Chapter 1 General Requirements

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Reserved

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Reserved

Appendix H Reserved

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Reserved

Appendix L Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix S New York State Agencies With Construction Regulations or Construction Authority

This chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and quality of masonry.
Masonry shall comply with the provisions of one of the following design methods in this chapter as well as the requirements of Sections 2101 through 2104. Masonry designed by the allowable stress design provisions of Section 2101.2.1, the strength design provisions of Section 2101.2.2 or the prestressed masonry provisions of Section 2101.2.3 shall comply with Section 2105.
Masonry designed by the allowable stress design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2107.
Masonry designed by the strength design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2108, except that autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) masonry shall comply with the provisions of Section 2106 and Chapter 1 and Appendix A of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. AAC masonry shall not be used in the seismic-force-resisting system of structures classified as Seismic Design Category B, C, D, E or F.
Prestressed masonry shall be designed in accordance with Chapters 1 and 4 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and Section 2106. Special inspection during construction shall be provided as set forth in Section 1704.5.
Masonry designed by the empirical design method shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106 and 2109 or Chapter 5 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
Glass unit masonry shall comply with the provisions of Section 2110 or Chapter 7 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
Masonry veneer shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 14 or Chapter 6 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
The construction documents shall show all of the items required by this code including the following:

1. Specified size, grade, type and location of reinforcement, anchors and wall ties.
2. Reinforcing bars to be welded and welding procedure.
3. Size and location of structural elements.
4. Provisions for dimensional changes resulting from elastic deformation, creep, shrinkage, temperature and moisture.
The construction documents shall describe in sufficient detail the location, size and construction of masonry fireplaces. The thickness and characteristics of materials and the clearances from walls, partitions and ceilings shall be clearly indicated.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AAC MASONRY. Masonry made of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) units, manufactured without internal reinforcement and bonded together using thin- or thick-bed mortar.

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. Construction in which the exterior load-bearing and nonload-bearing walls and partitions are of unfired clay masonry units, and floors, roofs and interior framing are wholly or partly of wood or other approved materials.

Adobe, stabilized. Unfired clay masonry units to which admixtures, such as emulsified asphalt, are added during the manufacturing process to limit the units’ water absorption so as to increase their durability.
Adobe, unstabilized. Unfired clay masonry units that do not meet the definition of "Adobe, stabilized."
ANCHOR. Metal rod, wire or strap that secures masonry to its structural support.

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. Plain or ornamental hard-burned modified clay units, larger in size than brick, with glazed or unglazed ceramic finish.

AREA.

Bedded. The area of the surface of a masonry unit that is in contact with mortar in the plane of the joint.
Gross cross-sectional. The area delineated by the out-to-out specified dimensions of masonry in the plane under consideration.
Net cross-sectional. The area of masonry units, grout and mortar crossed by the plane under consideration based on out-to-out specified dimensions.
AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). Low-density cementitious product of calcium silicate hydrates, whose material specifications are defined in ASTM C 1386.

BED JOINT. The horizontal layer of mortar on which a masonry unit is laid.

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry in which reinforcement is embedded.

BOND REINFORCING. The adhesion between steel reinforcement and mortar or grout.

BRICK.

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). A masonry unit made of sand and lime.
Clay or shale. A masonry unit made of clay or shale, usually formed into a rectangular prism while in the plastic state and burned or fired in a kiln.
Concrete. A masonry unit having the approximate shape of a rectangular prism and composed of inert aggregate particles embedded in a hardened cementitious matrix.
BUTTRESS. A projecting part of a masonry wall built integrally therewith to provide lateral stability.

CAST STONE. A building stone manufactured from portland cement concrete precast and used as a trim, veneer or facing on or in buildings or structures.

CELL. A void space having a gross cross-sectional area greater than 11/2 square inches (967 mm2).

CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing one or more passageways for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere.

CHIMNEY TYPES.

High-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess of 2,000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.3).
Low-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for periods up to 1 hour. Temperatures shall be measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Masonry type. A field-constructed chimney of solid masonry units or stones.
Medium-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases not exceeding 2,000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue outlet (see Section 2113.11.2).
CLEANOUT. An opening to the bottom of a grout space of sufficient size and spacing to allow the removal of debris.

COLLAR JOINT. Vertical longitudinal joint between wythes of masonry or between masonry and backup construction that is permitted to be filled with mortar or grout.

COLUMN, MASONRY. An isolated vertical member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its thickness does not exceed three times its thickness and whose height is at least four times its thickness.

COMPOSITE ACTION. Transfer of stress between components of a member designed so that in resisting loads, the combined components act together as a single member.

COMPOSITE MASONRY. Multiwythe masonry members acting with composite action.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. Maximum compressive force resisted per unit of net cross-sectional area of masonry, determined by the testing of masonry prisms or a function of individual masonry units, mortar and grout.

CONNECTOR. A mechanical device for securing two or more pieces, parts or members together, including anchors, wall ties and fasteners.

COVER. Distance between surface of reinforcing bar and edge of member.

DIAPHRAGM. A roof or floor system designed to transmit lateral forces to shear walls or other lateral-load-resisting elements.

DIMENSIONS.

Actual. The measured dimension of a masonry unit or element.
Nominal. The specified dimension plus an allowance for the joints with which the units are to be laid. Thickness is given first, followed by height and then length.
Specified. The dimensions specified for the manufacture or construction of masonry, masonry units, joints or any other component of a structure.
EFFECTIVE HEIGHT. For braced members, the effective height is the clear height between lateral supports and is used for calculating the slenderness ratio. The effective height for unbraced members is calculated in accordance with engineering mechanics.

FIREPLACE. A hearth and fire chamber or similar prepared place in which a fire may be made and which is built in conjunction with a chimney.

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the firebox and the smoke chamber.

FOUNDATION PIER. An isolated vertical foundation member whose horizontal dimension measured at right angles to its thickness does not exceed three times its thickness and whose height is equal to or less than four times its thickness.

GLASS UNIT MASONRY. Masonry composed of glass units bonded by mortar.

GROUTED MASONRY.

Grouted hollow-unit masonry. That form of grouted masonry construction in which certain designated cells of hollow units are continuously filled with grout.
Grouted multiwythe masonry. That form of grouted masonry construction in which the space between the wythes is solidly or periodically filled with grout.
HEAD JOINT. Vertical mortar joint placed between masonry units within the wythe at the time the masonry units are laid.

HEADER (Bonder). A masonry unit that connects two or more adjacent wythes of masonry.

HEIGHT, WALLS. The vertical distance from the foundation wall or other immediate support of such wall to the top of the wall.

MASONRY. A built-up construction or combination of building units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, stone or other approved units bonded together with or without mortar or grout or other accepted methods of joining.

Ashlar masonry. Masonry composed of various-sized rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces, properly bonded and laid in mortar.
Coursed ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone of equal height for each course, although different courses shall be permitted to be of varying height.
Glass unit masonry. Masonry composed of glass units bonded by mortar.
Plain masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of the masonry is taken into consideration and the effects of stresses in reinforcement are neglected.
Random ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone set without continuous joints and laid up without drawn patterns. When composed of material cut into modular heights, discontinuous but aligned horizontal joints are discernible.
Reinforced masonry. Masonry construction in which reinforcement acting in conjunction with the masonry is used to resist forces.
Solid masonry. Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled with mortar.
Unreinforced (plain) masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of masonry is taken into consideration and the resistance of the reinforcing steel, if present, is neglected.
MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 2103.

Clay. A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed of burned clay, shale, fired clay or mixtures thereof.
Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates.
Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is 75 percent or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE. The average daily temperature of temperature extremes predicted by a local weather bureau for the next 24 hours.

MORTAR. A plastic mixture of approved cementitious materials, fine aggregates and water used to bond masonry or other structural units.

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. A mixture to bond concrete masonry units that contains hydraulic cement, glass fiber reinforcement with or without inorganic fillers or organic modifiers and water.

PLASTIC HINGE. The zone in a structural member in which the yield moment is anticipated to be exceeded under loading combinations that include earthquakes.

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. Masonry in which internal stresses have been introduced to counteract potential tensile stresses in masonry resulting from applied loads.

PRISM. An assemblage of masonry units and mortar with or without grout used as a test specimen for determining properties of the masonry.

RUBBLE MASONRY. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones.

Coursed rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones fitting approximately on level beds and well bonded.
Random rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded and fitted together to form well-divided joints.
Rough or ordinary rubble. Masonry composed of unsquared field stones laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded.
RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least one-quarter the unit length.

SHEAR WALL.

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.
Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.2.
Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.
Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.
Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.1.
Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.
Special prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.3 except that only grouted, laterally restrained tendons are used.
Special reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 2106.1.1.
SHELL. The outer portion of a hollow masonry unit as placed in masonry.

SPECIFIED. Required by construction documents.

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY, f'm. Minimum compressive strength, expressed as force per unit of net cross-sectional area, required of the masonry used in construction by the construction documents, and upon which the project design is based. Whenever the quantity f'm is under the radical sign, the square root of numerical value only is intended and the result has units of pounds per square inch (psi) (MPa).

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are vertically aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for stack bond shall apply to masonry laid in other than running bond.

STONE MASONRY. Masonry composed of field, quarried or cast stone units bonded by mortar.

Ashlar stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed surfaces and bonded by mortar.
Rubble stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of irregular-shaped units bonded by mortar.
STRENGTH.

Design strength. Nominal strength multiplied by a strength reduction factor.
Nominal strength. Strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with these provisions before application of any strength-reduction factors.
Required strength. Strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads.
THIN-BED MORTAR. Mortar for use in construction of AAC unit masonry with joints 0.06 inch (1.5 mm) or less.

TIE, LATERAL. Loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement.

TIE, WALL. A connector that connects wythes of masonry walls together.

TILE. A ceramic surface unit, usually relatively thin in relation to facial area, made from clay or a mixture of clay or other ceramic materials, called the body of the tile, having either a "glazed" or "unglazed" face and fired above red heat in the course of manufacture to a temperature sufficiently high enough to produce specific physical properties and characteristics.

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. A hollow masonry unit composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixture thereof, and having parallel cells.

WALL. A vertical element with a horizontal length-to-thickness ratio greater than three, used to enclose space.

Cavity wall. A wall built of masonry units or of concrete, or a combination of these materials, arranged to provide an airspace within the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall are tied together with metal ties.
Composite wall. A wall built of a combination of two or more masonry units bonded together, one forming the backup and the other forming the facing elements.
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded walls. A wall built of concrete masonry units where the units are stacked dry, without mortar on the bed or head joints, and where both sides of the wall are coated with a surface-bonding mortar.
Masonry-bonded hollow wall. A wall built of masonry units so arranged as to provide an airspace within the wall, and in which the facing and backing of the wall are bonded together with masonry units.
Parapet wall. The part of any wall entirely above the roof line.
WEB. An interior solid portion of a hollow masonry unit as placed in masonry.

WYTHE. Each continuous, vertical section of a wall, one masonry unit in thickness.

NOTATIONS.

An = Net cross-sectional area of masonry, square inches (mm2).
b = Effective width of rectangular member or width of flange for T and I sections, inches (mm).
db = Diameter of reinforcement, inches (mm).
Fs = Allowable tensile or compressive stress in reinforcement, psi (MPa).
fr = Modulus of rupture, psi (MPa).
fy = Specified yield stress of the reinforcement or the anchor bolt, psi (MPa).
f 'AAC = Specified compressive strength of AAC masonry, the minimum compressive strength for a class of AAC masonry as specified in ASTM C 1386, psi (MPa).
f 'm = Specified compressive strength of masonry at age of 28 days, psi (MPa).
f 'mi = Specified compressive strength of masonry at the time of prestress transfer, psi (MPa).
K = The lesser of the masonry cover, clear spacing between adjacent reinforcement, or five times db, inches (mm).
Ls = Distance between supports, inches (mm).
Lw = Length of wall, inches (mm).
ld = Required development length or lap length of reinforcement, inches (mm).
lde = Embedment length of reinforcement, inches (mm).
Pw = Weight of wall tributary to section under consideration, pounds (N).
t = Specified wall thickness dimension or the least lateral dimension of a column, inches (mm).
Vn = Nominal shear strength, pounds (N).
Vu = Required shear strength due to factored loads, pounds (N).
W = Wind load, or related internal moments in forces.
γ = Reinforcement size factor.
ρn = Ratio of distributed shear reinforcement on plane perpendicular to plane of Amv.
ρmax = Maximum reinforcement ratio.
Ф = Strength reduction factor.
Concrete masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 55 for concrete brick; ASTM C 73 for calcium silicate face brick; ASTM C 90 for load-bearing concrete masonry units or ASTM C 744 for prefaced concrete and calcium silicate masonry units.
Clay or shale masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 34 for structural clay load-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 56 for structural clay nonload-bearing wall tile; ASTM C 62 for building brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C 1088 for solid units of thin veneer brick; ASTM C 126 for ceramic-glazed structural clay facing tile, facing brick and solid masonry units; ASTM C 212 for structural clay facing tile; ASTM C 216 for facing brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C 652 for hollow brick (hollow masonry units made from clay or shale); and ASTM C 1405 for glazed brick (single-fired solid brick units).

