Chapter 1 General Requirements

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Reserved

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Reserved

Appendix H Reserved

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Reserved

Appendix L Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix S New York State Agencies With Construction Regulations or Construction Authority

The provisions of this chapter shall govern special building construction including membrane structures, temporary structures, pedestrian walkways and tunnels, awnings and canopies, marquees, signs, and towers and antennas.
The provisions of this section shall apply to air-supported, air-inflated, membrane-covered cable and membrane-covered frame structures, collectively known as membrane structures, erected for a period of 180 days or longer. Those erected for a shorter period of time shall comply with the Fire Code of New York State. Membrane structures covering water storage facilities, water clarifiers, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, greenhouses and similar facilities not used for human occupancy, are required to meet only the requirements of Sections 3102.3.1 and 3102.7.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein:

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE.
A building where the shape of the structure is maintained by air pressurization of cells or tubes to form a barrel vault over the usable area. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy the pressurized area used to support the structure.

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE.
A building wherein the shape of the structure is attained by air pressure and occupants of the structure are within the elevated pressure area. Air-supported structures are of two basic types:

Double skin.
Similar to a single skin, but with an attached liner that is separated from the outer skin and provides an airspace which serves for insulation, acoustic, aesthetic or similar purposes.

Single skin.
Where there is only the single outer skin and the air pressure is directly against that skin.

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE.
A structure in which the uplift is resisted by cables or webbings which are anchored to either foundations or dead men. Reinforcing cable or webbing is attached by various methods to the membrane or is an integral part of the membrane. This is not a cable-supported structure.

MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE.
A nonpressurized structure in which a mast and cable system provides support and tension to the membrane weather barrier and the membrane imparts stability to the structure.

MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE.
A nonpressurized building wherein the structure is composed of a rigid framework to support a tensioned membrane which provides the weather barrier.

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE.
A membrane structure in which the membrane and all component parts of the structure are noncombustible.
Noncombustible membrane structures shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Noncombustible frame or cable-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Heavy timber frame-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IV construction. Other membrane structures shall be classified as Type V construction.

Exception:
Plastic less than 30 feet (9144 mm) above any floor used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701.
Membranes and interior liners shall be either noncombustible as set forth in Section 703.4 or meet the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 and the manufacturer’s test protocol.

Exception:
Plastic less than 20 mil (0.5 mm) in thickness used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701.
The area of a membrane structure shall not exceed the limitations set forth in Table 503, except as provided in Section 506.
Membrane structures shall not exceed one story nor shall such structures exceed the height limitations in feet set forth in Table 503.

Exception:
Noncombustible membrane structures serving as roofs only.
Membrane structures shall be permitted to be utilized as specified in this section as a portion of buildings of other types of construction. Height and area limits shall be as specified for the type of construction and occupancy of the building.
A noncombustible membrane shall be permitted for use as the roof or as a skylight of any building or atrium of a building of any type of construction provided it is at least 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
A membrane meeting the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall be permitted to be used as the roof or as a skylight on buildings of Type IIB, III, IV and V construction, provided it is at least 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
The structure shall be designed and constructed to sustain dead loads; loads due to tension or inflation; live loads including wind, snow or flood and seismic loads and in accordance with Chapter 16.
Air-supported and air-inflated structures shall be provided with primary and auxiliary inflation systems to meet the minimum requirements of Sections 3102.8.1 through 3102.8.3.
This inflation system shall consist of one or more blowers and shall include provisions for automatic control to maintain the required inflation pressures. The system shall be so designed as to prevent overpressurization of the system.
In addition to the primary inflation system, in buildings exceeding 1,500 square feet (140 m 2 ) in area, an auxiliary inflation system shall be provided with sufficient capacity to maintain the inflation of the structure in case of primary system failure. The auxiliary inflation system shall operate automatically when there is a loss of internal pressure and when the primary blower system becomes inoperative.
Blower equipment shall meet the following requirements:
1. Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at the maximum power required for any flow condition as required by the structural design.
2. Blowers shall be provided with inlet screens, belt guards and other protective devices as required by the code enforcement official to provide protection from injury.
3. Blowers shall be housed within a weather-protecting structure.
4. Blowers shall be equipped with backdraft check dampers to minimize air loss when inoperative.
5. Blower inlets shall be located to provide protection from air contamination. The location of inlets shall be approved.
Wherever an auxiliary inflation system is required, an approved standby power-generating system shall be provided. The system shall be equipped with a suitable means for automatically starting the generator set upon failure of the normal electrical service and for automatic transfer and operation of all of the required electrical functions at full power within 60 seconds of such service failure. Standby power shall be capable of operating independently for a minimum of 4 hours.
A system capable of supporting the membrane in the event of deflation shall be provided for in air-supported and air-inflated structures having an occupant load of 50 or more or where covering a swimming pool regardless of occupant load. The support system shall be capable of maintaining membrane structures used as a roof for Type I construction not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above floor or seating areas. The support system shall be capable of maintaining other membranes at least 7 feet (2134 mm) above the floor, seating area or surface of the water.
The provisions of this section shall apply to structures erected for a period of less than 180 days. Tents and other membrane structures erected for a period of less than 180 days shall comply with the Fire Code of New York State. Those erected for a longer period of time shall comply with applicable sections of this code.
Temporary structures that cover an area in excess of 120 square feet (11.16 m 2 ), including connecting areas or spaces with a common means of egress or entrance which are used or intended to be used for the gathering together of 10 or more persons, shall not be erected, operated or maintained for any purpose without obtaining a permit from the code enforcement official.
A permit application and construction documents shall be submitted for each installation of a temporary structure. The construction documents shall include a site plan indicating the location of the temporary structure and information delineating the means of egress and the occupant load.
Temporary structures shall be located in accordance with the requirements of Table 602 based on the fire-resistance rating of the exterior walls for the proposed type of construction.
Temporary structures shall conform to the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10 and shall have a maximum exit access travel distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm).
This section shall apply to connections between buildings such as pedestrian walkways or tunnels, located at, above or below grade level, that are used as a means of travel by persons. The pedestrian walkway shall not contribute to the building area or the number of stories or height of connected buildings.
Connected buildings shall be considered to be separate structures.

