Chapter 1 General Requirements

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Reserved

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Reserved

Appendix H Reserved

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Reserved

Appendix L Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix S New York State Agencies With Construction Regulations or Construction Authority

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and quality of wood members and their fasteners.
The design of structural elements or systems, constructed partially or wholly of wood or wood-based products, shall be in accordance with one of the following methods:

1. Allowable stress design in accordance with Sections 2304, 2305 and 2306.
2. Load and resistance factor design in accordance with Sections 2304, 2305 and 2307.
3. Conventional light-frame construction in accordance with Sections 2304 and 2308.

Exception: Buildings designed in accordance with the provisions of the AF&PA WFCM shall be deemed to meet the requirements of the provisions of Section 2308.
For the purposes of this chapter, where dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual dimensions (see Section 2304.2).
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein.

ACCREDITATION BODY. An approved, third-party organization that is independent of the grading and inspection agencies, and the lumber mills, and that initially accredits and subsequently monitors, on a continuing basis, the competency and performance of a grading or inspection agency related to carrying out specific tasks.

BRACED WALL LINE. A series of braced wall panels in a single story that meets the requirements of Section 2308.3 or 2308.12.4.

BRACED WALL PANEL. A section of wall braced in accordance with Section 2308.9.3 or 2308.12.4.

COLLECTOR. A horizontal diaphragm element parallel and in line with the applied force that collects and transfers diaphragm shear forces to the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system and/or distributes forces within the diaphragm.

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME WOOD CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction whose primary structural elements are formed by a system of repetitive wood-framing members. See Section 2308 for conventional light-frame wood construction provisions.

CRIPPLE WALL. A framed stud wall extending from the top of the foundation to the underside of floor framing for the lowest occupied floor level.

DIAPHRAGM, UNBLOCKED. A diaphragm that has edge nailing at supporting members only. Blocking between supporting structural members at panel edges is not included. Diaphragm panels are field nailed to supporting members.

DRAG STRUT. See "Collector."

FIBERBOARD. A fibrous, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers (usually wood or cane) and having a density of less than 31 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (497 kg/m3) but more than 10 pcf (160 kg/m3).

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. A structural element, the section of which is composed of built-up lumber, wood structural panels or wood structural panels in combination with lumber, all parts bonded together with structural adhesives.

GRADE (LUMBER). The classification of lumber in regard to strength and utility in accordance with American Softwood Lumber Standard DOC PS 20 and the grading rules of an approved lumber rules-writing agency.

HARDBOARD. A fibrous-felted, homogeneous panel made from lignocellulosic fibers consolidated under heat and pressure in a hot press to a density not less than 31 pcf (497 kg/m3).

NAILING, BOUNDARY. A special nailing pattern required by design at the boundaries of diaphragms.

NAILING, EDGE. A special nailing pattern required by design at the edges of each panel within the assembly of a diaphragm or shear wall.

NAILING, FIELD. Nailing required between the sheathing panels and framing members at locations other than boundary nailing and edge nailing.

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the following species with the exception that an occasional piece with corner sapwood is permitted if 90 percent or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood.

Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black walnut.
Termite resistant. Redwood and Eastern red cedar.
NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). The commercial size designation of width and depth, in standard sawn lumber and glued-laminated lumber grades; somewhat larger than the standard net size of dressed lumber, in accordance with DOC PS 20 for sawn lumber and with the AF&PA; NDS for glued-laminated lumber.

PARTICLEBOARD. A generic term for a panel primarily composed of cellulosic materials (usually wood), generally in the form of discrete pieces or particles, as distinguished from fibers. The cellulosic material is combined with synthetic resin or other suitable bonding system by a process in which the interparticle bond is created by the bonding system under heat and pressure.

PREFABRICATED WOOD I-JOIST. Structural member manufactured using sawn or structural composite lumber flanges and wood structural panel webs bonded together with exterior exposure adhesives, which forms an "I" cross-sectional shape.

PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD. Wood (including plywood) pressure treated with preservatives in accordance with Section 2303.1.8.

SHEAR WALL. A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall.

Shear wall, perforated. A wood structural panel sheathed wall with openings, that has not been specifically designed and detailed for force transfer around openings.
Shear wall segment perforated. A section of shear wall with full-height sheathing that meets the height-to-width ratio limits of Section 2305.3.4.
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. Structural member manufactured using wood elements bonded together with exterior adhesives. Examples of structural composite lumber are:

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). A composite of wood veneer sheet elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member.
Parallel strand lumber (PSL). A composite of wood strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along the length of the member.
STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. An engineered, stress-rated product of a timber laminating plant, comprised of assemblies of specially selected and prepared wood laminations in which the grain of all laminations is approximately parallel longitudinally and the laminations are bonded with adhesives.

SUBDIAPHRAGM. A portion of a larger wood diaphragm designed to anchor and transfer local forces to primary diaphragm struts and the main diaphragm.

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). A device used to resist uplift of the chords of shear walls.

TREATED WOOD. Wood impregnated under pressure with compounds that reduce its susceptibility to flame spread or to deterioration caused by fungi, insects or marine borers.

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. A wood floor, roof or wall component sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm.

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured from veneers, wood strands or wafers or a combination of veneer and wood strands or wafers bonded together with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. Examples of wood structural panels are:

Composite panels. A wood structural panel that is comprised of wood veneer and reconstituted wood-based material and bonded together with waterproof adhesive;
Oriented strand board (OSB). A mat-formed wood structural panel comprised of thin rectangular wood strands arranged in cross-aligned layers with surface layers normally arranged in the long panel direction and bonded with waterproof adhesive; or
Plywood. A wood structural panel comprised of plies of wood veneer arranged in cross-aligned layers. The plies are bonded with waterproof adhesive that cures on application of heat and pressure.
Structural sawn lumber; end-jointed lumber; prefabricated wood I-joists; structural glued-laminated timber; wood structural panels, fiberboard sheathing (when used structurally); hardboard siding (when used structurally); particleboard; preservative-treated wood; structural log members; structural composite lumber; round timber poles and piles; fire-retardant-treated wood; hardwood plywood; wood trusses; joist hangers; nails; and staples shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber used for load-supporting purposes, including end-jointed or edge-glued lumber, machine stress-rated or machine-evaluated lumber, shall be identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20 or equivalent. Grading practices and identification shall comply with rules published by an agency approved in accordance with the procedures of DOC PS 20 or equivalent procedures. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section is permitted to be accepted for precut, remanufactured or rough-sawn lumber and for sizes larger than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal thickness.

Approved end-jointed lumber is permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.

Exception: In lieu of compliance with Section 2303.1.1, lumber used for load-supporting purposes, which is neither identified by a grade mark nor issued a certificate of inspection by a lumber grading or inspection agency, may be used under the following conditions when authorized by the authority having jurisdiction:
1. The producing mill shall sell or provide the lumber directly to the ultimate consumer or the consumer’s contract builder for use in an approved structure.
2. The producing mill shall certify in writing to the consumer or contract builder on a form to be produced by the authority having jurisdiction that the quality and safe working stresses of such lumber are equal to or exceed No. 2 grade of the species in accordance with the conditions set forth in DOC PS 20. Such certification shall be filed as part of the building permit application.
3. The use of such lumber shall be in accordance with Section 503 of the Building Code of New York State, limited to:
a. Buildings of residential Group R occupancy not exceeding three stories in height.
b. Buildings of assembly Group A, business Group B, educational Group E, factory industrial Group F, high-hazard Group H, institutional Group I, mercantile Group M, storage Group S and utility miscellaneous Group U occupancies not exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2) of cumulative floor area or 35 feet (10 668 mm) in height.
Structural capacities and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5055.
Glued-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.
Wood structural panels, when used structurally (including those used for siding, roof and wall sheathing, subflooring, diaphragms and built-up members), shall conform to the requirements for their type in DOC PS 1 or PS 2. Each panel or member shall be identified for grade and glue type by the trademarks of an approved testing and grading agency. Wood structural panel components shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the applicable standards listed in Section 2306.1 and identified by the trademarks of an approved testing and inspection agency indicating conformance with the applicable standard. In addition, wood structural panels when permanently exposed in outdoor applications shall be of exterior type, except that wood structural panel roof sheathing exposed to the outdoors on the underside is permitted to be interior type bonded with exterior glue, Exposure 1.
Fiberboard for its various uses shall conform to ASTM C 208. Fiberboard sheathing, when used structurally, shall be identified by an approved agency as conforming to ASTM C 208.
To ensure tight-fitting assemblies, edges shall be manufactured with square, shiplapped, beveled, tongue-and-groove or U-shaped joints.
Where used as roof insulation in all types of construction, fiberboard shall be protected with an approved roof covering.
Where installed and fireblocked to comply with Chapter 7, fiberboards are permitted as wall insulation in all types of construction. In fire walls and fire barriers, unless treated to comply with Section 803.1 for Class A materials, the boards shall be cemented directly to the concrete, masonry or other noncombustible base and shall be protected with an approved noncombustible veneer anchored to the base without intervening airspaces.
Fiberboard wall insulation applied on the exterior of foundation walls shall be protected below ground level with a bituminous coating.
Hardboard siding used structurally shall be identified by an approved agency conforming to AHA A135.6. Hardboard underlayment shall meet the strength requirements of 7 / 32 -inch (5.6 mm) or 1 / 4 -inch (6.4 mm) service class hardboard planed or sanded on one side to a uniform thickness of not less than 0.200 inch (5.1 mm). Prefinished hardboard paneling shall meet the requirements of AHA A135.5. Other basic hardboard products shall meet the requirements of AHA A135.4. Hardboard products shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. Particleboard shall not be utilized for applications other than indicated in this section unless the particleboard complies with the provisions of Section 2306.4.3.
Particleboard floor underlayment shall conform to Type PBU of ANSI A208.1. Type PBU underlayment shall not be less than 1 / 4 -inch (6.4 mm) thick and shall be installed in accordance with the instructions of the Composite Panel Association.
Lumber, timber, plywood, piles and poles supporting permanent structures required by Section 2304.11 to be preservative treated shall conform to the requirements of the applicable AWPA Standard U1 and M4 for the species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U1. Lumber and plywood used in wood foundation systems shall conform to Chapter 18.
Wood required by Section 2304.11 to be preservative treated shall bear the quality mark of an inspection agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the preservative-treated wood. Inspection agencies for preservative-treated wood shall be listed by an accreditation body that complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standards Treated Wood Program, or equivalent. The quality mark shall be on a stamp or label affixed to the preservative-treated wood, and shall include the following information:
1. Identification of treating manufacturer.
2. Type of preservative used.
3. Minimum preservative retention (pcf).
4. End use for which the product is treated.
5. AWPA standard to which the product was treated.
6. Identity of the accredited inspection agency.
Where preservative-treated wood is used in enclosed locations where drying in service cannot readily occur, such wood shall be at a moisture content of 19 percent or less before being covered with insulation, interior wall finish, floor covering or other materials.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5456.
Stress grading of structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be permitted.
Round timber poles and piles shall comply with ASTM D 3200 and ASTM D 25, respectively
Fire-retardant-treated wood is any wood product which, when impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process or other means during manufacture, shall have, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84, a listed flame spread index of 25 or less and show no evidence of significant progressive combustion when the test is continued for an additional 20-minute period. In addition, the flame front shall not progress more than 10.5 feet (3200 mm) beyond the centerline of the burners at any time during the test.
Fire-retardant-treated lumber and wood structural panels shall be labeled. The label shall contain the following items:
1. The identification mark of an approved agency in accordance with Section 1703.5.
2. Identification of the treating manufacturer.
3. The name of the fire-retardant treatment.
4. The species of wood treated.
5. Flame spread and smoke-developed index.
6. Method of drying after treatment.
7. Conformance with appropriate standards in accordance with Sections 2303.2.2 through 2303.2.5.
8. For fire-retardant-treated wood exposed to weather, damp or wet locations, include the words "No increase in the listed classification when subjected to the Standard Rain Test" (ASTM D 2898).
Design values for untreated lumber and wood structural panels, as specified in Section 2303.1, shall be adjusted for fire-retardant-treated wood. Adjustments to design values shall be based on an approved method of investigation that takes into consideration the effects of the anticipated temperature and humidity to which the fire-retardant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treatment and redrying procedures.
The effect of treatment and the method of redrying after treatment, and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the flexure properties of fire-retardant-treated softwood plywood shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 5516. The test data developed by ASTM D 5516 shall be used to develop adjustment factors, maximum loads and spans, or both, for untreated plywood design values in accordance with ASTM D 6305. Each manufacturer shall publish the allowable maximum loads and spans for service as floor and roof sheathing for its treatment.
For each species of wood that is treated, the effects of the treatment, the method of redrying after treatment and exposure to high temperatures and high humidities on the allowable design properties of fire-retardant-treated lumber shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 5664. The test data developed by ASTM D 5664 shall be used to develop modification factors for use at or near room temperature and at elevated temperatures and humidity in accordance with ASTM D 6841. Each manufacturer shall publish the modification factors for service at temperatures of not less than 80°F (27°C) and for roof framing. The roof framing modification factors shall take into consideration the climatological location.
Where fire-retardant-treated wood is exposed to weather, or damp or wet locations, it shall be identified as "Exterior" to indicate there is no increase in the listed flame spread index as defined in Section 2303.2 when subjected to ASTM D 2898.
Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall have moisture content of not over 28 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D 3201 procedures at 92-percent relative humidity. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood shall be tested in accordance with Section 2303.2.2.1 or 2303.2.2.2. Interior fire-retardant-treated wood designated as Type A shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be dried to a moisture content of 19 percent or less for lumber and 15 percent or less for wood structural panels before use. For wood kiln dried after treatment (KDAT), the kiln temperatures shall not exceed those used in kiln drying the lumber and plywood submitted for the tests described in Section 2303.2.2.1 for plywood and 2303.2.2.2 for lumber.
See Section 603.1 for limitations on the use of fire-retardant-treated wood in buildings of Type I or II construction.
Hardwood and decorative plywood shall be manufactured and identified as required in HPVA HP-1.
Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code and accepted engineering practice. Members are permitted to be joined by nails, glue, bolts, timber connectors, metal connector plates or other approved framing devices.
The individual or organization responsible for the design of trusses.
The written, graphic and pictorial depiction of each individual truss shall be provided to the code enforcement official and approved prior to installation. Truss design drawings shall also be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below:
1. Slope or depth, span and spacing;
2. Location of joints;
3. Required bearing widths;
4. Design loads as applicable;
5. Top chord live load (including snow loads);
6. Top chord dead load;
7. Bottom chord live load;
8. Bottom chord dead load;
9. Concentrated loads and their points of application as applicable;
10. Controlling wind and earthquake loads as applicable;
11. Adjustments to lumber and metal connector plate design value for conditions of use;
12. Each reaction force and direction;
13. Metal connector plate type, size, thickness or gage, and the dimensioned location of each metal connector plate except where symmetrically located relative to the joint interface;
14. Lumber size, species and grade for each member;
15. Connection requirements for:
15.1. Truss to truss;
15.2. Truss ply to ply; and
15.3. Field splices.
16. Calculated deflection ratio and maximum vertical and horizontal deflection for live and total load as applicable;
17. Maximum axial tensile and compression forces in the truss members; and
18. Required permanent individual truss member bracing and method per Section 2303.4.1.5, unless a specific truss member permanent bracing plan for the roof or floor structural system is provided by a registered design professional.

Where required by one of the following, each individual truss design drawing shall bear the seal and signature of the truss designer:
1. Registered design professional; or
2. code enforcement official; or
3. Statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

Exceptions:
1. When a cover sheet/truss index sheet combined into a single cover sheet is attached to the set of truss design drawings for the project, the single sheet/truss index sheet is the only document that needs to be signed and sealed within the truss submittal package.
2. When a cover sheet and a truss index sheet are separately provided and attached to the set of truss design drawings for the project, both the cover sheet and the truss index sheet are the only documents that need to be signed and sealed within the truss submittal package.
The truss manufacturer shall provide a truss placement diagram that identifies the proposed location for each individually designated truss and references the corresponding truss design drawing. The truss placement diagram shall be provided as part of the truss submittal package, and with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss placement diagrams shall not be required to bear the seal or signature of the truss designer.