Exception: Structural clay tile for nonstructural use in fireproofing of structural members and in wall furring shall not be required to meet the compressive strength specifications. The fire-resistance rating shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 119 and shall comply with the requirements of Table 602.
AAC masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 1386 for the strength class specified.
Stone masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C 503 for marble building stone (exterior); ASTM C 568 for limestone building stone; ASTM C 615 for granite building stone; ASTM C 616 for sandstone building stone; or ASTM C 629 for slate building stone.
Ceramic tile shall be as defined in, and shall conform to the requirements of, ANSI A137.1.
Hollow glass units shall be partially evacuated and have a minimum average glass face thickness of 3/16 inch (4.8 mm). Solid glass-block units shall be provided when required. The surfaces of units intended to be in contact with mortar shall be treated with a polyvinyl butyral coating or latex-based paint. Reclaimed units shall not be used.
Second-hand masonry units shall not be reused unless they conform to the requirements of new units. The units shall be of whole, sound materials and free from cracks and other defects that will interfere with proper laying or use. Old mortar shall be cleaned from the unit before reuse.
Mortar for use in masonry construction shall conform to ASTM C 270 and shall conform to the proportion specifications of Table 2103.8(1) or the property specifications of Table 2103.8(2). Type S or N mortar shall be used for glass unit masonry. The amount of water used in mortar for glass unit masonry shall be adjusted to account for the lack of absorption. Retempering of mortar for glass unit masonry shall not be permitted after initial set. Unused mortar shall be discarded within 21/2 hours after initial mixing, except that unused mortar for glass unit masonry shall be discarded within 11/2 hours after initial mixing.

TABLE 2103.8(1) MORTAR PROPORTIONS

MORTAR TYPE PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME (cementitious materials) AGGREGATE MEASURED IN A DAMP, LOOSE CONDITION
Portland cementa or blended cementb Masonry cementc Mortar cementd HYDRATED LIMEe OR LIME PUTTY
M S N M S N
Cement-lime M 1 - - - - - - 1/4 Not less than 21/4 and not more than 3 times the sum of the separate volumes of cementitious materials
S 1 - - - - - over 1/4 to 1/2
N 1 - - - - - over 1/2 to 11/4
O 1 - - - - - over 11/4 to 21/2
Mortar cement M 1 - - - - - 1 -
M - - - - 1 - - -
S 1/2 - - - - - 1 -
S - - - - - 1 - -
N - - - - - - 1 -
O - - - - - - 1 -
Masonry cement M 1 - - 1 - - - -
M - 1 - - -- - - -
S 1/2 - - 1 - - - -
S - - 1 - - - - -
N - - - 1 - - - -
O - - - 1 - - - -


a. Portland cement conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 150.

b. Blended cement conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 595.

c. Masonry cement conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 91.

d. Mortar cement conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 1329.

e. Hydrated lime conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 207.

TABLE 2103.8(2)
MORTAR PROPERTIESa

MORTAR TYPE AVERAGE COMPRESSIVEb STRENGTH AT 28 DAYS minimum (psi) WATER RETENTION minimum (%) AIR CONTENT maximum (%)
Cement-lime M 2,500 75 12
S 1,800 75 12
N 750 75 14c
O 350 75 14c
Mortar cement M 2,500 75 12
S 1,800 75 12
N 750 75 14c
O 350 75 14c
Masonry cement M 2,500 75 18
S 1,800 75 18
N 750 75 20d
O 350 75 20d


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

a. This aggregate ratio (measured in damp, loose condi the sum of the separate volumes of cementitious materials.

b. Average of three 2-inch cubes of laboratory-prepared mortar, in accordance with ASTM C 270.

c. When structural reinforcement is incorporated in cement-lime or mortar cement mortars, the maximum air content shall not exceed 12 percent.

d. When structural reinforcement is incorporated in masonry cement mortar, the maximum air content shall not exceed 18 percent.
Surface-bonding mortar shall comply with ASTM C 887. Surface bonding of concrete masonry units shall comply with ASTM C 946.
Portland cement mortars for installing ceramic wall and floor tile shall comply with ANSI A108.1A and ANSI A108.1B and be of the compositions indicated in Table 2103.10.

TABLE 2103.10 CERAMIC TILE MORTAR COMPOSITIONS

LOCATION MORTAR COMPOSITION
Walls Scratchcoat 1 cement; 1/5 hydrated lime;
4 dry or 5 damp sand
Setting bed and leveling coat 1 cement; 1/2 hydrated lime;
5 damp sand to 1 cement
1 hydrated lime, 7 damp sand
Floors Setting bed 1 cement; 1/10 hydrated lime;
5 dry or 6 damp sand; or 1
cement; 5 dry or 6 damp sand
Ceilings Scratchcoat and sand bed 1 cement; 1/2 hydrated lime;
21/2 dry sand or 3 damp sand
Premixed prepared portland cement mortars, which require only the addition of water and are used in the installation of ceramic tile, shall comply with ANSI A118.1. The shear bond strength for tile set in such mortar shall be as required in accordance with ANSI A118.1. Tile set in dry-set portland cement mortar shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.5.
Latex-modified portland cement thin-set mortars in which latex is added to dry-set mortar as a replacement for all or part of the gauging water that are used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.4. Tile set in latex-modified portland cement shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.5.
Ceramic tile set and grouted with chemical-resistant epoxy shall comply with ANSI A118.3. Tile set and grouted with epoxy shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.6.
Chemical-resistant furan mortar and grout that are used to install ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.5. Tile set and grouted with furan shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.8.
Modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and grout that are used to install ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.8. Tile set and grouted with modified epoxy-emulsion mortar and grout shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.9.
Water-resistant organic adhesives used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A136.1. The shear bond strength after water immersion shall not be less than 40 psi (275 kPa) for Type I adhesive and not less than 20 psi (138 kPa) for Type II adhesive when tested in accordance with ANSI A136.1. Tile set in organic adhesives shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.4.
Portland cement grouts used for the installation of ceramic tile shall comply with ANSI A118.6. Portland cement grouts for tile work shall be installed in accordance with ANSI A108.10.
Thin-bed mortar for AAC masonry shall comply with Section 2103.11.1. Mortar for leveling courses of AAC masonry shall comply with Section 2103.11.2.
Thin-bed mortar for AAC masonry shall be specifically manufactured for use with AAC masonry. Testing to verify mortar properties shall be conducted by the thin-bed mortar manufacturer and confirmed by an independent testing agency:
1. The compressive strength of thin-bed mortar, as determined by ASTM C 109, shall meet or exceed the strength of the AAC masonry units.
2. The shear strength of thin-bed mortar shall meet or exceed the shear strength of the AAC masonry units for wall assemblages tested in accordance with ASTM E 519.
3. The flexural tensile strength of thin-bed mortar shall not be less than the modulus of rupture of the masonry units. Flexural strength shall be determined by testing in accordance with ASTM E 72 (transverse load test), ASTM E 518 Method A (flexural bond strength test) or ASTM C 1072 (flexural bond strength test).
3.1. For conducting flexural strength tests in accordance with ASTM E 518, at least five test specimens shall be constructed as stack-bonded prisms at least 32 inches (810 mm) high. The type of mortar specified by the AAC unit manufacturer shall be used.
3.2. For flexural strength tests in accordance with ASTM C 1072, test specimens shall be constructed as stack-bonded prisms comprised with at least three bed joints. A total of at least five joints shall be tested using the type of mortar specified by the AAC unit manufacturer.
4. The splitting tensile strength of AAC masonry assemblages composed of two AAC masonry units bonded with one thin-bed mortar joint shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1006 and shall equal or exceed 2.4
Mortar used for the leveling courses of AAC masonry shall conform to Section 2103.8 and shall be Type M or S.
Grout shall conform to Table 2103.12 or to ASTM C 476. When grout conforms to ASTM C 476, the grout shall be specified by proportion requirements or property requirements.

TABLE 2103.12 GROUT PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME FOR MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

TYPE PARTS BY VOLUME OF PORTLAND CEMENT OR BLENDED CEMENT PARTS BY VOLUME OF HYDRATED LIME OR LIME PUTTY AGGREGATE, MEASURED IN A
DAMP, LOOSE CONDITION
Fine Coarse
Fine grout 1 0-1/10 21/4-3 times the sum of the volumes of the cementitious materials -
Coarse grout 1 0-1/10 21/4-3 times the sum of the volumes of the cementitious materials 1-2 times the sum of the volumes of the cementitious materials
Metal reinforcement and accessories shall conform to Sections 2103.13.1 through 2103.13.8.
Deformed reinforcing bars shall conform to one of the following standards: ASTM A 615 for deformed and plain billet-steel bars for concrete reinforcement; ASTM A 706 for low-alloy steel deformed bars for concrete reinforcement; ASTM A 767 for zinc-coated reinforcing steel bars; ASTM A 775 for epoxy-coated reinforcing steel bars; and ASTM A 996 for rail and axle steel-deformed bars for concrete reinforcement.
Joint reinforcement shall comply with ASTM A 951. The maximum spacing of crosswires in ladder-type joint reinforcement and point of connection of cross wires to longitudinal wires of truss-type reinforcement shall be 16 inches (400 mm).
Deformed reinforcing wire shall conform to ASTM A 496.
Wire fabric shall conform to ASTM A 185 for plain steel-welded wire fabric for concrete reinforcement or ASTM A 497 for welded deformed steel wire fabric for concrete reinforcement.
Anchors, ties and accessories shall conform to the following standards: ASTM A 36 for structural steel; ASTM A 82 for plain steel wire for concrete reinforcement; ASTM A 185 for plain steel-welded wire fabric for concrete reinforcement; ASTM A 240 for chromium and chromium-nickle stainless steel plate, sheet and strip; ASTM A 307 Grade A for anchor bolts; ASTM A 480 for flat rolled stainless and heat-resisting steel plate, sheet and strip; and ASTM A 1008 for cold-rolled carbon steel sheet.
Prestressing tendons shall conform to one of the following standards:

1. Wire ASTM A 421
2. Low-relaxation wire ASTM A 421
3. Strand ASTM A 416
4. Low-relaxation strand ASTM A 416
5. Bar ASTM A 722

