with heat-reflective treated glass.
  6. Windows and transparent reach-in doors for walk-in coolers shall be of double-pane or triple-pane, inert gas-filled, heat-reflective treated glass.
  7. Evaporator fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) and less than 460 volts shall use electronically commutated motors, brushless direct-current motors, or 3-phase motors.
  8. Condenser fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) shall use electronically commutated motors, permanent split capacitor-type motors or 3-phase motors.
  9. Where antisweat heaters without antisweat heater controls are provided, they shall have a total door rail, glass and frame heater power draw of not more than 7.1 W/ft2 (76 W/m2) of door opening for walk-in freezers and 3.0 W/ft2 (32 W/m2) of door opening for walk-in coolers.
  10. Where antisweat heater controls are provided, they shall reduce the energy use of the antisweat heater as a function of the relative humidity in the air outside the door or to the condensation on the inner glass pane.
  11. Lights in walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall either use light sources with an efficacy of not less than 40 lumens per watt, including ballast losses, or shall use light sources with an efficacy of not less than 40 lumens per watt, including ballast losses, in conjunction with a device that turns off the lights within 15 minutes when the space is not occupied.

TABLE C403.10.1(1)

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION

EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION ENERGY USE LIMITS
(kWh per day)a
TEST PROCEDURE
Refrigerator with solid doors Holding Temperature 0.10 × V + 2.04 AHRI 1200
Refrigerator with transparent doors 0.12 × V + 3.34
Freezers with solid doors 0.40 × V + 1.38
Freezers with transparent doors 0.75 × V + 4.10
Refrigerators/freezers with solid doors the greater of 0.12 × V + 3.34 or 0.70
Commercial refrigerators Pulldown 0.126 × V + 3.51
  1. V = volume of the chiller or frozen compartment as defined in AHAM-HRF-1.

TABLE C403.10.1(2)

MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS

EQUIPMENT TYPE ENERGY USE LIMITS
(kWh/day)a, b
TEST
PROCEDURE
Equipment Classc Family Code Operating Mode Rating Temperature
VOP.RC.M Vertical open Remote condensing Medium 0.82 × TDA + 4.07 AHRI 1200
SVO.RC.M Semivertical open Remote condensing Medium 0.83 × TDA + 3.18
HZO.RC.M Horizontal open Remote condensing Medium 0.35 × TDA + 2.88
VOP.RC.L Vertical open Remote condensing Low 2.27 × TDA + 6.85
HZO.RC.L Horizontal open Remote condensing Low 0.57 × TDA + 6.88
VCT.RC.M Vertical
transparent door
Remote condensing Medium 0.22 × TDA + 1.95
VCT.RC.L Vertical
transparent door
Remote condensing Low 0.56 × TDA + 2.61
SOC.RC.M Service over counter Remote condensing Medium 0.51 × TDA + 0.11
VOP.SC.M Vertical open Self-contained Medium 1.74 × TDA + 4.71
SVO.SC.M Semivertical open Self-contained Medium 1.73 × TDA + 4.59
HZO.SC.M Horizontal open Self-contained Medium 0.77 × TDA + 5.55
HZO.SC.L Horizontal open Self-contained Low 1.92 × TDA + 7.08
VCT.SC.I Vertical
transparent door
Self-contained Ice cream 0.67 × TDA + 3.29
VCS.SC.I Vertical solid door Self-contained Ice cream 0.38 × V + 0.88
HCT.SC.I Horizontal
transparent door
Self-contained Ice cream 0.56 × TDA + 0.43
SVO.RC.L Semivertical open Remote condensing Low 2.27 × TDA + 6.85
VOP.RC.I Vertical open Remote condensing Ice cream 2.89 × TDA + 8.7
SVO.RC.I Semivertical open Remote condensing Ice cream 2.89 × TDA + 8.7
HZO.RC.I Horizontal open Remote condensing Ice cream 0.72 × TDA + 8.74
VCT.RC.I Vertical
transparent door
Remote condensing Ice cream 0.66 × TDA + 3.05
HCT.RC.M Horizontal
transparent door
Remote condensing Medium 0.16 × TDA + 0.13
HCT.RC.L Horizontal
transparent door
Remote condensing Low 0.34 × TDA + 0.26
HCT.RC.I Horizontal
transparent door
Remote condensing Ice cream 0.4 × TDA + 0.31
VCS.RC.M Vertical solid door Remote condensing Medium 0.11 × V + 0.26
VCS.RC.L Vertical solid door Remote condensing Low 0.23 × V + 0.54
VCS.RC.I Vertical solid door Remote condensing Ice cream 0.27 × V + 0.63
HCS.RC.M Horizontal solid door Remote condensing Medium 0.11 × V + 0.26
HCS.RC.L Horizontal solid door Remote condensing Low 0.23 × V + 0.54
HCS.RC.I Horizontal solid door Remote condensing Ice cream 0.27 × V + 0.63
HCS.RC.I Horizontal solid door Remote condensing Ice cream 0.27 × V + 0.63
SOC.RC.L Service over counter Remote condensing Low 1.08 × TDA + 0.22
SOC.RC.I Service over counter Remote condensing Ice cream 1.26 × TDA + 0.26
VOP.SC.L Vertical open Self-contained Low 4.37 × TDA + 11.82
VOP.SC.I Vertical open Self-contained Ice cream 5.55 × TDA + 15.02
SVO.SC.L Semivertical open Self-contained Low 4.34 × TDA + 11.51
SVO.SC.I Semivertical open Self-contained Ice cream 5.52 × TDA + 14.63
HZO.SC.I Horizontal open Self-contained Ice cream 2.44 × TDA + 9.0
SOC.SC.I Service over counter Self-contained Ice cream 1.76 × TDA + 0.36
HCS.SC.I Horizontal solid door Self-contained Ice cream 0.38 × V + 0.88
  1. V = Volume of the case, as measured in accordance with Appendix C of AHRI 1200.
  2. TDA = Total display area of the case, as measured in accordance with Appendix D of AHRI 1200.
  3. Equipment class designations consist of a combination [in sequential order separated by periods (AAA).(BB).(C)] of:

    (AAA)An equipment family code where:
    VOP=vertical open
    SVO=semivertical open
    HZO=horizontal open
    HCT=horizontal transparent doors
    HCS=horizontal solid doors
    SOC=service over counter
    (BB)An operating mode code:
    RC=remote condensing
    SC=self-contained
    (C)A rating temperature code:
    M=medium temperature (38°F)
    L=low temperature (0°F)
    I=ice-cream temperature (15°F)

    For example, "VOP.RC.M" refers to the "vertical-open, remote-condensing, medium-temperature" equipment class.

Site-assembled or site-constructed walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall comply with the following:

  1. Automatic door closers shall be provided that fully close walk-in doors that have been closed to within 1 inch (25 mm) of full closure.

    Exception: Closers are not required for doors more than 45 inches (1143 mm) in width or more than 7 feet (2134 mm) in height.

  2. Doorways shall be provided with strip doors, curtains, spring-hinged doors or other method of minimizing infiltration when the doors are open.
  3. Walls shall be provided with insulation having a thermal resistance of not less than R-25, ceilings shall be provided with insulation having a thermal resistance of not less than R-25 and doors of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall be provided with insulation having a thermal resistance of not less than R-32.

    Exception: Insulation is not required for glazed portions of doors or at structural members associated with the walls, ceiling or door frame.