Exception: When the truss placement diagram is prepared under the direct supervision of a registered design professional, it is required to be signed and sealed.
The truss submittal package shall consist of each individual truss design drawing, the truss placement diagram for the project, the truss member permanent bracing specification and, as applicable, the cover sheet/truss index sheet.
Where permanent bracing of truss members is required on the truss design drawings, it shall be accomplished by one of the following methods:
1. The trusses shall be designed so that the buckling of any individual truss member can be resisted internally by the structure (e.g. buckling member T-bracing, L-bracing, etc.) of the individual truss. The truss individual member buckling reinforcement shall be installed as shown on the truss design drawing or on supplemental truss member buckling reinforcement diagrams provided by the truss designer.
2. Permanent bracing shall be installed using standard industry bracing details that conform with generally accepted engineering practice. Individual truss member continuous lateral bracing location(s) shall be shown on the truss design drawing.
All transfer of loads and anchorage of each truss to the supporting structure is the responsibility of the registered design professional.
Truss members and components shall not be cut, notched, drilled, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without written concurrence and approval of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, water heater) shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting such additional loading.
In addition to Sections 2303.4.1 through 2303.4.1.7, the design, manufacture and quality assurance of metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall be in accordance with TPI 1. Manufactured trusses shall comply with Section 1704.6 as applicable.
For the required test standards for joist hangers and connectors, see Section 1715.1.
Nails and staples shall conform to requirements of ASTM F 1667. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as follows: 80 kips per square inch (ksi) (551 MPa) for shank diameters larger than 0.177 inch (4.50 mm) but not larger than 0.254 inch (6.45 mm), 90 ksi (620 MPa) for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch (3.61 mm) but not larger than 0.177 inch (4.50 mm) and 100 ksi (689 MPa) for shank diameters of at least 0.099 inch (2.51 mm) but not larger than 0.142 inch (3.61 mm).
Consideration shall be given in design to the possible effect of cross-grain dimensional changes considered vertically which may occur in lumber fabricated in a green condition.
The provisions of this section apply to design methods specified in Section 2301.2.
Computations to determine the required sizes of members shall be based on the net dimensions (actual sizes) and not nominal sizes.
The framing of exterior and interior walls shall be in accordance with the provisions specified in Section 2308 unless a specific design is furnished.
Studs shall have full bearing on a 2-inch-thick (actual 1 1 / 2 -inch, 38 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs.
Headers, double joists, trusses or other approved assemblies that are of adequate size to transfer loads to the vertical members shall be provided over window and door openings in load-bearing walls and partitions.
Wood walls and bearing partitions shall not support more than two floors and a roof unless an analysis satisfactory to the code enforcement official shows that shrinkage of the wood framing will not have adverse effects on the structure or any plumbing, electrical or mechanical systems, or other equipment installed therein due to excessive shrinkage or differential movements caused by shrinkage. The analysis shall also show that the roof drainage system and the foregoing systems or equipment will not be adversely affected or, as an alternate, such systems shall be designed to accommodate the differential shrinkage or movements.
The framing of wood-joisted floors and wood framed roofs shall be in accordance with the provisions specified in Section 2308 unless a specific design is furnished.
Combustible framing shall be a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm), but shall not be less than the distance specified in Sections 2111 and 2113 and the Mechanical Code of New York State, from flues, chimneys and fireplaces, and 6 inches (152 mm) away from flue openings.
Except as provided for in Section 1405 for weatherboarding or where stucco construction that complies with Section 2510 is installed, enclosed buildings shall be sheathed with one of the materials of the nominal thickness specified in Table 2304.6 or any other approved material of equivalent strength or durability.

TABLE 2304.6 MINIMUM THICKNESS OF WALL SHEATHING

SHEATHING TYPE MINIMUM THICKNESS MAXIMUM WALL STUD SPACING
Wood boards 5/8 inch 24 inches on center
Fiberboard 1/2 inch 16 inches on center
Wood structural panel In accordance with Tables 2308.9.3(2) and 2308.9.3(3)
M-S "Exterior Glue" and
M-2 "Exterior Glue" Particleboard
In accordance with Tables 2306.4.3 and 2308.9.3(4)
Gypsum sheathing 1/2 inch 16 inches on center
Gypsum wallboard 1/2 inch 24 inches on center
Reinforced cement mortar 1 inch 24 inches on center


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Where wood structural panel sheathing is used as the exposed finish on the exterior of outside walls, it shall have an exterior exposure durability classification. Where wood structural panel sheathing is used on the exterior of outside walls but not as the exposed finish, it shall be of a type manufactured with exterior glue (Exposure 1 or Exterior). Where wood structural panel sheathing is used elsewhere, it shall be of a type manufactured with intermediate or exterior glue.
Softwood wood structural panels used for interior paneling shall conform with the provisions of Chapter 8 and shall be installed in accordance with Table 2304.9.1. Panels shall comply with DOC PS 1 or PS 2. Prefinished hardboard paneling shall meet the requirements of AHA A135.5. Hardwood plywood shall conform to HPVA HP-1.
TABLE 2304.7(1) ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR LUMBER FLOOR AND ROOF SHEATHINGa,b

SPAN (inches) MINIMUM NET THICKNESS (inches) OF LUMBER PLACED
Perpendicular to supports Diagonally to supports
Surfaced dryc Surfaced unseasoned Surfaced dryc Surfaced unseasoned
Floors
24 3/4 25/32 3/4 25/32
16 5/8 11/16 5/8 11/16
Roofs
24 5/8 11/16 3/4 25/32


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Installation details shall conform to Sections 2304.7.1 and 2304.7.2 for floor and roof sheathing, respectively.

b. Floor or roof sheathing conforming with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.7.

c. Maximum 19-percent moisture content.


TABLE 2304.7(2) SHEATHING LUMBER, MINIMUM GRADE REQUIREMENTS: BOARD GRADE

SOLID FLOOR OR ROOF SHEATHING SPACED ROOF SHEATHING GRADING RULES
Utility Standard NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA
4 common or utility 3 common or standard NLGA, WCLIB, WWPA, NSLB or NELMA
No. 3 No. 2 SPIB
Merchantable Construction common RIS


TABLE 2304.7(3) ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEATHING AND SINGLE-FLOOR GRADES CONTINUOUS OVER TWO OR MORE SPANS WITH STRENGTH AXIS PERPENDICULAR TO SUPPORTSa,b

SHEATHING GRADES ROOFc FLOORd
Panel span rating roof/floor span Panel thickness (inches) Maximum span (inches) Loade(psf) Maximum span
 (inches)
With edge supportf Without edge support Total load Live load
12/0 5/16 12 12 40 30 0
16/0 5/16, 3/8 16 16 40 30 0
20/0 5/16, 3/8 20 20 40 30 0
24/0 3/8, 7/16, 1/2 24 20g 40 30 0
24/16 7/16,1/2 24 24 50 40 16
32/16 15/32, 1/2, 5/8 32 28 40 30 16h
40/20 19/32, 5/8, 3/4, 7/8 40 32 40 30 20h, i
48/24 23/32, 3/4, 7/8 48 36 45 35 24
54/32 7/8, 1 54 40 45 35 32
60/32 7/8, 11/8 60 48 45 35 32
SINGLE FLOOR GRADES ROOFc FLOORd
Panel span rating Panel thickness (inches) Maximum span (inches) Loade(psf) Maximum span (inches)
With edge supportf Without edge support Total load Live load
16 o.c. 1/2, 19/32, 5/8 24 24 50 40 16h
20 o.c. 19/32, 5/8, 3/4 32 32 40 30 20h,i
24 o.c. 23/32, 3/4 48 36 35 25 24
32 o.c. 7/8, 1 48 40 50 40 32
48 o.c. 13/32, 11/8 60 48 50 40 48


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.

a. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider.

b. Floor and roof sheathing conforming with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.7.

c. Uniform load deflection limitations 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 under live load only.

d. Panel edges shall have approved tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking unless 1/4-inch minimum thickness underlayment or 11/2 inches of approved cellular or lightweight concrete is placed over the subfloor, or finish floor is 3/4-inch wood strip. Allowable uniform load based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 pounds per square foot except the span rating of 48 inches on center is based on a total load of 65 pounds per square foot.

e. Allowable load at maximum span.

f. Tongue-and-groove edges, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports 48 inches on center), lumber blocking or other. Only lumber blocking shall satisfy blocked diaphragm requirements.

g. For 1/2-inch panel, maximum span shall be 24 inches.

h. Span is permitted to be 24 inches on center where 3/4-inch wood strip flooring is installed at right angles to joist.

i. Span is permitted to be 24 inches on center for floors where 11/2 inches of cellular or lightweight concrete is applied over the panels.

TABLE 2304.7(4) ALLOWABLE SPAN FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL COMBINATION SUBFLOOR-UNDERLAYMENT (SINGLE FLOOR)a,b


(Panels Continuous Over Two or More Spans and Strength Axis Perpendicular to Supports)

IDENTIFICATION MAXIMUM SPACING OF JOISTS (inches)
16 20 24 32 48
Species groupc Thickness (inches)
1 1/2 5/8 3/4
2, 3 5/8 3/4 7/8
4 3/4 7/8 1
Single floor span ratingd 16 o.c. 20 o.c. 24 o.c. 32 o.c. 48 o.c.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.

a. Spans limited to value shown because of possible effects of concentrated loads. Allowable uniform loads based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 pounds per square foot except allowable total uniform load for 11/8-inch wood structural panels over joists spaced 48 inches on center is 65 pounds per square foot. Panel edges shall have approved tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking, unless 1/4-inch minimum thickness underlayment or 11/2 inches of approved cellular or lightweight concrete is placed over the subfloor, or finish floor is 3/4-inch wood strip.

b. Floor panels conforming with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.7.

c. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood. See DOC PS 1 for plywood species groups.

d. Applicable to Underlayment grade, C-C (Plugged) plywood, and Single Floor grade wood structural panels.

TABLE 2304.7(5) ALLOWABLE LOAD (PSF) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL ROOF SHEATHING CONTINUOUS OVER TWO OR MORE SPANS AND STRENGTH AXIS PARALLEL TO SUPPORTS (Plywood Structural Panels Are Five-Ply, Five-Layer Unless Otherwise Noted)a,b


PANEL GRADE THICKNESS (inch) MAXIMUM SPAN

(inches)
LOAD AT MAXIMUM SPAN (psf)
Live Total
Structural I sheathing 7/16 24 20 30
15/32 24 35c 45c
1/2 24 40c 50c
19/32, 5/8 24 70 80
23/32, 3/4 24 90 100
Sheathing, other grades covered in DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 7/16 16 40 50
15/32 24 20 25
1/2 24 25 30
19/32 24 40c 50c
5/8 24 45c 55c
23/32, 3/4 24 60c 65c


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.

a. Roof sheathing conforming with this table shall be deemed to meet the design criteria of Section 2304.7.

b. Uniform load deflection limitations 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 under live load only. Edges shall be blocked with lumber or other approved type of edge supports.

c. For composite and four-ply plywood structural panel, load shall be reduced by 15 pounds per square foot.
Structural floor sheathing shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and the special provisions in this section.

Floor sheathing conforming to the provisions of Table 2304.7(1), 2304.7(2), 2304.7(3) or 2304.7(4) shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section.
Structural roof sheathing shall be designed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and the special provisions in this section.

Roof sheathing conforming to the provisions of Table 2304.7(1), 2304.7(2), 2304.7(3) or 2304.7(5) shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section. Wood structural panel roof sheathing shall be bonded by exterior glue.
Lumber decking shall be designed and installed in accordance with the general provisions of this code and the provisions of this section. Each piece shall be square-end trimmed. When random lengths are furnished, each piece shall be square-end trimmed across the face so that at least 90 percent of the pieces will be within 0.5 degrees (0.00873 rad) of square. The ends of the pieces shall be permitted to be beveled up to 2 degrees (0.0349 rad) from vertical with the exposed face of the piece slightly longer than the back of the piece. Tongue-and-groove decking shall be installed with the tongues up on sloped or pitched roofs with pattern faces down.
Lumber decking is permitted to be laid up following one of five standard patterns as defined in Sections 2304.8.2.1 through 2304.8.2.5. Other patterns are permitted to be used if justified by engineering analysis.
All pieces shall be supported by two supports.
All pieces shall be supported by three supports, and all end joints shall occur in line on every other support. Supporting members shall be designed to accommodate the load redistribution caused by this pattern.
Courses in end spans shall be alternating simple span and two span continuous. End joints are staggered in adjacent courses and occur only over supports.
The decking shall cover a minimum of three spans. Pieces in the starter course and every third course shall be simple span. Pieces in other courses shall be cantilevered over the supports with end joints at alternate quarter or third points of the spans, and each piece shall bear on at least one support.
The decking shall cover a minimum of three spans. End joints within 6 inches (152 mm) of being in line in either direction shall be separated by at least two intervening courses. In the end bays each piece shall bear on at least one support. Where an end joint occurs in an end bay, the next piece in the same course shall continue over the first inner support for at least 24 inches (610 mm). The details of the controlled random pattern shall be as described for each decking material in Section 2304.8.3.3, 2304.8.4.3 or 2304.8.5.3.

For cantilevered spans with the controlled random pattern, special considerations shall be made when the overhang exceeds 18 inches (457 mm), 24 inches (610 mm) or 36 inches (914 mm) for 2-inch (51 mm), 3-inch (76 mm) or 4-inch (102 mm) nominal thickness decking, respectively. The maximum cantilevered length for the controlled random pattern shall be 30 percent of the length of the first adjacent interior span. For cantilever overhangs within these limits, a structural fascia shall be fastened to each decking piece to maintain a continuous, straight roof line. There shall be no end joints in the cantilevered portion or within one-half of the first adjacent interior span.
Mechanically laminated decking consists of square-edged dimension lumber laminations set on edge and nailed to the adjacent pieces and to the supports.
The length of nails connecting laminations shall not be less than two and one-half times the net thickness of each lamination. Where deck supports are 48 inches (1219 mm) on center (o.c.) or less, side nails shall be spaced not more than 30 inches (762 mm) o.c. alternately near top and bottom edges, and staggered one-third of the spacing in adjacent laminations. Where supports are spaced more than 48 inches (1219 mm) o.c., side nails shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) o.c. alternately near top and bottom edges and staggered one-third of the spacing in adjacent laminations. Two side nails shall be used at each end of butt-jointed pieces.

Laminations shall be toenailed to supports with 20d or larger common nails. Where the supports are 48 inches (1219 mm) o.c. or less, alternate laminations shall be toenailed to alternate supports; where supports are spaced more than 48 inches (1219 mm) o.c., alternate laminations shall be toenailed to every support.
There shall be a minimum distance of 24 inches (610 mm) between end joints in adjacent courses. The pieces in the first and second courses shall bear on at least two supports with end joints in these two courses occurring on alternate supports. A maximum of seven intervening courses shall be permitted before this pattern is repeated.
Two-inch (51 mm) decking shall have a maximum moisture content of 15 percent. Decking shall be machined with a single tongue-and-groove pattern. Each deck piece shall be nailed to each support as required.
Each piece of decking shall be toenailed at each support with one 16d common nail through the tongue and face-nailed with one 16d common nail.
There shall be a minimum distance of 24 inches (610 mm) between end joints in adjacent courses. The pieces in the first and second courses shall bear on at least two supports with end joints in these two courses occurring on alternate supports. A maximum of seven intervening courses shall be permitted before this pattern is repeated.
Three-inch (76 mm) and 4-inch (102 mm) decking shall have a maximum moisture content of 19 percent. Decking shall be machined with a double tongue-and-groove pattern. Deck pieces shall be interconnected and fastened to the supports as required.
Each piece shall be toenailed at each support with one 40d common nail and face-nailed with one 60d common nail. Courses shall be spiked to each other with 8-inch (203 mm) spikes at intervals not to exceed 30 inches (762 mm) through predrilled edge holes penetrating to a depth of approximately 4 inches (102 mm) and with one spike at a distance not exceeding 10 inches (254 mm) from the end of each piece.
There shall be a minimum distance of 48 inches (1219 mm) between end joints in adjacent courses. Pieces not bearing over a support are permitted to occur in interior bays, provided the adjacent pieces in the same course continue over the support for at least 24 inches (610 mm). This condition shall not occur more than once in every six courses in each interior bay.
Connections for wood members shall be designed in accordance with the appropriate methodology in Section 2301.2. The number and size of fasteners connecting wood members shall not be less than that set forth in Table 2304.9.1.