Exceptions:


1. Buildings on the same lot in accordance with Section 503.1.2.
2. For purposes of calculating the number of Type B units required by Chapter 11, structurally connected buildings and buildings with multiple wings shall be considered one structure.
The pedestrian walkway shall be of noncombustible construction.

Exceptions:


1. Combustible construction shall be permitted where connected buildings are of combustible construction.
2. Fire-retardant-treated wood, in accordance with Section 603.1, Item 1.3 shall be permitted for the roof construction of the pedestrian walkway where connected buildings are a minimum of Type I or II construction.
Only materials and decorations approved by the code enforcement official shall be located in the pedestrian walkway.
Walkways shall be separated from the interior of the building by fire-barrier walls with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. This protection shall extend vertically from a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the walkway roof surface or the connected building roof line, whichever is lower, down to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) below the walkway and horizontally 10 feet (3048 mm) from each side of the pedestrian walkway. Openings within the l0-foot (3048 mm) horizontal extension of the protected walls beyond the walkway shall be equipped with devices providing a 3/4-hour fire protection rating in accordance with Section 715.

Exception:
The walls separating the pedestrian walkway from a connected building are not required to have a fire-resistance rating by this section where any of the following conditions exist:

1. The distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm), the pedestrian walkway and connected buildings, except for open parking garages, are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 and the wall is constructed of a tempered, wired or laminated glass wall and doors subject to the following:
1.1. The glass shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 and the sprinkler system shall completely wet the entire surface of interior sides of the glass wall when actuated.
1.2. The glass shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler operates.
1.3. Obstructions shall not be installed between the sprinkler heads and the glass.
2. The distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) and both sidewalls of the pedestrian walkway are at least 50 percent open with the open area uniformly distributed to prevent the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases.
3. Buildings are on the same lot in accordance with Section 503.1.2.
4. Where exterior walls of connected buildings are required by Section 704 to have a fire-resistance rating greater than 2 hours, the walkway shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.

The previous exceptions shall apply to pedestrian walkways having a maximum height above grade of three stories or 40 feet (12 192 mm), or five stories or 55 feet (16 764 mm) where sprinklered.
Pedestrian walkways over a public way shall also comply with Chapter 32.
Access shall be provided at all times to a pedestrian walkway that serves as a required exit.
The unobstructed width of pedestrian walkways shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm). The total width shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm).
The length of exit access travel shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

Exceptions:


1. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 shall not exceed 250 feet (76 200 mm).
2. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway constructed with both sides at least 50 percent open shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm).
3. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway constructed with both sides at least 50 percent open, and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13, shall not exceed 400 feet (122 m).
Separation between the tunneled walkway and the building to which it is connected shall not be less than 2-hour fire-resistant construction and openings therein shall be protected in accordance with Table 715.4.
Awnings or canopies shall comply with the requirements of this section and other applicable sections of this code.
The following term shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.

