Chapter 1 General Requirements

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Reserved

Appendix B Reserved

Appendix C Reserved

Appendix D Reserved

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Reserved

Appendix H Reserved

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Reserved

Appendix K Reserved

Appendix L Assistive Listening Systems Performance Standards

Appendix S New York State Agencies With Construction Regulations or Construction Authority

The provisions of this chapter shall govern the structural design of buildings, structures and portions thereof regulated by this code.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein.

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN.
A method of proportioning structural members, such that elastically computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also called "working stress design").

BALCONY, EXTERIOR.
An exterior floor projecting from and supported by a structure without additional independent supports.

DEAD LOADS.
The weight of materials of construction incorporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and the weight of fixed service equipment, such as cranes, plumbing stacks and risers, electrical feeders, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and fire sprinkler systems.

DECK.
An exterior floor supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjacent structure, and/or posts, piers or other independent supports.

DESIGN STRENGTH.
The product of the nominal strength and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor).

DIAPHRAGM.
A horizontal or sloped system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. When the term "diaphragm" is used, it shall include horizontal bracing systems.
Diaphragm, blocked. In light-frame construction, a diaphragm in which all sheathing edges not occurring on a framing member are supported on and fastened to blocking.
Diaphragm boundary. In light-frame construction, a location where shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary element or to another force-resisting element.
Diaphragm chord. A diaphragm boundary element perpendicular to the applied load that is assumed to take axial stresses due to the diaphragm moment.
Diaphragm flexible. A diaphragm is flexible for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment where so indicated in Section 12.3.1 of ASCE 7, as modified in Section 1613.6.1.
Diaphragm, rigid. A diaphragm is rigid for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is less than or equal to two times the average story drift.
DURATION OF LOAD. The period of continuous application of a given load, or the aggregate of periods of intermittent applications of the same load.

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES.
Buildings and other structures that are intended to remain operational in the event of extreme environmental loading from flood, wind, snow or earthquakes.

FABRIC PARTITIONS.
A partition consisting of a finished surface made of fabric, without a continuous rigid backing, that is directly attached to a framing system in which the vertical framing members are spaced greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center.

FACTORED LOAD.
The product of a nominal load and a load factor.

GUARD.
See Section 1002.1.

IMPACT LOAD.
The load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, craneways, vehicles and other similar forces and kinetic loads, pressure and possible surcharge from fixed or moving loads.

LIMIT STATE.
A condition beyond which a structure or member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be no longer useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to be unsafe (strength limit state).

LIVE LOADS.
Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.

LIVE LOADS (ROOF).
Those loads produced (1) during maintenance by workers, equipment and materials; and (2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by people.

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD).
A method of proportioning structural members and their connections using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate load combinations. The term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel and wood structures.

LOAD EFFECTS.
Forces and deformations produced in structural members by the applied loads.

LOAD FACTOR.
A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual load from the nominal load, for uncertainties in the analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability that more than one extreme load will occur simultaneously.

LOADS.
Forces or other actions that result from the weight of building materials, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movement and restrained dimensional changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude, such as dead loads. All other loads are variable loads (see also "Nominal loads").

NOMINAL LOADS.
The magnitudes of the loads specified in this chapter (dead, live, soil, wind, snow, rain, flood and earthquake).

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY.
A category used to determine structural requirements based on occupancy.

OTHER STRUCTURES.
Structures, other than buildings, for which loads are specified in this chapter.

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE).
The section of a floor, wall or roof comprised between the supporting frame of two adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor or roof construction.

RESISTANCE FACTOR.
A factor that accounts for deviations of the actual strength from the nominal strength and the manner and consequences of failure (also called "strength reduction factor").

STRENGTH, NOMINAL.
The capacity of a structure or member to resist the effects of loads, as determined by computations using specified material strengths and dimensions and equations derived from accepted principles of structural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models, allowing for modeling effects and differences between laboratory and field conditions.