TABLE 2304.9.1 FASTENING SCHEDULE

CONNECTION FASTENINGa,m LOCATION
1. Joist to sill or girder 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
toenail
2. Bridging to joist 2 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131")
2 - 3" × 0.131" nails
2 - 3" 14 gage staples
toenail each end
3. 1" × 6" subfloor or less to each joist 2 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") face nail
4. Wider than 1" × 6" subfloor to each joist 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") face nail
5. 2" subfloor to joist or girder 2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") blind and face nail
6. Sole plate to joist or blocking

Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panel

 
16d (31/2" × 0.135") at 16" o.c.
3" × 0.131" nails at 8" o.c.
3" 14 gage staples at 12" o.c.
3- 16d (31/2" × 0.135") at 16" o.c.
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails at 16" o.c.
4 - 3" 14 gage staples at 16" o.c.
typical face nail

braced wall panels
7. Top plate to stud 2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
end nail
8. Stud to sole plate 4 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131")
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
toenail

end nail
9. Double studs 16d (31/2" × 0.135") at 24" o.c.
3" × 0.131" nail at 8" o.c.
3" 14 gage staple at 8" o.c.
face nail
10. Double top plates

Double top plates

 
16d (31/2" × 0.135") at 16" o.c.
3" × 0.131" nail at 12" o.c.
3" 14 gage staple at 12" o.c.
8-16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
12-3" × 0.131" nails
12-3" 14 gage staples


typical face nail

lap splice
11. Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
toenail
12. Rim joist to top plate 8d (21/2" × 0.131") at 6" o.c.
3" × 0.1312 nail at 6" o.c.
3" 14 gage staple at 6" o.c.
toenail
13. Top plates, laps and intersections 2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 -3" 14 gage staples
face nail
14. Continuous header, two pieces 16d common (31/22 × 0.1622) 16"o.c. along edge
15. Ceiling joists to plate 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131")
5 - 3" × 0.131" nails
5 - 3" 14 gage staples
toenail
16. Continuous header to stud 4 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") toenail

(continued)


TABLE 2304.9.1—continued FASTENING SCHEDULE

CONNECTION FASTENINGa,m LOCATION
17. Ceiling joists, laps over partitions (see Section 2308.10.4.1, Table 2308.10.4.1) 3 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") minimum,
Table 2308.10.4.1
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
face nail
18. Ceiling joists to parallel rafters (see Section 2308.10.4.1, Table 2308.10.4.1) 3 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") minimum,
Table 2308.10.4.1
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
face nail
19. Rafter to plate (see Section 2308.10.1, Table 2308.10.1) 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
toenail
20. 1" diagonal brace to each stud and plate 2 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131")
2 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
face nail
21. 1" × 8" sheathing to each bearing 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") face nail
22. Wider than 1" × 8" sheathing to each bearing 3 - 8d common (21/2" × 0.131") face nail
23. Built-up corner studs 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
3" × 0.131" nails
3" 14 gage staples
24" o.c.
16" o.c.
16" o.c.
24. Built-up girder and beams 20d common (4" × 0.192") 32" o.c.
3" × 0.131" nail at 24" o.c.
3" 14 gage staple at 24" o.c.
2 - 20d common (4" × 0.192")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
face nail at top and bottom staggered on opposite sides

face nail at ends and at each splice
25. 2" planks 16d common (31/2" × 0.162") at each bearing
26. Collar tie to rafter 3 - 10d common (3" × 0.148")
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
face nail
27. Jack rafter to hip 3 - 10d common (3" × 0.148")
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
3 - 3" × 0.131″ nails
3 - 32 14 gage staples
toenail

face nail
28. Roof rafter to 2-by ridge beam 2 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
2-16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
3 - 3" × 0.131" nails
3 - 3" 14 gage staples
toenail

face nail

(continued)


TABLE 2304.9.1—continued FASTENING SCHEDULE

CONNECTION FASTENINGa,m LOCATION
29. Joist to band joist 3 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
4 - 3" × 0.131" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
face nail
30. Ledger strip 3 - 16d common (31/2" × 0.162")
4 - 3" × 0.13" nails
4 - 3" 14 gage staples
face nail
31. Wood structural panels and particleboardb 1/2" and less 6dc,1  
Subfloor, roof and wall sheathing (to framing)   23/8" × 0.113" nailn  
    13/4" 16 gageo  
  19/32" to 3/4" 8dd or 6de  
    23/8" × 0.113" nailp  
    2" 16 gagep  
Single Floor (combination subfloor- 7/8" to 1" 8dc  
underlayment to framing) 11/8" to 11/4" 10dd or 8de  
  3/4" and less 6de  
  7/8" to 1" 8de  
  11/8" to 11/4" 10dd or 8de  
32. Panel siding (to framing) 1/2" or less
5
/8"
6df
8df
 
33. Fiberboard sheathingg 1/2"

25
/32"

No. 11 gage roofing nailh
6d common nail (2" × 0.113")
No. 16 gage staplei
No. 11 gage roofing nailh
8d common nail (21/2" × 0.131")
No. 16 gage staplei
 
34. Interior paneling 1/4"
3
/8"
4dj
6dk
 


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Common or box nails are permitted to be used except where otherwise stated.

b. Nails spaced at 6 inches on center at edges, 12 inches at intermediate supports except 6 inches at supports where spans are 48 inches or more. For nailing of wood structural panel and particleboard diaphragms and shear walls, refer to Section 2305. Nails for wall sheathing are permitted to be common, box or casing.

c. Common or deformed shank (6d - 2" × 0.113"; 8d - 21/2" × 0.131"; 10d - 3" × 0.148").

d. Common (6d - 2" × 0.113"; 8d - 21/2" × 0.131"; 10d - 3" × 0.148").

e. Deformed shank (6d - 2" × 0.113"; 8d - 21/2" × 0.131"; 10d - 3" × 0.148").

f. Corrosion-resistant siding (6d - 17/8" × 0.106"; 8d - 23/8" × 0.128") or casing (6d - 2" × 0.099"; 8d - 21/2" × 0.113") nail.

g. Fasteners spaced 3 inches on center at exterior edges and 6 inches on center at intermediate supports, when used as structural sheathing. Spacing shall be 6 inches on center on the edges and 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for nonstructural applications.

h. Corrosion-resistant roofing nails with 7/16-inch-diameter head and 11/2-inch length for 1/2-inch sheathing and 13/4-inch length for 25/32-inch sheathing.

i. Corrosion-resistant staples with nominal 7/16-inch crown and 11/8-inch length for 1/2-inch sheathing and 11/2-inch length for 25/32-inch sheathing. Panel supports at 16 inches (20 inches if strength axis in the long direction of the panel, unless otherwise marked).

j. Casing (11/2" × 0.080") or finish (11/2" × 0.072") nails spaced 6 inches on panel edges, 12 inches at intermediate supports.

k. Panel supports at 24 inches. Casing or finish nails spaced 6 inches on panel edges, 12 inches at intermediate supports.

l. For roof sheathing applications, 8d nails (21/2" × 0.113") are the minimum required for wood structural panels.

m. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch.

n. For roof sheathing applications, fasteners spaced 4 inches on center at edges, 8 inches at intermediate supports.

o. Fasteners spaced 4 inches on center at edges, 8 inches at intermediate supports for subfloor and wall sheathing and 3 inches on center at edges, 6 inches at intermediate supports for roof sheathing.

p. Fasteners spaced 4 inches on center at edges, 8 inches at intermediate supports.
Sheathing nails or other approved sheathing connectors shall be driven so that their head or crown is flush with the surface of the sheathing.
Connections depending on joist hangers or framing anchors, ties and other mechanical fastenings not otherwise covered are permitted where approved. The vertical load-bearing capacity, torsional moment capacity and deflection characteristics of joist hangers shall be determined in accordance with Section 1715.1.
Clips, staples, glues and other approved methods of fastening are permitted where approved.
Fasteners for preservative- treated and fire-retardant-treated wood shall be of hot dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. The coating weights for zinc-coated fasteners shall be in accordance with ASTM A 153.

Exception: Fasteners other than nails, timber rivets, wood screws and lag screws shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.

Fastenings for wood foundations shall be as required in AF&PA; PWF.
Where wall framing members are not continuous from foundation sill to roof, the members shall be secured to ensure a continuous load path. Where required, sheet metal clamps, ties or clips shall be formed of galvanized steel or other approved corrosion-resistant material not less than 0.040 inch (1.01 mm) nominal thickness. Wood structural panel sheathing and fastening designed to transfer resultant forces across horizontal framing joints shall constitute an acceptable continuous load path as an alternative to the use of anchorage devices when calculated by principles of mechanics using values of fastener strength and sheathing shear resistance.
Wood columns and posts shall be framed to provide full end bearing. Alternatively, column-and-post end connections shall be designed to resist the full compressive loads, neglecting end-bearing capacity. Column-and-post end connections shall be fastened to resist lateral and net induced uplift forces.
Columns shall be continuous or superimposed throughout all stories by means of reinforced concrete or metal caps with brackets, or shall be connected by properly designed steel or iron caps, with pintles and base plates, or by timber splice plates affixed to the columns by metal connectors housed within the contact faces, or by other approved methods.
Girders and beams shall be closely fitted around columns and adjoining ends shall be cross tied to each other, or intertied by caps or ties, to transfer horizontal loads across joints. Wood bolsters shall not be placed on tops of columns unless the columns support roof loads only.
Approved wall plate boxes or hangers shall be provided where wood beams, girders or trusses rest on masonry or concrete walls. Where intermediate beams are used to support a floor, they shall rest on top of girders, or shall be supported by ledgers or blocks securely fastened to the sides of the girders, or they shall be supported by an approved metal hanger into which the ends of the beams shall be closely fitted.
Every roof girder and at least every alternate roof beam shall be anchored to its supporting member; and every monitor and every sawtooth construction shall be anchored to the main roof construction. Such anchors shall consist of steel or iron bolts of sufficient strength to resist vertical uplift of the roof.
Floor decks and covering shall not extend closer than 1 / 2 inch (12.7 mm) to walls. Such 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm) spaces shall be covered by a molding fastened to the wall either above or below the floor and arranged such that the molding will not obstruct the expansion or contraction movements of the floor. Corbeling of masonry walls under floors is permitted in place of such molding.
Where supported by a wall, roof decks shall be anchored to walls to resist uplift forces determined in accordance with Chapter 16. Such anchors shall consist of steel or iron bolts of sufficient strength to resist vertical uplift of the roof.
Where required by this section, protection from decay and termites shall be provided by the use of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood used above ground in the locations specified in Sections 2304.11.2.1 through 2304.11.2.7, 2304.11.3 and 2304.11.5 shall be naturally durable wood or preservative-treated wood using water-borne preservatives, in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specifications A or F) for above-ground use.
Where wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor without joists are closer than 18 inches (457 mm), or wood girders are closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the perimeter of the building foundation, the floor assembly (including posts, girders, joists and subfloor) shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood framing members, including wood sheathing, that rest on exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood framing members and furring strips attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry or concrete walls below grade shall be of approved naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Sleepers and sills on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls shall be provided with a 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm) air space on top, sides and end, unless naturally durable or preservative-treated wood is used.
Clearance between wood siding and earth on the exterior of a building shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) except where siding, sheathing and wall framing are of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Posts or columns supporting permanent structures and supported by a concrete or masonry slab or footing that is in direct contact with the earth shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.

Exceptions:
1. Posts or columns that are either exposed to the weather or located in basements, supported by concrete piers or metal pedestals projected at least 1 inch (25 mm) above the slab or deck and 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth, and are separated therefrom by an impervious moisture barrier.
2. Posts or columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the periphery of the building, supported by a concrete pier or metal pedestal at a height greater than 8 inches (203 mm) from exposed ground, and are separated therefrom by an impervious moisture barrier.
The portions of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural supports of a building or other structure and are exposed to weather and not fully protected from moisture by a roof, eave or similar covering shall be pressure treated with preservative or be manufactured from naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.
Wood used in contact with the ground (exposed earth) in the locations specified in Sections 2304.11.4.1 and 2304.11.4.2 shall be naturally durable (species for both decay and termite resistance) or preservative treated using water-borne preservatives in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specifications A or F) for soil or fresh water use.

Exception: Untreated wood is permitted where such wood is continuously and entirely below the ground-water level or submerged in fresh water.
Posts and columns supporting permanent structures that are embedded in concrete that is in direct contact with the earth, embedded in concrete that is exposed to the weather or in direct contact with the earth shall be of preservative-treated wood.
Wood structural members that support moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, shall be of naturally durable or preservative-treated wood unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.
Naturally durable or preservative-treated wood shall be utilized for those portions of wood members that form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches or similar permanent building appurtenances where such members are exposed to the weather without adequate protection from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering to prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at joints between members.

Exception: When a building is located in a geographical region where experience has demonstrated that climatic conditions preclude the need to use durable materials where the structure is exposed to the weather.
In geographical areas where hazard of termite damage is known to be very heavy, wood floor framing shall be of naturally durable species (termite resistant) or preservative treated in accordance with AWPA U1 for the species, product preservative and end use or provided with approved methods of termite protection.
Wood installed in retaining or crib walls shall be preservative treated in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specifications A or F) for soil and fresh water use.
For attic ventilation, see Section 1203.2.
For under-floor ventilation (crawl space), see Section 1203.3.
Wood members supporting concrete, masonry or similar materials shall be checked for the effects of long-term loading using the provisions of the AF&PA; NDS. The total deflection, including the effects of long-term loading, shall be limited in accordance with Section 1604.3.1 for these supported materials.

Exception: Horizontal wood members supporting masonry or concrete nonstructural floor or roof surfacing not more than 4 inches (102 mm) thick need not be checked for long-term loading.
Structures using wood shear walls and diaphragms to resist wind, seismic and other lateral loads shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section. Alternatively, compliance with the AF&PA; SDPWS shall be permitted subject to the limitations therein and the limitations of this code.
Shear resistance of diaphragms and shear walls are permitted to be calculated by principles of mechanics using values of fastener strength and sheathing shear resistance.
Boundary elements shall be provided to transmit tension and compression forces. Perimeter members at openings shall be provided and shall be detailed to distribute the shearing stresses. Diaphragm and shear wall sheathing shall not be used to splice boundary elements. Diaphragm chords and collectors shall be placed in, or tangent to, the plane of the diaphragm framing unless it can be demonstrated that the moments, shears and deformations, considering eccentricities resulting from other configurations can be tolerated without exceeding the adjusted resistance and drift limits.
Framing members shall be at least 2 inch (51 mm) nominal width. In general, adjoining panel edges shall bear and be attached to the framing members and butt along their centerlines. Nails shall be placed not less than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) from the panel edge, not more than 12 inches (305 mm) apart along intermediate supports, and 6 inches (152 mm) along panel edge bearings, and shall be firmly driven into the framing members.
Openings in shear panels that materially affect their strength shall be fully detailed on the plans, and shall have their edges adequately reinforced to transfer all shearing stresses.
Positive connections and anchorages capable of resisting the design forces shall be provided between the shear panel and the attached components. In Seismic Design Category D, E or F, the capacity of toenail connections shall not be used when calculating lateral load resistance to transfer lateral earthquake forces in excess of 150 pounds per foot (2189 N/m) from diaphragms to shear walls, drag struts (collectors) or other elements, or from shear walls to other elements.
forces contributed by masonry and concrete walls. Wood shear walls, diaphragms, horizontal trusses and other members shall not be used to resist horizontal seismic forces contributed by masonry or concrete walls in structures over one story in height.

Exceptions:
1. Wood floor and roof members are permitted to be used in horizontal trusses and diaphragms to resist horizontal seismic forces contributed by masonry or concrete walls, provided such forces do not result in torsional force distribution through the truss or diaphragm.
2. Wood structural panel sheathed shear walls are permitted to be used to provide resistance to seismic forces contributed by masonry or concrete walls in two-story structures of masonry or concrete walls, provided the following requirements are met:
2.1. Story-to-story wall heights shall not exceed 12 feet (3658 mm).
2.2. Diaphragms shall not be designed to transmit lateral forces by rotation and shall not cantilever past the outermost supporting shear wall.
2.3. Combined deflections of diaphragms and shear walls shall not permit story drift of supported masonry or concrete walls to exceed the limit of Section 12.12.1 in ASCE 7.
2.4. Wood structural panel sheathing in diaphragms shall have unsupported edges blocked. Wood structural panel sheathing for both stories of shear walls shall have unsupported edges blocked and, for the lower story, shall have a minimum thickness of 15/32 inch (11.9 mm).
2.5. There shall be no out-of-plane horizontal offsets between the first and second stories of wood structural panel shear walls.
Wood members shall be permitted to resist horizontal seismic forces from nonstructural concrete, masonry veneer or concrete floors.
Wood diaphragms are permitted to be used to resist horizontal forces provided the deflection in the plane of the diaphragm, as determined by calculations, tests or analogies drawn therefrom, does not exceed the permissible deflection of attached distributing or resisting elements. Connections shall extend into the diaphragm a sufficient distance to develop the force transferred into the diaphragm.
Permissible deflection shall be that deflection up to which the diaphragm and any attached distributing or resisting element will maintain its structural integrity under design load conditions, such that the resisting element will continue to support design loads without danger to occupants of the structure. Calculations for diaphragm deflection shall account for the usual bending and shear components as well as any other factors, such as nail deformation, which will contribute to deflection.

The deflection ( D ) of a blocked wood structural panel diaphragm uniformly nailed throughout is permitted to be calculated by using the following equation. If not uniformly nailed, the constant 0.188 (For SI: 1 / 1627 ) in the third term must be modified accordingly.



 (Equation 23-1)

For SI:




where:

A
= Area of chord cross section, in square inches (mm 2 ).

b
= Diaphragm width, in feet (mm).

E
= Elastic modulus of chords, in pounds per square inch (N/mm 2 ).

e
n = Nail or staple deformation, in inches (mm) [see Table 2305.2.2(1)].

Gt =
Panel rigidity through the thickness, in pounds per inch (N/mm) of panel width or depth [see Table 2305.2.2(2)].

L
= Diaphragm length, in feet (mm).

v
= Maximum shear due to design loads in the direction under consideration, in pounds per linear foot (plf) (N/mm).

D = The calculated deflection, in inches (mm).

S ( Dc X) = Sum of individual chord-splice slip values on both sides of the diaphragm, each multiplied by its distance to the nearest support.

TABLE 2305.2.2(1) en VALUES (inches) FOR USE IN CALCULATING DIAPHRAGM DEFLECTION DUE TO FASTENER SLIP (Structural I)a,d

LOAD PER FASTENERc (pounds) FASTENER DESIGNATIONSb
6d 8d 10d 14-Ga staple × 2 inches long
60 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.011
80 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.018
100 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.028
120 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.04
140 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.053
160 0.10 0.04 0.02 0.068
180 0.05 0.03
200 0.07 0.47
220 0.09 0.06
240 0.07


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.

a. Increase en values 20 percent for plywood grades other than Structural I.

b. Nail values apply to common wire nails or staples identified.

c. Load per fastener = maximum shear per foot divided by the number of fasteners per foot at interior panel edges.

d. Decrease en values 50 percent for seasoned lumber (moisture content < 19 percent).