  4. The floor of walk-in freezers shall be provided with insulation having a thermal resistance of not less than R-28.
  5. Transparent reach-in doors for and windows in opaque walk-in freezer doors shall be provided with triple-pane glass having the interstitial spaces filled with inert gas or provided with heat-reflective treated glass.
  6. Transparent reach-in doors for and windows in opaque walk-in cooler doors shall be double-pane heat-reflective treated glass having the interstitial space gas filled.
  7. Evaporator fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) and less than 460 volts shall be electronically commutated motors or 3-phase motors.
  8. Condenser fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) in capacity shall be of the electronically commutated or permanent split capacitor-type or shall be 3-phase motors.

    Exception: Fan motors in walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers combined in a single enclosure greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in floor area are exempt.

  9. Antisweat heaters that are not provided with anti-sweat heater controls shall have a total door rail, glass and frame heater power draw not greater than 7.1 W/ft2 (76 W/m2) of door opening for walk-in freezers, and not greater than 3.0 W/ft2 (32 W/m2) of door opening for walk-in coolers.
  10. Antisweat heater controls shall be configured to reduce the energy use of the antisweat heater as a function of the relative humidity in the air outside the door or to the condensation on the inner glass pane.
  11. Light sources shall have an efficacy of not less than 40 lumens per Watt, including any ballast losses, or shall be provided with a device that automatically turns off the lights within 15 minutes of when the walk-in cooler or walk-in freezer was last occupied.

Effective January 1, 2020, walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall meet the requirements of Tables C403.10.2.1(1), C403.10.2.1(2) and C403.10.2.1(3).

TABLE C403.10.2.1(1)

WALK-IN COOLER AND FREEZER DISPLAY DOOR EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTSa

CLASS DESCRIPTOR CLASS MAXIMUM ENERGY CONSUMPTION (kWh/day)a
Display door, medium temperature DD, M 0.04 × Add + 0.41
Display door, low temperature DD, L 0.15 × Add + 0.29
  1. Add is the surface area of the display door.

TABLE C403.10.2.1(2)

WALK-IN COOLER AND FREEZER NONDISPLAY DOOR EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTSa

CLASS DESCRIPTOR CLASS MAXIMUM ENERGY CONSUMPTION (kWh/day)a
Passage door, medium temperature PD, M 0.05 × And + 1.7
Passage door, low temperature PD, L 0.14 × And + 4.8
Freight door, medium temperature FD, M 0.04 × And + 1.9
Freight door, low temperature FD, L 0.12 × And + 5.6
  1. And is the surface area of the nondisplay door.

TABLE C403.10.2.1(3)

WALK-IN COOLER AND FREEZER REFRIGERATION SYSTEM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

CLASS DESCRIPTOR CLASS MINIMUM ANNUAL WALK-IN ENERGY FACTOR AWEF
(Btu/W-h)
Dedicated condensing, medium temperature, indoor system DC.M.I 5.61
Dedicated condensing, medium temperature, indoor system,
> 9,000 Btu/h capacity
DC.M.I,
> 9,000
5.61
Dedicated condensing, medium temperature, outdoor system DC.M.I 7.60
Dedicated condensing, medium temperature, outdoor system,
> 9,000 Btu/h capacity
DC.M.I,
> 9,000
7.60

Site-assembled or site-constructed refrigerated display cases shall comply with the following:

  1. Lighting and glass doors in refrigerated display cases shall be controlled by one of the following:

    1. 1.1. Time-switch controls to turn off lights during nonbusiness hours. Timed overrides for display cases shall turn the lights on for up to 1 hour and shall automatically time out to turn the lights off.
    2. 1.2. Motion sensor controls on each display case section that reduce lighting power by not less than 50 percent within 3 minutes after the area within the sensor range is vacated.
  2. Low-temperature display cases shall incorporate temperature-based defrost termination control with a time-limit default. The defrost cycle shall terminate first on an upper temperature limit breach and second upon a time limit breach.
  3. Antisweat heater controls shall reduce the energy use of the antisweat heater as a function of the relative humidity in the air outside the door or to the condensation on the inner glass pane.

Refrigerated display cases, walk-in coolers or walk-in freezers that are served by remote compressors and remote condensers not located in a condensing unit, shall comply with Sections C403.10.4.1 and C403.10.4.2.

Exception: Systems where the working fluid in the refrigeration cycle goes through both subcritical and super-critical states (transcritical) or that use ammonia refrigerant are exempt.

Fan-powered condensers shall comply with the following:

  1. The design saturated condensing temperatures for air-cooled condensers shall not exceed the design dry-bulb temperature plus 10°F (5.6°C) for low-temperature refrigeration systems, and the design dry- bulb temperature plus 15°F (8°C) for medium temperature refrigeration systems where the saturated condensing temperature for blend refrigerants shall be determined using the average of liquid and vapor temperatures as converted from the condenser drain pressure.
  2. Condenser fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.75 kW) shall use electronically commutated motors, permanent split-capacitor-type motors or 3-phase motors.
  3. Condenser fans for air-cooled condensers, evaporatively cooled condensers, air- or water-cooled fluid coolers or cooling towers shall reduce fan motor demand to not more than 30 percent of design wattage at 50 percent of design air volume, and incorporate one of the following continuous variable speed fan control approaches:

    1. 3.1. Refrigeration system condenser control for air-cooled condensers shall use variable setpoint control logic to reset the condensing temperature setpoint in response to ambient dry-bulb temperature.
    2. 3.2. Refrigeration system condenser control for evaporatively cooled condensers shall use variable setpoint control logic to reset the condensing temperature setpoint in response to ambient wet-bulb temperature.
  4. Multiple fan condensers shall be controlled in unison.
  5. The minimum condensing temperature setpoint shall be not greater than 70°F (21°C).

Refrigeration compressor systems shall comply with the following:

  1. Compressors and multiple-compressor system suction groups shall include control systems that use floating suction pressure control logic to reset the target suction pressure temperature based on the temperature requirements of the attached refrigeration display cases or walk-ins.

    Exception: Controls are not required for the following:

    1. Single-compressor systems that do not have variable capacity capability.
    2. Suction groups that have a design saturated suction temperature of 30°F (-1.1°C) or higher, suction groups that comprise the high stage of a two-stage or cascade system, or suction groups that primarily serve chillers for secondary cooling fluids.
  2. Liquid subcooling shall be provided for all low-temperature compressor systems with a design cooling capacity equal to or greater than 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) with a design-saturated suction temperature of -10°F (-23°C) or lower. The sub-cooled liquid temperature shall be controlled at a maximum temperature setpoint of 50°F (10°C) at the exit of the subcooler using either compressor economizer (interstage) ports or a separate compressor suction group operating at a saturated suction temperature of 18°F (-7.8°C) or higher.

    1. 2.1. Insulation for liquid lines with a fluid operating temperature less than 60°F (15.6°C) shall comply with Table C403.11.3.
  3. Compressors that incorporate internal or external crankcase heaters shall provide a means to cycle the heaters off during compressor operation.
Ducts, plenums, piping and other elements that are part of an HVAC system shall be constructed and insulated in accordance with Sections C403.11.1 through C403.11.3.1.

Supply and return air ducts and plenums shall be insulated with not less than R-6 insulation where located in unconditioned spaces and where located outside the building with not less than R-8 insulation in Climate Zones 1 through 4 and not less than R-12 insulation in Climate Zones 5 through 8. Where located within a building envelope assembly, the duct or plenum shall be separated from the building exterior or unconditioned or exempt spaces by not less than R-8 insulation in Climate Zones 1 through 4 and not less than R-12 insulation in Climate Zones 5 through 8.

Exceptions:

  1. Where located within equipment.
  2. Where the design temperature difference between the interior and exterior of the duct or plenum is not greater than 15°F (8°C).

Ducts, air handlers and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section 603.9 of the Mechanical Code of New York State.