STRENGTH, REQUIRED.
Strength of a member, cross section or connection required to resist factored loads or related internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated by these provisions.

STRENGTH DESIGN.
A method of proportioning structural members such that the computed forces produced in the members by factored loads do not exceed the member design strength [also called "load and resistance factor design" (LRFD)]. The term "strength design" is used in the design of concrete and masonry structural elements.

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM.
A system of building components near open sides of a garage floor or ramp or building walls that act as restraints for vehicles.

NOTATIONS.


D
= Dead load.

E
= Combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake induced forces as defined in Section 12.4.2 of ASCE 7.

Em
= Maximum seismic load effect of horizontal and vertical seismic forces as set forth in Section 12.4.3 of ASCE 7.

F
= Load due to fluids with well-defined pressures and maximum heights.

Fa
= Flood load.

H
= Load due to lateral earth pressures, ground water pressure or pressure of bulk materials.

L
= Live load, except roof live load, including any permitted live load reduction.

Lr
= Roof live load including any permitted live load reduction.

R
= Rain load.

S
= Snow load.

T
= Self-straining force arising from contraction or expansion resulting from temperature change, shrinkage, moisture change, creep in component materials, movement due to differential settlement or combinations thereof.

W
= Load due to wind pressure.
Construction documents shall show the size, section and relative locations of structural members with floor levels, column centers and offsets dimensioned. The design loads and other information pertinent to the structural design required by Sections 1603.1.1 through 1603.1.8 shall be indicated on the construction documents.

Exception:
Construction documents for buildings constructed in accordance with the conventional light-frame construction provisions of Section 2308 shall indicate the following structural design information:

1. Floor and roof live loads.
2. Ground snow load, Pg.
3. Basic wind speed (3-second gust), miles per hour (mph) (km/hr) and wind exposure.
5. Flood design data, if located in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3.
The uniformly distributed, concentrated and impact floor live load used in the design shall be indicated for floor areas. Use of live load reduction in accordance with Section 1607.9 shall be indicated for each type of live load used in the design.
The roof live load used in the design shall be indicated for roof areas (Section 1607.11).
The ground snow load, Pg , shall be indicated. In areas where the ground snow load, Pg , exceeds 10 pounds per square foot (psf) (0.479 kN/m 2 ), the following additional information shall also be provided, regardless of whether snow loads govern the design of the roof:
1. Flat-roof snow load, Pf.
2. Snow exposure factor, Ce.
3. Snow load importance factor, I.
4. Thermal factor, Ct.
The following information related to wind loads shall be shown, regardless of whether wind loads govern the design of the lateral-force-resisting system of the building:
1. Basic wind speed (3-second gust), miles per hour (km/hr).
2. Wind importance factor, I, and occupancy category.
3. Wind exposure, if more than one wind exposure is utilized, the wind exposure and applicable wind direction shall be indicated.
4. The applicable internal pressure coefficient.
5. Components and cladding. The design wind pressures in terms of psf (kN/m2) to be used for the design of exterior component and cladding materials not specifically designed by the registered design professional.
The following information related to seismic loads shall be shown, regardless of whether seismic loads govern the design of the lateral-force-resisting system of the building:
1. Seismic importance factor, I, and occupancy category.
2. Mapped spectral response accelerations, SS and S1.
4. Spectral response coefficients, SDS and SD1.
7. Design base shear.
8. Seismic response coefficient(s), CS.
9. Response modification factor(s), R.
10. Analysis procedure used.
For buildings located in whole or in part in flood hazard areas as established in Section 1612.3, the documentation pertaining to design, if required in Section 1612.5, shall be included and the following information, referenced to the datum on the community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), shall be shown, regardless of whether flood loads govern the design of the building:
1. In flood hazard areas not subject to high-velocity wave action, the elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including the basement.
2. In flood hazard areas not subject to high-velocity wave action, the elevation to which any nonresidential building will be dry floodproofed.
3. In flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity wave action, the proposed elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest floor, including the basement.
Special loads that are applicable to the design of the building, structure or portions thereof shall be indicated along with the specified section of this code that addresses the special loading condition.
Construction documents or specifications shall be prepared for those systems and components requiring special inspection for seismic resistance as specified in Section 1707.1 by the registered design professional responsible for their design and shall be submitted for approval in accordance with Section 106.1. Reference to seismic standards in lieu of detailed drawings is acceptable.
It shall be unlawful to place, or cause or permit to be placed, on any floor or roof of a building, structure or portion thereof, a load greater than is permitted by these requirements.
Where the live loads for which each floor or portion thereof of a commercial or industrial building is or has been designed to exceed 50 psf (2.40 kN/m2), such design live loads shall be conspicuously posted by the owner in that part of each story in which they apply, using durable signs. It shall be unlawful to remove or deface such notices.
Occupancy permits for buildings hereafter erected shall not be issued until the floor load signs, required by Section 1603.3, have been installed.
Building, structures and parts thereof shall be designed and constructed in accordance with strength design, load and resistance factor design, allowable stress design, empirical design or conventional construction methods, as permitted by the applicable material chapters.
Buildings and other structures, and parts thereof, shall be designed and constructed to support safely the factored loads in load combinations defined in this code without exceeding the appropriate strength limit states for the materials of construction. Alternatively, buildings and other structures, and parts thereof, shall be designed and constructed to support safely the nominal loads in load combinations defined in this code without exceeding the appropriate specified allowable stresses for the materials of construction.