TABLE 2305.2.2(2) VALUES OF Gt FOR USE IN CALCULATING DEFLECTION OF WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEAR WALLS AND DIAPHRAGMS


PANEL TYPE SPAN RATING VALUES OF Gt (lb/in. panel depth or width)
OTHER STRUCTURAL I
3-ply Plywood 4-ply Plywood 5-ply Plywooda OSB 3-ply Plywood 4-ply Plywood 5-ply Plywooda OSB
Sheathing 24/0 25,000 32,500 37,500 77,500 32,500 42,500 41,500 77,500
24/16 27,000 35,000 40,500 83,500 35,000 45,500 44,500 83,500
32/16 27,000 35,000 40,500 83,500 35,000 45,500 44,500 83,500
40/20 28,500 37,000 43,000 88,500 37,000 48,000 47,500 88,500
48/24 31,000 40,500 46,500 96,000 40,500 52,500 51,000 96,000
Single Floor 16 o.c. 27,000 35,000 40,500 83,500 35,000 45,500 44,500 83,500
20 o.c. 28,000 36,500 42,000 87,000 36,500 47,500 46,000 87,000
24 o.c. 30,000 39,000 45,000 93,000 39,000 50,500 49,500 93,000
32 o.c. 36,000 47,000 54,000 110,000 47,000 61,000 59,500 110,000
48 o.c. 50,500 65,500 76,000 155,000 65,500 85,000 83,500 155,000


    OTHER STRUCTURAL I
Thickness (in.) A-A, A-C Marine All Other
Grades
A-A, A-C Marine All Other Grades
Sanded Plywood 1/4 24,000 31,000 24,000 31,000 31,000 31,000
11/32 25,500 33,000 25,500 33,000 33,000 33,000
3/8 26,000 34,000 26,000 34,000 34,000 34,000
15/32 38,000 49,500 38,000 49,500 49,500 49,500
1/2 38,500 50,000 38,500 50,000 50,000 50,000
19/32 49,000 63,500 49,000 63,500 63,500 63,500
5/8 49,500 64,500 49,500 64,500 64,500 64,500
23/32 50,500 65,500 50,500 65,500 65,500 65,500
3/4 51,000 66,500 51,000 66,500 66,500 66,500
7/8 52,500 68,500 52,500 68,500 68,500 68,500
1 73,500 95,500 73,500 95,500 95,500 95,500
11/8 75,000 97,500 75,000 97,500 97,500 97,500


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound/inch = 0.1751 N/mm.

a. Applies to plywood with five or more layers; for five-ply/three-layer plywood, use values for four ply.
Size and shape of diaphragms shall be limited as set forth in Table 2305.2.3.

TABLE 2305.2.3 MAXIMUM DIAPHRAGM DIMENSION RATIOS HORIZONTAL AND SLOPED DIAPHRAGM

TYPE MAXIMUM LENGTH - WIDTH RATIO
Wood structural panel, nailed all edges 4:1
Wood structural panel, blocking omitted at intermediate joints 3:1
Diagonal sheathing, single 3:1
Diagonal sheathing, double 4:1
Wood diaphragms shall be constructed of wood structural panels manufactured with exterior glue and not less than 4 feet by 8 feet (1219 mm by 2438 mm), except at boundaries and changes in framing where minimum sheet dimension shall be 24 inches (610 mm) unless all edges of the undersized sheets are supported by and fastened to framing members or blocking

Wood structural panel thickness for horizontal diaphragms shall not be less than the valves set forth in Tables 2304.7(3), 2304.7(4) and 2304.7(5) for corresponding joist spacing and loads.
Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category F shall conform to the additional requirements of this section.

Wood structural panel sheathing used for diaphragms and shear walls that are part of the seismic-force-resisting system shall be applied directly to the framing members.

Exception: Wood structural panel sheathing in a diaphragm is permitted to be fastened over solid lumber planking or laminated decking, provided the panel joints and lumber planking or laminated decking joints do not coincide.
Design of structures with rigid diaphragms shall conform to the structure configuration requirements of Section 12.3.2 of ASCE 7 and the horizontal shear distribution requirements of Section 12.8.4 of ASCE 7.

Open-front structures with rigid wood diaphragms resulting in torsional force distribution are permitted, provided the length, l , of the diaphragm normal to the open side does not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm), the diaphragm sheathing conforms to Section 2305.2.4 and the l/w ratio [as shown in Figure 2305.2.5(1)] is less than 1 for one-story structures or 0.67 for structures over one story in height.

Exception: Where calculations show that diaphragm deflections can be tolerated, the length, l , normal to the open end is permitted to be increased to a l/w ratio not greater than 1.5 where sheathed in compliance with Section 2305.2.4 or to 1 where sheathed in compliance with Section 2306.3.4 or 2306.3.5.

Rigid wood diaphragms are permitted to cantilever past the outermost supporting shearwall (or other vertical resisting element) a length, l , of not more than 25 feet (7620 mm) or two-thirds of the diaphragm width, w , whichever is smaller. Figure 2305.2.5(2) illustrates the dimensions of l and w for a cantilevered diaphragm.

Structures with rigid wood diaphragms having a torsional irregularity in accordance with Table 12.3-1, Item 1, of ASCE 7 shall meet the following requirements: the l/w ratio shall not exceed 1 for one-story structures or 0.67 for structures over one story in height, where l is the dimension parallel to the load direction for which the irregularity exists.

Exception: Where calculations demonstrate that the diaphragm deflections can be tolerated, the width is permitted to be increased and the l/w ratio is permitted to be increased to 1.5 where sheathed in compliance with Section 2305.2.4 or 1 where sheathed in compliance with Section 2306.3.4 or 2306.3.5.




FIGURE 2305.2.5(1) DIAPHRAGM LENGTH AND WIDTH FOR PLAN VIEW OF OPEN-FRONT BUILDING






FIGURE 2305.2.5(2) DIAPHRAGM LENGTH AND WIDTH FOR PLAN VIEW OF CANTILEVERED DIAPHRAGM
Wood shear walls are permitted to resist horizontal forces in vertical distributing or resisting elements, provided the deflection in the plane of the shear wall, as determined by calculations, tests or analogies drawn therefrom, does not exceed the more restrictive of the permissible deflection of attached distributing or resisting elements or the drift limits of Section 12.12.1 of ASCE 7. Shear wall sheathing other than wood structural panels shall not be permitted in Seismic Design Category E or F (see Section 1613).
Permissible deflection shall be that deflection up to which the shear wall and any attached distributing or resisting element will maintain its structural integrity under design load conditions, i.e., continue to support design loads without danger to occupants of the structure.

The deflection ( D ) of a blocked wood structural panel shear wall uniformly fastened throughout is permitted to be calculated by the use of the following equation:



 
(Equation 23-2)






where:

A
= Area of boundary element cross section in square inches (mm 2 ) (vertical member at shear wall boundary).

b  
= Wall width, in feet (mm).

da
= Vertical elongation of overturning anchorage (including fastener slip, device elongation, anchor rod elongation, etc.) at the design shear load ( v ).

E
= Elastic modulus of boundary element (vertical member at shear wall boundary), in pounds per square inch (N/mm 2 ).

en
= Nail or staple deformation, in inches (mm) [see Table 2305.2.2(1)].

Gt =
Panel rigidity through the thickness, in pounds per inch (N/mm) of panel width or depth [see Table 2305.2.2(2)].

h
= Wall height, in feet (mm).

v = Maximum shear due to design loads at the top of the wall, in pounds per linear foot (N/mm).

D = The calculated deflection, in inches (mm).
Wood shear walls shall be constructed of wood structural panels manufactured with exterior glue and not less than 4 feet by 8 feet (1219 mm by 2438 mm), except at boundaries and at changes in framing. All edges of all panels shall be supported by and fastened to framing members or blocking. Wood structural panel thickness for shear walls shall not be less than set forth in Table 2304.6.1 for corresponding framing spacing and loads, except that 1 / 4 inch (6.4 mm) is permitted to be used where perpendicular loads permit.
Size and shape of shear walls, perforated shear wall segments within perforated shear walls and wall piers within shear walls that are designed for force transfer around openings shall be limited as set forth in Table 2305.3.4. The height, h , and the width, w , shall be determined in accordance with Sections 2305.3.5 through 2305.3.5.2 and 2305.3.6 through 2305.3.6.2, respectively.

TABLE 2305.3.4 MAXIMUM SHEAR WALL DIMENSION RATIOS

TYPE MAXIMUM HEIGHT-WIDTH RATIO
Wood structural panels or particleboard, nailed edges For other than seismic: 31/2:1 For seismic: 2:1a
Diagonal sheathing, single 2:1
Fiberboard 11/2:1
Gypsum board, gypsum lath, cement plaster 11/2:1b


a. For design to resist seismic forces, shear wall height-width ratios greater than 2:1, but not exceeding 31/2:1, are permitted provided the allowable shear values in Table 2306.4.1 are multiplied by 2w/h.

b. Ratio shown is for unblocked construction. Height-to-width ratio is permitted to be 2:1 where the wall is installed as blocked construction in accordance with Section 2306.4.5.1.2.
The height of a shear wall, h , shall be defined as:
1. The maximum clear height from the top of the foundation to the bottom of the diaphragm framing above; or
2. The maximum clear height from the top of the diaphragm to the bottom of the diaphragm framing above [see Figure 2305.3.5(a)].

 




FIGURE 2305.3.5 GENERAL DEFINITION OF SHEAR WALL HEIGHT, WIDTH AND HEIGHT-TO-WIDTH RATIO
The height of a perforated shear wall segment, h , shall be defined as specified in Section 2305.3.5 for shear walls.
The height, h , of a wall pier in a shear wall with openings designed for force transfer around openings shall be defined as the clear height of the pier at the side of an opening [see Figure 2305.3.5(b)].
The width of a shear wall, w , shall be defined as the sheathed dimension of the shear wall in the direction of application of force [see Figure 2305.3.5(a)].
The width of a perforated shear wall segment, w , shall be defined as the width of full-height sheathing adjacent to openings in the perforated shear wall [see Figure 2305.3.5(a)].
The width, w , of a wall pier in a shear wall with openings designed for force transfer around openings shall be defined as the sheathed width of the pier at the side of an opening [see Figure 2305.3.5(b)].
Where the dead load stabilizing moment in accordance with Chapter 16 allowable stress design load combinations is not sufficient to prevent uplift due to overturning moments on the wall, an anchoring device shall be provided. Anchoring devices shall maintain a continuous load path to the foundation. Wood structural panel sheathing and fastening designed to transfer resultant forces across horizontal framing joints shall constitute an acceptable continuous load path as an alternative to the use of anchorage devices when calculated by principles of mechanics using values of fastener strength and sheathing shear resistance.
The provisions of this section shall apply to the design of shear walls with openings. Where framing and connections around the openings are designed for force transfer around the openings, the provisions of Section 2305.3.8.1 shall apply. Where framing and connections around the openings are not designed for force transfer around the openings, the provisions of Section 2305.3.8.2 shall apply.
Where shear walls with openings are designed for force transfer around the openings, the limitations of Table 2305.3.4 shall apply to the overall shear wall, including openings, and to each wall pier at the side of an opening. Design for force transfer shall be based on a rational analysis. Detailing of boundary elements around the opening shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of this section[see Figure 2305.3.5(b)].
The provisions of Section 2305.3.8.2 shall be permitted to be used for the design of perforated shear walls. For the determination of the height and width of perforated shear wall segments, see Sections 2305.3.5.1 and 2305.3.6.1, respectively.

TABLE 2305.3.8.2 SHEAR RESISTANCE ADJUSTMENT FACTOR, Co

WALL HEIGHT, H MAXIMUM OPENING HEIGHTa
H/3 H/2 2H/3 5H/6 H
8' wall 2'- 8" 4'- 0" 5'- 4" 6'- 8" 8'- 0"
10' wall 3'- 4" 5'- 0" 6'- 8" 8'- 4" 10'- 0"
Percentage of full-height sheathingb Shear resistance adjustment factor
10% 1.00 0.69 0.53 0.43 0.36
20% 1.00 0.71 0.56 0.45 0.38
30% 1.00 0.74 0.59 0.49 0.42
40% 1.00 0.77 0.63 0.53 0.45
50% 1.00 0.80 0.67 0.57 0.50
60% 1.00 0.83 0.71 0.63 0.56
70% 1.00 0.87 0.77 0.69 0.63
80% 1.00 0.91 0.83 0.77 0.71
90% 1.00 0.95 0.91 0.87 0.83
100% 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. See Section 2305.3.8.2.2, Item 2.

b. See Section 2305.3.8.2.2, Item 1.
The following limitations shall apply to the use of Section 2305.3.8.2:
1. A perforated shear wall segment shall be located at each end of a perforated shear wall. Openings shall be permitted to occur beyond the ends of the perforated shear wall, provided the width of such openings is not be included in the width of the perforated shear wall.
2. The allowable shear set forth in Table 2306.4.1 shall not exceed 490 plf (7150 N/m).
3. Where out-of-plane offsets occur, portions of the wall on each side of the offset shall be considered as separate perforated shear walls.
4. Collectors for shear transfer shall be provided through the full length of the perforated shear wall.
5. A perforated shear wall shall have uniform top of wall and bottom of wall elevations. Perforated shear walls not having uniform elevations shall be designed by other methods.
6. Perforated shear wall height, h, shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm).
The resistance of a perforated shear wall shall be calculated in accordance with the following:
1. The percentage of full-height sheathing shall be calculated as the sum of the widths of perforated shear wall segments divided by the total width of the perforated shear wall, including openings.
2. The maximum opening height shall be taken as the maximum opening clear height. Where areas above and below an opening remain unsheathed, the height of the opening shall be defined as the height of the wall.
3. The unadjusted shear resistance shall be the allowable shear set forth in Table 2306.4.1 for height-to-width ratios of perforated shear wall segments that do not exceed 2:1 for seismic forces and 31/2:1 for other than seismic forces. For seismic forces, where the height-to-width ratio of any perforated shear wall segment used in the calculation of the sum of the widths of perforated shear wall segments, SLi, is greater than 2:1 but does not exceed 31/2:1, the unadjusted shear resistance shall be multiplied by 2 w/h.
4. The adjusted shear resistance shall be calculated by multiplying the unadjusted shear resistance by the shear resistance adjustment factors of Table 2305.3.8.2. For intermediate percentages of full-height sheathing, the values in Table 2305.3.8.2 are permitted to be interpolated.
5. The perforated shear wall resistance shall be equal to the adjusted shear resistance times the sum of the widths of the perforated shear wall segments.
Design of perforated shear wall anchorage and load path shall conform to the requirements of Sections 2305.3.8.2.4 through 2305.3.8.2.8, or shall be calculated using principles of mechanics. Except as modified by these sections, wall framing, sheathing, sheathing attachment and fastener schedules shall conform to the requirements of Section 2305.2.4 and Table 2306.4.1.
Anchorage for uplift forces due to overturning shall be provided at each end of the perforated shear wall. The uplift anchorage shall conform to the requirements of Section 2305.3.7, except that for each story the minimum tension chord uplift force, T , shall be calculated in accordance with the following:



 Equation 23-3)


where:

T
= Tension chord uplift force, pounds (N).

V
= Shear force in perforated shear wall, pounds (N).

h
= Perforated shear wall height, feet (mm).

C
o = Shear resistance adjustment factor from Table 2305.3.8.2.

SLi = Sum of widths of perforated shear wall segments, feet (mm).
The unit shear force, v , transmitted into the top of a perforated shear wall, out of the base of the perforated shear wall at full height sheathing and into collectors connecting shear wall segments shall be calculated in accordance with the following:



 (Equation 23-4)


where:

v = Unit shear force, pounds per lineal feet (N/m).

V
= Shear force in perforated shear wall, pounds (N).

C
o = Shear resistance adjustment factor from Table 2305.3.8.2.

SLi = Sum of widths of perforated shear wall segments, feet (mm).
In addition to the requirements of Section 2305.3.8.2.4, perforated shear wall bottom plates at full-height sheathing shall be anchored for a uniform uplift force, t , equal to the unit shear force, v , determined in Section 2305.3.8.2.5.
Each end of each perforated shear wall segment shall be designed for a compression chord force, C , equal to the tension chord uplift force, T , calculated in Section 2305.3.8.2.4.
A load path to the foundation shall be provided for each uplift force, T and t, for each shear force, V and v, and for each compression chord force, C. Elements resisting shear wall forces contributed by multiple stories shall be designed for the sum of forces contributed by each story. Wood structural panel sheathing and fastening designed to transfer resultant forces across horizontal framing joints shall constitute an acceptable continuous load path as an alternative to the use of anchorage devices when calculated by principles of mechanics using values of fastener strength and sheathing shear resistance.
The controlling deflection of a blocked shear wall with openings uniformly fastened throughout shall be taken as the maximum individual deflection of the shear wall segments calculated in accordance with Section 2305.3.2, divided by the appropriate shear resistance adjustment factors of Table 2305.3.8.2.
The shear values for shear panels of different capacities applied to the same side of the wall are not cumulative except as allowed in Table 2306.4.1.

The shear values for material of the same type and capacity applied to both faces of the same wall are cumulative. Where the material capacities are not equal, the allowable shear shall be either two times the smaller shear capacity or the capacity of the stronger side, whichever is greater.

Summing shear capacities of dissimilar materials applied to opposite faces or to the same wall line is not allowed.

Exception: For wind design, the allowable shear capacity of shear wall segments sheathed with a combination of wood structural panels and gypsum wallboard on opposite faces, fiberboard structural sheathing and gypsum wallboard on opposite faces or hardboard panel siding and gypsum wallboard on opposite faces shall equal the sum of the sheathing capacities of each face separately.
Adhesive attachment of shear wall sheathing is not permitted as a substitute for mechanical fasteners, and shall not be used in shear wall strength calculations alone, or in combination with mechanical fasteners in Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
Category D, E or F. Anchor bolts for shear walls shall include steel plate washers, a minimum of 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.82 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size, between the sill plate and nut. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3 / 16 inch (4.76 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 1 3 / 4 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut. Sill plates resisting a design load greater than 490 plf (7154 N/m) using load and resistance factor design or 350 plf (5110 N/m) using allowable stress design shall not be less than a 3-inch (76 mm) nominal member. Where a single 3-inch (76 mm) nominal sill plate is used, 2-20d box end nails shall be substituted for 2-16d common end nails found in line 8 of Table 2304.9.1.