Exceptions:
1. Wire, strands and bars not specifically listed in ASTM A 421, ASTM A 416 or ASTM A 722 are permitted, provided they conform to the minimum requirements in ASTM A 421, ASTM A 416 or ASTM A 722 and are approved by the architect/engineer.
2. Bars and wires of less than 150 kips per square inch (ksi) (1034 MPa) tensile strength and conforming to ASTM A 82, ASTM A 510, ASTM A 615, ASTM A 996 or ASTM A 706 are permitted to be used as prestressed tendons, provided that:
2.1. The stress relaxation properties have been assessed by tests according to ASTM E 328 for the maximum permissible stress in the tendon.
2.2. Other nonstress-related requirements of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, Chapter 4, addressing prestressing tendons are met.
Corrosion protection for prestressing tendons shall comply with the requirements of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602, Article 2.4G. Corrosion protection for prestressing anchorages, couplers and end blocks shall comply with the requirements of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602, Article 2.4H. Corrosion protection for carbon steel accessories used in exterior wall construction or interior walls exposed to a mean relative humidity exceeding 75 percent shall comply with either Section 2103.13.7.2 or 2103.13.7.3. Corrosion protection for carbon steel accessories used in interior walls exposed to a mean relative humidity equal to or less than 75 percent shall comply with either Section 2103.13.7.1, 2103.13.7.2 or 2103.13.7.3.
Mill galvanized coatings shall be applied as follows:
1. For joint reinforcement, wall ties, anchors and inserts, a minimum coating of 0.1 ounce per square foot (31 g/m2) complying with the requirements of ASTM A 641 shall be applied.
2. For sheet metal ties and sheet metal anchors, a minimum coating complying with Coating Designation G-60 according to the requirements of ASTM A 653 shall be applied.
3. For anchor bolts, steel plates or bars not exposed to the earth, weather or a mean relative humidity exceeding 75 percent, a coating is not required.
Hot-dipped galvanized coatings shall be applied after fabrication as follows:
1. For joint reinforcement, wall ties, anchors and inserts, a minimum coating of 1.5 ounces per square foot (458 g/m2) complying with the requirements of ASTM A 153, Class B shall be applied.
2. For sheet metal ties and anchors, the requirements of ASTM A 153, Class B shall be met.
3. For steel plates and bars, the requirements of either ASTM A 123 or ASTM A 153, Class B shall be met.
Carbon steel accessories shall be epoxy coated as follows:
1. For joint reinforcement, the requirements of ASTM A 884, Class A, Type 1 having a minimum thickness of 7 mils (175 mm) shall be met.
2. For wire ties and anchors, the requirements of ASTM A 899, Class C having a minimum thickness of 20 mils (508 mm) shall be met.
3. For sheet metal ties and anchors, a minimum thickness of 20 mils (508 mm) per surface shall be provided or a minimum thickness in accordance with the manufacturer's specification shall be provided.
Where unidentified reinforcement is approved for use, not less than three tension and three bending tests shall be made on representative specimens of the reinforcement from each shipment and grade of reinforcing steel proposed for use in the work.
Masonry construction shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2104.1.1 through 2104.5 and with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
Masonry, except masonry veneer, shall be constructed within the tolerances specified in ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
Placement of mortar and clay and concrete units shall comply with Sections 2104.1.2.1, 2104.1.2.2, 2104.1.2.3 and 2104.1.2.5. Placement of mortar and glass unit masonry shall comply with Sections 2104.1.2.4 and 2104.1.2.5. Placement of thin-bed mortar and AAC masonry shall comply with Section 2104.1.2.6.
Unless otherwise required or indicated on the construction documents, head and bed joints shall be 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) thick, except that the thickness of the bed joint of the starting course placed over foundations shall not be less than 1 / 4 inch (6.4 mm) and not more than 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm).
Open-end units with beveled ends shall be fully grouted. Head joints of open-end units with beveled ends need not be mortared. The beveled ends shall form a grout key that permits grouts within 5 / 8 inch (15.9 mm) of the face of the unit. The units shall be tightly butted to prevent leakage of the grout.
Hollow units shall be placed such that face shells of bed joints are fully mortared. Webs shall be fully mortared in all courses of piers, columns, pilasters, in the starting course on foundations where adjacent cells or cavities are to be grouted, and where otherwise required. Head joints shall be mortared a minimum distance from each face equal to the face shell thickness of the unit.
Unless otherwise required or indicated on the construction documents, solid units shall be placed in fully mortared bed and head joints. The ends of the units shall be completely buttered. Head joints shall not be filled by slushing with mortar. Head joints shall be constructed by shoving mortar tight against the adjoining unit. Bed joints shall not be furrowed deep enough to produce voids.
Glass units shall be placed so head and bed joints are filled solidly. Mortar shall not be furrowed.

Unless otherwise required, head and bed joints of glass unit masonry shall be 1 / 4 inch (6.4 mm) thick, except that vertical joint thickness of radial panels shall not be less than 1 / 8 inch (3.2 mm). The bed joint thickness tolerance shall be minus 1 / 16 inch (1.6 mm) and plus 1 / 8 inch (3.2 mm). The head joint thickness tolerance shall be plus or minus 1 / 8 inch (3.2 mm).
Units shall be placed while the mortar is soft and plastic. Any unit disturbed to the extent that the initial bond is broken after initial positioning shall be removed and relaid in fresh mortar.
AAC masonry construction shall begin with a leveling course of masonry meeting the requirements of Section 2104.1.2. Subsequent courses of AAC masonry units shall be laid with thin-bed mortar using a special notched trowel manufactured for use with thin-bed mortar to spread the mortar so that it completely fills the bed joints. Unless otherwise specified, the head joints shall be similarly filled. Joints in AAC masonry shall be approximately 1 / 16 inch (1.5 mm) and shall be formed by striking on the ends and tops of AAC masonry units with a rubber mallet. Minor adjustments in unit position shall be made while the mortar is still soft and plastic by tapping it into the proper position. Minor sanding of the exposed faces of AAC masonry shall be permitted to provide a smooth and plumb surface.
Between grout pours, a horizontal construction joint shall be formed by stopping all wythes at the same elevation and with the grout stopping a minimum of 1 1 / 2 inches (38 mm) below a mortar joint, except at the top of the wall. Where bond beams occur, the grout pour shall be stopped a minimum of 1 / 2 inch (12.7 mm) below the top of the masonry.
The ends of wall ties shall be embedded in mortar joints. Wall tie ends shall engage outer face shells of hollow units by at least 1 / 2 inch (12.7 mm). Wire wall ties shall be embedded at least 1 1 / 2 inches (38 mm) into the mortar bed of solid masonry units or solid-grouted hollow units. Wall ties shall not be bent after being embedded in grout or mortar.
Chases and recesses shall be constructed as masonry units are laid. Masonry directly above chases or recesses wider than 12 inches (305 mm) shall be supported on lintels.
The design for lintels shall be in accordance with the masonry design provisions of either Section 2107 or 2108. Minimum length of end support shall be 4 inches (102 mm).
Masonry shall not be supported on wood girders or other forms of wood construction except as permitted in Section 2304.12.
The top of unfinished masonry work shall be covered to protect the masonry from the weather.
Weep holes provided in the outside wythe of masonry walls shall be at a maximum spacing of 33 inches (838 mm) on center (o.c.). Weep holes shall not be less than 3 / 16 inch (4.8 mm) in diameter.
Except for corbels designed per Section 2107 or 2108, the following shall apply:

1. Corbels shall be constructed of solid masonry units.
2. The maximum corbeled projection beyond the face of the wall shall not exceed:
2.1. One-half of the wall thickness for multiwythe walls bonded by mortar or grout and wall ties or masonry headers or
2.2. One-half the wythe thickness for single wythe walls, masonry bonded hollow walls, multiwythe walls with open collar joints and veneer walls.
3. The maximum projection of one unit shall not exceed:
3.1. One-half the nominal unit height of the unit or
3.2. One-third the nominal thickness of the unit or wythe.
4. The back surface of the corbelled section shall remain within 1 inch (25 mm) of plane.
Unless structural support and anchorage are provided to resist the overturning moment, the center of gravity of projecting masonry or molded cornices shall lie within the middle one-third of the supporting wall. Terra cotta and metal cornices shall be provided with a structural frame of approved noncombustible material anchored in an approved manner.
The cold weather construction provisions of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602, Article 1.8 C, or the following procedures shall be implemented when either the ambient temperature falls below 40°F (4°C) or the temperature of masonry units is below 40°F (4°C).
1. Temperatures of masonry units shall not be less than 20°F (-7°C) when laid in the masonry. Masonry units containing frozen moisture, visible ice or snow on their surface shall not be laid.
2. Visible ice and snow shall be removed from the top surface of existing foundations and masonry to receive new construction. These surfaces shall be heated to above freezing, using methods that do not result in damage.
The following requirements shall apply to work in progress and shall be based on ambient temperature.
The following construction requirements shall be met when the ambient temperature is between 40°F (4°C) and 32°F (0°C):
1. Glass unit masonry shall not be laid.
2. Water and aggregates used in mortar and grout shall not be heated above 140°F (60°C).
3. Mortar sand or mixing water shall be heated to produce mortar temperatures between 40°F (4°C) and 120°F (49°C) at the time of mixing. When water and aggregates for grout are below 32°F(0°C), they shall be heated.
The requirements of Section 2104.3.2.1 and the following construction requirements shall be met when the ambient temperature is between 32°F (0°C) and 25°F (-4°C):
1. The mortar temperature shall be maintained above freezing until used in masonry.
2. Aggregates and mixing water for grout shall be heated to produce grout temperature between 70°F (21°C) and 120°F (49°C) at the time of mixing. Grout temperature shall be maintained above 70°F (21°C) at the time of grout placement.
3. Heat AAC masonry units to a minimum temperature of 40°F (4°C) before installing thin-bed mortar.
The requirements of Sections 2104.3.2.1 and 2104.3.2.2 and the following construction requirements shall be met when the ambient temperature is between 25°F (-4°C) and 20°F (-7°C):
1. Masonry surfaces under construction shall be heated to 40°F (4°C).
2. Wind breaks or enclosures shall be provided when the wind velocity exceeds 15 miles per hour (mph) (24 km/h).
3. Prior to grouting, masonry shall be heated to a minimum of 40°F (4°C).
The requirements of Sections 2104.3.2.1, 2104.3.2.2 and 2104.3.2.3 and the following construction requirement shall be met when the ambient temperature is below 20°F (-7°C): Enclosures and auxiliary heat shall be provided to maintain air temperature within the enclosure to above 32°F (0°C).
The requirements of this section and Sections 2104.3.3.1 through 2104.3.3.5 apply after the masonry is placed and shall be based on anticipated minimum daily temperature for grouted masonry and anticipated mean daily temperature for ungrouted masonry.
The temperature of glass unit masonry shall be maintained above 40°F (4°C) for 48 hours after construction.
The temperature of AAC masonry shall be maintained above 32°F (0°C) for the first 4 hours after thin-bed mortar application.
When the temperature is between 40°F (4°C) and 25°F (-4°C), newly constructed masonry shall be covered with a weather-resistive membrane for 24 hours after being completed.
When the temperature is between 25°F (-4°C) and 20°F (-7°C), newly constructed masonry shall be completely covered with weather-resistive insulating blankets, or equal protection, for 24 hours after being completed. The time period shall be extended to 48 hours for grouted masonry, unless the only cement in the grout is Type III portland cement.
When the temperature is below 20°F (-7°C), newly constructed masonry shall be maintained at a temperature above 32°F (0°C) for at least 24 hours after being completed by using heated enclosures, electric heating blankets, infrared lamps or other acceptable methods. The time period shall be extended to 48 hours for grouted masonry, unless the only cement in the grout is Type III portland cement.
The hot weather construction provisions of ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602, Article 1.8 D, or the following procedures shall be implemented when the temperature or the temperature and wind-velocity limits of this section are exceeded.
The following requirements shall be met prior to conducting masonry work.
When the ambient temperature exceeds 100°F (38°C), or exceeds 90°F (32°C) with a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (3.5 m/s):
1. Necessary conditions and equipment shall be provided to produce mortar having a temperature below 120°F (49°C).
2. Sand piles shall be maintained in a damp, loose condition.
When the ambient temperature exceeds 115°F (46°C), or 105°F (40°C) with a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (3.5 m/s), the requirements of Section 2104.4.1.1 shall be implemented, and materials and mixing equipment shall be shaded from direct sunlight.
The following requirements shall be met while masonry work is in progress.
When the ambient temperature exceeds 100°F (38°C), or exceeds 90°F (32°C) with a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (3.5 m/s):
1. The temperature of mortar and grout shall be maintained below 120°F (49°C).
2. Mixers, mortar transport containers and mortar boards shall be flushed with cool water before they come into contact with mortar ingredients or mortar.
3. Mortar consistency shall be maintained by retempering with cool water.
4. Mortar shall be used within 2 hours of initial mixing.
5. Thin-bed mortar shall be spread no more than 4 feet (1219 mm) ahead of AAC masonry units.
6. AAC masonry units shall be placed within one minute after spreading thin-bed mortar.
When the ambient temperature exceeds 115°F (46°C), or exceeds 105°F (40°C) with a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (3.5 m/s), the requirements of Section 2104.4.2.1 shall be implemented and cool mixing water shall be used for mortar and grout. The use of ice shall be permitted in the mixing water prior to use. Ice shall not be permitted in the mixing water when added to the other mortar or grout materials.
When the mean daily temperature exceeds 100°F (38°C) or exceeds 90°F (32°C) with a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (3.5 m/s), newly constructed masonry shall be fog sprayed until damp at least three times a day until the masonry is three days old.
Brick (clay or shale) at the time of laying shall require wetting if the unit's initial rate of water absorption exceeds 30 grams per 30 square inches (19 355 mm2) per minute or 0.035 ounce per square inch (1 g/645 mm2) per minute, as determined by ASTM C 67.
A quality assurance program shall be used to ensure that the constructed masonry is in compliance with the construction documents.