RETRACTABLE AWNING.
A retractable awning is a cover with a frame that retracts against a building or other structure to which it is entirely supported.
Awnings and canopies shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind or other lateral loads and live loads as required by Chapter 16 with due allowance for shape, open construction and similar features that relieve the pressures or loads. Structural members shall be protected to prevent deterioration. Awnings shall have frames of noncombustible material, fire-retardant-treated wood, wood of Type IV size, or 1-hour construction with combustible or noncombustible covers and shall be either fixed, retractable, folding or collapsible.
Canopies shall be constructed of a rigid framework with an approved covering that meets the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 or has a flame spread index not greater than 25 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.
Marquees shall comply with this section and other applicable sections of this code.
The maximum height or thickness of a marquee measured vertically from its lowest to its highest point shall not exceed 3 feet (914 mm) where the marquee projects more than two-thirds of the distance from the property line to the curb line, and shall not exceed 9 feet (2743 mm) where the marquee is less than two-thirds of the distance from the property line to the curb line.
Where the roof or any part thereof is a skylight, the skylight shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 24. Every roof and skylight of a marquee shall be sloped to downspouts that shall conduct any drainage from the marquee in such a manner so as not to spill over the sidewalk.
Every marquee shall be so located as not to interfere with the operation of any exterior standpipe, and such that the marquee does not obstruct the clear passage of stairways or exit discharge from the building or the installation or maintenance of street lighting.
A marquee shall be supported entirely from the building and constructed of noncombustible materials. Marquees shall be designed as required in Chapter 16. Structural members shall be protected to prevent deterioration.
Signs shall be designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with this code.
Subject to the provisions of Chapter 16 and the requirements of Chapter 15 governing the fire-resistance ratings of buildings for the support of roof structures, radio and television towers shall be designed and constructed as herein provided.
Towers shall be located and equipped with step bolts and ladders so as to provide ready access for inspection purposes. Guy wires or other accessories shall not cross or encroach upon any street or other public space, or over above-ground electric utility lines, or encroach upon any privately owned property without written consent of the owner of the encroached-upon property, space or above-ground electric utility lines.
Towers shall be constructed of approved corrosion-resistant noncombustible material. The minimum type of construction of isolated radio towers not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) in height shall be Type IIB.
Towers shall be designed to resist wind loads in accordance with TIA/EIA-222. Consideration shall be given to conditions involving wind load on ice-covered sections in localities subject to sustained freezing temperatures.
Towers shall be designed for the dead load plus the ice load in regions where ice formation occurs.
Adequate foundations and anchorage shall be provided to resist two times the calculated wind load.
Towers shall be permanently and effectively grounded.
Swimming pools shall comply with the requirements of this section and other applicable sections of this code. The requirements of this section and of the other applicable sections of this code shall be in addition to, and not in replacement of or substitution for, the requirements of other applicable federal, state and local laws and regulations, including, but not necessarily limited to, (a) the requirements of Subpart 6-1 (Swimming pools) of Title 10 of the Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New York (NYCRR), where applicable, and (b) the requirements of section 8003 (Federal swimming pool and spa drain cover standard) of Title 15 of the United States Code, where applicable.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section, and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

BARRIER, TEMPORARY.
An approved temporary fence, permanent fence, the wall of a permanent structure, any other structure, or any combination thereof that prevents access to the swimming pool by any person not engaged in the installation or construction of the swimming pool during its installation or construction.

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE.
For the purpose of determining compliance with the pool alarm provisions of this Section, damage of any origin sustained by a swimming pool whereby the cost of restoring the swimming pool to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 50 percent of the market value of the swimming pool before the damage occurred.

SUBSTANTIAL MODIFICATION.
For the purpose of determining compliance with the pool alarm provisions of this Section, any repair, alteration, addition or improvement of a swimming pool, the cost of which exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the swimming pool before the improvement or repair is started. If a swimming pool sustained substantial damage, any repairs are considered substantial improvement regardless of the actual repair work performed.