Ductwork shall be constructed and erected in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State.

Longitudinal and transverse joints, seams and connections of supply and return ducts operating at a static pressure less than or equal to 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (498 Pa) shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics (adhesives), mastic-plus-embedded-fabric systems or tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State.

Exception: Locking-type longitudinal joints and seams, other than the snap-lock and button-lock types, need not be sealed as specified in this section.

Ducts and plenums designed to operate at a static pressure greater than 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (498 Pa) but less than 3 inches w.g. (747 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.11.1. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the Mechanical Code of New York State.

Ducts and plenums designed to operate at static pressures equal to or greater than 3 inches water gauge (747 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.11.1. In addition, ducts and plenums shall be leak tested in accordance with the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual and shown to have a rate of air leakage (CL) less than or equal to 4.0 as determined in accordance with Equation 4-8.

(Equation 4-8)

where:

F = The measured leakage rate in cfm per 100 square feet of duct surface.

P = The static pressure of the test.

Documentation shall be furnished by the designer demonstrating that representative sections totaling not less than 25 percent of the duct area have been tested and that all tested sections comply with the requirements of this section.

Piping serving as part of a heating or cooling system shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table C403.11.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Factory-installed piping within HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with a test procedure referenced by this code.
  2. Factory-installed piping within room fan-coils and unit ventilators tested and rated according to AHRI 440 (except that the sampling and variation provisions of Section 6.5 shall not apply) and AHRI 840, respectively.
  3. Piping that conveys fluids that have a design operating temperature range between 60°F (15°C) and 105°F (41°C).
  4. Piping that conveys fluids that have not been heated or cooled through the use of fossil fuels or electric power.
  5. Strainers, control valves, and balancing valves associated with piping 1 inch (25 mm) or less in diameter.
  6. Direct buried piping that conveys fluids at or below 60°F (15°C).

TABLE C403.11.3

MINIMUM PIPE INSULATION THICKNESS (in inches)a, c

FLUID OPERATING
TEMPERATURE RANGE
AND USAGE (°F)
INSULATION CONDUCTIVITY NOMINAL PIPE OR TUBE SIZE (inches)
Conductivity
Btu • in./(h • ft2 • °F)b
Mean Rating Temperature, °F < 1 1 to < 11/2 11/2 to < 4 4 to < 8 ≥ 8
> 350 0.32 - 0.34 250 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
251 — 350 0.29 — 0.32 200 3.0 4.0 4.5 4.5 4.5
201 — 250 0.27 — 0.30 150 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0
141 — 200 0.25 — 0.29 125 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.0
105 — 140 0.21 — 0.28 100 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5
40 — 60 0.21 — 0.27 75 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0
< 40 0.20 — 0.26 50 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

  1. For piping smaller than 11/2 inches and located in partitions within conditioned spaces, reduction of these thicknesses by 1 inch shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b) but not to a thickness less than 1 inch.
  2. For insulation outside the stated conductivity range, the minimum thickness (T) shall be determined as follows:

    where:

    T = minimum insulation thickness,

    r = actual outside radius of pipe,

    t = insulation thickness listed in the table for applicable fluid temperature and pipe size,

    K = conductivity of alternate material at mean rating temperature indicated for the applicable fluid temperature (Btu • in/h • ft2 • °F) and

    k = the upper value of the conductivity range listed in the table for the applicable fluid temperature.

  3. For direct-buried heating and hot water system piping, reduction of these thicknesses by 11/2 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b but not to thicknesses less than 1 inch.
Piping insulation exposed to the weather shall be protected from damage, including that caused by sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind, and shall provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material. Adhesive tape shall not be permitted.
Mechanical systems providing heat outside of the thermal envelope of a building shall comply with Sections C403.12.1 through C403.12.3.

Systems installed to provide heat outside a building shall be radiant systems.

Such heating systems shall be controlled by an occupancy sensing device or a timer switch, so that the system is automatically de-energized when occupants are not present.

Snow- and ice-melting systems shall include automatic controls configured to shut off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50°F (10°C) and precipitation is not falling, and an automatic or manual control that is configured to shut off when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F (4°C).
Freeze protection systems, such as heat tracing of outdoor piping and heat exchangers, including self-regulating heat tracing, shall include automatic controls configured to shut off the systems when outdoor air temperatures are above 40°F (4°C) or when the conditions of the protected fluid will prevent freezing.
This section covers the minimum efficiency of, and controls for, service water-heating equipment and insulation of service hot water piping.

Water-heating equipment and hot water storage tanks shall meet the requirements of Table C404.2. The efficiency shall be verified through data furnished by the manufacturer of the equipment or through certification under an approved certification program. Water-heating equipment intended to be used to provide space heating shall meet the applicable provisions of Table C404.2.

TABLE C404.2

MINIMUM PERFORMANCE OF WATER-HEATING EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY
(input)
SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
PERFORMANCE
REQUIREDa, b
TEST
PROCEDURE
Water heaters, electric ≤ 12 kWd
Tabletope, ≥ 20 gallons and
≤ 120 gallons
0.93 - 0.00132V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
Resistance ≥ 20 gallons
and ≤ 55 gallons
0.960 - 0.0003V, EF
Grid-enabledf > 75 gallons
and ≤ 120 gallons
1.061 - 0.00168V, EF
> 12 kW Resistance (0.3 + 27/Vm), %/h ANSI Z21.10.3
≤ 24 amps and
≤ 250 volts
Heat pump > 55 gallons
and ≤ 120 gallons
2.057 - 0.00113V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
Storage water heaters, gas ≤ 75,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gallons and
≤ 55 gallons
0.675 - 0.0015V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
> 55 gallons and
≤ 100 gallons
0.8012 - 0.00078V, EF
> 75,000 Btu/h and
≤ 155,000 Btu/h
< 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et
ANSI Z21.10.3
> 155,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et
Instantaneous water heaters, gas > 50,000 Btu/h and
< 200,000 Btu/hc
≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal
and < 2 gal
0.82 - 0.00 19V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal
and < 10 gal
80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3
≥ 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal
and ≥ 10 gal
80% Et
Storage water heaters, oil ≤ 105,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gal and
≤ 50 gallons
0.68 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 105,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et
ANSI Z21.10.3
Instantaneous water heaters, oil ≤ 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 2 gal
0.59 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
> 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 10 gal
80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3
> 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
≥ 10 gal
78% Et
Hot water supply boilers,
gas and oil
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
< 12,500,000 Btu/h
≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 10 gal
80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3
Hot water supply boilers,
gas
≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
< 12,500,000 Btu/h
≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
≥ 10 gal
80% Et
Hot water supply boilers,
oil
> 300,000 Btu/h and
< 12,500,000 Btu/h
> 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
> 10 gal
78% Et
Pool heaters, gas and oil All 82% Et ASHRAE 146
Heat pump pool heaters All 4.0 COP AHRI 1160
Unfired storage tanks All Minimum insulation
requirement R-12.5
(h • ft2 • °F)/Btu
(none)

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2,°C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 British thermal unit per hour per gallon = 0.078 W/L.