The quality assurance program shall comply with the inspection and testing requirements of Chapter 17.
f ' m and f ' AAC . Compressive strength of masonry shall be considered satisfactory if the compressive strength of each masonry wythe and grouted collar joint equals or exceeds the value of f 'm for clay and concrete masonry and f 'AAC for AAC masonry. For partially grouted clay and concrete masonry, the compressive strength of both the grouted and ungrouted masonry shall equal or exceed the applicable f 'm . At the time of prestress, the compressive strength of the masonry shall equal or exceed f 'mi , which shall be less than or equal to f 'm .
The compressive strength for each wythe shall be determined by the unit strength method or by the prism test method as specified herein.
The compressive strength of masonry shall be determined based on the strength of the units and the type of mortar specified using Table 2105.2.2.1.1, provided:
1. Units conform to ASTM C 62, ASTM C 216 or ASTM C 652 and are sampled and tested in accordance with ASTM C 67.
2. Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 5/8 inch (15.9 mm).
3. For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the following requirements:
3.1. Grout conforms to ASTM C 476.
3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength equals or exceeds f 'm but not less than 2,000 psi (13.79 MPa). The compressive strength of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.

TABLE 2105.2.2.1.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CLAY MASONRY

NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CLAY MASONRY UNITS (psi) NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY (psi)
Type M or S mortar Type N mortar
1,700 2,100 1,000
3,350 4,150 1,500
4,950 6,200 2,000
6,600 8,250 2,500
8,250 10,300 3,000
9,900 - 3,500
13,200 - 4,000


For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa.
The compressive strength of masonry shall be determined based on the strength of the unit and type of mortar specified using Table 2105.2.2.1.2, provided:
1. Units conform to ASTM C 55 or ASTM C 90 and are sampled and tested in accordance with ASTM C 140.
2. Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 5/8 inch (15.9 mm).
3. For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the following requirements:
3.1. Grout conforms to ASTM C 476.
3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength equals or exceeds f 'm but not less than 2,000 psi (13.79 MPa). The compressive strength of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.

TABLE 2105.2.2.1.2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MASONRY

NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS (psi) NET AREA COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY (psi)a
Type M or S mortar Type N mortar
1,250 1,300 1,000
1,900 2,150 1,500
2,800 3,050 2,000
3,750 4,050 2,500
4,800 5,250 3,000


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 0.00689 MPa.
a. For units less than 4 inches in height, 85 percent of the values listed.
The compressive strength of AAC masonry shall be based on the strength of the AAC masonry unit only and the following shall be met:
1. Units conform to ASTM C 1386.
2. Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).
3. For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of the following requirements:
3.1. Grout conforms to ASTM C 476.
3.2. Minimum grout compressive strength equals or exceeds f 'AAC but not less than 2,000 psi (13.79 MPa). The compressive strength of grout shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 1019.
The compressive strength of clay and concrete masonry shall be determined by the prism test method:
1. Where specified in the construction documents.
2. Where masonry does not meet the requirements for application of the unit strength method in Section 2105.2.2.1.
A prism test shall consist of three prisms constructed and tested in accordance with ASTM C 1314.
When approved by the building official, acceptance of masonry that does not meet the requirements of Section 2105.2.2.1 or 2105.2.2.2 shall be permitted to be based on tests of prisms cut from the masonry construction in accordance with Sections 2105.3.1, 2105.3.2 and 2105.3.3.
A set of three masonry prisms that are at least 28 days old shall be saw cut from the masonry for each 5,000 square feet (465 m 2 ) of the wall area that is in question but not less than one set of three masonry prisms for the project. The length, width and height dimensions of the prisms shall comply with the requirements of ASTM C 1314. Transporting, preparation and testing of prisms shall be in accordance with ASTM C 1314.
The compressive strength of prisms shall be the value calculated in accordance ASTM C 1314, except that the net cross-sectional area of the prism shall be based on the net mortar bedded area.
Compliance with the requirement for the specified compressive strength of masonry, f 'm , shall be considered satisfied provided the modified compressive strength equals or exceeds the specified f 'm . Additional testing of specimens cut from locations in question shall be permitted.
Masonry structures and components shall comply with the requirements in Section 1.14.2.2 and Section 1.14.3, 1.14.4, 1.14.5, 1.14.6 or 1.14.7 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 depending on the structure’s seismic design category as determined in Section 1613. All masonry walls, unless isolated on three edges from in-plane motion of the basic structural systems, shall be considered to be part of the seismic-force-resisting system. In addition, the following requirements shall be met.
Buildings relying on masonry shear walls as part of the basic seismic-force-resisting system shall comply with Section 1.14.2.2 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 or with Section 2106.1.1.1, 2106.1.1.2 or 2106.1.1.3.
Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear walls shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 4 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
Intermediate prestressed masonry shear walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 1.14.2.2.4 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and shall be designed by Chapter 4, Section 4.4.3, of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 for flexural strength and by Section 3.3.4.1.2 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 for shear strength. Sections 1.14.2.2.5, 3.3.3.5 and 3.3.4.3.2(c) of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 shall be applicable for reinforcement. Flexural elements subjected to load reversals shall be symmetrically reinforced. The nominal moment strength at any section along a member shall not be less than one-fourth the maximum moment strength. The cross-sectional area of bonded tendons shall be considered to contribute to the minimum reinforcement in Section 1.14.2.2.4 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. Tendons shall be located in cells that are grouted the full height of the wall.
Special prestressed masonry shear walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 1.14.2.2.5 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and shall be designed by Chapter 4, Section 4.4.3, of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 for flexural strength and by Section 3.3.4.1.2 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 for shear strength. Sections 1.14.2.2.5(a), 3.3.3.5 and 3.3.4.3.2(c) of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 shall be applicable for reinforcement. Flexural elements subjected to load reversals shall be symmetrically reinforced. The nominal moment strength at any section along a member shall not be less than one-fourth the maximum moment strength. The cross-sectional area of bonded tendons shall be considered to contribute to the minimum reinforcement in Section 1.14.2.2.5 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
Prestressing tendons shall consist of bars conforming to ASTM A 722.
All cells of the masonry wall shall be grouted.
Masonry walls shall be anchored to the roof and floors that provide lateral support for the wall in accordance with Section 1604.8.2.
Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B shall conform to the requirements of Section 1.14.4 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and to the additional requirements of this section.
Masonry partition walls, masonry screen walls and other masonry elements that are not designed to resist vertical or lateral loads, other than those induced by their own mass, shall be isolated from the structure so that the vertical and lateral forces are not imparted to these elements. Isolation joints and connectors between these elements and the structure shall be designed to accommodate the design story drift.
Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall conform to the requirements of Section 2106.3, Section 1.14.5 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and the additional requirements of this section.
Columns and pilasters that are part of the lateral-force-resisting system and that support reactions from discontinuous stiff members such as walls shall be provided with transverse reinforcement spaced at no more than one-fourth of the least nominal dimension of the column or pilaster. The minimum transverse reinforcement ratio shall be 0.0015. Beams supporting reactions from discontinuous walls or frames shall be provided with transverse reinforcement spaced at no more than one-half of the nominal depth of the beam. The minimum transverse reinforcement ratio shall be 0.0015.
Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D shall conform to the requirements of Section 2106.4, Section 1.14.6 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 and the additional requirements of this section.
When calculating in-plane shear or diagonal tension stresses by the working stress design method, shear walls that resist seismic forces shall be designed to resist 1.5 times the seismic forces required by Chapter 16. The 1.5 multiplier need not be applied to the overturning moment.
For a shear wall whose nominal shear strength exceeds the shear corresponding to development of its nominal flexural strength, two shear regions exist.

For all cross sections within a region defined by the base of the shear wall and a plane at a distance Lw above the base of the shear wall, the nominal shear strength shall be determined by Equation 21-1.

Vn = An ρn fy (Equation 21-1)

The required shear strength for this region shall be calculated at a distance Lw /2 above the base of the shear wall, but not to exceed one-half story height.

For the other region, the nominal shear strength of the shear wall shall be determined from Section 2108.
Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category E or F shall conform to the requirements of Section 2106.5 and Section 1.14.7 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
The design of masonry structures using allowable stress design shall comply with Section 2106 and the requirements of Chapters 1 and 2 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 except as modified by Sections 2107.2 through 2107.8.
Delete Section 2.1.2.1.
Delete Sections 2.1.3.4 through 2.1.3.4.3.
Add the following text to Section 2.1.6:

2.1.6.6 Light-frame construction. Masonry columns used only to support light-frame roofs of carports, porches, sheds or similar structures with a maximum area of 450 square feet (41.8 m2) assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C are permitted to be designed and constructed as follows:

1. Concrete masonry materials shall be in accordance with Section 2103.1 of the Building Code of New York State. Clay or shale masonry units shall be in accordance with Section 2103.2 of the Building Code of New York State.

2. The nominal cross-sectional dimension of columns shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm).

3. Columns shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 bar centered in each cell of the column.

4. Columns shall be grouted solid.

5. Columns shall not exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) in height.

6. Roofs shall be anchored to the columns. Such anchorage shall be capable of resisting the design loads specified in Chapter 16 of the Building Code of New York State.

7. Where such columns are required to resist uplift loads, the columns shall be anchored to their footings with two No. 4 bars extending a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) into the columns and bent horizontally a minimum of 15 inches (381 mm) in opposite directions into the footings. One of these bars is permitted to be the reinforcing bar specified in Item 3 above. The total weight of a column and its footing shall not be less than 1.5 times the design uplift load.
Modify Section 2.1.10.7.1.1 as follows:

2.1.10.7.1.1 The minimum length of lap splices for reinforcing bars in tension or compression, ld, shall be

ld     = 0.002dbfs   (Equation 21-2)

For SI: ld = 0.29dbfs

but not less than 12 inches (305 mm). In no case shall the length of the lapped splice be less than 40 bar diameters.

where:

db   = Diameter of reinforcement, inches (mm).
fs   = Computed stress in reinforcement due to design loads, psi (MPa).

In regions of moment where the design tensile stresses in the reinforcement are greater than 80 percent of the allowable steel tension stress, Fs, the lap length of splices shall be increased not less than 50 percent of the minimum required length. Other equivalent means of stress transfer to accomplish the same 50 percent increase shall be permitted.

Where epoxy coated bars are used, lap length shall be increased by 50 percent.
Modify Section 2.1.10.7 as follows:

2.1.10.7 Splices of reinforcement. Lap splices, welded splices or mechanical splices are permitted in accordance with the provisions of this section. All welding shall conform to AWS D1.4. Reinforcement larger than No. 9 (M #29) shall be spliced using mechanical connections in accordance with Section 2.1.10.7.3.
Add the following to Chapter 2:

2.3.6 Maximum bar size. The bar diameter shall not exceed one-eighth of the nominal wall thickness and shall not exceed one-quarter of the least dimension of the cell, course or collar joint in which it is placed.
Add the following text to Chapter 2:

2.3.7 Maximum reinforcement percentage. Special reinforced masonry shear walls having a shear span ratio, M/Vd, equal to or greater than 1.0 and having an axial load, P, greater than 0.05 f'mAn that are subjected to in-plane forces shall have a maximum reinforcement ratio, ρmax, not greater than that computed as follows:



(Equation 21-3)

The maximum reinforcement ratio does not apply in the out-of-plane direction.
The design of masonry structures using strength design shall comply with Section 2106 and the requirements of Chapters 1 and 3 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, except as modified by Sections 2108.2 through 2108.4.

Exception: AAC masonry shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 1 and Appendix A of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
Add the following text to Section 3.3.3.3:

The required development length of reinforcement shall be determined by Equation (3-15), but shall not be less than 12 inches (305 mm) and need not be greater than 72 db.
Modify items (b) and (c) of Section 3.3.3.4 as follows:

3.3.3.4 (b). A welded splice shall have the bars butted and welded to develop at least 125 percent of the yield strength, ƒy, of the bar in tension or compression, as required. Welded splices shall be of ASTM A 706 steel reinforcement. Welded splices shall not be permitted in plastic hinge zones of intermediate or special reinforced walls or special moment frames of masonry.