Loads and forces for occupancies or uses not covered in this chapter shall be subject to the approval of the code enforcement official.
Structural systems and members thereof shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections and lateral drift. See Section 12.12.1 of ASCE 7 for drift limits applicable to earthquake loading.

 TABLE 1604.3 DEFLECTION LIMITSa, b, c, h, i

CONSTRUCTION L S or Wf D+Ld,g
Roof members:e
Supporting plaster ceiling l/360 l/360 l/240
Supporting nonplaster ceiling l/240 l/240 l/180
Not supporting ceiling l/180 l/180 l/120
Floor members l/360 - l/240
Exterior walls and interior partitions:
With brittle finishes - l/240 -
With flexible finishes - l/120 -
Farm buildings - - l/180
Greenhouses - - l/120


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. For structural roofing and siding made of formed metal sheets, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/60. For secondary roof structural members supporting formed metal roofing, the live load deflection shall not exceed l/150. For secondary wall members supporting formed metal siding, the design wind load deflection shall not exceed l/90. For roofs, this exception only applies when the metal sheets have no roof covering.

b. Interior partitions not exceeding 6 feet in height and flexible, folding and portable partitions are not governed by the provisions of this section. The deflection criterion for interior partitions is based on the horizontal load defined in Section 1607.13.

c. See Section 2403 for glass supports.

d. For wood structural members having a moisture content of less than 16 percent at time of installation and used under dry conditions, the deflection resulting from L + 0.5D is permitted to be substituted for the deflection resulting from L + D.

e. The above deflections do not ensure against ponding. Roofs that do not have sufficient slope or camber to assure adequate drainage shall be investigated for ponding. See Section 1611 for rain and ponding requirements and Section 1503.4 for roof drainage requirements.

f. The wind load is permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the "component and cladding" loads for the purpose of determining deflection limits herein.

g. For steel structural members, the dead load shall be taken as zero.

h. For aluminum structural members or aluminum panels used in skylights and sloped glazing framing, roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, not supporting edge of glass or aluminum sandwich panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/60. For aluminum sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed l/120.

i. For cantilever members, l shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever.
The deflections of structural members shall not exceed the more restrictive of the limitations of Sections 1604.3.2 through 1604.3.5 or that permitted by Table 1604.3.
The deflection of reinforced concrete structural members shall not exceed that permitted by ACI 318.
The deflection of steel structural members shall not exceed that permitted by AISC 360, AISI-NAS, AISI-General, AISI-Truss, ASCE 3, ASCE 8, SJI JG-1.1, SJI K-1.1 or SJI LH/DLH-1.1, as applicable.
The deflection of masonry structural members shall not exceed that permitted by ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402.
The deflection of aluminum structural members shall not exceed that permitted by AA ADM1.
Deflection of structural members over span, l , shall not exceed that permitted by Table 1604.3.
Load effects on structural members and their connections shall be determined by methods of structural analysis that take into account equilibrium, general stability, geometric compatibility and both short- and long-term material properties.