  1. Energy factor (EF) and thermal efficiency (Et) are minimum requirements. In the EF equation, V is the rated volume in gallons.
  2. Standby loss (SL) is the maximum Btu/h based on a nominal 70°F temperature difference between stored water and ambient requirements. In the SL equation, Q is the nameplate input rate in Btu/h. In the equations for electric water heaters, V is the rated volume in gallons and Vm is the measured volume in gallons. In the SL equation for oil and gas water heaters and boilers, V is the rated volume in gallons.
  3. Instantaneous water heaters with input rates below 200,000 Btu/h shall comply with these requirements where the water heater is designed to heat water to temperatures 180°F or higher.
  4. Electric water heaters with an input rating of 12 kW (40,950 Btu/h) or less that are designed to heat water to temperatures of 180°F or greater shall comply with the requirements for electric water heaters that have an input rating greater than 12 kW (40,950 Btu/h).
  5. A tabletop water heater is a water heater that is enclosed in a rectangular cabinet with a flat top surface not more than 3 feet in height.
  6. A grid-enabled water heater is an electric resistance water heater that meets all of the following:

    1. Has a rated storage tank volume of more than 75 gallons.
    2. Was manufactured on or after April 16, 2015.
    3. Is equipped at the point of manufacture with an activation lock.
    4. Bears a permanent label applied by the manufacturer that complies with all of the following:

      1. 4.1. Is made of material not adversely affected by water.
      2. 4.2. Is attached by means of nonwater-soluble adhesive.
      3. 4.3. Advises purchasers and end users of the intended and appropriate use of the product with the following notice printed in 16.5 point Arial Narrow Bold font: "IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This water heater is intended only for use as part of an electric thermal storage or demand response program. It will not provide adequate hot water unless enrolled in such a program and activated by your utility company or another program operator. Confirm the availability of a program in your local area before purchasing or installing this product."

Gas-fired water-heating equipment installed in new buildings shall be in compliance with this section. Where a singular piece of water-heating equipment serves the entire building and the input rating of the equipment is 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 kW) or greater, such equipment shall have a thermal efficiency, Et, of not less than 90 percent. Where multiple pieces of water-heating equipment serve the building and the combined input rating of the water-heating equipment is 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 kW) or greater, the combined input-capacity-weighted-average thermal efficiency, Et, shall be not less than 90 percent.

Exceptions:

  1. Where not less than 25 percent of the annual service water-heating requirement is provided by on-site renewable energy or site-recovered energy, the minimum thermal efficiency requirements of this section shall not apply.
  2. The input rating of water heaters installed in individual dwelling units shall not be required to be included in the total input rating of service water-heating equipment for a building.
  3. The input rating of water heaters with an input rating of not greater than 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) shall not be required to be included in the total input rating of service water-heating equipment for a building.
Storage tank-type water heaters and hot water storage tanks that have vertical water pipes connecting to the inlet and outlet of the tank shall be provided with integral heat traps at those inlets and outlets or shall have pipe-configured heat traps in the piping connected to those inlets and outlets. Tank inlets and outlets associated with solar water heating system circulation loops shall not be required to have heat traps.

Piping from a water heater to the termination of the heated water fixture supply pipe shall be insulated in accordance with Table C403.11.3. On both the inlet and outlet piping of a storage water heater or heated water storage tank, the piping to a heat trap or the first 8 feet (2438 mm) of piping, whichever is less, shall be insulated. Piping that is heat traced shall be insulated in accordance with Table C403.11.3 or the heat trace manufacturer's instructions. Tubular pipe insulation shall be installed in accordance with the insulation manufacturer's instructions. Pipe insulation shall be continuous except where the piping passes through a framing member. The minimum insulation thickness requirements of this section shall not supersede any greater insulation thickness requirements necessary for the protection of piping from freezing temperatures or the protection of personnel against external surface temperatures on the insulation.

Exception: Tubular pipe insulation shall not be required on the following:

  1. The tubing from the connection at the termination of the fixture supply piping to a plumbing fixture or plumbing appliance.
  2. Valves, pumps, strainers and threaded unions in piping that is 1 inch (25 mm) or less in nominal diameter.
  3. Piping from user-controlled shower and bath mixing valves to the water outlets.
  4. Cold-water piping of a demand recirculation water system.
  5. Tubing from a hot drinking-water heating unit to the water outlet.
  6. Piping at locations where a vertical support of the piping is installed.
  7. Piping surrounded by building insulation with a thermal resistance (R-value) of not less than R-3.
Heated water supply piping shall be in accordance with Section C404.5.1 or C404.5.2. The flow rate through 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) piping shall be not greater than 0.5 gpm (1.9 L/m). The flow rate through 5/16-inch (7.9 mm) piping shall be not greater than 1 gpm (3.8 L/m). The flow rate through 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) piping shall be not greater than 1.5 gpm (5.7 L/m).

The maximum allowable piping length from the nearest source of heated water to the termination of the fixture supply pipe shall be in accordance with the following. Where the piping contains more than one size of pipe, the largest size of pipe within the piping shall be used for determining the maximum allowable length of the piping in Table C404.5.1.

  1. For a public lavatory faucet, use the "Public lavatory faucets" column in Table C404.5.1.
  2. For all other plumbing fixtures and plumbing appliances, use the "Other fixtures and appliances" column in Table C404.5.1.

TABLE C404.5.1

PIPING VOLUME AND MAXIMUM PIPING LENGTHS

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
(inches)
VOLUME
(liquid ounces per foot length)
MAXIMUM PIPING LENGTH
(feet)
Public lavatory faucets Other fixtures and appliances
1/4 0.33 6 50
5/16 0.5 4 50
3/8 0.75 3 50
1/2 1.5 2 43
5/8 2 1 32
3/4 3 0.5 21
7/8 4 0.5 16
1 5 0.5 13
11/4 8 0.5 8
11/2 11 0.5 6
2 or larger 18 0.5 4

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 liquid ounce = 0.030 L, 1 gallon = 128 ounces.

The water volume in the piping shall be calculated in accordance with Section C404.5.2.1. Water heaters, circulating water systems and heat trace temperature maintenance systems shall be considered to be sources of heated water.

The volume from the nearest source of heated water to the termination of the fixture supply pipe shall be as follows:

  1. For a public lavatory faucet: not more than 2 ounces (0.06 L).
  2. For other plumbing fixtures or plumbing appliances; not more than 0.5 gallon (1.89 L).
The volume shall be the sum of the internal volumes of pipe, fittings, valves, meters and manifolds between the nearest source of heated water and the termination of the fixture supply pipe. The volume in the piping shall be determined from the "Volume" column in Table C404.5.1. The volume contained within fixture shutoff valves, within flexible water supply connectors to a fixture fitting and within a fixture fitting shall not be included in the water volume determination. Where heated water is supplied by a recirculating system or heat-traced piping, the volume shall include the portion of the fitting on the branch pipe that supplies water to the fixture.
Heated-water circulation systems shall be in accordance with Section C404.6.1. Heat trace temperature maintenance systems shall be in accordance with Section C404.6.2. Controls for hot water storage shall be in accordance with Section C404.6.3. Automatic controls, temperature sensors and pumps shall be in a location with access. Manual controls shall be in a location with ready access.
Heated-water circulation systems shall be provided with a circulation pump. The system return pipe shall be a dedicated return pipe or a cold water supply pipe. Gravity and thermo-syphon circulation systems shall be prohibited. Controls for circulating hot water system pumps shall start the pump based on the identification of a demand for hot water within the occupancy. The controls shall automatically turn off the pump when the water in the circulation loop is at the desired temperature and when there is not a demand for hot water.
Electric heat trace systems shall comply with IEEE 515.1. Controls for such systems shall be able to automatically adjust the energy input to the heat tracing to maintain the desired water temperature in the piping in accordance with the times when heated water is used in the occupancy. Heat trace shall be arranged to be turned off automatically when there is not a demand for hot water.
The controls on pumps that circulate water between a water heater and a heated-water storage tank shall limit operation of the pump from heating cycle startup to not greater than 5 minutes after the end of the cycle.