3.3.3.4 (c). Mechanical splices shall be classified as Type 1 or 2 according to Section 21.2.6.1 of ACI 318. Type 1 mechanical splices shall not be used within a plastic hinge zone or within a beam-column joint of intermediate or special reinforced masonry shear walls or special moment frames. Type 2 mechanical splices are permitted in any location within a member.
Add the following text to Section 3.3.3.5:

3.3.3.5.5 For special prestressed masonry shear walls, strain in all prestressing steel shall be computed to be compatible with a strain in the extreme tension reinforcement equal to five times the strain associated with the reinforcement yield stress, fy. The calculation of the maximum reinforcement shall consider forces in the prestressing steel that correspond to these calculated strains.
Empirically designed masonry shall conform to this chapter or Chapter 5 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
The use of empirical design of masonry shall be limited as follows:
1. Empirical design shall not be used for buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F as specified in Section 1613, nor for the design of the seismic-force-resisting system for buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category B or C.
2. Empirical design shall not be used for masonry elements that are part of the lateral-force-resisting system where the basic wind speed exceeds 110 mph (48 m/s).
3. Empirical design shall not be used for interior masonry elements that are not part of the lateral- force-resisting system in buildings other than enclosed buildings as defined in Chapter 6 of ASCE 7 in:
3.1. Buildings over 180 feet (55 100 mm) in height.
3.2. Buildings over 60 feet (18 400 mm) in height where the basic wind speed exceeds 90 mph (40 m/s).
3.3. Buildings over 35 feet (10 700 mm) in height where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 mph (45 m/s).
3.4. Where the basic wind speed exceeds 110 mph (48 m/s).
4. Empirical design shall not be used for exterior masonry elements that are not part of the lateral- force-resisting system and that are more than 35 feet (10 700 mm) above ground:
4.1. Buildings over 180 feet (55 100 mm) in height.
4.2. Buildings over 60 feet (18 400 mm) in height where the basic wind speed exceeds 90 mph (40 m/s).
4.3. Buildings over 35 feet (10 700 mm) in height where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 mph (45 m/s).
5. Empirical design shall not be used for exterior masonry elements that are less than or equal to 35 feet (10 700 mm) above ground where the basic wind speed exceeds 110 mph (79 m/s).
6. Empirical design shall only be used when the resultant of gravity loads is within the center third of the wall thickness and within the central area bounded by lines at one-third of each cross-sectional dimension of foundation piers.
7. Empirical design shall not be used for AAC masonry.

In buildings that exceed one or more of the above limitations, masonry shall be designed in accordance with the engineered design provisions of Section 2107 or 2108 or the foundation wall provisions of Section 1805.5.
Where the structure depends upon masonry walls for lateral stability, shear walls shall be provided parallel to the direction of the lateral forces resisted.
In each direction in which shear walls are required for lateral stability, shear walls shall be positioned in two separate planes. The minimum cumulative length of shear walls provided shall be 0.4 times the long dimension of the building. Cumulative length of shear walls shall not include openings or any element with a length that is less than one-half its height.
Masonry shear walls shall be spaced so that the length-to-width ratio of each diaphragm transferring lateral forces to the shear walls does not exceed the values given in Table 2109.2.1.2.

TABLE 2109.2.1.2 DIAPHRAGM LENGTH-TO-WIDTH RATIOS

FLOOR OR ROOF DIAPHRAGM CONSTRUCTION MAXIMUM LENGTH-TO-WIDTH RATIO OF DIAPHRAGM PANEL
Cast-in-place concrete 5:1
Precast concrete 4:1
Metal deck with concrete fill 3:1
Metal deck with no fill 2:1
Wood 2:1
The roof construction shall be designed so as not to impart out-of-plane lateral thrust to the walls under roof gravity load.
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall comply with the requirements of this code for masonry wall construction, except where otherwise noted in this section.
Dry-stacked, surface-bonded concrete masonry walls shall be of adequate strength and proportions to support all superimposed loads without exceeding the allowable stresses listed in Table 2109.2.3.1. Allowable stresses not specified in Table 2109.2.3.1 shall comply with the requirements of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.

TABLE 2109.2.3.1 ALLOWABLE STRESS GROSS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA FOR DRY-STACKED, SURFACE-BONDED CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS

DESCRIPTION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS (psi)
Compression standard block 45
Flexural tension
   Horizontal span 30
   Vertical span 18
Shear 10


For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.006895 MPa.
Construction of dry- stacked, surface-bonded masonry walls, including stacking and leveling of units, mixing and application of mortar and curing and protection shall comply with ASTM C 946.
Compressive stresses in masonry due to vertical dead plus live loads, excluding wind or seismic loads, shall be determined in accordance with Section 2109.3.2.1. Dead and live loads shall be in accordance with Chapter 16, with live load reductions as permitted in Section 1607.9.
The compressive stresses in masonry shall not exceed the values given in Table 2109.3.2. Stress shall be calculated based on specified rather than nominal dimensions.

TABLE 2109.3.2 ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES FOR EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY

CONSTRUCTION; COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF UNIT
GROSS AREA (psi)
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSESa GROSS CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (psi)
Type M or S mortar Type N mortar
Solid masonry of brick and other solid units of clay or shale; sand-lime or concrete brick:
   8,000 or greater
   4,500
   2,500
   1,500
350
225
160
115
300
200
140
100
Grouted masonry, of clay or shale; sand-lime or concrete:
   4,500 or greater
   2,500
   1,500

225
160
115

200
140
100
Solid masonry of solid concrete masonry units:
   3,000 or greater
   2,000
   1,200

225
160
115

200
140
100
Masonry of hollow load-bearing units:
   2,000 or greater
   1,500
   1,000
   700

140
115
75
60

120
100
70
55
Hollow walls (noncomposite masonry bonded)b
   Solid units:
   2,500 or greater
   1,500
   Hollow units


160
115
75


140
100
70
Stone ashlar masonry:
   Granite
   Limestone or marble
   Sandstone or cast stone

720
450
360

640
400
320
Rubble stone masonry
   Coursed, rough or random

120

100


For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 0.006895 MPa.
a. Linear interpolation for determining allowable stresses for masonry units having compressive strengths which are intermediate between those given in the table is permitted.
b. Where floor and roof loads are carried upon one wythe, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wythe under load; if both wythes are loaded, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wall minus the area of the cavity between the wythes. Walls bonded with metal ties shall be considered as noncomposite walls unless collar joints are filled with mortar or grout.
Calculated compressive stresses for single wythe walls and for multiwythe composite masonry walls shall be determined by dividing the design load by the gross cross-sectional area of the member. The area of openings, chases or recesses in walls shall not be included in the gross cross-sectional area of the wall.
The allowable stress shall be as given in Table 2109.3.2 for the weakest combination of the units used in each wythe.
Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the horizontal or vertical direction at intervals not exceeding those given in Table 2109.4.1.

TABLE 2109.4.1WALL LATERAL SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS

CONSTRUCTION MAXIMUM WALL LENGTH TO THICKNESS OR WALL HEIGHT TO THICKNESS
Bearing walls
  Solid units or fully grouted 20
  All others 18
Nonbearing walls
  Exterior 18
  Interior 36
Except for cavity walls and cantilever walls, the thickness of a wall shall be its nominal thickness measured perpendicular to the face of the wall. For cavity walls, the thickness shall be determined as the sum of the nominal thicknesses of the individual wythes. For cantilever walls, except for parapets, the ratio of height-to-nominal thickness shall not exceed 6 for solid masonry or 4 for hollow masonry. For parapets, see Section 2109.5.4.
Lateral support shall be provided by cross walls, pilasters, buttresses or structural frame members when the limiting distance is taken horizontally, or by floors, roofs acting as diaphragms or structural frame members when the limiting distance is taken vertically.
Minimum thickness requirements shall be based on nominal dimensions of masonry.
The thickness of masonry walls shall conform to the requirements of Section 2109.5.
The minimum thickness of masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall be 8 inches (203 mm). Bearing walls of one-story buildings shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick.
The minimum thickness of rough, random or coursed rubble stone walls shall be 16 inches (406 mm).
The minimum thickness of masonry shear walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm).
The minimum thickness of foundation walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm) and as required by Section 2109.5.3.1.
The minimum thickness of foundation piers shall be 8 inches (203 mm).
The minimum thickness of parapet walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm) and as required by Section 2109.5.4.1.
Where walls of masonry of hollow units or masonry bonded hollow walls are decreased in thickness, a course or courses of solid masonry shall be interposed between the wall below and the thinner wall above, or special units or construction shall be used to transmit the loads from face shells or wythes above to those below.
Foundation walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 2109.5.3.1 or 2109.5.3.2.
Minimum thickness for foundation walls shall comply with the requirements of Table 2109.5.3.1. The provisions of Table 2109.5.3.1 are only applicable where the following conditions are met:
1. The foundation wall does not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height between lateral supports;
2. The terrain surrounding foundation walls is graded to drain surface water away from foundation walls;
3. Backfill is drained to remove ground water away from foundation walls;
4. Lateral support is provided at the top of foundation walls prior to backfilling;
5. The length of foundation walls between perpendicular masonry walls or pilasters is a maximum of three times the basement wall height;
6. The backfill is granular and soil conditions in the area are nonexpansive; and
7. Masonry is laid in running bond using Type M or S mortar.

TABLE 2109.5.3.1 FOUNDATION WALL CONSTRUCTION

WALL CONSTRUCTION NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS (inches) MAXIMUM DEPTH OF UNBALANCED BACKFILL (feet)
Fully grouted masonry 8
10
12
7
8
8
Hollow unit masonry 8
10
12
5
6
7
Solid unit masonry 8
10
12
5
7
7