SWIMMING POOLS.
Any structure, basin, chamber or tank which is intended for swimming, diving, recreational bathing or wading and which contains, is designated to contain, or is capable of containing water more than 24 inches (610 mm) deep at any point. This includes in-ground, above-ground and on-ground pools; indoor pools; hot tubs; spas; and fixed-in-place wading pools.
Public swimming pools shall be completely enclosed by a fence at least 4 feet (1290 mm) in height or a screen enclosure. Openings in the fence shall not permit the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere. The fence or screen enclosure shall be equipped with gates.
Gates shall comply with the following requirements.
All gates shall be self-closing. In addition, if the gate is a pedestrian access gate, the gate shall open outward, away from the pool.
All gates shall be self-latching, with the latch handle located within the enclosure (i.e., on the pool side of the enclosure) and at least 40 inches (1016 mm) above grade. In addition, if the latch handle is located less than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the bottom of the gate, the latch handle shall be located at least 3 inches (76 mm) below the top of the gate, and neither the gate nor barrier shall have any opening greater than 0.5 inch (12.7) within 18 inches (457 mm) of the latch handle.
All gates shall be securely locked with a key, combination or other child proof lock sufficient to prevent access to the swimming pool through such gate when the swimming pool is not in use or supervised.
Residential swimming pools shall comply with Sections 3109.4.1 through 3109.4.3.

Exception:
A swimming pool with a power safety cover or a spa with a safety cover complying with ASTM F1346.
The top of the barrier shall be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the swimming pool. The maximum vertical clearance between grade and the bottom of the barrier shall be 2 inches (51 mm) measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the swimming pool. Where the top of the pool structure is above grade, the barrier is authorized to be at ground level or mounted on top of the pool structure, and the maximum vertical clearance between the top of the pool structure and the bottom of the barrier shall be 4 inches (102 mm).
Openings in the barrier shall not allow passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere.
Solid barriers which do not have openings shall not contain indentations or protrusions except for normal construction tolerances and tooled masonry joints.
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is less than 45 inches (1143 mm), the horizontal members shall be located on the swimming pool side of the fence. Spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 1.75 inches (44 mm) in width. Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 1.75 inches (44 mm) in width.
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is 45 inches (1143 mm) or more, spacing between vertical members shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall not exceed 1.75 inches (44 mm) in width.
Maximum mesh size for chain link fences shall be a 2.25 inch square (57 mm square) unless the fence is provided with slats fastened at the top or the bottom which reduce the openings to no more than 1.75 inches (44 mm).
Where the barrier is composed of diagonal members, the maximum opening formed by the diagonal members shall be no more than 1.75 inches (44 mm).
Gates shall comply with the requirements of Sections 3109.4.1.1 through 3109.4.1.6 and with the following requirements.
All gates shall be self-closing. In addition, if the gate is a pedestrian access gate, the gate shall open outward, away from the pool.
All gates shall be self-latching, with the latch handle located within the enclosure (i.e., on the pool side of the enclosure) and at least 40 inches (1016 mm) above grade. In addition, if the latch handle is located less than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the bottom of the gate, the latch handle shall be located at least 3 inches (76 mm) below the top of the gate, and neither the gate nor barrier shall have any opening greater than 0.5 inch (12.7) within 18 inches (457 mm) of the latch handle.
All gates shall be securely locked with a key, combination or other child proof lock sufficient to prevent access to the swimming pool through such gate when the swimming pool is not in use or supervised.
Where a wall of a dwelling serves as part of the barrier, one of the following shall apply:
1. Doors with direct access to the pool through that wall shall be equipped with an alarm that produces an audible warning when the door and/or its screen, if present, are opened. The alarm shall be listed in accordance with UL 2017. The audible alarm shall activate within 7 seconds and sound continuously for a minimum of 30 seconds after the door and/or its screen, if present, are opened and be capable of being heard throughout the house during normal household activities. The alarm shall automatically reset under all conditions. The alarm shall be equipped with a manual means, such as touchpad or switch, to temporarily deactivate the alarm for a single opening. Such deactivation shall last for not more than 15 seconds. In dwellings not required to be Accessible, Type A or Type B units, the deactivation switch shall be located 54 inches (1372 mm) or more above the threshold of the door. In dwellings required to be Accessible, Type A or Type B units, the deactivation switch(es) shall be located at 54 inches (1372 mm) maximum and 48 inches minimum above the threshold of the door.
2. The pool shall be equipped with a power safety cover that complies with ASTM F 1346.
3. Other means of protection, such as self-closing doors with self-latching devices, which are approved by the administrative authority, shall be accepted so long as the degree of protection afforded is not less than the protection afforded by Section 3109.4.1.8, Item 1 or 2.
Where an aboveground pool structure is used as a barrier or where the barrier is mounted on top of the pool structure, and the means of access is a ladder or steps, then the ladder or steps either shall be capable of being secured, locked or removed to prevent access, or the ladder or steps shall be surrounded by a barrier which meets the requirements of Sections 3109.4.1.1 through 3109.4.1.8. When the ladder or steps are secured, locked or removed, any opening created shall not allow the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere.
Walls surrounding indoor swimming pools shall not be required to comply with Section 3109.4.1.8.
Barriers shall be located so as to prohibit permanent structures, equipment or similar objects from being used to climb the barriers.
An outdoor swimming pool, including an in-ground, above-ground or on-ground pool, hot tub or spa shall be surrounded by a temporary barrier during installation or construction and shall remain in place until a permanent fence in compliance with Section 3109.3 is provided for public swimming pools, or a barrier in compliance with Section 3109.4 is provided for residential pools.