Demand recirculation water systems shall have controls that comply with both of the following:

  1. The controls shall start the pump upon receiving a signal from the action of a user of a fixture or appliance, sensing the presence of a user of a fixture or sensing the flow of hot or tempered water to a fixture fitting or appliance.
  2. The controls shall limit the temperature of the water entering the cold-water piping to not greater than 104°F (40°C).
Drain water heat recovery units shall comply with CSA B55.2. Potable water-side pressure loss shall be less than 10 psi (69 kPa) at maximum design flow. For Group R occupancies, the efficiency of drain water heat recovery unit efficiency shall be in accordance with CSA B55.1.
The energy consumption of pools and permanent spas shall be controlled by the requirements in Sections C404.9.1 through C404.9.3.
The electric power to all heaters shall be controlled by an on-off switch that is an integral part of the heater, mounted on the exterior of the heater, or external to and within 3 feet (914 mm) of the heater in a location with ready access. Operation of such switch shall not change the setting of the heater thermostat. Such switches shall be in addition to a circuit breaker for the power to the heater. Gas-fired heaters shall not be equipped with continuously burning ignition pilots.

Time switches or other control methods that can automatically turn off and on heaters and pump motors according to a preset schedule shall be installed for heaters and pump motors. Heaters and pump motors that have built-in time switches shall be in compliance with this section.

Exceptions:

  1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation.
  2. Pumps that operate solar- and waste-heat-recovery pool heating systems.

Outdoor heated pools and outdoor permanent spas shall be provided with a vapor-retardant cover or other approved vapor-retardant means.

Exception: Where more than 75 percent of the energy for heating, computed over an operating season of not fewer than 3 calendar months, is from site-recovered energy such as from a heat pump or on-site renewable energy system, covers or other vapor-retardant means shall not be required.

The energy consumption of electric-powered portable spas shall be controlled by the requirements of APSP 14.

This section covers lighting system controls, the maximum lighting power for interior and exterior applications and electrical energy consumption.

Dwelling units within multifamily buildings shall comply with Section R404.1. All other dwelling units shall comply with Section R404.1, or with Sections C405.2.4 and C405.3. Sleeping units shall comply with Section C405.2.4, and with Section R404.1 or C405.3. Lighting installed in walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with the lighting requirements of Section C403.10.1 or C403.10.2.

Lighting systems shall be provided with controls that comply with one of the following.

  1. Lighting controls as specified in Sections C405.2.1 through C405.2.6.
  2. Luminaire level lighting controls (LLLC) and lighting controls as specified in Sections C405.2.1, C405.2.4 and C405.2.5. The LLLC luminaire shall be independently capable of:

    1. 2.1. Monitoring occupant activity to brighten or dim lighting when occupied or unoccupied, respectively.
    2. 2.2. Monitoring ambient light, both electric light and daylight, and brighten or dim artificial light to maintain desired light level.
    3. 2.3. For each control strategy, configuration and reconfiguration of performance parameters including; bright and dim setpoints, timeouts, dimming fade rates, sensor sensitivity adjustments, and wireless zoning configurations.

Exceptions: Lighting controls are not required for the following:

  1. Areas designated as security or emergency areas that are required to be continuously lighted.
  2. Interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps and exit passageways.
  3. Emergency egress lighting that is normally off.

Occupant sensor controls shall be installed to control lights in the following space types:

  1. Classrooms/lecture/training rooms.
  2. Conference/meeting/multipurpose rooms.
  3. Copy/print rooms.
  4. Lounges/breakrooms.
  5. Enclosed offices.
  6. Open plan office areas.
  7. Restrooms.
  8. Storage rooms.
  9. Locker rooms.
  10. Other spaces 300 square feet (28 m2) or less that are enclosed by floor-to-ceiling height partitions.
  11. Warehouse storage areas.

Occupant sensor controls in warehouses shall comply with Section C405.2.1.2. Occupant sensor controls in open plan office areas shall comply with Section C405.2.1.3. Occupant sensor controls for all other spaces specified in Section C405.2.1 shall comply with the following:

  1. They shall automatically turn off lights within 20 minutes after all occupants have left the space.
  2. They shall be manual on or controlled to automatically turn on the lighting to not more than 50-percent power.

    Exception: Full automatic-on controls shall be permitted to control lighting in public corridors, stairways, restrooms, primary building entrance areas and lobbies, and areas where manual-on operation would endanger the safety or security of the room or building occupants.

  3. They shall incorporate a manual control to allow occupants to turn off lights.
In warehouses, the lighting in aisleways and open areas shall be controlled with occupant sensors that automatically reduce lighting power by not less than 50 percent when the areas are unoccupied. The occupant sensors shall control lighting in each aisleway independently and shall not control lighting beyond the aisleway being controlled by the sensor.

Occupant sensor controls in open plan office spaces less than 300 square feet (28 m2) in area shall comply with Section C405.2.1.1. Occupant sensor controls in all other open plan office spaces shall comply with all of the following:

  1. The controls shall be configured so that general lighting can be controlled separately in control zones with floor areas not greater than 600 square feet (55 m2) within the open plan office space.
  2. The controls shall automatically turn off general lighting in all control zones within 20 minutes after all occupants have left the open plan office space.
  3. The controls shall be configured so that general lighting power in each control zone is reduced by not less than 80 percent of the full zone general lighting power in a reasonably uniform illumination pattern within 20 minutes of all occupants leaving that control zone. Control functions that switch control zone lights completely off when the zone is vacant meet this requirement.
  4. The controls shall be configured such that any daylight responsive control will activate open plan office space general lighting or control zone general lighting only when occupancy for the same area is detected.

Each area of the building that is not provided with occupant sensor controls complying with Section C405.2.1.1 shall be provided with time-switch controls complying with Section C405.2.2.1.

Exception: Where a manual control provides light reduction in accordance with Section C405.2.2.2, time-switch controls shall not be required for the following:

  1. Spaces where patient care is directly provided.
  2. Spaces where an automatic shutoff would endanger occupant safety or security.
  3. Lighting intended for continuous operation.
  4. Shop and laboratory classrooms.

Each space provided with time-switch controls shall be provided with a manual control for light reduction in accordance with Section C405.2.2.2. Time-switch controls shall include an override switching device that complies with the following:

  1. Have a minimum 7-day clock.
  2. Be capable of being set for seven different day types per week.
  3. Incorporate an automatic holiday "shutoff" feature, which turns off all controlled lighting loads for not fewer than 24 hours and then resumes normally scheduled operations.
  4. Have program backup capabilities, which prevent the loss of program and time settings for not fewer than 10 hours, if power is interrupted.
  5. Include an override switch that complies with the following:

    1. 5.1. The override switch shall be a manual control.
    2. 5.2. The override switch, when initiated, shall permit the controlled lighting to remain on for not more than 2 hours.
    3. 5.3. Any individual override switch shall control the lighting for an area not larger than 5,000 square feet (465 m2).

Exceptions:

  1. Within mall concourses, auditoriums, sales areas, manufacturing facilities and sports arenas:

    1. 1.1. The time limit shall be permitted to be greater than 2 hours, provided that the switch is a captive key device.
    2. 1.2. The area controlled by the override switch shall not be limited to 5,000 square feet (465 m2) provided that such area is less than 20,000 square feet (1860 m2).
  2. Where provided with manual control, the following areas are not required to have light reduction control:

    1. 2.1. Spaces that have only one luminaire with a rated power of less than 100 watts.
    2. 2.2. Spaces that use less than 0.6 watts per square foot (6.5 W/m2).
    3. 2.3. Corridors, lobbies, electrical rooms and or mechanical rooms.