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Where the requirements of Section 2109.5.3.1 are not met, foundation walls shall be designed in accordance with Section 1805.5.
The minimum thickness of unreinforced masonry parapets shall meet Section 2109.5.2.6 and their height shall not exceed three times their thickness.
Additional provisions for parapet walls are contained in Sections 1503.2 and 1503.3.
The facing and backing of multiwythe masonry walls shall be bonded in accordance with Section 2109.6.2, 2109.6.3 or 2109.6.4.
Where the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of solid masonry construction are bonded by means of masonry headers, no less than 4 percent of the wall surface of each face shall be composed of headers extending not less than 3 inches (76 mm) into the backing. The distance between adjacent full-length headers shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) either vertically or horizontally. In walls in which a single header does not extend through the wall, headers from the opposite sides shall overlap at least 3 inches (76 mm), or headers from opposite sides shall be covered with another header course overlapping the header below at least 3 inches (76 mm).
Where two or more hollow units are used to make up the thickness of a wall, the stretcher courses shall be bonded at vertical intervals not exceeding 34 inches (864 mm) by lapping at least 3 inches (76 mm) over the unit below, or by lapping at vertical intervals not exceeding 17 inches (432 mm) with units that are at least 50 percent greater in thickness than the units below.
In masonry bonded hollow walls, the facing and backing shall be bonded so that not less than 4 percent of the wall surface of each face is composed of masonry bonded units extending not less than 3 inches (76 mm) into the backing. The distance between adjacent bonders shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) either vertically or horizontally.
Except as required by Section 2109.6.3.1.1, where the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry walls are bonded with wire size W2.8 (MW18) wall ties or metal wire of equivalent stiffness embedded in the horizontal mortar joints, there shall be at least one metal tie for each 4 1 / 2 square feet (0.42 m 2 ) of wall area. The maximum vertical distance between ties shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), and the maximum horizontal distance shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). Rods or ties bent to rectangular shape shall be used with hollow masonry units laid with the cells vertical. In other walls, the ends of ties shall be bent to 90-degree (1.57 rad) angles to provide hooks no less than 2 inches (51 mm) long. Wall ties shall be without drips. Additional bonding ties shall be provided at all openings, spaced not more than 36 inches (914 mm) apart around the perimeter and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the opening.
Where the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry are bonded with adjustable wall ties, there shall be at least one tie for each 1.77 square feet (0.164 m 2 ) of wall area. Neither the vertical nor horizontal spacing of the adjustable wall ties shall exceed 16 inches (406 mm). The maximum vertical offset of bed joints from one wythe to the other shall be 1 1 / 4 inches (32 mm). The maximum clearance between connecting parts of the ties shall be 1 / 16 inch (1.6 mm). When pintle legs are used, ties shall have at least two wire size W2.8 (MW18) legs.
Where the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry are bonded with prefabricated joint reinforcement, there shall be at least one cross wire serving as a tie for each 2 22 / 3 square feet (0.25 m 2 ) of wall area. The vertical spacing of the joint reinforcing shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). Cross wires on prefabricated joint reinforcement shall not be less than W1.7 (MW11) and shall be without drips. The longitudinal wires shall be embedded in the mortar.
In ashlar masonry, bonder units, uniformly distributed, shall be provided to the extent of not less than 10 percent of the wall area. Such bonder units shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) into the backing wall.
Rubble stone masonry 24 inches (610 mm) or less in thickness shall have bonder units with a maximum spacing of 36 inches (914 mm) vertically and 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally, and if the masonry is of greater thickness than 24 inches (610 mm), shall have one bonder unit for each 6 square feet (0.56 m 2 ) of wall surface on both sides.
Each wythe of masonry shall be laid in running bond, head joints in successive courses shall be offset by not less than one-fourth the unit length or the masonry walls shall be reinforced longitudinally as required in Section 2109.6.5.2.
Where unit masonry is laid with less head joint offset than in Section 2109.6.5.1, the minimum area of horizontal reinforcement placed in mortar bed joints or in bond beams spaced not more than 48 inches (1219 mm) apart, shall be 0.0003 times the vertical cross-sectional area of the wall.
Masonry elements shall be anchored in accordance with Sections 2109.7.2 through 2109.7.4.
Masonry walls depending upon one another for lateral support shall be anchored or bonded at locations where they meet or intersect by one of the methods indicated in Sections 2109.7.2.1 through 2109.7.2.5.
Fifty percent of the units at the intersection shall be laid in an overlapping masonry bonding pattern, with alternate units having a bearing of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on the unit below.
Walls shall be anchored by steel connectors having a minimum section of 1 / 4 inch (6.4 mm) by 1 1 / 2 inches (38 mm), with ends bent up at least 2 inches (51 mm) or with cross pins to form anchorage. Such anchors shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) long and the maximum spacing shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).
Walls shall be anchored by joint reinforcement spaced at a maximum distance of 8 inches (203 mm). Longitudinal wires of such reinforcement shall be at least wire size W1.7 (MW 11) and shall extend at least 30 inches (762 mm) in each direction at the intersection.
Interior nonload-bearing walls shall be anchored at their intersection, at vertical intervals of not more than 16 inches (406 mm) with joint reinforcement or 1 / 4 -inch (6.4 mm) mesh galvanized hardware cloth.
Other metal ties, joint reinforcement or anchors, if used, shall be spaced to provide equivalent area of anchorage to that required by this section.
Floor and roof diaphragms providing lateral support to masonry shall comply with the live loads in Section 1607.3 and shall be connected to the masonry in accordance with Sections 2109.7.3.1 through 2109.7.3.3. Roof loading shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 16 and, when net uplift occurs, uplift shall be resisted entirely by an anchorage system designed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 2.1 and 2.3, Sections 3.1 and 3.3 or Chapter 4 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
Wood floor joists bearing on masonry walls shall be anchored to the wall at intervals not to exceed 72 inches (1829 mm) by metal strap anchors. Joists parallel to the wall shall be anchored with metal straps spaced not more than 72 inches (1829 mm) o.c. extending over or under and secured to at least three joists. Blocking shall be provided between joists at each strap anchor.
Steel floor joists bearing on masonry walls shall be anchored to the wall with 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) round bars, or their equivalent, spaced not more than 72 inches (1829 mm) o.c. Where joists are parallel to the wall, anchors shall be located at joist bridging.
Roof diaphragms shall be anchored to masonry walls with 1 / 2 -inch-diameter (12.7 mm) bolts, 72 inches (1829 mm) o.c. or their equivalent. Bolts shall extend and be embedded at least 15 inches (381 mm) into the masonry, or be hooked or welded to not less than 0.20 square inch (129 mm 22 ) of bond beam reinforcement placed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) from the top of the wall.
Where walls are dependent upon the structural frame for lateral support, they shall be anchored to the structural members with metal anchors or otherwise keyed to the structural members. Metal anchors shall consist of 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm) bolts spaced at 48 inches (1219 mm) o.c. embedded 4 inches (102 mm) into the masonry, or their equivalent area.
Adobe construction shall comply with this section and shall be subject to the requirements of this code for Type V construction.
Adobe units shall have an average compressive strength of 300 psi (2068 kPa) when tested in accordance with ASTM C 67. Five samples shall be tested and no individual unit is permitted to have a compressive strength of less than 250 psi (1724 kPa).
Adobe units shall have an average modulus of rupture of 50 psi (345 kPa) when tested in accordance with the following procedure. Five samples shall be tested and no individual unit shall have a modulus of rupture of less than 35 psi (241 kPa).
A cured unit shall be simply supported by 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) cylindrical supports located 2 inches (51 mm) in from each end and extending the full width of the unit.
A 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) cylinder shall be placed at midspan parallel to the supports.
A vertical load shall be applied to the cylinder at the rate of 500 pounds per minute (37 N/s) until failure occurs.
The modulus of rupture shall be determined by the equation:



fr= 3WLs /2bt2   (Equation 21-4)

where, for the purposes of this section only:

b = Width of the test specimen measured parallel to the loading cylinder, inches (mm).
fr = Modulus of rupture, psi (MPa).
LLs = Distance between supports, inches (mm).
t = Thickness of the test specimen measured parallel to the direction of load, inches (mm).
W = The applied load at failure, pounds (N).
Adobe units shall have a moisture content not exceeding 4 percent by weight.
Adobe units shall not contain more than three shrinkage cracks and any single shrinkage crack shall not exceed 3 inches (76 mm) in length or 1 / 8 inch (3.2 mm) in width.
Stabilized adobe shall comply with the material requirements of unstabilized adobe in addition to Sections 2109.8.2.1.1 and 2109.8.2.1.2.
Soil used for stabilized adobe units shall be chemically compatible with the stabilizing material.
A 4-inch (102 mm) cube, cut from a stabilized adobe unit dried to a constant weight in a ventilated oven at 212°F to 239°F (100°C to 115°C), shall not absorb more than 2 1 / 2 percent moisture by weight when placed upon a constantly water-saturated, porous surface for seven days. A minimum of five specimens shall be tested and each specimen shall be cut from a separate unit.
The allowable compressive stress based on gross cross-sectional area of adobe shall not exceed 30 psi (207 kPa).
Bolt values shall not exceed those set forth in Table 2109.8.3.1.

TABLE 2109.8.3.1 ALLOWABLE SHEAR ON BOLTS IN ADOBE MASONRY

DIAMETER OF BOLTS (inches) MINIMUM EMBEDMENT (inches) SHEAR
(pounds)
1/2 - -
5/8 12 200
3/4 15 300
7/8 18 400
1 21 500
11/8 24 600


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.
Adobe construction shall be limited to buildings not exceeding one story, except that two-story construction is allowed when designed by a registered design professional.
Mortar for stabilized adobe units shall comply with Chapter 21 or adobe soil. Adobe soil used as mortar shall comply with material requirements for stabilized adobe. Mortar for unstabilized adobe shall be portland cement mortar.
Adobe units shall be laid with full head and bed joints and in full running bond.
Parapet walls constructed of adobe units shall be waterproofed.
The minimum thickness of exterior walls in one-story buildings shall be 10 inches (254 mm). The walls shall be laterally supported at intervals not exceeding 24 feet (7315 mm). The minimum thickness of interior load-bearing walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm). In no case shall the unsupported height of any wall constructed of adobe units exceed 10 times the thickness of such wall.
Walls and partitions constructed of adobe units shall be supported by foundations or footings that extend not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above adjacent ground surfaces and are constructed of solid masonry (excluding adobe) or concrete. Footings and foundations shall comply with Chapter 18.
Stabilized adobe units shall be used in adobe walls for the first 4 inches (102 mm) above the finished first-floor elevation.
Adobe units shall not be used for isolated piers or columns in a load-bearing capacity. Walls less than 24 inches (610 mm) in length shall be considered isolated piers or columns.
Exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls constructed of adobe units shall have a continuous tie beam at the level of the floor or roof bearing and meeting the following requirements.
Concrete tie beams shall be a minimum depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum width of 10 inches (254 mm). Concrete tie beams shall be continuously reinforced with a minimum of two No. 4 reinforcing bars. The ultimate compressive strength of concrete shall be at least 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa) at 28 days.
Wood tie beams shall be solid or built up of lumber having a minimum nominal thickness of 1 inch (25 mm), and shall have a minimum depth of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum width of 10 inches (254 mm). Joints in wood tie beams shall be spliced a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm). No splices shall be allowed within 12 inches (305 mm) of an opening. Wood used in tie beams shall be approved naturally decay-resistant or pressure-treated wood.
Exterior walls constructed of unstabilized adobe units shall have their exterior surface covered with a minimum of two coats of portland cement plaster having a minimum thickness of 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) and conforming to ASTM C 926. Lathing shall comply with ASTM C 1063. Fasteners shall be spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. maximum. Exposed wood surfaces shall be treated with an approved wood preservative or other protective coating prior to lath application.
Lintels shall be considered structural members and shall be designed in accordance with the applicable provisions of Chapter 16.
This section covers the empirical requirements for nonload-bearing glass unit masonry elements in exterior or interior walls.
Solid or hollow approved glass block shall not be used in fire walls, party walls, fire barriers or fire partitions, or for load-bearing construction. Such blocks shall be erected with mortar and reinforcement in metal channel-type frames, structural frames, masonry or concrete recesses, embedded panel anchors as provided for both exterior and interior walls or other approved joint materials. Wood strip framing shall not be used in walls required to have a fire-resistance rating by other provisions of this code.

Exceptions:
1. Glass-block assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour shall be permitted as opening protectives in accordance with Section 715 in fire barriers and fire partitions that have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour or less and do not enclose exit stairways or exit passageways.
2. Glass-block assemblies as permitted in Section 404.5, Exception 2.]
Hollow or solid glass-block units shall be standard or thin units.
The specified thickness of standard units shall be at least 3 7 / 8 inches (98 mm).
The specified thickness of thin units shall be 3 1 / 8 inches (79 mm) for hollow units or 3 inches (76 mm) for solid units.
The maximum area of each individual exterior standard-unit panel shall be 144 square feet (13.4 m 2 ) when the design wind pressure is 20 psf (958 N/m 22 ). The maximum panel dimension between structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in width or 20 feet (6096 mm) in height. The panel areas are permitted to be adjusted in accordance with Figure 2110.3.1 for other wind pressures.





For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square foot = 47.9 N/m2.

FIGURE 2110.3.1 GLASS MASONRY DESIGN WIND LOAD RESISTANCE
The maximum area of each individual exterior thin-unit panel shall be 85 square feet (7.9 m 2 ). The maximum dimension between structural supports shall be 15 feet (4572 mm) in width or 10 feet (3048 mm) in height. Thin units shall not be used in applications where the design wind pressure exceeds 20 psf (958 N/m 22 ).
The maximum area of each individual standard-unit panel shall be 250 square feet (23.2 m 2 ). The maximum area of each thin-unit panel shall be 150 square feet (13.9 m 2 ). The maximum dimension between structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in width or 20 feet (6096 mm) in height.
The maximum area of solid glass-block wall panels in both exterior and interior walls shall not be more than 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ).
The width of curved panels shall conform to the requirements of Sections 2110.3.1, 2110.3.2 and 2110.3.3, except additional structural supports shall be provided at locations where a curved section joins a straight section, and at inflection points in multicurved walls.
Glass unit masonry panels shall be isolated so that in-plane loads are not imparted to the panel.
Maximum total deflection of structural members supporting glass unit masonry shall not exceed l / 600 .
Glass unit masonry having an installed weight of 40 psf (195 kg/m 22 ) or less and a maximum height of 12 feet (3658 mm) shall be permitted to be supported on wood construction.
A vertical expansion joint in glass unit masonry shall be provided to isolate the glass unit masonry supported by wood construction from that supported by other types of construction.
Glass unit masonry panels more than one unit wide or one unit high shall be laterally supported along their tops and sides. Lateral support shall be provided by panel anchors along the top and sides spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. or by channel-type restraints. Glass unit masonry panels shall be recessed at least 1 inch (25 mm) within channels and chases. Channel-type restraints shall be oversized to accommodate expansion material in the opening and packing and sealant between the framing restraints and the glass unit masonry perimeter units. Lateral supports for glass unit masonry panels shall be designed to resist applied loads, or a minimum of 200 pounds per lineal feet (plf) (2919 N/m) of panel, whichever is greater.