Exceptions:


1. Above-ground or on-ground residential swimming pools where the pool structure is the barrier in compliance with Section 3109.4.1.9.</div>
2. Spas or hot tubs with a safety cover which complies with ASTM F 1346, provided that such safety cover is in place during the period of installation or construction of such hot tub or spa. The temporary removal of a safety cover as required to facilitate the installation or construction of a hot tub or spa during periods when at least one person engaged in the installation or construction is present is permitted.
The top of the temporary barrier shall be at least 48 inches (1219) above grade measured on the side of the barrier which faces away from the swimming pool.
A temporary barrier shall be replaced by a complying permanent barrier within either of the following periods:
1. 90 days of the date of issuance of the building permit for the installation or construction of the swimming pool; or,
2. 90 days of the date of commencement of the installation or construction of the swimming pool.
Subject to the approval of the code enforcement official, the time period for completion of the permanent barrier may be extended for good cause, including, but not limited to, adverse weather conditions delaying construction.
Entrapment protection shall be provided in compliance with Section 3109.6.1 or 3109.6.2.
Suction outlets shall be designed and installed in accordance with ANSI/APSP-7.
Suction outlets shall be designed to protect the pool user against entrapment. The term ''main drain’’ means a submerged suction outlet typically located at the bottom of a pool or spa to conduct water to a recirculating pump. The term ''unblockable drain’’ means a drain of any size and shape that a human body cannot sufficiently block to create a suction entrapment hazard such as an 18 inch by 23 inch (457 mm by 584 mm) drain grate or larger, or an approved long channel drain.
All pool and spa suction outlets shall be provided with a cover that conforms to ASME A112.19.8.
Pools with a single main drain other than an unblockable drain shall be equipped with one or more of the following devices or systems designed to prevent entrapment by pool drains.
1. Safety vacuum release system. A safety vacuum release system, capable of providing vacuum release at a suction outlet caused by a high vacuum occurrence due to a suction outlet flow blockage, that ceases operation of the pump, reverses the circulation flow, or otherwise provides a vacuum release at a suction outlet when a blockage is detected and has been determined to comply with ASME/ANSI A112.19.17 or ASTM F2387 by an accredited independent testing laboratory.
2. Suction–limiting vent system. A suction-limiting vent system with a tamper-resistant atmospheric opening.
3. Gravity drainage system. A gravity drainage system that utilizes a collector tank.
4. Automatic pump shut-off system. An automatic pump shut-off system.
5. Drain disablement. A device or system that disables the drain.
6. Other systems. Any approved system determined to be equally effective as, or better than, the systems described in Section 3109.6 at preventing or eliminating the risk of injury or death associated with pool drainage systems.
When two or more main drains are installed, a minimum of two suction outlets per pump with drain cover centers at least 3 feet apart must be provided. If the minimum spacing distance or two suction per pump requirement cannot be met, the drain shall be considered a single main drain.
A swimming pool or spa installed, constructed or substantially modified after December 14, 2006, shall be equipped with an approved pool alarm.

Exceptions:
1. A hot tub or spa equipped with a safety cover which complies with ASTM F 1346.
2. A swimming pool (other than a hot tub or spa) equipped with an automatic power safety cover which complies with ASTM F 1346.

Pool alarms shall comply with ASTM F 2208 and shall be installed, used and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and this section.
A pool alarm must be capable of detecting entry into the water at any point on the surface of the swimming pool. If necessary to provide detection capability at every point on the surface of the swimming pool, more than one pool alarm shall be provided.
Pool alarms shall activate upon detecting entry into the water and shall sound poolside and inside the building.
The use of personal immersion alarms shall not be construed as compliance with this section.
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