Spaces required to have light-reduction controls shall have a manual control that allows the occupant to reduce the connected lighting load in a reasonably uniform illumination pattern by not less than 50 percent. Lighting reduction shall be achieved by one of the following or another approved method:

  1. Controlling all lamps or luminaires.
  2. Dual switching of alternate rows of luminaires, alternate luminaires or alternate lamps.
  3. Switching the middle lamp luminaires independently of the outer lamps.
  4. Switching each luminaire or each lamp.

    Exception: Light reduction controls are not required in daylight zones with daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.

Daylight-responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 shall be provided to control the electric lights within daylight zones in the following spaces:

  1. Spaces with a total of more than 150 watts of general lighting within sidelit zones complying with Section C405.2.3.2 General lighting does not include lighting that is required to have specific application control in accordance with Section C405.2.4.
  2. Spaces with a total of more than 150 watts of general lighting within toplit zones complying with Section C405.2.3.3.

Exceptions: Daylight responsive controls are not required for the following:

  1. Spaces in health care facilities where patient care is directly provided.
  2. Lighting that is required to have specific application control in accordance with Section C405.2.4.
  3. Sidelit zones on the first floor above grade in Group A-2 and Group M occupancies.
  4. New buildings where the total connected lighting power calculated in accordance with Section C405.3.1 is not greater than the adjusted interior lighting power allowance (LPAadj) calculated in accordance with Equation 4-9:
(Equation 4-9)

where:

LPAadj = Adjusted building interior lighting power allowance in watts.

LPAnorm = Normal building lighting power allowance in watts calculated in accordance with Section C405.3.2 and reduced in accordance with Section C406.3 where Option 2 of Section C406.1 is used to comply with the requirements of Section C406.

UDZFA = Uncontrolled daylight zone floor area is the sum of all sidelit and toplit zones, calculated in accordance with Sections C405.2.3.2 and C405.2.3.3, that do not have daylight responsive controls.

TBFA = Total building floor area is the sum of all floor areas included in the lighting power allowance calculation in Section C405.3.2.

Where required, daylight-responsive controls shall be provided within each space for control of lights in that space and shall comply with all of the following:

  1. Lights in toplit zones in accordance with Section C405.2.3.3 shall be controlled independently of lights in sidelit zones in accordance with Section C405.2.3.2.
  2. Daylight responsive controls within each space shall be configured so that they can be calibrated from within that space by authorized personnel.
  3. Calibration mechanisms shall be in a location with ready access.
  4. Daylight responsive controls shall dim lights continuously from full design light power to 40 percent of full design light power or lower.
  5. Daylight responsive controls shall be configured to completely shut off all controlled lights.
  6. Lights in sidelit zones in accordance with Section C405.2.3.2 facing different cardinal orientations [within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of due north, east, south, west] shall be controlled independently of each other.

Exception: Up to 150 watts of lighting in each space is permitted to be controlled together with lighting in a daylight zone facing a different cardinal orientation.

The sidelit zone is the floor area adjacent to vertical fenestration that complies with all of the following:

  1. Where the fenestration is located in a wall, the sidelit zone shall extend laterally to the nearest full-height wall, or up to 1.0 times the height from the floor to the top of the fenestration, and longitudinally from the edge of the fenestration to the nearest full-height wall, or up to 2 feet (610 mm), whichever is less, as indicated in Figure C405.2.3.2.
  2. The area of the fenestration is not less than 24 square feet (2.23 m2).
  3. The distance from the fenestration to any building or geological formation that would block access to daylight is greater than the height from the bottom of the fenestration to the top of the building or geologic formation.
  4. The visible transmittance of the fenestration is not less than 0.20.

FIGURE C405.2.3.2

SIDELIT ZONE

The toplit zone is the floor area underneath a roof fenestration assembly that complies with all of the following:

  1. The toplit zone shall extend laterally and longitudinally beyond the edge of the roof fenestration assembly to the nearest obstruction that is taller than 0.7 times the ceiling height, or up to 0.7 times the ceiling height, whichever is less, as indicated in Figure C405.2.3.3(1).
  2. Where the fenestration is located in a rooftop monitor, the toplit zone shall extend laterally to the nearest obstruction that is taller than 0.7 times the ceiling height, or up to 1.0 times the height from the floor to the bottom of the fenestration, whichever is less, and longitudinally from the edge of the fenestration to the nearest obstruction that is taller than 0.7 times the ceiling height, or up to 0.25 times the height from the floor to the bottom of the fenestration, whichever is less, as indicated in Figures C405.2.3.3(2) and C405.2.3.3(3).
  3. Direct sunlight is not blocked from hitting the roof fenestration assembly at the peak solar angle on the summer solstice by buildings or geological formations.
  4. The product of the visible transmittance of the roof fenestration assembly and the area of the rough opening of the roof fenestration assembly divided by the area of the toplit zone is not less than 0.008.

FIGURE C405.2.3.3(1)

TOPLIT ZONE

FIGURE C405.2.3.3(2)

DAYLIGHT ZONE UNDER A ROOFTOP MONITOR

FIGURE C405.2.3.3(3)

DAYLIGHT ZONE UNDER A SLOPED ROOFTOP MONITOR

Specific application controls shall be provided for the following:

  1. The following lighting shall be controlled by an occupant sensor complying with Section C405.2.1.1 or a time-switch control complying with Section C405.2.2.1. In addition, a manual control shall be provided to control such lighting separately from the general lighting in the space:

    1. 1.1. Display and accent.
    2. 1.2. Lighting in display cases.
    3. 1.3. Supplemental task lighting, including permanently installed under-shelf or under-cabinet lighting.
    4. 1.4. Lighting equipment that is for sale or demonstration in lighting education.
  2. Sleeping units shall have control devices or systems that are configured to automatically switch off all permanently installed luminaires and switched receptacles within 20 minutes after all occupants have left the unit.

    Exceptions:

    1. Lighting and switched receptacles controlled by card key controls.
    2. Spaces where patient care is directly provided.
  3. Permanently installed luminaires within dwelling units shall be provided with controls complying with Section C405.2.1.1 or C405.2.2.2.
  4. Lighting for nonvisual applications, such as plant growth and food warming, shall be controlled by a time switch control complying with Section C405.2.2.1 that is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space.

Where required by this code, manual controls for lights shall comply with the following:

  1. They shall be in a location with ready access to occupants.
  2. They shall be located where the controlled lights are visible, or shall identify the area served by the lights and indicate their status.

Exterior lighting systems shall be provided with controls that comply with Sections C405.2.6.1 through C405.2.6.4. Decorative lighting systems shall comply with Sections C405.2.6.1, C405.2.6.2 and C405.2.6.4.

Exceptions:

  1. Lighting for covered vehicle entrances and exits from buildings and parking structures where required for eye adaptation.
  2. Lighting controlled from within dwelling units.
Lights shall be automatically turned off when daylight is present and satisfies the lighting needs.
Building facade and landscape lighting shall automatically shut off from not later than 1 hour after business closing to not earlier than 1 hour before business opening.

Lighting that is not controlled in accordance with Section C405.2.6.2 shall be controlled so that the total wattage of such lighting is automatically reduced by not less than 30 percent by selectively switching off or dimming luminaires at one of the following times:

  1. From not later than midnight to not earlier than 6 a.m.
  2. From not later than one hour after business closing to not earlier than one hour before business opening.
  3. During any time where activity has not been detected for 15 minutes or more.
  4. Luminaires serving outdoor parking areas and having a rated input wattage of greater than 78 W and a mounting height of 24 feet (7315 mm) or less above the ground shall be controlled to automatically reduce the power of each luminaire by a minimum of 50 percent when no activity has been detected in the area illuminated by the controlled luminaires for a time of no longer than 15 minutes. No more than 1500 W of lighting power shall be controlled together.