Exceptions:
1. Lateral support at the top of glass unit masonry panels that are no more than one unit wide shall not be required.
2. Lateral support at the sides of glass unit masonry panels that are no more than one unit high shall not be required.
Single unit glass unit masonry panels shall conform to the requirements of Section 2110.4.3, except lateral support shall not be provided by panel anchors.
Glass unit masonry panels shall be provided with expansion joints along the top and sides at structural supports. Expansion joints shall have sufficient thickness to accommodate displacements of the supporting structure, but shall not be less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) in thickness. Expansion joints shall be entirely free of mortar or other debris and shall be filled with resilient material. The sills of glass-block panels shall be coated with approved water-based asphaltic emulsion, or other elastic waterproofing material, prior to laying the first mortar course.
Mortar for glass unit masonry shall comply with Section 2103.8.
Glass unit masonry panels shall have horizontal joint reinforcement spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, located in the mortar bed joint, and extending the entire length of the panel but not across expansion joints. Longitudinal wires shall be lapped a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) at splices. Joint reinforcement shall be placed in the bed joint immediately below and above openings in the panel. The reinforcement shall have not less than two parallel longitudinal wires of size W1.7 (MW11), and have welded cross wires of size W1.7 (MW11).
A masonry fireplace is a fireplace constructed of concrete or masonry. Masonry fireplaces shall be constructed in accordance with this section.
Footings for masonry fireplaces and their chimneys shall be constructed of concrete or solid masonry at least 12 inches (305 mm) thick and shall extend at least 6 inches (153 mm) beyond the face of the fireplace or foundation wall on all sides. Footings shall be founded on natural undisturbed earth or engineered fill below frost depth. In areas not subjected to freezing, footings shall be at least 12 inches (305 mm) below finished grade.
Cleanout openings, located within foundation walls below fireboxes, when provided, shall be equipped with ferrous metal or masonry doors and frames constructed to remain tightly closed, except when in use. Cleanouts shall be accessible and located so that ash removal will not create a hazard to combustible materials.
Masonry or concrete fireplaces shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter. In Seismic Design Category D, masonry and concrete fireplaces shall be reinforced and anchored as detailed in Sections 2111.3.1, 2111.3.2, 2111.4 and 2111.4.1 for chimneys serving fireplaces. In Seismic Design Category A, B or C, reinforcement and seismic anchorage is not required. In Seismic Design Category E or F, masonry and concrete chimneys shall be reinforced in accordance with the requirements of Sections 2101 through 2108.
For fireplaces with chimneys up to 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, four No. 4 continuous vertical bars, anchored in the foundation, shall be placed in the concrete between wythes of solid masonry or within the cells of hollow unit masonry and grouted in accordance with Section 2103.12. For fireplaces with chimneys greater than 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, two additional No. 4 vertical bars shall be provided for each additional 40 inches (1016 mm) in width or fraction thereof.
Vertical reinforcement shall be placed enclosed within 1 / 4 -inch (6.4 mm) ties or other reinforcing of equivalent net cross-sectional area, spaced not to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) on center in concrete; or placed in the bed joints of unit masonry at a minimum of every 18 inches (457 mm) of vertical height. Two such ties shall be provided at each bend in the vertical bars.
Masonry and concrete chimneys in Seismic Design Category D shall be anchored at each floor, ceiling or roof line more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade, except where constructed completely within the exterior walls. Anchorage shall conform to the following requirements.
Two 3 / 16 -inch by 1-inch (4.8 mm by 25.4 mm) straps shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) into the chimney. Straps shall be hooked around the outer bars and extend 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the bend. Each strap shall be fastened to a minimum of four floor joists with two 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm) bolts.
Masonry fireboxes shall be constructed of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units grouted solid, stone or concrete. When a lining of firebrick at least 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness or other approved lining is provided, the minimum thickness of back and sidewalls shall each be 8 inches (203 mm) of solid masonry, including the lining. The width of joints between firebricks shall not be greater than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). When no lining is provided, the total minimum thickness of back and sidewalls shall be 10 inches (254 mm) of solid masonry. Firebrick shall conform to ASTM C 27 or ASTM C 1261 and shall be laid with medium-duty refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199.
Steel fireplace units are permitted to be installed with solid masonry to form a masonry fireplace provided they are installed according to either the requirements of their listing or the requirements of this section. Steel fireplace units incorporating a steel firebox lining shall be constructed with steel not less than 1 / 4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness, and an air-circulating chamber which is ducted to the interior of the building. The firebox lining shall be encased with solid masonry to provide a total thickness at the back and sides of not less than 8 inches (203 mm), of which not less than 4 inches (102 mm) shall be of solid masonry or concrete. Circulating air ducts employed with steel fireplace units shall be constructed of metal or masonry.
The firebox of a concrete or masonry fireplace shall have a minimum depth of 20 inches (508 mm). The throat shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) above the fireplace opening. The throat opening shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) in depth. The cross-sectional area of the passageway above the firebox, including the throat, damper and smoke chamber, shall not be less than the cross-sectional area of the flue.

Exception: Rumford fireplaces shall be permitted provided that the depth of the fireplace is at least 12 inches (305 mm) and at least one-third of the width of the fireplace opening, and the throat is at least 12 inches (305 mm) above the lintel, and at least 1/20 the cross-sectional area of the fireplace opening.
Masonry over a fireplace opening shall be supported by a lintel of noncombustible material. The minimum required bearing length on each end of the fireplace opening shall be 4 inches (102 mm). The fireplace throat or damper shall be located a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the fireplace opening.
Masonry fireplaces shall be equipped with a ferrous metal damper located at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the fireplace opening. Dampers shall be installed in the fireplace or at the top of the flue venting the fireplace, and shall be operable from the room containing the fireplace. Damper controls shall be permitted to be located in the fireplace.
Smoke chamber walls shall be constructed of solid masonry units, hollow masonry units grouted solid, stone or concrete. Corbeling of masonry units shall not leave unit cores exposed to the inside of the smoke chamber. The inside surface of corbeled masonry shall be parged smooth. Where no lining is provided, the total minimum thickness of front, back and sidewalls shall be 8 inches (203 mm) of solid masonry. When a lining of firebrick at least 2 inches (51 mm) thick, or a lining of vitrified clay at least 55/8 inch (15.9 mm) thick, is provided, the total minimum thickness of front, back and sidewalls shall be 6 inches (152 mm) of solid masonry, including the lining. Firebrick shall conform to ASTM C 27 or ASTM C 1261 and shall be laid with refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199.
The inside height of the smoke chamber from the fireplace throat to the beginning of the flue shall not be greater than the inside width of the fireplace opening. The inside surface of the smoke chamber shall not be inclined more than 45 degrees (0.76 rad) from vertical when prefabricated smoke chamber linings are used or when the smoke chamber walls are rolled or sloped rather than corbeled. When the inside surface of the smoke chamber is formed by corbeled masonry, the walls shall not be corbeled more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from vertical.
Masonry fireplace hearths and hearth extensions shall be constructed of concrete or masonry, supported by noncombustible materials, and reinforced to carry their own weight and all imposed loads. No combustible material shall remain against the underside of hearths or hearth extensions after construction.
The minimum thickness of fireplace hearths shall be 4 inches (102 mm).
The minimum thickness of hearth extensions shall be 2 inches (51 mm).

Exception: When the bottom of the firebox opening is raised at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the top of the hearth extension, a hearth extension of not less than 3 / 8 -inch-thick (9.5 mm) brick, concrete, stone, tile or other approved noncombustible material is permitted.
Hearth extensions shall extend at least 16 inches (406 mm) in front of, and at least 8 inches (203 mm) beyond, each side of the fireplace opening. Where the fireplace opening is 6 square feet (0.557 m2) or larger, the hearth extension shall extend at least 20 inches (508 mm) in front of, and at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond, each side of the fireplace opening.
Any portion of a masonry fireplace located in the interior of a building or within the exterior wall of a building shall have a clearance to combustibles of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from the front faces and sides of masonry fireplaces and not less than 4 inches (102 mm) from the back faces of masonry fireplaces. The airspace shall not be filled, except to provide fireblocking in accordance with Section 2111.12.

Exceptions:

1. Masonry fireplaces listed and labeled for use in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 127 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.
2. When masonry fireplaces are constructed as part of masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete walls less than 12 inches (306 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest firebox lining.
3. Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing materials, such as wood siding, flooring and drywall, are permitted to abut the masonry fireplace sidewalls and hearth extension, in accordance with Figure 2111.11, provided such combustible trim or sheathing is a minimum of 12 inches (306 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest firebox lining.
4. Exposed combustible mantels or trim is permitted to be placed directly on the masonry fireplace front surrounding the fireplace opening, provided such combustible materials shall not be placed within 6 inches (153 mm) of a fireplace opening. Combustible material directly above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the fireplace opening shall not project more than 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) for each 1-inch (25 mm) distance from such opening. Combustible materials located along the sides of the fireplace opening that project more than 11/2 inches (38 mm) from the face of the fireplace shall have an additional clearance equal to the projection.




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm

FIGURE 2111.11 ILLUSTRATION OF EXCEPTION TO FIREPLACE CLEARANCE PROVISIONN
All spaces between fireplaces and floors and ceilings through which fireplaces pass shall be fireblocked with noncombustible material securely fastened in place. The fireblocking of spaces between wood joists, beams or headers shall be to a depth of 1 inch (25 mm) and shall only be placed on strips of metal or metal lath laid across the spaces between combustible material and the chimney.
Factory-built or masonry fireplaces covered in this section shall be equipped with an exterior air supply to ensure proper fuel combustion unless the room is mechanically ventilated and controlled so that the indoor pressure is neutral or positive.
Exterior combustion air ducts for factory-built fireplaces shall be listed components of the fireplace, and installed according to the fireplace manufacturer’s instructions.
Listed combustion air ducts for masonry fireplaces shall be installed according to the terms of their listing and manufacturer’s instructions.
The exterior air intake shall be capable of providing all combustion air from the exterior of the dwelling. The exterior air intake shall not be located within the garage, attic, basement or crawl space of the dwelling nor shall the air intake be located at an elevation higher than the firebox. The exterior air intake shall be covered with a corrosion-resistant screen of 1 / 4 -inch (6.4 mm) mesh.
Unlisted combustion air ducts shall be installed with a minimum 1-inch (25 mm) clearance to combustibles for all parts of the duct within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the duct outlet.
The combustion air passageway shall be a minimum of 6 square inches (3870 mm 2 ) and not more than 55 square inches (0.035 m 2 ), except that combustion air systems for listed fireplaces or for fireplaces tested for emissions shall be constructed according to the fireplace manufacturer's instructions.
The exterior air outlet is permitted to be located in the back or sides of the firebox chamber or within 24 inches (610 mm) of the firebox opening on or near the floor. The outlet shall be closable and designed to prevent burning material from dropping into concealed combustible spaces.
A masonry heater is a heating appliance constructed of concrete or solid masonry, hereinafter referred to as "masonry," which is designed to absorb and store heat from a solid fuel fire built in the firebox by routing the exhaust gases through internal heat exchange channels in which the flow path downstream of the firebox may include flow in a horizontal or downward direction before entering the chimney and which delivers heat by radiation from the masonry surface of the heater.
Masonry heaters shall be installed in accordance with this section and comply with one of the following:

1. Masonry heaters shall comply with the requirements of ASTM E 1602; or
2. Masonry heaters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1482 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
The firebox floor of a masonry heater shall be a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) of noncombustible material and be supported on a noncombustible footing and foundation in accordance with Section 2113.2.
In Seismic Design Category D, E and F, masonry heaters shall be anchored to the masonry foundation in accordance with Section 2113.3. Seismic reinforcing shall not be required within the body of a masonry heater with a height that is equal to or less than 3.5 times its body width and where the masonry chimney serving the heater is not supported by the body of the heater. Where the masonry chimney shares a common wall with the facing of the masonry heater, the chimney portion of the structure shall be reinforced in accordance with Section 2113.
Combustible materials shall not be placed within 36 inches (765 mm) of the outside surface of a masonry heater in accordance with NFPA 211, Section 8-7 (clearances for solid fuel-burning appliances), and the required space between the heater and combustible material shall be fully vented to permit the free flow of air around all heater surfaces.