Exception: In shear walls where the design load is greater than 490 plf (7151 N/m) but less than 840 plf (12 264 N/m) using load and resistance factor design or greater than 350 plf (5110 N/m) but less than 600 plf (8760 N/m) using allowable stress design, the sill plate is permitted to be a 2-inch (51 mm) nominal member if the sill plate is anchored by two times the number of bolts required by design and 0.229-inch by 3-inch by 3-inch (5.82 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) plate washers are used.
The structural analysis and construction of wood elements in structures using allowable stress design shall be in accordance with the following applicable standards:

American Forest & Paper Association.

NDS National Design Specification for Wood Construction

American Institute of Timber Construction.

AITC 104 Typical Construction Details

AITC 110 Standard Appearance Grades for Structural Glued Laminated Timber

AITC 113 Standard for Dimensions of Structural Glued Laminated Timber

AITC 117 Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Timber of Softwood Species

AITC 119 Structural Standard Specifications for Glued Laminated Timber of Hardwood Species

AITC A190.1 Structural Glued Laminated Timber

AITC 200 Inspection Manual

American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

ASAE EP 484.2 Diaphragm Design of Metal-Clad, Post-Frame Rectangular Buildings

ASAE EP 486.1 Shallow Post Foundation Design

ASAE 559 Design Requirements and Bending Properties for Mechanically Laminated Columns

APA-The Engineered Wood Association.

Panel Design Specification

Plywood Design Specification Supplement 1 - Design & Fabrication of Plywood Curved Panel

Plywood Design Specification Supplement 2 - Design & Fabrication of Glued Plywood-Lumber Beams

Plywood Design Specification Supplement 3 - Design & Fabrication of Plywood Stressed-Skin Panels

Plywood Design Specification Supplement 4 - Design & Fabrication of Plywood Sandwich Panels

Plywood Design Specification Supplement 5 - Design & Fabrication of All-Plywood Beams

EWS T300 Glulam Connection Details

EWS S560 Field Notching and Drilling of Glued Laminated Timber Beams

EWS S475 Glued Laminated Beam Design Tables

EWS X450 Glulam in Residential Construction

EWS X440 Product and Application Guide: Glulam

EWS R540 Builders Tips: Proper Storage and Handling of Glulam Beams

Truss Plate Institute, Inc.

TPI 1 National Design Standard for Metal Plate Connected Wood Truss Construction
The design of rafter spans is permitted to be in accordance with the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters .
The design of plank and beam flooring is permitted to be in accordance with the AF&PA Wood Construction Data No. 4 .
The allowable unit stresses for preservative-treated wood need no adjustment for treatment, but are subject to other adjustments.

The allowable unit stresses for fire-retardant-treated wood, including fastener values, shall be developed from an approved method of investigation that considers the effects of anticipated temperature and humidity to which the fire-retardant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treatment and the redrying process. Other adjustments are applicable except that the impact load duration shall not apply.
The capacity of lumber decking arranged according to the patterns described in Section 2304.8.2 shall be the lesser of the capacities determined for flexure and deflection according to the formulas in Table 2306.1.4.

TABLE 2306.1.4 ALLOWABLE LOADS FOR LUMBER DECKING

PATTERN ALLOWABLE AREA LOADa,b
Flexure Deflection
Simple span  

 

Two-span continuous  

 

Combination simple- and two-span continuous  



 
Cantilevered pieces intermixed  

 

Controlled random layup
Mechanically laminated decking  



 
2-inch decking  

 

3-inch and 4-inch decking  





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
 
a. sb

    sD

b. d

    l


    F
'b

     
E'
= Allowable total uniform load limited by bending.

= Allowable total uniform load limited by deflection.

= Actual decking thickness.

= Span of decking.

= Allowable bending stress adjusted by applicable factors.

= Modulus of elasticity adjusted by applicable factors.
The AF&PA; NDS fiber stress in bending ( Fb ) design values for sawn lumber wood studs resisting out of plane wind loads shall be increased by the factors in Table 2306.2.1, in lieu of the 1.15 repetitive member factor. These increases take into consideration the load sharing and composite actions provided by the wood structural panels as defined in Section 2302.1. The increases shall apply where the studs are designed for bending and are spaced no more than 16 inches (406 mm) o.c., covered on the inside with a minimum of 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board fastened in accordance with Table 2306.4.5 and sheathed on the exterior with a minimum of 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel sheathing. All panel joints shall occur over studs or blocking and shall be attached using a minimum of 8d common nails spaced a maximum of 6 inches o.c. (152 mm) at panel edges and 12 inches o.c. (305 mm) at intermediate framing members.

TABLE 2306.2.1 WALL STUD BENDING STRESS INCREASE FACTORS

STUD SIZE SYSTEM FACTOR
2 × 4 1.5
2 × 6 1.35
2 × 8 1.25
2 × 10 1.2
2 × 12 1.15
Wood structural panel diaphragms are permitted to resist horizontal forces using the allowable shear capacities set forth in Table 2306.3.1 or 2306.3.2. The allowable shear capacities are permitted to be calculated by principles of mechanics without limitations by using values for fastener strength in the AF&PA; NDS, structural design properties for wood structural panels based on DOC PS-1 and DOC PS-2 or wood structural panel design properties given in the APA Panel Design Specification (PDS).

TABLE 2306.3.1 ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL DIAPHRAGMS WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH, OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADING h

PANEL GRADE COMMON NAIL SIZE OR STAPLEf LENGTH AND GAGE MINIMUM FASTENER PENETRATION IN FRAMING (inches) MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch) MINIMUM NOMINAL WIDTH OF FRAMING MEMBERS AT ADJOINING PANEL EDGES AND BOUNDARIESg (inches) BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS UNBLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS
Fastener spacing (inches) at diaphragm boundaries (all cases) at continuous panel edges parallel to load (Cases 3, 4), and at all panel edges (Cases 5, 6)b Fasteners spaced 6"max. at supported edgesb
6 4 21/2c 2c Case 1 (No unblocked edges or continuous joints parallel to load) All other configurations (Cases 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6)
Fastener spacing (inches) at other panel edges (Cases 1, 2, 3 and 4)b
6 6 4 3
Structural I Grades 6de (2" × 0.113") 11/4 5/16 2 185 250 375 420 165 125
3 210 280 420 475 185 140
11/2 16 Gage 1 2 155 205 310 350 135 105
3 175 230 345 390 155 115
8d (21/2" × 0.131") 13/8 3/8 2 270 360 530 600 240 180
3 300 400 600 675 265 200
11/2 16 Gage 1 2 175 235 350 400 155 115
3 200 265 395 450 175 130
10dd (3" × 0.148") 11/2 15/32 2 320 425 640 730 285 215
3 360 480 720 820 320 240
11/2 16 Gage 1 2 175 235 350 400 155 120
3 200 265 395 450 175 130
Sheathing, single floor and other grades covered in DOC PS 1 and PS 2 6de (2" × 0.113") 11/4 5/16 2 170 225 335 380 150 110
3 190 250 380 430 170 125
11/2 16 Gage 1 2 140 185 275 315 125 90
3 155 205 310 350 140 105
6de (2" × 0.113") 11/4 3/8 2 185 250 375 420 165 125
3 210 280 420 475 185 140
8d (21/2" × 0.131") 13/8 2 240 320 480 545 215 160
3 270 360 540 610 240 180

(continued)


TABLE 2306.3.1—continued

ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL DIAPHRAGMS WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH, OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGh

PANEL GRADE COMMON NAIL SIZE OR STAPLEf LENGTH AND GAGE MINIMUM FASTENER PENETRATION IN FRAMING (inches) MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch) MINIMUM NOMINAL WIDTH OF FRAMING MEMBERS AT ADJOINING PANEL EDGES AND BOUNDARIESg (inches) BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS UNBLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS
Fastener spacing (inches) at diaphragm boundaries (all cases) at continuous panel edges parallel to load (Cases 3, 4), and at all panel edges (Cases 5, 6)b Fasteners spaced 6"max. at supported edgesb
6 4 21/2c 2c Case 1 (No unblocked edges or continuous joints parallel to load) All other configurations (Cases 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6)
Fastener spacing (inches) at other panel edges (Cases 1, 2, 3 and 4)b
6 6 4 3
Sheathing, single floor and other grades covered in DOC PS 1 and PS 2 (continued) 11/2 16 Gage 1 3/8 2 160 210 315 360 140 105
3 180 235 355 400 160 120
8d (21/2" × 0.131") 13/8 7/16 2 255 340 505 575 230 170
3 285 380 570 645 255 190
11/2 16 Gage 1 2 165 225 335 380 150 110
3 190 250 375 425 165 125
8d (21/2" × 0.131") 13/8 15/32 2 270 360 530 600 240 180
3 300 400 600 675 265 200
10dd (3" × 0.148") 11/2 2 290 385 575 655 255 190
3 325 430 650 735 290 215
11/2 16 Gage 1 2 160 210 315 360 140 105
3 180 235 355 405 160 120
10dd (3" × 0.148") 11/2 19/32 2 320 425 640 730 285 215
3 360 480 720 820 320 240
13/4 16 Gage 1 2 175 235 350 400 155 115
3 200 265 395 450 175 130

(continued)


TABLE 2306.3.1-continued

ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL DIAPHRAGMS WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH, OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGh





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

a. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples find shear value from table above for Structural I panels (regardless of actual grade) and multiply value by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species. (3) For nails find shear value from table above for nail size for actual grade and multiply value by the following adjustment factor: Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = [1-(0.5 - SG)], where SG = Specific Gravity of the framing lumber. This adjustment factor shall not be greater than 1.

b. Space fasteners maximum 12 inches o.c. along intermediate framing members (6 inches o.c. where supports are spaced 48 inches o.c.).

c. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider, and nails shall be staggered where nails are spaced 2 inches o.c. or 21/2 inches o.c.

d. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider, and nails shall be staggered where both of the following conditions are met: (1) 10d nails having penetration into framing of more than 11/2 inches and (2) nails are spaced 3 inches o.c. or less.

e. 8d is recommended minimum for roofs due to negative pressures of high winds.

f. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.

g. The minimum nominal width of framing members not located at boundaries or adjoining panel edges shall be 2 inches.

h. For shear loads of normal or permanent load duration as defined by the AF&PA NDS, the values in the table above shall be multiplied by 0.63 or 0.56, respectively.
The allowable shear capacities in Tables 2306.3.1 and 2306.3.2 for horizontal wood structural panel diaphragms shall be increased 40 percent for wind design.

TABLE 2306.3.2 ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS UTILIZING MULTIPLE ROWS OF FASTENERS (HIGH LOAD DIAPHRAGMS) WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGb, g, h

PANEL GRADEc COMMON NAIL SIZE OR STAPLEf GAGE MINIMUM FASTENER PENETRATION IN FRAMING (inches) MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch) MINIMUM NOMINAL WIDTH OF FRAMING MEMBER AT ADJOINING PANEL EDGES AND BOUNDARIESe LINES OF FASTENERS BLOCKED DIAPHRAGMS
Cases 1 and 2d
Fastener Spacing Per Line at Boundaries (inches)
4 21/2 2
Fastener Spacing Per Line at Other Panel Edges (inches)
6 4 4 3 3 2
Structural I grades 10d common nails 11/2 15/32 3 2 605 815 875 1,150 - -
4 2 700 915 1,005 1,290 - -
4 3 875 1,220 1,285 1,395 - -
19/32 3 2 670 880 965 1,255 - -
4 2 780 990 1,110 1,440 - -
4 3 965 1,320 1,405 1,790 - -
23/32 3 2 730 955 1,050 1,365 - -
4 2 855 1,070 1,210 1,565 - -
4 3 1,050 1,430 1,525 1,800 - -
14 gage staples 2 15/32 3 2 600 600 860 960 1,060 1,200
4 3 860 900 1,160 1,295 1,295 1,400
19/32 3 2 600 600 875 960 1,075 1,200
4 3 875 900 1,175 1,440 1,475 1,795
Sheathing single floor and other grades covered in DOC PS 1 and PS 2 10d common nails 11/2 15/32 3 2 525 725 765 1,010 - -
4 2 605 815 875 1,105 - -
4 3 765 1,085 1,130 1,195 - -
19/32 3 2 650 860 935 1,225 - -
4 2 755 965 1,080 1,370 - -
4 3 935 1,290 1,365 1,485 - -
23/32 3 2 710 935 1,020 1,335 - -
4 2 825 1,050 1,175 1,445 - -
4 3 1,020 1,400 1,480 1,565 - -
14 gage staples 2 15/32 3 2 540 540 735 865 915 1,080
4 3 735 810 1,005 1,105 1,105 1,195
19/32 3 2 600 600 865 960 1,065 1,200
4 3 865 900 1,130 1,430 1,370 1,485
23/32 4 3 865 900 1,130 1,490 1,430 1,545


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

a. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of framing lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples, find shear value from table above for Structural I panels (regardless of actual grade) and multiply value by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species. (3) For nails, find shear value from table above for nail size of actual grade and multiply value by the following adjustment factor: Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = [ 1- (0.5 - SG)], where SG = Specific gravity of the framing lumber. This adjustment factor shall not be greater than 1.

b. Fastening along intermediate framing members: Space fasteners a maximum of 12 inches on center, except 6 inches on center for spans greater than 32 inches.

c. Panels conforming to PS 1 or PS 2.

d. This table gives shear values for Cases 1 and 2 as shown in Table 2306.3.1. The values shown are applicable to Cases 3, 4, 5 and 6 as shown in Table 2306.3.1, providing fasteners at all continuous panel edges are spaced in accordance with the boundary fastener spacing.

e. The minimum nominal depth of framing members shall be 3 inches nominal. The minimum nominal width of framing members not located at boundaries or adjoining panel edges shall be 2 inches.

f. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch, and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.

g. High load diaphragms shall be subject to special inspection in accordance with Section 1704.6.1.

h. For shear loads of normal or permanent load duration as defined by the AF&PA NDS, the values in the table above shall be multiplied by 0.63 or 0.56, respectively.
Diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be nailed in accordance with Table 2306.3.3.

TABLE 2306.3.3 DIAGONALLY SHEATHED LUMBER DIAPHRAGM NAILING SCHEDULE

SHEATHING NOMINAL DIMENSION NAILING TO INTERMEDIATE AND
END-BEARING STUDS
NAILING AT THE SHEAR
PANEL BOUNDARIES
Type, size and number of nails per board
Common nails Box nails Common nails Box nails
1 × 6 2 - 8d 3 - 8d 3 - 8d 5 - 8d
1 × 8 3 - 8d 4 - 8d 4 - 8d 6 - 8d
2 × 6 2 - 16d 3 - 16d 3 - 16d 5 - 16d
2 × 8 3 - 16d 4 - 16d 4 - 16d 6 - 16d
Single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be constructed of minimum 1-inch (25 mm) thick nominal sheathing boards laid at an angle of approximately 45 degrees (0.78 rad) to the supports. The shear capacity for single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms of southern pine or Douglas fir-larch shall not exceed 300 plf (4378 N/m) of width. The shear capacities shall be adjusted by reduction factors of 0.82 for framing members of species with a specific gravity equal to or greater than 0.42 but less than 0.49 and 0.65 for species with a specific gravity of less than 0.42, as contained in the AF&PA; NDS.
End joints in adjacent boards shall be separated by at least one stud or joist space and there shall be at least two boards between joints on the same support.
Single diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms made up of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal diagonal lumber sheathing fastened with 16d nails shall be designed with the same shear capacities as shear panels using 1-inch (25 mm) boards fastened with 8d nails, provided there are not splices in adjacent boards on the same support and the supports are not less than 4 inch (102 mm) nominal depth or 3 inch (76 mm) nominal thickness.
Double diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be constructed of two layers of diagonal sheathing boards at 90 degrees (1.57 rad) to each other on the same face of the supporting members. Each chord shall be considered as a beam with uniform load per foot equal to 50 percent of the unit shear due to diaphragm action. The load shall be assumed as acting normal to the chord in the plan of the diaphragm in either direction. The span of the chord or portion thereof shall be the distance between framing members of the diaphragm, such as the joists, studs and blocking that serve to transfer the assumed load to the sheathing. The shear capacity of double diagonally sheathed diaphragms of Southern pine or Douglas fir-larch shall not exceed 600 plf (8756 kN/m) of width. The shear capacity shall be adjusted by reduction factors of 0.82 for framing members of species with a specific gravity equal to or greater than 0.42 but less than 0.49 and 0.65 for species with a specific gravity of less than 0.42, as contained in the AF&PA; NDS. Nailing of diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms shall be in accordance with Table 2306.3.3.
Gypsum board diaphragm ceilings shall be in accordance with Section 2508.5.
Panel sheathing joints in shear walls shall occur over studs or blocking. Adjacent panel sheathing joints shall occur over and be nailed to common framing members (see Section 2305.3.1 for limitations on shear wall bracing materials).
The allowable shear capacities for wood structural panel shear walls shall be in accordance with Table 2306.4.1. These capacities are permitted to be increased 40 percent for wind design. Shear walls are permitted to be calculated by principles of mechanics without limitations by using values for nail strength given in the AF&PA; NDS and wood structural panel design properties given in the APA Panel Design Specification .