Time-switch controls for exterior lighting shall comply with the following:

  1. They shall have a clock capable of being programmed for not fewer than 7 days.
  2. They shall be capable of being set for seven different day types per week.
  3. They shall incorporate an automatic holiday setback feature.
  4. They shall have program backup capabilities that prevent the loss of program and time settings for a period of not less than 10 hours in the event that power is interrupted.
A building complies with this section where its total connected interior lighting power calculated under Section C405.3.1 is not greater than the interior lighting power allowance calculated under Section C405.3.2.

The total connected interior lighting power shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-10.

(Equation 4-10)

where:

TCLP = Total connected lighting power (watts).

LVL = For luminaires with lamps connected directly to building power, such as line voltage lamps, the rated wattage of the lamp.

BLL = For luminaires incorporating a ballast or transformer, the rated input wattage of the ballast or transformer when operating that lamp.

LED = For light-emitting diode luminaires with either integral or remote drivers, the rated wattage of the luminaire.

TRK = For lighting track, cable conductor, rail conductor, and plug-in busway systems that allow the addition and relocation of luminaires without rewiring, the wattage shall be one of the following:

  1. The specified wattage of the luminaires, but not less than 8 W per linear foot (25 W/lin m).
  2. The wattage limit of the permanent current-limiting devices protecting the system.
  3. The wattage limit of the transformer supplying the system.

Other = The wattage of all other luminaires and lighting sources not covered previously and associated with interior lighting verified by data supplied by the manufacturer or other approved sources.

The connected power associated with the following lighting equipment and applications is not included in calculating total connected lighting power.

  1. Television broadcast lighting for playing areas in sports arenas.
  2. Emergency lighting automatically off during normal building operation.
  3. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by occupants with special lighting needs, including those with visual impairment and other medical and age-related issues.
  4. Casino gaming areas.
  5. Mirror lighting in dressing rooms.
  6. Task lighting for medical and dental purposes that is in addition to general lighting and controlled by an independent control device.
  7. Display lighting for exhibits in galleries, museums and monuments that is in addition to general lighting and controlled by an independent control device.
  8. Lighting for theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production.
  9. Lighting for photographic processes.
  10. Lighting integral to equipment or instrumentation and installed by the manufacturer.
  11. Task lighting for plant growth or maintenance.
  12. Advertising signage or directional signage.
  13. Lighting for food warming.
  14. Lighting equipment that is for sale.
  15. Lighting demonstration equipment in lighting education facilities.
  16. Lighting approved because of safety considerations.
  17. Lighting in retail display windows, provided that the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.
  18. Furniture-mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shutoff.
  19. Exit signs.

The total interior lighting power allowance (watts) is determined according to Table C405.3.2(1) using the Building Area Method, or Table C405.3.2(2) using the Space-by-Space Method, for all areas of the building covered in this permit.

TABLE C405.3.2(1)

INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: BUILDING AREA METHOD

BUILDING AREA TYPE LPD (w/ft2)
Automotive facility 0.71
Convention center 0.76
Courthouse 0.90
Dining: bar lounge/leisure 0.90
Dining: cafeteria/fast food 0.79
Dining: family 0.78
Dormitorya, b 0.61
Exercise center 0.65
Fire stationa 0.53
Gymnasium 0.68
Health care clinic 0.82
Hospitala 1.05
Hotel/Motela, b 0.75
Library 0.78
Manufacturing facility 0.90
Motion picture theater 0.83
Multifamilyc 0.68
Museum 1.06
Office 0.79
Parking garage 0.15
Penitentiary 0.75
Performing arts theater 1.18
Police station 0.80
Post office 0.67
Religious building 0.94
Retail 1.06
School/university 0.81
Sports arena 0.87
Town hall 0.80
Transportation 0.61
Warehouse 0.48
Workshop 0.90
  1. Where sleeping units are excluded from lighting power calculations by application of Section R405.1, neither the area of the sleeping units nor the wattage of lighting in the sleeping units is counted.
  2. Where dwelling units are excluded from lighting power calculations by application of Section R405.1, neither the area of the dwelling units nor the wattage of lighting in the dwelling units is counted.
  3. Dwelling units are excluded. Neither the area of the dwelling units nor the wattage of lighting in the dwelling units is counted.

TABLE C405.3.2(2)

INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: SPACE-BY-SPACE METHOD

COMMON SPACE TYPESa LPD (watts/sq.ft)
Atrium
Less than 40 feet in height 0.03 per foot
in total height
Greater than 40 feet in height 0.40 + 0.02 per foot
in total height
Audience seating area
In an auditorium 0.63
In a convention center 0.82
In a gymnasium 0.65
In a motion picture theater 1.14
In a penitentiary 0.28
In a performing arts theater 2.03
In a religious building 1.53
In a sports arena 0.43
Otherwise 0.43
Banking activity area 0.86
Breakroom (See Lounge/breakroom)
Classroom/lecture hall/training room
In a penitentiary 1.34
Otherwise 0.96
Computer room 1.33
Conference/meeting/multipurpose room 1.07
Copy/print room 0.56
Corridor
In a facility for the visually impaired (and
not used primarily by the staff)b
0.92
In a hospital 0.92
In a manufacturing facility 0.29
Otherwise 0.66
Courtroom 1.39
Dining area
In bar/lounge or leisure dining 0.93
In cafeteria or fast food dining 0.63
In a facility for the visually impaired (and
not used primarily by the staff)b
2.00
In family dining 0.71
In a penitentiary 0.96
Otherwise 0.63
Electrical/mechanical room 0.43
Emergency vehicle garage 0.41
Food preparation area 1.06
Guestroomc, d 0.77
Laboratory
In or as a classroom 1.20
Otherwise 1.45
Laundry/washing area 0.43
Loading dock, interior 0.58
Lobby
For an elevator 0.68
In a facility for the visually impaired (and
not used primarily by the staff)b
2.03
In a hotel 1.06
In a motion picture theater 0.45
In a performing arts theater 1.70
Otherwise 1.0
Locker room 0.48
Lounge/breakroom
In a healthcare facility 0.78
Otherwise 0.62
Office
Enclosed 0.93
Open plan 0.81
Parking area, interior 0.14
Pharmacy area 1.34
Restroom
In a facility for the visually impaired (and
not used primarily by the staffb
0.96
Otherwise 0.85
Sales area 1.22
Seating area, general 0.42
Stairway (see Space containing stairway)
Stairwell 0.58
Storage room 0.46
Vehicular maintenance area 0.56
Workshop 1.14
BUILDING TYPE SPECIFIC SPACE TYPESa LPD (watts/sq.ft)
Automotive (see Vehicular maintenance area)
Convention Center—exhibit space 0.88
Dormitory—living quartersc, d 0.54
Facility for the visually impairedb
In a chapel (and not used primarily by the
staff)
1.06
In a recreation room (and not used primarily
by the staff)
1.80
Fire Station—sleeping quartersc 0.20
Gymnasium/fitness center
In an exercise area 0.50
In a playing area 0.82
Healthcare facility
In an exam/treatment room 1.68
In an imaging room 1.06
In a medical supply room 0.54
In a nursery 1.00
In a nurse's station 0.81
In an operating room 2.17
In a patient roomc 0.62
In a physical therapy room 0.84
In a recovery room 1.03
Library
In a reading area 0.82
In the stacks 1.20
Manufacturing facility
In a detailed manufacturing area 0.93
In an equipment room 0.65
In an extra-high-bay area (greater than 50'
floor-to-ceiling height)
1.05
In a high-bay area (25-50'
floor-to-ceiling height)
0.75
In a low-bay area (less than 25' floor-to-
ceiling height)
0.96
Museum
In a general exhibition area 1.05
In a restoration room 0.85
Performing arts theater—dressing room 0.36
Post office—sorting area 0.68
Religious buildings
In a fellowship hall 0.55
In a worship/pulpit/choir area 1.53
Retail facilities
In a dressing/fitting room 0.50
In a mall concourse 0.90
Sports arena—playing area
For a Class I facilitye 2.47
For a Class II facilityf 1.96
For a Class III facilityg 1.70
For a Class IV facilityh 1.13
Transportation facility
In a baggage/carousel area 0.45
In an airport concourse 0.31
At a terminal ticket counter 0.62
Warehouse—storage area
For medium to bulky, palletized items 0.35
For smaller, hand-carried items 0.69
  1. In cases where both a common space type and a building area specific space type are listed, the building area specific space type shall apply.
  2. A 'Facility for the Visually Impaired' is a facility that is licensed or will be licensed by local or state authorities for senior long-term care, adult daycare, senior support or people with special visual needs.
  3. Where sleeping units are excluded from lighting power calculations by application of Section R405.1, neither the area of the sleeping units nor the wattage of lighting in the sleeping units is counted.
  4. Where dwelling units are excluded from lighting power calculations by application of Section R405.1, neither the area of the dwelling units nor the wattage of lighting in the dwelling units is counted.
  5. Class I facilities consist of professional facilities; and semiprofessional, collegiate, or club facilities with seating for 5,000 or more spectators.
  6. Class II facilities consist of collegiate and semiprofessional facilities with seating for fewer than 5,000 spectators; club facilities with seating for between 2,000 and 5,000 spectators; and amateur league and high-school facilities with seating for more than 2,000 spectators.
  7. Class III facilities consist of club, amateur league and high-school facilities with seating for 2,000 or fewer spectators.
  8. Class IV facilities consist of elementary school and recreational facilities; and amateur league and high-school facilities without provision for spectators.
For the Building Area Method, the interior lighting power allowance is the floor area for each building area type listed in Table C405.3.2(1) times the value from Table C405.3.2(1) for that area. For the purposes of this method, an "area" shall be defined as all contiguous spaces that accommodate or are associated with a single building area type, as listed in Table C405.3.2(1). Where this method is used to calculate the total interior lighting power for an entire building, each building area type shall be treated as a separate area.
For the Space-by-Space Method, the interior lighting power allowance is determined by multiplying the floor area of each space times the value for the space type in Table C405.3.2(2) that most closely represents the proposed use of the space, and then summing the lighting power allowances for all spaces. Tradeoffs among spaces are permitted.