Exceptions:

1. When the masonry heater wall thickness is at least 8 inches (203 mm) thick of solid masonry and the wall thickness of the heat exchange channels is at least 5 inches (127 mm) thick of solid masonry, combustible materials shall not be placed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the outside surface of a masonry heater. A clearance of at least 8 inches (203 mm) shall be provided between the gas-tight capping slab of the heater and a combustible ceiling.
2. Masonry heaters listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1482 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
A masonry chimney is a chimney constructed of concrete or masonry, hereinafter referred to as "masonry." Masonry chimneys shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter.
Footings for masonry chimneys shall be constructed of concrete or solid masonry at least 12 inches (305 mm) thick and shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the face of the foundation or support wall on all sides. Footings shall be founded on natural undisturbed earth or engineered fill below frost depth. In areas not subjected to freezing, footings shall be at least 12 inches (305 mm) below finished grade.
Masonry or concrete chimneys shall be constructed, anchored, supported and reinforced as required in this chapter. In Seismic Design Category D, masonry and concrete chimneys shall be reinforced and anchored as detailed in Sections 2113.3.1, 2113.3.2 and 2113.4. In Seismic Design Category A, B or C, reinforcement and seismic anchorage is not required. In Seismic Design Category E or F, masonry and concrete chimneys shall be reinforced in accordance with the requirements of Sections 2101 through 2108.
For chimneys up to 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, four No. 4 continuous vertical bars anchored in the foundation shall be placed in the concrete between wythes of solid masonry or within the cells of hollow unit masonry and grouted in accordance with Section 2103.12. Grout shall be prevented from bonding with the flue liner so that the flue liner is free to move with thermal expansion. For chimneys greater than 40 inches (1016 mm) wide, two additional No. 4 vertical bars shall be provided for each additional 40 inches (1016 mm) in width or fraction thereof.
Vertical reinforcement shall be placed enclosed within 1 / 4 -inch (6.4 mm) ties, or other reinforcing of equivalent net cross-sectional area, spaced not to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) o.c. in concrete, or placed in the bed joints of unit masonry, at a minimum of every 18 inches (457 mm) of vertical height. Two such ties shall be provided at each bend in the vertical bars.
Masonry and concrete chimneys and foundations in Seismic Design Category D shall be anchored at each floor, ceiling or roof line more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade, except where constructed completely within the exterior walls. Anchorage shall conform to the following requirements.
Two 3 / 16 -inch by 1-inch (4.8 mm by 25 mm) straps shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) into the chimney. Straps shall be hooked around the outer bars and extend 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the bend. Each strap shall be fastened to a minimum of four floor joists with two 1 / 2 -inch (12.7 mm) bolts.
Masonry chimneys shall not be corbeled more than half of the chimney's wall thickness from a wall or foundation, nor shall a chimney be corbeled from a wall or foundation that is less than 12 inches (305 mm) in thickness unless it projects equally on each side of the wall, except that on the second story of a two-story dwelling, corbeling of chimneys on the exterior of the enclosing walls is permitted to equal the wall thickness. The projection of a single course shall not exceed one-half the unit height or one-third of the unit bed depth, whichever is less.
The chimney wall or chimney flue lining shall not change in size or shape within 6 inches (152 mm) above or below where the chimney passes through floor components, ceiling components or roof components.
Where a masonry chimney is constructed with a fireclay flue liner surrounded by one wythe of masonry, the maximum offset shall be such that the centerline of the flue above the offset does not extend beyond the center of the chimney wall below the offset. Where the chimney offset is supported by masonry below the offset in an approved manner, the maximum offset limitations shall not apply. Each individual corbeled masonry course of the offset shall not exceed the projection limitations specified in Section 2113.5.
Chimneys shall not support loads other than their own weight unless they are designed and constructed to support the additional load. Masonry chimneys are permitted to be constructed as part of the masonry walls or concrete walls of the building.
Chimneys shall extend at least 2 feet (610 mm) higher than any portion of the building within 10 feet (3048 mm), but shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm) above the highest point where the chimney passes through the roof.
Where a spark arrestor is installed on a masonry chimney, the spark arrestor shall meet all of the following requirements:
1. The net free area of the arrestor shall not be less than four times the net free area of the outlet of the chimney flue it serves.
2. The arrestor screen shall have heat and corrosion resistance equivalent to 19-gage galvanized steel or 24-gage stainless steel.
3. Openings shall not permit the passage of spheres having a diameter greater than 1/2 inch (13 mm) nor block the passage of spheres having a diameter less than 3/8 inch (11 mm).
4. The spark arrestor shall be accessible for cleaning and the screen or chimney cap shall be removable to allow for cleaning of the chimney flue.
Masonry chimney walls shall be constructed of concrete, solid masonry units or hollow masonry units grouted solid with not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal thickness.
Where masonry is used as veneer for a framed chimney, through flashing and weep holes shall be provided as required by Chapter 14.
Masonry chimneys shall be lined. The lining material shall be appropriate for the type of appliance connected, according to the terms of the appliance listing and the manufacturer’s instructions.
Flue lining systems shall comply with one of the following:
1. Clay flue lining complying with the requirements of ASTM C 315, or equivalent.
2. Listed chimney lining systems complying with UL 1777.
3. Factory-built chimneys or chimney units listed for installation within masonry chimneys.
4. Other approved materials that will resist corrosion, erosion, softening or cracking from flue gases and condensate at temperatures up to 1,800°F (982°C).
Flue linings other than those covered in Section 2113.11.1 intended for use with specific appliances shall comply with Sections 2113.11.1.2 through 2113.11.1.4 and Sections 2113.11.2 and 2113.11.3.
Flue lining systems for gas appliances shall be in accordance with the Fuel Gas Code of New York State .
Flue lining and vent systems for use in masonry chimneys with pellet fuel-burning appliances shall be limited to flue lining systems complying with Section 2113.11.1 and pellet vents listed for installation within masonry chimneys (see Section 2113.11.1.5 for marking).
Flue lining and vent systems for use in masonry chimneys with oil-fired appliances approved for use with Type L vent shall be limited to flue lining systems complying with Section 2113.11.1 and listed chimney liners complying with UL 641 (see Section 2113.11.1.5 for marking).
When a flue is relined with a material not complying with Section 2113.11.1, the chimney shall be plainly and permanently identified by a label attached to a wall, ceiling or other conspicuous location adjacent to where the connector enters the chimney. The label shall include the following message or equivalent language: "This chimney is for use only with (type or category of appliance) that burns (type of fuel). Do not connect other types of appliances."
Concrete and masonry chimneys for medium-heat appliances shall comply with Sections 2113.1 through 2113.5.
Chimneys for medium-heat appliances shall be constructed of solid masonry units or of concrete with walls a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) thick, or with stone masonry a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) thick.
Concrete and masonry chimneys shall be lined with an approved medium-duty refractory brick a minimum of 4 1 / 2 inches (114 mm) thick laid on the 4 1 / 2 -inch bed (114 mm) in an approved medium-duty refractory mortar. The lining shall start 2 feet (610 mm) or more below the lowest chimney connector entrance. Chimneys terminating 25 feet (7620 mm) or less above a chimney connector entrance shall be lined to the top.
Concrete and masonry chimneys containing more than one passageway shall have the liners separated by a minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) concrete or solid masonry wall.
Concrete and masonry chimneys for medium-heat appliances shall extend a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) higher than any portion of any building within 25 feet (7620 mm).
A minimum clearance of 4 inches (102 mm) shall be provided between the exterior surfaces of a concrete or masonry chimney for medium-heat appliances and combustible material.
Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall comply with Sections 2113.1 through 2113.5.
Chimneys for high-heat appliances shall be constructed with double walls of solid masonry units or of concrete, each wall to be a minimum of 8 inches (203 mm) thick with a minimum airspace of 2 inches (51 mm) between the walls.
The inside of the interior wall shall be lined with an approved high-duty refractory brick, a minimum of 4 1 / 2 inches (114 mm) thick laid on the 4 1 / 2 -inch bed (114 mm) in an approved high-duty refractory mortar. The lining shall start at the base of the chimney and extend continuously to the top.
Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall extend a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) higher than any portion of any building within 50 feet (15 240 mm).
Concrete and masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances shall have approved clearance from buildings and structures to prevent overheating combustible materials, permit inspection and maintenance operations on the chimney and prevent danger of burns to persons.
Clay flue liners shall be installed in accordance with ASTM C 1283 and extend from a point not less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the lowest inlet or, in the case of fireplaces, from the top of the smoke chamber to a point above the enclosing walls. The lining shall be carried up vertically, with a maximum slope no greater than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical.

Clay flue liners shall be laid in medium-duty refractory mortar conforming to ASTM C 199 with tight mortar joints left smooth on the inside and installed to maintain an air space or insulation not to exceed the thickness of the flue liner separating the flue liners from the interior face of the chimney masonry walls. Flue lining shall be supported on all sides. Only enough mortar shall be placed to make the joint and hold the liners in position.
Listed materials used as flue linings shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listings and the manufacturer’s instructions.
The space surrounding a chimney lining system or vent installed within a masonry chimney shall not be used to vent any other appliance.

Exception: This shall not prevent the installation of a separate flue lining in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
When two or more flues are located in the same chimney, masonry wythes shall be built between adjacent flue linings. The masonry wythes shall be at least 4 inches (102 mm) thick and bonded into the walls of the chimney.

Exception: When venting only one appliance, two flues are permitted to adjoin each other in the same chimney with only the flue lining separation between them. The joints of the adjacent flue linings shall be staggered at least 4 inches (102 mm).
Chimney flues shall not be smaller in area than the area of the connector from the appliance. Chimney flues connected to more than one appliance shall not be less than the area of the largest connector plus 50 percent of the areas of additional chimney connectors.

Exceptions:

1. Chimney flues serving oil-fired appliances sized in accordance with NFPA 31.
2. Chimney flues serving gas-fired appliances sized in accordance with the Fuel Gas Code of New York State.
Flue sizing for chimneys serving fireplaces shall be in accordance with Section 2113.16.1 or 2113.16.2.

TABLE 2113.16(1) NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF ROUND FLUE SIZESa

FLUE SIZE, INSIDE DIAMETER (inches) CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (square inches)
6 28
7 38
8 50
10 78
10 3/4 90
12 113
15 176
18 254


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2.

a. Flue sizes are based on ASTM C 315.

TABLE 2113.16(2) NET CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF SQUARE AND RECTANGULAR FLUE SIZES


FLUE SIZE, OUTSIDE NOMINAL DIMENSIONS (inches) CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA (square inches)
4.5 × 8.5 23
4.5 × 13 34
8 × 8 42
8.5 × 8.5 49
8 × 12 67
8.5 × 13 76
12 × 12 102
8.5 × 18 101
13 ×13 127
12 × 16 131
13 × 18 173
16 × 16 181
16 × 20 222
18 × 18 233
20 × 20 298
20 × 24 335
24 × 24 431


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2.






For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645 mm2.

FIGURE 2113.16 FLUE SIZES FOR MASONRY CHIMNEYS
Round chimney flues shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1 / 12 of the fireplace opening. Square chimney flues shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1 / 10 of the fireplace opening. Rectangular chimney flues with an aspect ratio less than 2 to 1 shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1 / 10 of the fireplace opening. Rectangular chimney flues with an aspect ratio of 2 to 1 or more shall have a minimum net cross-sectional area of at least 1 / 8 of the fireplace opening.
The minimum net cross-sectional area of the flue shall be determined in accordance with Figure 2113.16. A flue size providing at least the equivalent net cross-sectional area shall be used. Cross-sectional areas of clay flue linings are as provided in Tables 2113.16(1) and 2113.16(2) or as provided by the manufacturer or as measured in the field. The height of the chimney shall be measured from the firebox floor to the top of the chimney flue.
Inlets to masonry chimneys shall enter from the side. Inlets shall have a thimble of fireclay, rigid refractory material or metal that will prevent the connector from pulling out of the inlet or from extending beyond the wall of the liner.
Cleanout openings shall be provided within 6 inches (152 mm) of the base of each flue within every masonry chimney. The upper edge of the cleanout shall be located at least 6 inches (152 mm) below the lowest chimney inlet opening. The height of the opening shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm). The cleanout shall be provided with a noncombustible cover.

Exception: Chimney flues serving masonry fireplaces, where cleaning is possible through the fireplace opening.
Any portion of a masonry chimney located in the interior of the building or within the exterior wall of the building shall have a minimum airspace clearance to combustibles of 2 inches (51 mm). Chimneys located entirely outside the exterior walls of the building, including chimneys that pass through the soffit or cornice, shall have a minimum airspace clearance of 1 inch (25 mm). The airspace shall not be filled, except to provide fireblocking in accordance with Section 2113.20.

Exceptions:

1. Masonry chimneys equipped with a chimney lining system listed and labeled for use in chimneys in contact with combustibles in accordance with UL 1777, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, are permitted to have combustible material in contact with their exterior surfaces.
2. Where masonry chimneys are constructed as part of masonry or concrete walls, combustible materials shall not be in contact with the masonry or concrete wall less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest flue lining.
3. Exposed combustible trim and the edges of sheathing materials, such as wood siding, are permitted to abut the masonry chimney sidewalls, in accordance with Figure 2113.19, provided such combustible trim or sheathing is a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) from the inside surface of the nearest flue lining. Combustible material and trim shall not overlap the corners of the chimney by more than 1 inch (25 mm).





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE 2113.19 ILLUSTRATION OF EXCEPTION THREE CHIMNEY CLEARANCE PROVISION
All spaces between chimneys and floors and ceilings through which chimneys pass shall be fireblocked with noncombustible material securely fastened in place. The fireblocking of spaces between wood joists, beams or headers shall be to a depth of 1 inch (25 mm) and shall only be placed on strips of metal or metal lath laid across the spaces between combustible material and the chimney.
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