TABLE 2306.4.1 ALLOWABLE SHEAR (POUNDS PER FOOT) FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEAR WALLS WITH FRAMING OF DOUGLAS FIR-LARCH OR SOUTHERN PINEa FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADINGb, h, i, j, l

PANEL GRADE MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch) MINIMUM
FASTENER
 PENETRATION
IN FRAMING
(inches)
PANELS APPLIED DIRECT TO FRAMING PANELS APPLIED OVER 1/2" OR 5/8" GYPSUM SHEATHING
NAIL (common or galvanized box) or staple sizek Fastener spacing at panel edges (inches) NAIL (common or galvanized box) or staple sizek Fastener spacing at panel edges (inches)
6 4 3 2e 6 4 3 2e
Structural I Sheathing 5/16 11/4 6d (2 × 0.113" common,
2" × 0.099" galvanized box)
200 300 390 510 8d (21/2" × 0.131" common,
21/2" × 0.113" galvanized box)
200 300 390 510
1 11/2 16 Gage 165 245 325 415 2 16 Gage 125 185 245 315
3/8 13/8 8d (21/2" × 0.131" common,
21/2" × 0.113" galvanized box)
230d 360d 460d 610d 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.128" galvanized box)
280 430 550f 730
1 11/2 16 Gage 155 235 315 400 2 16 Gage 155 235 310 400
7/16 13/8 8d (21/2" × 0.131" common,
21/2" × 0.113" galvanized box)
255d 395d 505d 670d 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.128" galvanized box)
280 430 550f 730
1 11/2 16 Gage 170 260 345 440 2 16 Gage 155 235 310 400
15/32 13/8 8d (21/2" × 0.131" common,
21/2" × 0.113" galvanized box)
280 430 550 730 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.1218" galvanized box)
280 430 550f 730
1 11/2 16 Gage 185 280 375 475 2 16 Gage 155 235 300 400
11/2 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.128" galvanized box)
340 510 665f 870 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.128" galvanized box)
- - - -
Sheathing, plywood sidingg except Group 5 Species 5/16 or 1/4c 11/4 6d (2" × 0.113" common,
2" × 0.099" galvanized box)
180 270 350 450 8d (21/2" × 0.131" common,
21/2" × 0.113" galvanized box)
180 270 350 450
1 11/2 16 Gage 145 220 295 375 2 16 Gage 110 165 220 285
3/8 11/4 6d (2" × 0.113" common,
2" × 0.099" galvanized box)
200 300 390 510 8d (21/2" × 0.131" common,
21/2" × 0.113" galvanized box)
200 300 390 510
13/8 8d (21/2" × 0.131" common,
21/2" × 0.113" galvanized box)
220d 320d 410d 530d 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.128" galvanized box)
260 380 490f 640
1 11/2 16 Gage 140 210 280 360 2 16 Gage 140 210 280 360
7/16 13/8 8d (21/2" × 0.131" common,
21/2" × 0.113" galvanized box)
240d 350d 450d 585d 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.128" galvanized box)
260 380 490f 640
1 11/2 16 Gage 155 230 310 395 2 16 Gage 140 210 280 360
15/32 13/8 8d (21/2" × 0.131" common,
21/2" × 0.113" galvanized box)
260 380 490 640 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.128" galvanized box)
260 380 490f 640
11/2 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.128" galvanized box)
310 460 600f 770 - - - - -
1 11/2 16 Gage 170 255 335 430 2 16 Gage 140 210 280 360
19/32 11/2 10d (3" × 0.148" common,
3" × 0.128" galvanized box)
340 510 665f 870 - - - - -
1 13/4 16 Gage 185 280 375 475 - - - - -
    Nail Size
(galvanized casing)
        Nail Size
(galvanized casing)
       
5/16c 11/4 6d (2" × 0.099") 140 210 275 360 8d (21/2" × 0.113") 140 210 275 360
3/8 13/8 8d (21/2" × 0.113") 160 240 310 410 10d (3" × 0.128") 160 240 310f 410


Notes to Table 2306.4.1

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

a. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of lumber in AF&PA NDS. (2) For staples find shear value from table above for Structural I panels (regardless of actual grade) and multiply value by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species. (3) For nails find shear value from table above for nail size for actual grade and multiply value by the following adjustment factor: Specific Gravity Adjustment Factor = [1-(0.5 - SG)], where SG = Specific Gravity of the framing lumber. This adjustment factor shall not be greater than 1.

b. Panel edges backed with 2-inch nominal or wider framing. Install panels either horizontally or vertically. Space fasteners maximum 6 inches on center along intermediate framing members for 3/8-inch and 7/16-inch panels installed on studs spaced 24 inches on center. For other conditions and panel thickness, space fasteners maximum 12 inches on center on intermediate supports.

c. 3/8-inch panel thickness or siding with a span rating of 16 inches on center is the minimum recommended where applied direct to framing as exterior siding.

d. Allowable shear values are permitted to be increased to values shown for 15/32-inch sheathing with same nailing provided (a) studs are spaced a maximum of 16 inches on center, or (b) panels are applied with long dimension across studs.

e. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider, and nails shall be staggered where nails are spaced 2 inches on center.

f. Framing at adjoining panel edges shall be 3 inches nominal or wider, and nails shall be staggered where both of the following conditions are met: (1) 10d (3" × 0.148") nails having penetration into framing of more than 11/2inches and (2) nails are spaced 3 inches on center.

g. Values apply to all-veneer plywood. Thickness at point of fastening on panel edges governs shear values.

h. Where panels applied on both faces of a wall and nail spacing is less than 6 inches o.c. on either side, panel joints shall be offset to fall on different framing members, or framing shall be 3-inch nominal or thicker at adjoining panel edges and nails on each side shall be staggered.

i. In Seismic Design Category D, E or F, where shear design values exceed 350 pounds per linear foot, all framing members receiving edge nailing from abutting panels shall not be less than a single 3-inch nominal member, or two 2-inch nominal members fastened together in accordance with Section 2306.1 to transfer the design shear value between framing members. Wood structural panel joint and sill plate nailing shall be staggered in all cases. See Section 2305.3.11 for sill plate size and anchorage requirements.

j. Galvanized nails shall be hot dipped or tumbled.

k. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.

l. For shear loads of normal or permanent load duration as defined by the AF&PA NDS, the values in the table above shall be multiplied by 0.63 or 0.56, respectively.
Single and double diagonally sheathed lumber diaphragms are permitted using the construction and allowable load provisions of Sections 2306.3.4 and 2306.3.5.
The design shear capacity of particleboard shear walls shall be in accordance with Table 2306.4.3. Shear panels shall be constructed with particleboard sheets not less than 4 feet by 8 feet (1219 mm by 2438 mm), except at boundaries and changes in framing. Particleboard panels shall be designed to resist shear only, and chords, collector members and boundary elements shall be connected at all corners. Panel edges shall be backed with 2-inch (51 mm) nominal or wider framing. Sheets are permitted to be installed either horizontally or vertically. For 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) particleboard sheets installed with the long dimension parallel to the studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) o.c, nails shall be spaced at 6 inches (152 mm) o.c. along intermediate framing members. For all other conditions, nails of the same size shall be spaced at 12 inches (305 mm) o.c. along intermediate framing members. Particleboard panels less than 12 inches (305 mm) wide shall be blocked. Particleboard shall not be used to resist seismic forces in structures in Seismic Design Category D, E or F.

TABLE 2306.4.3 ALLOWABLE SHEAR FOR PARTICLEBOARD SHEAR WALL SHEATHINGb

PANEL GRADE MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch) MINIMUM NAIL PENETRATION IN FRAMING

(inches)
PANELS APPLIED DIRECT TO FRAMING
Nail size (common or galvanized box) Allowable shear (pounds per foot) nail

spacing at panel edges (inches)a
6 4 3 2
M-S "Exterior Glue" and M-2 "Exterior Glue" 3/8 11/2 6d 120 180 230 300
3/8 11/2 8d 130 190 240 315
1/2 140 210 270 350
1/2 15/8 10d 185 275 360 460
5/8 200 305 395 520


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

a. Values are not permitted in Seismic Design Category D, E or F.

b. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.
The design shear capacity of fiberboard shear walls shall be in accordance with Table 2306.4.4. The fiberboard sheathing shall be applied vertically or horizontally to wood studs not less than 2 inch (51 mm) in nominal thickness spaced 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. Blocking not less than 2 inch (51 mm) nominal in thickness shall be provided at horizontal joints. Fiberboard shall not be used to resist seismic forces in structures in Seismic Design Category D, E or F.

TABLE 2306.4.4 ALLOWABLE SHEAR VALUES (plf) FOR WIND OR SEISMIC LOADING ON SHEAR WALLS OF FIBERBOARD SHEATHING BOARD CONSTRUCTION FOR TYPE V CONSTRUCTION ONLYa,b,c,d,e,f,g,h

THICKNESS AND GRADE FASTENER SIZE SHEAR VALUE (pounds per linear foot) 3-INCH
 NAIL SPACING AROUND PERIMETER AND 6-
INCH AT INTERMEDIATE POINTS
1/2" Structural No. 11 gage galvanized roofing nail 11/2" long,7/16" head 125g
25/32" Structural No. 11 gage galvanized roofing nail 13/4" long, 7/16" head 175g


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

a. Fiberboard sheathing diaphragms shall not be used to brace concrete or masonry walls.

b. Panel edges shall be backed with 2 inch or wider framing of Douglas fir-larch or Southern pine.

c. Fiberboard sheathing on one side only.

d. Fiberboard panels are installed with their long dimension parallel or perpendicular to studs.

e. Fasteners shall be spaced 6 inches on center along intermediate framing members.

f. For framing of other species: (1) Find specific gravity for species of lumber in AF&PA NDS and (2) Multiply the shear value from the above table by 0.82 for species with specific gravity of 0.42 or greater, or 0.65 for all other species.

g. The same values can be applied when staples are used as described in Table 2304.9.1.

h. Values are not permitted in Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
Shear capacities for walls sheathed with lath, plaster or gypsum board shall be in accordance with Table 2306.4.5. Shear walls sheathed with lath, plaster or gypsum board shall be constructed in accordance with Chapter 25 and Section 2306.4.5.1. Walls resisting seismic loads shall be subject to the limitations in Section 12.2.1 of ASCE 7.

TABLE 2306.4.5 ALLOWABLE SHEAR FOR WIND OR SEISMIC FORCES FOR SHEAR WALLS OF LATH AND PLASTER OR GYPSUM BOARD WOOD FRAMED WALL ASSEMBLIES

TYPE OF MATERIAL THICKNESS OF
 MATERIAL
WALL CONSTRUCTION FASTENER SPACINGb MAXIMUM (inches) SHEAR VALUEa,e (plf) MINIMUM FASTENER SIZEc,d,j,k
1. Expanded metal or woven wire lath and portland cement plaster 7/8" Unblocked 6 180 No. 11 gage 11/2" long, 7/16" head 16 Ga. Galv. Staple, 7/8" legs
2. Gypsum lath, plain or perforated 3/8" lath and

1
/2" plaster
Unblocked 5 100 No. 13 gage, 11/8" long, 19/64" head, plasterboard nail
16 Ga. Galv. Staple, 11/8" long 0.120" Nail, min. 3/8" head, 11/4" long
3. Gypsum sheathing 1/2'' × 2' × 8' Unblocked 4 75 No. 11 gage, 13/4'' long, 7/16'' head, diamond-point, galvanized

16 Ga. Galv. Staple, 13/4'' long
1/2'' × 4' Blockedf 44 175
Unblocked 7 100
5/8'' × 4' Blocked 4'' edge/ 200 6d galvanized 0.120" Nail, min. 3/8'' head, 13/4'' long
7'' field
4. Gypsum board, gypsum veneer base or water-resistant gypsum backing board 1/2'' Unblockedf 7 75 5d cooler (15/8'' × .086'') or wallboard 0.120'' nail, min. 3/8'' head, 11/2'' long 16 Gage Staple, 11/2'' long
Unblockedf 4 110
Unblocked 7 100
Unblocked 4 125
Blockedg 7 125
Blockedg 4 150
Unblocked 8/12h 60 No.-6 11/4'' screwsi
Blockedg 4/16h 160
Blockedf,g 4/12h 155
Blockedg 8/12h 70
Blockedg 6/12h 90
5/8'' Unblockedf 7 115 6d cooler (17/8'' × 0.092'') or wallboard

0.120'' Nail, min. 3/8'' head, 13/4'' long 16 Gage Staple, 11/2'' legs, 15/8'' long
4 145
Blockedg 7 145
4 175
Blockedg

Two-ply
Base ply: 9

Face ply: 7
250 Base ply-6d cooler (17/8'' × 0.092'') or wallboard 13/4'' × 0.120'' Nail, min. 3/8'' head 15/8'' 16 Ga. Galv. Staple

15/8'' 16 Gage Galv. Staple

Face ply-8d cooler (23/8'' × 0.113'') or wallboard 0.120'' Nail, min. 3/8'' head, 23/8'' long 15 Ga. Galv. Staple,

21/4'' long
Unblocked 8/12h 70 No. 6-11/4'' screwsi
Blockedg 8/12h 90


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per foot = 14.5939 N/m.

a. These shear walls shall not be used to resist loads imposed by masonry or concrete construction (see Section 2305.1.5). Values shown are for short-term loading due to wind or seismic loading. Walls resisting seismic loads shall be subject to the limitations in Section 12.2.1 of ASCE 7. Values shown shall be reduced 25 percent for normal loading.

b. Applies to fastening at studs, top and bottom plates and blocking.

c. Alternate fasteners are permitted to be used if their dimensions are not less than the specified dimensions. Drywall screws are permitted to substitute for the 5d (15/8'' × 0.086''), and 6d (17/8'' × 0.092'')(cooler) nails listed above, and No. 6 11/4 inch Type S or W screws for 6d (17/8'' × 0.092) (cooler) nails.

d. For properties of cooler nails, see ASTM C 514.

e. Except as noted, shear values are based on a maximum framing spacing of 16 inches on center.

f. Maximum framing spacing of 24 inches on center.

g. All edges are blocked, and edge fastening is provided at all supports and all panel edges.

h. First number denotes fastener spacing at the edges; second number denotes fastener spacing at intermediate framing members.

i. Screws are Type W or S.

j. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16 inch, measured outside the legs, and shall be installed with their crowns parallel to the long dimension of the framing members.

k. Staples for the attachment of gypsum lath and woven-wire lath shall have a minimum crown width of 3/4 inch, measured outside the legs.
End joints of adjacent courses of gypsum board shall not occur over the same stud.
Where required in Table 2306.4.5, wood blocking having the same cross-sectional dimensions as the studs shall be provided at joints that are perpendicular to the studs.
Studs, top and bottom plates and blocking shall be fastened in accordance with Table 2304.9.1.
The size and spacing of fasteners shall be set forth in Table 2306.4.5. Fasteners shall be spaced not less than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) from edges and ends of gypsum boards or sides of studs, blocking and top and bottom plates.
Gypsum lath shall be applied perpendicular to the studs. Maximum allowable shear values shall be as set forth in Table 2306.4.5.
Four-foot-wide (1219 mm) pieces of gypsum sheathing shall be applied parallel or perpendicular to studs. Two-foot-wide (610 mm) pieces of gypsum sheathing shall be applied perpendicular to the studs. Maximum allowable shear values shall be as set forth in Table 2306.4.5.
Gypsum board shall be applied parallel or perpendicular to studs. Maximum allowable shear values shall be as set forth in Table 2306.4.5.
The structural analysis and construction of wood elements and structures using load and resistance factor design shall be in accordance with AF&PA; NDS.
In Seismic Design Category D, E or F, where shear design values exceed 490 pounds per foot (7154 N/m), all framing members receiving edge nailing from abutting panels shall not be less than a single 3-inch (76 mm) nominal member or two 2-inch (51 mm) nominal members fastened together in accordance with AF&PA; NDS to transfer the design shear value between framing members. Wood structural panel joint and sill plate nailing shall be staggered in all cases. See Section 2305.3.11 for sill plate size and anchorage requirements.
The requirements of this section are intended for conventional light-frame construction. Other methods are permitted to be used, provided a satisfactory design is submitted showing compliance with other provisions of this code. Interior nonload-bearing partitions, ceilings and curtain walls of conventional light-frame construction are not subject to the limitations of this section. Alternatively, compliance with AF&PA; WFCM shall be permitted subject to the limitations therein and the limitations of this code. Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the Residential Code of New York State.
When portions of a building of otherwise conventional construction exceed the limits of Section 2308.2, these portions and the supporting load path shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the provisions of this code. For the purposes of this section, the term "portions" shall mean parts of buildings containing volume and area such as a room or a series of rooms.
Buildings are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions of conventional light-frame construction, subject to the following limitations, and to further limitations of Sections 2308.11 and 2308.12.

1. Buildings shall be limited to a maximum of three stories above grade. For the purposes of this section, for buildings in Seismic Design Category D or E as determined in Section 1613, cripple stud walls shall be considered to be a story.

Exception: Solid blocked cripple walls not exceeding 14 inches (356 mm) in height need not be considered a story.
2. Maximum floor-to-floor height shall not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm). Bearing wall height shall not exceed a stud height of 10 feet (3048 mm).
3. Loads as determined in Chapter 16 shall not exceed the following:
3.1. Average dead loads shall not exceed 15 psf (718 N/m2) for combined roof and ceiling, exterior walls, floors and partitions.