Where using the Space-by-Space Method, an increase in the interior lighting power allowance is permitted for specific lighting functions. Additional power shall be permitted only where the specified lighting is installed and automatically controlled separately from the general lighting, to be turned off during nonbusiness hours. This additional power shall be used only for the specified luminaires and shall not be used for any other purpose. An increase in the interior lighting power allowance is permitted in the following cases:

  1. For lighting equipment to be installed in sales areas specifically to highlight merchandise, the additional lighting power shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-11.

    For SI units:

    (Equation 4-11)

    where:

    Retail Area 1 = The floor area for all products not listed in Retail Area 2, 3 or 4.

    Retail Area 2 = The floor area used for the sale of vehicles, sporting goods and small electronics.

    Retail Area 3 = The floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics and artwork.

    Retail Area 4 = The floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal and china.

    Exception: Other merchandise categories are permitted to be included in Retail Areas 2 through 4, provided that justification documenting the need for additional lighting power based on visual inspection, contrast, or other critical display is approved by the building official.

  2. For spaces in which lighting is specified to be installed in addition to the general lighting for the purpose of decorative appearance or for highlighting art or exhibits, provided that the additional lighting power shall be not more than 0.9 W/ft2 (9.7 W/m2) in lobbies and not more than 0.75 W/ft2 (8.1 W/m2) in other spaces.
The total connected exterior lighting power calculated in accordance with Section C405.4.1 shall be not greater than the exterior lighting power allowance calculated in accordance with Section C405.4.2.

The total exterior connected lighting power shall be the total maximum rated wattage of all lighting that is powered through the energy service for the building.

Exception: Lighting used for the following applications shall not be included.

  1. Lighting approved because of safety considerations.
  2. Emergency lighting automatically off during normal business operation.
  3. Exit signs.
  4. Specialized signal, directional and marker lighting associated with transportation.
  5. Advertising signage or directional signage.
  6. Integral to equipment or instrumentation and installed by its manufacturer.
  7. Theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production.
  8. Athletic playing areas.
  9. Temporary lighting.
  10. Industrial production, material handling, transportation sites and associated storage areas.
  11. Theme elements in theme/amusement parks.
  12. Used to highlight features of art, public monuments, and the national flag.
  13. Lighting for water features and swimming pools.
  14. Lighting controlled from within dwelling units, where the lighting complies with Section R404.1.
The total exterior lighting power allowance is the sum of the base site allowance plus the individual allowances for areas that are to be illuminated by lighting that is powered through the energy service for the building. Lighting power allowances are as specified in Table C405.4.2(2). The lighting zone for the building exterior is determined in accordance with Table C405.4.2(1) unless otherwise specified by the building official.

TABLE C405.4.2(1)
EXTERIOR LIGHTING ZONES
LIGHTING ZONE DESCRIPTION
1 Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest
land, and rural areas
2 Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning,
neighborhood business districts, light industrial with
limited nighttime use and residential mixed-use areas
3 All other areas not classified as lighting zone 1, 2 or 4
4 High-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan
areas as designated by the local land use planning
authority


TABLE C405.4.2(2)
LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS
LIGHTING ZONES
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
Base Site Allowance 350 W 400 W 500 W 900 W
Uncovered Parking Areas
Parking areas and drives 0.03W/ft2 0.04 W/ft2 0.06 W/ft2 0.08 W/ft2
Building Grounds
Walkways and ramps less
than 10 feet wide
0.5 W/linear foot 0.5 W/linear foot 0.6 W/linear foot 0.7 W/linear foot
Walkways and ramps 10
feet wide or greater,
plaza areas, special
feature areas
0.10 W/ft2 0.10 W/ft2 0.11 W/ft2 0.14 W/ft2
Dining areas 0.65 W/ft2 0.65 W/ft2 0.75 W/ft2 0.95 W/ft2
Stairways 0.6 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2
Pedestrian tunnels 0.12 W/ft2 0.12 W/ft2 0.14 W/ft2 0.21 W/ft2
Landscaping 0.03 W/ft2 0.04 W/ft2 0.04 W/ft2 0.04 W/ft2
Building Entrances and Exits
Pedestrian and vehicular
entrances and exits
14 W/linear foot
of opening
14 W/linear foot
of opening
21 W/linear foot
of opening
21 W/linear foot
of opening
Entry canopies 0.20 W/ft2 0.25 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2
Loading docks 0.35 W/ft2 0.35 W/ft2 0.35 W/ft2 0.35 W/ft2
Sales Canopies
Free-standing and attached 0.40 W/ft2 0.40 W/ft2 0.6 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2
Outdoor Sales
Open areas (including
vehicle sales lots)
0.20 W/ft2 0.20 W/ft2 0.35 W/ft2 0.50 W/ft2
Street frontage for
vehicle sales lots in addition to "open area"
allowance
No allowance 7 W/linear foot 7 W/linear foot 21 W/linear foot

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m2.

W = watts.

TABLE C405.4.2(3)
INDIVIDUAL LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS
LIGHTING ZONES