Exceptions:
1. Subject to the limitations of Sections 2308.11.2 and 2308.12.2, stone or masonry veneer up to the lesser of 5 inches (127 mm) thick or 50 psf (2395 N/m2) and installed in accordance with Chapter 14 is permitted to a height of 30 feet (9144 mm) above a noncombustible foundation, with an additional 8 feet (2438 mm) permitted for gable ends.
2. Concrete or masonry fireplaces, heaters and chimneys shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of this code.
3.2. Live loads shall not exceed 40 psf (1916 N/m2) for floors.
3.3. Ground snow loads shall not exceed 50 psf (2395 N/m2).
4. Wind speeds shall not exceed 100 miles per hour (mph) (44 m/s) (3-second gust).

Exception: Wind speeds shall not exceed 110 mph (48.4 m/s) (3-second gust) for buildings in Exposure Category B.
5. Roof trusses and rafters shall not span more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) between points of vertical support.
6. The use of the provisions for conventional light-frame construction in this section shall not be permitted for Occupancy Category IV buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category B, C, D, E or F, as determined in Section 1613.
7. Conventional light-frame construction is limited in irregular structures in Seismic Design Category D or E, as specified in Section 2308.12.6.
Where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 mph (3-second gust), the provisions of either AF&PAWFCM;, or the SBCCI SSTD 10 are permitted to be used.
Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category B or C, as determined in Section 1613, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section 2308.11.

Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category D or E, as determined in Section 1613, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section 2308.12.
Buildings shall be provided with exterior and interior braced wall lines as described in Section 2308.9.3 and installed in accordance with Sections 2308.3.1 through 2308.3.4.
Spacing of braced wall lines shall not exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) o.c. in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in each story.
Forces shall be transferred from the roofs and floors to braced wall panels and from the braced wall panels in upper stories to the braced wall panels in the story below by the following:
1. Braced wall panel top and bottom plates shall be fastened to joists, rafters or full-depth blocking. Braced wall panels shall be extended and fastened to roof framing at intervals not to exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) between parallel braced wall lines.

Exception: Where roof trusses are used, lateral forces shall be transferred from the roof diaphragm to the braced wall by blocking of the ends of the trusses or by other approved methods.
2. Bottom plate fastening to joist or blocking below shall be with not less than 3-16d nails at 16 inches (406 mm) o.c.
3. Blocking shall be nailed to the top plate below with not less than 3-8d toenails per block.
4. Joists parallel to the top plates shall be nailed to the top plate with not less than 8d toenails at 6 inches (152 mm) o.c.

In addition, top plate laps shall be nailed with not less than 8-16d face nails on each side of each break in the top plate.
Where foundations are required by Section 2308.3.4, braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations. Such anchorage shall conform to the requirements of Section 2308.6 except that such anchors shall be spaced at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. for structures over two stories in height. The anchors shall be distributed along the length of the braced wall line. Other anchorage devices having equivalent capacity are permitted.
Where all-wood foundations are used, the force transfer from the braced wall lines shall be determined based on calculation and shall have a capacity greater than or equal to the connections required by Section 2308.3.3.
Braced wall lines shall be supported by continuous foundations.

Exception: For structures with a maximum plan dimension not over 50 feet (15 240 mm), continuous foundations are required at exterior walls only.
Combining of engineered elements or systems and conventionally specified elements or systems is permitted subject to the following limits:
When a building of otherwise conventional construction contains structural elements exceeding the limits of Section 2308.2, these elements and the supporting load path shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the provisions of this code.
When a building of otherwise conventional construction contains structural elements or systems not described in Section 2308, these elements or systems shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the provisions of this code. The extent of such design need only demonstrate compliance of the nonconventional elements with other applicable provisions of this code and shall be compatible with the performance of the conventionally framed system.
Connections and fasteners used in conventional construction shall comply with the requirements of Section 2304.9.
Foundations and footings shall be as specified in Chapter 18. Foundation plates or sills resting on concrete or masonry foundations shall comply with Section 2304.3.1. Foundation plates or sills shall be bolted or anchored to the foundation with not less than 1/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) steel bolts or approved anchors. Bolts shall be embedded at least 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete or masonry, and spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) apart. There shall be a minimum of two bolts or anchor straps per piece with one bolt or anchor strap located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less than 4 inches (102 mm) from each end of each piece. A properly sized nut and washer shall be tightened on each bolt to the plate.
Girders for single-story construction or girders supporting loads from a single floor shall not be less than 4 inches by 6 inches (102 mm by 152 mm) for spans 6 feet (1829 mm) or less, provided that girders are spaced not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) o.c. Spans for built-up 2-inch (51 mm) girders shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.5 or 2308.9.6. Other girders shall be designed to support the loads specified in this code. Girder end joints shall occur over supports.

Where a girder is spliced over a support, an adequate tie shall be provided. The ends of beams or girders supported on masonry or concrete shall not have less than 3 inches (76 mm) of bearing.
Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance with Table 2308.8(1) or 2308.8(2). For other grades and or species, refer to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.

TABLE 2308.8(1) FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential Sleeping Areas, Live Load = 30 psf, L/D = 360)

JOIST SPACING

(inches)
SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12 2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
12 Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
SS
#1
#2
#3
12-6
12-0
11-10
9-8
16-6
15-10
15-7
12-4
21-0
20-3
19-10
15-0
25-7
24-8
23-0
17-5
12-6
12-0
11-6
8-8
16-6
15-7
14-7
11-0
21-0
19-0
17-9
13-5
25-7
22-0
20-7
15-7
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
11-10
11-7
11-0
9-8
15-7
15-3
14-6
12-4
19-10
19-5
18-6
15-0
24-2
23-7
22-6
17-5
11-10
11-7
11-0
8-8
15-7
15-2
14-4
11-0
19-10
18-6
17-6
13-5
24-2
21-6
20-4
15-7
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
SS
#1
#2
#3
12-3
12-0
11-10
10-5
16-2
15-10
15-7
13-3
20-8
20-3
19-10
15-8
25-1
24-8
24-2
18-8
12-3
12-0
11-10
9-4
16-2
15-10
15-7
11-11
20-8
20-3
18-7
14-0
25-1
24-8
21-9
16-8
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
11-7
11-3
11-3
9-8
15-3
14-11
14-11
12-4
19-5
19-0
19-0
15-0
23-7
23-0
23-0
17-5
11-7
11-3
11-3
8-8
15-3
14-7
14-7
11-0
19-5
17-9
17-9
13-5
23-7
20-7
20-7
15-7
16 Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
SS
#1
#2
#3
11-4
10-11
10-9
8-5
15-0
14-5
14-1
10-8
19-1
18-5
17-2
13-0
23-3
21-4
19-11
15-1
11-4
10-8
9-11
7-6
15-0
13-6
12-7
9-6
19-1
16-5
15-5
11-8
23-0
19-1
17-10
13-6
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-9
10-6
10-0
8-5
14-2
13-10
13-2
10-8
18-0
17-8
16-10
13-0
21-11
20-9
19-8
15-1
10-9
10-4
9-10
7-6
14-2
13-1
12-5
9-6
18-0
16-0
15-2
11-8
21-11
18-7
17-7
13-6
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
SS
#1
#2
#3
11-2
10-11
10-9
9-0
14-8
14-5
14-2
11-6
18-9
18-5
18-0
13-7
22-10
22-5
21-1
16-2
11-2
10-11
10-5
8-1
14-8
14-5
13-6
10-3
18-9
17-11
16-1
12-2
22-10
21-4
18-10
14-6
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-6
10-3
10-3
8-5
13-10
13-6
13-6
10-8
17-8
17-2
17-2
13-0
21-6
19-11
19-11
15-1
10-6
9-11
9-11
7-6
13-10
12-7
12-7
9-6
17-8
15-5
15-5
11-8
21-4
17-10
17-10
13-6


(continued)


TABLE 2308.8(1)—continued FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential Sleeping Areas, Live Load = 30 psf, L/D = 360)

JOIST SPACING

(inches)
SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12 2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
19.2 Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-8
10-4
10-1
7-8
14-1
13-7
12-10
9-9
18-0
16-9
15-8
11-10
21-10
19-6
18-3
13-9
10-8
9-8
9-1
6-10
14-1
12-4
11-6
8-8
18-0
15-0
14-1
10-7
21-0
17-5
16-3
12-4
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-1
9-10
9-5
7-8
13-4
13-0
12-5
9-9
17-0
16-4
15-6
11-10
20-8
19-0
17-1
13-9
10-1
9-6
8-11
6-10
13-4
12-0
11-4
8-8
17-0
14-8
13-10
10-7
20-7
17-0
16-1
12-4
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-6
10-4
10-1
8-3
13-10
13-7
13-4
10-6
17-8
17-4
16-5
12-5
21-6
21-1
19-3
14-9
10-6
10-4
9-6
7-4
13-10
13-7
12-4
9-5
17-8
16-4
14-8
11-1
21-6
19-6
17-2
13-2
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-10
9-8
9-8
7-8
13-0
12-9
12-9
9-9
16-7
15-8
15-8
11-10
20-2
18-3
18-3
13-9
9-10
9-1
9-1
6-10
13-0
11-6
11-6
8-8
16-7
14-1
14-1
10-7
19-6
16-3
16-3
12-4
24 Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-11
9-7
9-1
6-10
13-1
12-4
11-6
8-8
16-8
15-0
14-1
10-7
20-3
17-5
16-3
12-4
9-11
8-8
8-1
6-2
13-1
11-0
10-3
7-9
16-2
13-5
12-7
9-6
18-9
15-7
14-7
11-0
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-4
9-2
8-9
6-10
12-4
12-0
11-4
8-8
15-9
14-8
13-10
10-7
19-2
17-0
16-1
12-4
9-4
8-6
8-0
6-2
12-4
10-9
10-2
7-9
15-9
13-1
12-5
9-6
18-5
15-2
14-4
11-0
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-9
9-7
9-4
7-4
12-10
12-7
12-4
9-5
16-5
16-1
14-8
11-1
19-11
19-6
17-2
13-2
9-9
9-7
8-6
6-7
12-10
12-4
11-0
8-5
16-5
14-7
13-1
9-11
19-11
17-5
15-5
11-10
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-2
8-11
8-11
6-10
12-1
11-6
11-6
8-8
15-5
14-1
14-1
10-7
18-9
16-3
16-3
12-4
9-2
8-1
8-1
6-2
12-1
10-3
10-3
7-9
15-0
12-7
12-7
9-6
17-5
14-7
14-7
11-0


Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.8 N/m2.


TABLE 2308.8(2) FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential Living Areas, Live Load = 40 psf, L/D = 360)

JOIST SPACING

(inches)
SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12 2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
12 Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
SS
#1
#2
#3
11-4
10-11
10-9
8-8
15-0
14-5
14-2
11-0
19-1
18-5
17-9
13-5
23-3
22-0
20-7
15-7
11-4
10-11
10-6
7-11
15-0
14-2
13-3
10-0
19-1
17-4
16-3
12-3
23-3
20-1
18-10
14-3
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-9
10-6
10-0
8-8
14-2
13-10
13-2
11-0
18-0
17-8
16-10
13-5
21-11
21-6
20-4
15-7
10-9
10-6
10-0
7-11
14-2
13-10
13-1
10-0
18-0
16-11
16-0
12-3
21-11
19-7
18-6
14-3
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
SS
#1
#2
#3
11-2
10-11
10-9
9-4
14-8
14-5
14-2
11-11
18-9
18-5
18-0
14-0
22-10
22-5
21-9
16-8
11-2
10-11
10-9
8-6
14-8
14-5
14-2
10-10
18-9
18-5
16-11
12-10
22-10
22-5
19-10
15-3
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-6
10-3
10-3
8-8
13-10
13-6
13-6
11-0
17-8
17-3
17-3
13-5
21-6
20-7
20-7
15-7
10-6
10-3
10-3
7-11
13-10
13-3
13-3
10-0
17-8
16-3
16-3
12-3
21-6
18-10
18-10
14-3
16 Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-4
9-11
9-9
7-6
13-7
13-1
12-7
9-6
17-4
16-5
15-5
11-8
21-1
19-1
17-10
13-6
10-4
9-8
9-1
6-10
13-7
12-4
11-6
8-8
17-4
15-0
14-1
10-7
21-0
17-5
16-3
12-4
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-9
9-6
9-1
7-6
12-10
12-7
12-0
9-6
16-5
16-0
15-2
11-8
19-11
18-7
17-7
13-6
9-9
9-6
8-11
6-10
12-10
12-0
11-4
8-8
16-5
14-8
13-10
10-7
19-11
17-0
16-1
12-4
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-2
9-11
9-9
8-1
13-4
13-1
12-10
10-3
17-0
16-9
16-1
12-2
20-9
20-4
18-10
14-6
10-2
9-11
9-6
7-4
13-4
13-1
12-4
9-5
17-0
16-4
14-8
11-1
20-9
19-6
17-2
13-2
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-6
9-4
9-4
7-6
12-7
12-3
12-3
9-6
16-0
15-5
15-5
11-8
19-6
17-10
17-10
13-6
9-6
9-1
9-1
6-10
12-7
11-6
11-6
8-8
16-0
14-1
14-1
10-7
19-6
16-3
16-3
12-4


(continued)


TABLE 2308.8(2)—continued

FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential Living Areas, Live Load = 40 psf, L/D = 360)

JOIST SPACING

(inches)
SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD = 10 psf DEAD LOAD = 20 psf
2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12 2x6 2x8 2x10 2x12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.) (ft. - in.)
19.2 Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-8
9-4
9-1
6-10
12-10
12-4
11-6
8-8
16-4
15-0
14-1
10-7
19-10
17-5
16-3
12-4
9-8
8-10
8-3
6-3
12-10
11-3
10-6
7-11
16-4
13-8
12-10
9-8
19-2
15-11
14-10
11-3
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-2
9-0
8-7
6-10
12-1
11-10
11-3
8-8
15-5
14-8
13-10
10-7
18-9
17-0
16-1
12-4
9-2
8-8
8-2
6-3
12-1
10-11
10-4
7-11
15-5
13-4
12-8
9-8
18-9
15-6
14-8
11-3
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-6
9-4
9-2
7-4
12-7
12-4
12 -1
9-5
16-0
15-9
14-8
11-1
19-6
19-2
17-2
13-2
9-6
9-4
8-8
6-9
12-7
12-4
11-3
8-7
16-0
14-11
13-5
10-1
19-6
17-9
15-8
12-1
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-0
8-9
8-9
6-10
11-10
11-6
11-6
8-8
15-1
14-1
14-1
10-7
18-4
16-3
16-3
12-4
9-0
8-3
8-3
6-3
11-10
10-6
10-6
7-11
15-1
12-10
12-10
9-8
17-9
14-10
14-10
11-3
24 Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
Douglas Fir-Larch
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-0
8-8
8-1
6-2
11-11
11-0
10-3
7-9
15-2
13-5
12-7
9-6
18-5
15-7
14-7
11-0
9-0
7-11
7-5
5-7
11-11
10-0
9-5
7-1
14-9
12-3
11-6
8-8
17-1
14-3
13-4
10-1
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
Hem-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
8-6
8-4
7-11
6-2
11-3
10-9
10-2
7-9
14-4
13-1
12-5
9-6
17-5
15-2
14-4
11-0
8-6
7-9
7-4
5-7
11-3
9-9
9-3
7-1
14-4
11-11
11-4
8-8
16-10a
13-10
13-1
10-1
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
Southern Pine
SS
#1
#2
#3
8-10
8-8
8-6
6-7
11-8
11-5
11-0
8-5
14-11
14-7
13-1
9-11
18-1
17-5
15-5
11-10
8-10
8-8
7-9
6-0
11-8
11-3
10-0
7-8
14-11
13-4
12-0
9-1
18-1
15-11
14-0
10-9
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
Spruce-Pine-Fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
8-4
8-1
8-1
6-2
11-0
10-3
10-3
7-9
14-0
12-7
12-7
9-6
17-0
14-7
14-7
11-0
8-4
7-5
7-5
5-7
11-0
9-5
9-5
7-1
13-8
11-6
11-6
8-8
15-11
13-4
13-4
10-1


Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.8 N/m2.

a. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches.
Except where supported on a 1-inch by 4-inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjoining stud, the ends of each joist shall not have less than 1 1 / 2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal, or less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry.
Joists shall be supported laterally at the ends and at each support by solid blocking except where the ends of the joists are nailed to a header, band or rim joist or to an adjoining stud or by other means. Solid blocking shall not be less than 2 inches (51mm) in thickness and the full depth of the joist. Notches on the ends of joists shall not exceed one-fourth the joist depth. Holes bored in joists shall not be within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top or bottom of the joist, and the diameter of any such hole shall not exceed one-third the depth of the joist. Notches in the top or bottom of joists shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be located in the middle third of the span.

Joist framing from opposite sides of a beam, girder or partition shall be lapped at least 3 inches (76 mm) or the opposing joists shall be tied together in an approved manner.

Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).
Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glue-laminated members or I-joists are not permitted except where permitted by the manufacturer's recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member by a registered design professional.
Trimmer and header joists shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent cross section, where the span of the header exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm). The ends of header joists more than 6 feet (1829 mm) long shall be supported by framing anchors or joist hangers unless bearing on a beam, partition or wall. Tail joists over 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).
Bearing partitions parallel to joists shall be supported on beams, girders, doubled joists, walls or other bearing partitions. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the additional load.
Floor, attic and roof framing with a nominal depth-to-thickness ratio greater than or equal to 5:1 shall have one edge held in line for the entire span. Where the nominal depth-to-thickness ratio of the framing member exceeds 6:1, there shall be one line of bridging for each 8 feet (2438 mm) of span, unless both edges of the member are held in line. The bridging shall consist of not less than 1-inch by 3-inch (25 mm by 76 mm) lumber, double nailed at each end, of equivalent metal bracing of equal rigidity, full-depth solid blocking or other approved means. A line of bridging shall also be required at supports where equivalent lateral support is not otherwise provided.
Structural floor sheathing shall comply with the provisions of Section 2304.7.1.
For under-floor ventilation, see Section 1203.3.
The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.1 except that utility-grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) o.c., or support more than a roof and ceiling, or exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.

TABLE 2308.9.1 SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDS

STUD SIZE (inches) BEARING WALLS NONBEARING WALLS
Laterally unsupported stud heighta (feet) Supporting roof and ceiling only Supporting one floor, roof and ceiling Supporting two floors, roof and ceiling Laterally unsupported stud heighta (feet) Spacing (inches)
Spacing (inches)
2 × 3b - - - - 10 16
2 × 4 10 24 16 - 14 24
3 × 4 10 24 24 16 14 24
2 × 5 10 24 24 - 16 24
2 × 6 10 24 24 16 20 24


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where justified by an analysis.

b. Shall not be used in exterior walls.


SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY MAXIMUM WALL SPACING (feet) REQUIRED BRACING LENGTH, b
A, B and C 35"-0" Table 2308.9.3(1) and Section 2308.9.3
D and E 25"-0" Table 2308.12.4
Studs shall be placed with their wide dimension perpendicular to the wall. Not less than three studs shall be installed at each corner of an exterior wall.

Exception: At corners, two studs are permitted, provided wood spacers or backup cleats of 3 / 8 -inch-thick (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) Type M "Exterior Glue" particleboard, 1-inch-thick (25 mm) lumber or other approved devices that will serve as an adequate backing for the attachment of facing materials are used. Where fire-resistance ratings or shear values are involved, wood spacers, backup cleats or other devices shall not be used unless specifically approved for such use.
Bearing and exterior wall studs shall be capped with double top plates installed to provide overlapping at corners and at intersections with other partitions. End joints in double top plates shall be offset at least 48 inches (1219 mm), and shall be nailed with not less than eight 16d face nails on each side of the joint. Plates shall be a nominal 2 inches (51 mm) in depth and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate is permitted, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting walls by at least the equivalent of 3-inch by 6-inch (76 mm by 152 mm) by 0.036-inch-thick (0.914 mm) galvanized steel that is nailed to each wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails or equivalent, provided the rafters, joists or trusses are centered over the studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm).
Where bearing studs are spaced at 24-inch (610 mm) intervals and top plates are less than two 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (76 mm by 102 mm) members and where the floor joists, floor trusses or roof trusses that they support are spaced at more than 16-inch (406 mm) intervals, such joists or trusses shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath or a third plate shall be installed.
In nonbearing walls and partitions, studs shall be spaced not more than 28 inches (711 mm) o.c. and are permitted to be set with the long dimension parallel to the wall. Interior nonbearing partitions shall be capped with no less than a single top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and at intersections with other walls and partitions. The plate shall be continuously tied at joints by solid blocking at least 16 inches (406 mm) in length and equal in size to the plate or by 1 / 2 -inch by 1 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm by 38 mm) metal ties with spliced sections fastened with two 16d nails on each side of the joint.
Studs shall have full bearing on a plate or sill not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness having a width not less than that of the wall studs.
Braced wall lines shall consist of braced wall panels that meet the requirements for location, type and amount of bracing as shown in Figure 2308.9.3, specified in Table 2308.9.3(1) and are in line or offset from each other by not more than 4 feet (1219 mm). Braced wall panels shall start not more than 12 1 / 2 -feet (3810 mm) from each end of a braced wall line. Braced wall panels shall be clearly indicated on the plans. Construction of braced wall panels shall be by one of the following methods:
1. Nominal 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) continuous diagonal braces let into top and bottom plates and intervening studs, placed at an angle not more than 60 degrees (1.0 rad) or less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal and attached to the framing in conformance with Table 2304.9.1.
2. Wood boards of 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) net minimum thickness applied diagonally on studs spaced not over 24 inches (610 mm) o.c.
3. Wood structural panel sheathing with a thickness not less than 5/16 inch (7.9 mm) for a 16-inch (406 mm) stud spacing and not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) for a 24-inch (610 mm) stud spacing in accordance with Tables 2308.9.3(2) and 2308.9.3(3).
4. Fiberboard sheathing panels not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) thick applied vertically or horizontally on studs spaced not over 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. where installed with fasteners in accordance with Section 2306.4.4 and Table 2306.4.4.
5. Gypsum board [sheathing 1/2-inch-thick (12.7 mm) by 4-feet-wide (1219 mm) wallboard or veneer base] on studs spaced not over 24 inches (610 mm) o.c. and nailed at 7 inches (178 mm) o.c. with nails as required by Table 2306.4.5.
6. Particleboard wall sheathing panels where installed in accordance with Table 2308.9.3(4).
7. Portland cement plaster on studs spaced 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. installed in accordance with Section 2510.
8. Hardboard panel siding where installed in accordance with Section 2303.1.6 and Table 2308.9.3(5).

For cripple wall bracing, see Section 2308.9.4.1. For Methods 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, each panel must be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) in length, covering three stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) apart and covering two stud spaces where studs are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) apart.

For Method 5, each panel must be at least 96 inches (2438 mm) in length where applied to one face of a panel and 48 inches (1219 mm) where applied to both faces.

All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over studs and adjacent panel joints shall be nailed to common framing members. Horizontal joints shall occur over blocking or other framing equal in size to the studding except where waived by the installation requirements for the specific sheathing materials.

Sole plates shall be nailed to the floor framing and top plates shall be connected to the framing above in accordance with Section 2308.3.2. Where joists are perpendicular to braced wall lines above, blocking shall be provided under and in line with the braced wall panels.





For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE 2308.9.3 BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE LATERAL BRACING SYSTEM


TABLE 2308.9.3(1) BRACED WALL PANELSa

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY CONDITION CONSTRUCTION METHODSb,c BRACED PANEL LOCATION AND LENGTHd
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
A and B One story, top of two or three story X X X X X X X X Located in accordance with Section 2308.9.3 and not more than 25 feet on center.
First story of two story or second story
of three story
X X X X X X X X
First story of three story - X X X Xe X X X
C One story or top of two story - X X X X X X X Located in accordance with Section 2308.9.3 and not more than 25 feet on center.
First story of two story - X X X Xe X X X Located in accordance with Section 2308.9.3 and not more than 25 feet on center, but total length shall not be less than 25% of building lengthf.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. This table specifies minimum requirements for braced panels that form interior or exterior braced wall lines.

b. See Section 2308.9.3 for full description.

c. See Sections 2308.9.3.1 and 2308.9.3.2 for alternative braced panel requirements.

d. Building length is the dimension parallel to the braced wall length.

e. Gypsum wallboard applied to framing supports that are spaced at 16 inches on center.

f. The required lengths shall be doubled for gypsum board applied to only one face of a braced wall panel.


TABLE 2308.9.3(2) EXPOSED PLYWOOD PANEL SIDING

MINIMUM THICKNESSa
(inch)
MINIMUM NUMBER OF PLIES STUD SPACING
(inches)

Plywood siding applied directly

to studs or over sheathing
3/8 3 16b
1/2 4 24


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Thickness of grooved panels is measured at bottom of grooves.

b. Spans are permitted to be 24 inches if plywood siding applied with face grain perpendicular to studs or over one of the following: (1) 1-inch board sheathing, (2) 7/16 -inch wood structural panel sheathing or (3) 3/8-inch wood structural panel sheathing with strength axis (which is the long direction of the panel unless otherwise marked) of sheathing perpendicular to studs.


TABLE 2308.9.3(3) WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHINGb (Not Exposed to the Weather, Strength Axis Parallel or Perpendicular to Studs Except as Indicated Below)

MINIMUM
THICKNESS (inch)
PANEL SPAN
RATING
STUD SPACING (inches)
Siding nailed to studs Nailable sheathing
Sheathing parallel to studs Sheathing perpendicular to studs
5/16 12/0, 16/0, 20/0
Wall–16'' o.c.
16 16
3/8, 15/32, 1/2 16/0, 20/0, 24/0, 32/16 Wall–24'' o.c. 24 16 24
7/16, 15/32, 1/2 24/0, 24/16, 32/16

Wall–24'' o.c.
24 24a 24


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Plywood shall consist of four or more plies.

b. Blocking of horizontal joints shall not be required except as specified in Sections 2306.4 and 2308.12.4.


TABLE 2308.9.3(4) ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHING (Not Exposed to the Weather, Long Dimension of the Panel Parallel or Perpendicular to Studs)

GRADE THICKNESS (inch) STUD SPACING (inches)
Siding nailed to studs Sheathing under coverings specified in Section 2308.9.3 parallel or perpendicular to studs
M-S "Exterior Glue" 3/8 16
and M-2 "Exterior Glue" 1/2 16 16


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

TABLE 2308.9.3(5) HARDBOARD SIDING


SIDING MINIMUM NOMINAL THICKNESS (inch) 2 × 4 FRAMING MAXIMUM SPACING NAIL SIZEa,b,d NAIL SPACING
General Bracing panelsc
1. Lap siding
Direct to studs 3/8 16'' o.c. 8d 16'' o.c. Not applicable
Over sheathing 3/8 16'' o.c. 10d 16'' o.c. Not applicable
2. Square edge panel siding
Direct to studs 3/8 24'' o.c. 6d 6'' o.c. edges;
12'' o.c. at intermediate supports
4'' o.c. edges;
8'' o.c. at intermediate supports
Over sheathing 3/8 24'' o.c. 8d 6'' o.c. edges;
12'' o.c. at intermediate supports
4'' o.c. edges;
8'' o.c. at intermediate supports
3. Shiplap edge panel siding
Direct to studs 3/8 16'' o.c. 6d 6'' o.c. edges;
12'' o.c. at intermediate supports
4'' o.c. edges;
8'' o.c. at intermediate supports
Over sheathing 3/8 16'' o.c. 8d 6'' o.c. edges;
12'' o.c. At intermediate supports
4'' o.c. edges;
8'' o.c. at intermediate supports


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

a. Nails shall be corrosion resistant.

b. Minimum acceptable nail dimensions:


  Panel Siding
(inch)


Lap Siding
(inch)


Shank diameter 0.092 0.099
Head diameter 0.225 0.240


c. Where used to comply with Section 2308.9.3

d. Nail length must accomodate the sheathing and penetrate framing 1 1/2 inches.
Any bracing required by Section 2308.9.3 is permitted to be replaced by the following:
1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a length of not less than 2 feet 8 inches (813 mm) and a height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each panel shall be sheathed on one face with 3/8-inch-minimum-thickness (9.5 mm) wood structural panel sheathing nailed with 8d common or galvanized box nails in accordance with Table 2304.9.1 and blocked at wood structural panel edges. Two anchor bolts installed in accordance with Section 2308.6 shall be provided in each panel. Anchor bolts shall be placed at each panel outside quarter points. Each panel end stud shall have a tie-down device fastened to the foundation, capable of providing an approved uplift capacity of not less than 1,800 pounds (8006 N). The tie-down device shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The panels shall be supported directly on a foundation or on floor framing supported directly on a foundation that is continuous across the entire length of the braced wall line. This foundation shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom.

Where the continuous foundation is required to have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305 mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge is permitted at door openings in the braced wall line. This continuous footing or turned down slab edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be lapped 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement required in the continuous foundation located directly under the braced wall line.
2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall panel shall be braced in accordance with Section 2308.9.3.1, Item 1, except that the wood structural panel sheathing shall be provided on both faces, three anchor bolts shall be placed at one-quarter points, and tie-down device uplift capacity shall not be less than 3,000 pounds (13 344 N).
Any bracing required by Section 2308.9.3 is permitted to be replaced by the following when used adjacent to a door or window opening with a full-length header:
1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a length of not less than 16 inches (406 mm) and a height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each panel shall be sheathed on one face with a single layer of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum thickness wood structural panel sheathing nailed with 8d common or galvanized box nails in accordance with Figure 2308.9.3.2. The wood structural panel sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn or glued-laminated header and shall be nailed in accordance with Figure 2308.9.3.2. A built-up header consisting of at least two 2 x 12s and fastened in accordance with Item 24 of Table 2304.9.1 shall be permitted to be used. A spacer, if used, shall be placed on the side of the built-up beam opposite the wood structural panel sheathing. The header shall extend between the inside faces of the first full-length outer studs of each panel. The clear span of the header between the inner studs of each panel shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) and not more than 18 feet (5486 mm) in length. A strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4,400 N) shall fasten

the header to the inner studs opposite the sheathing. One anchor bolt not less than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) diameter and installed in accordance with Section 2308.6 shall be provided in the center of each sill plate. The studs at each end of the panel shall have a tie-down device fastened to the foundation with an uplift capacity of not less than 4,200 pounds (18 480 N).

Where a panel is located on one side of the opening, the header shall extend between the inside face of the first full-length stud of the panel and the bearing studs at the other end of the opening. A strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4400 N) shall fasten the header to the bearing studs. The bearing studs shall also have a tie-down device fastened to the foundation with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4400 N).

The tie-down devices shall be an embedded strap type, installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The panels shall be supported directly on a foundation that is continuous across the entire length of the braced wall line. This foundation shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom.

Where the continuous foundation is required to have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305 mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge is permitted at door openings in the braced wall line. This continuous footing or turned down slab edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be lapped not less than 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement required in the continuous foundation located directly under the braced wall line.
2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall panel shall be braced in accordance with Item 1 above, except that each panel shall have a length of not less than 24 inches (610 mm).





For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound = 4.448 N.


FIGURE 2308.9.3.2 ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL ADJACENT TO A DOOR OR WINDOW OPENING
Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not less in size than the studding above with a minimum length of 14 inches (356 mm), or shall be framed of solid blocking. Where exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.
For the purposes of this section, cripple walls having a stud height exceeding 14 inches (356 mm) shall be considered a story and shall be braced in accordance with Table 2308.9.3(1) for Seismic Design Category A, B or C. See Section 2308.12.4 for Seismic Design Category D or E.
Spacing of edge nailing for required wall bracing shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm) o.c. along the foundation plate and the top plate of the cripple wall. Nail size, nail spacing for field nailing and more restrictive boundary nailing requirements shall be as required elsewhere in the code for the specific bracing material used.
TABLE 2308.9.5 HEADER AND GIRDER SPANSa FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS (Maximum Spans for Douglas Fir-Larch, Hem-Fir, Southern Pine and Spruce-Pine-Firb and Required Number of Jack Studs)

HEADERS SUPPORTING SIZE GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
30 50
Building widthc (feet)
20 28 36 20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
Roof & Ceiling 2-2×4 3-6 1 3-2 1 2-10 1 3-2 1 2-9 1 2-6 1
2-2×6 5-5 1 4-8 1 4-2 1 4-8 1 4-1 1 3-8 2
2-2×8 6-10 1 5-11 2 5-4 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-7 2
2-2×10 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-3 2 6-3 2 5-7 2
2-2×12 9-9 2 8-5 2 7-6 2 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2
3-2×8 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-5 1 6-5 2 5-9 2
3-2×10 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-1 2 7-10 2 7-0 2
3-2×12 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-7 2 9-2 2 8-2 2
4-2×8 9-2 1 8-4 1 7-8 1 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1
4-2×10 11-8 1 10-6 1 9-5 2 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2
4-2×12 14-1 1 12-2 2 10-11 2 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2
Roof, Ceiling & 1 Center-Bearing Floor 2-2×4 3-1 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-2 1
2-2×6 4-6 1 4-0 1 3-7 2 4-1 1 3-7 2 3-3 2
2-2×8 5-9 2 5-0 2 4-6 2 5-2 2 4-6 2 4-1 2
2-2×10 7-0 2 6-2 2 5-6 2 6-4 2 5-6 2 5-0 2
2-2×12 8-1 2 7-1 2 6-5 2 7-4 2 6-5 2 5-9 3
3-2×8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-8 2 6-5 2 5-8 2 5-1 2
3-2×10 8-9 2 7-8 2 6-11 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2
3-2×12 10-2 2 8-11 2 8-0 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-3 2
4-2×8 8-1 1 7-3 1 6-7 1 7-5 1 6-6 1 5-11 2
4-2×10 10-1 1 8-10 2 8-0 2 9-1 2 8-0 2 7-2 2
4-2×12 11-9 2 10-3 2 9-3 2 10-7 2 9-3 2 8-4 2
Roof, Ceiling & 1 Clear Span Floor 2-2×4 2-8 1 2-4 1 2-1 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1
2-2×6 3-11 1 3-5 2 3-0 2 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 2
2-2×8 5-0 2 4-4 2 3-10 2 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2
2-2×10 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3
2-2×12 7-1 2 6-1 3 5-5 3 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3
3-2×8 6-3 2 5-5 2 4-10 2 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2
3-2×10 7-7 2 6-7 2 5-11 2 7-5 2 6-5 2 5-9 2
3-2×12 8-10 2 7-8 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-8 2
4-2×8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-7 2 7-0 1 6-1 2 5-5 2
4-2×10 8-9 2 7-7 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-7 2
4-2×12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-11 2 9-11 2 8-7 2 7-8 2


(continued)


TABLE 2308.9.5—continued

HEADER AND GIRDER SPANSa FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS (Maximum Spans for Douglas Fir-Larch, Hem-Fir, Southern Pine and Spruce-Pine-Firb and Required Number of Jack Studs)

HEADERS SUPPORTING SIZE GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
30 50
Building widthc (feet)
20 28 36 20 28 36