Members that tend to accumulate residual deformations under repeated service loads shall have included in their analysis the added eccentricities expected to occur during their service life.

Any system or method of construction to be used shall be based on a rational analysis in accordance with well-established principles of mechanics. Such analysis shall result in a system that provides a complete load path capable of transferring loads from their point of origin to the load-resisting elements.

The total lateral force shall be distributed to the various vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities, considering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm. Rigid elements assumed not to be a part of the lateral-force-resisting system are permitted to be incorporated into buildings provided their effect on the action of the system is considered and provided for in the design. Except where diaphragms are flexible, or are permitted to be analyzed as flexible, provisions shall be made for the increased forces induced on resisting elements of the structural system resulting from torsion due to eccentricity between the center of application of the lateral forces and the center of rigidity of the lateral-force-resisting system.

Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning effects caused by the lateral forces specified in this chapter. See Section 1609 for wind loads, Section 1610 for lateral soil loads and Section 1613 for earthquake loads.
Buildings shall be assigned an occupancy category in accordance with Table 1604.5.

 TABLE 1604.5 OCCUPANCY CATEGORY OF BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES 

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY NATURE OF OCCUPANCY
I Buildings and other structures that represent a low hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not limited to:
  Agricultural facilities.
  Certain temporary facilities.
  Minor storage facilities.
II Buildings and other structures except those listed in Occupancy Categories I, III and IV
III Buildings and other structures that represent a substantial hazard to human life in the event of failure, including but not limited to:
  Covered structures whose primary occupancy is public assembly with an occupant load greater than 300.
  Buildings and other structures with elementary school, secondary school or day care facilities with an occupant load greater than 250.
  Buildings and other structures with an occupant load greater than 500 for colleges or adult education facilities.
  Health care facilities with an occupant load of 50 or more resident patients, but not having surgery or emergency treatment facilities.
  Jails and detention facilities.
  Any other occupancy with an occupant load greater than 5,000.
  Power-generating stations, water treatment for potable water, waste water treatment facilities and other public utility facilities not included in Occupancy Category IV.
  Buildings and other structures not included in Occupancy Category IV containing sufficient quantities of toxic or explosive substances to be dangerous to the public if released.
IV Buildings and other structures designated as essential facilities, including but not limited to:
Hospitals and other health care facilities having surgery or emergency treatment facilities.
Fire, rescue and police stations and emergency vehicle garages.
Designated earthquake, hurricane or other emergency shelters.
Designated emergency preparedness, communication, and operation centers and other facilities required for emergency response.
Power-generating stations and other public utility facilities required as emergency backup facilities for Occupancy Category IV structures.
Structures containing highly toxic materials as defined by Section 307 where the quantity of the material exceeds the maximum allowable quantities of Table 307.1.(2).
Aviation control towers, air traffic control centers and emergency aircraft hangars.
Buildings and other structures having critical national defense functions.
Water treatment facilities required to maintain water pressure for fire suppression.
Where a structure is occupied by two or more occupancies not included in the same occupancy category, the structure shall be assigned the classification of the highest occupancy category corresponding to the various occupancies. Where structures have two or more portions that are structurally separated, each portion shall be separately classified. Where a separated portion of a structure provides required access to, required egress from or shares life safety components with another portion having a higher occupancy category, both portions shall be assigned to the higher occupancy category.
The code enforcement official is authorized to require an engineering analysis or a load test, or both, of any construction whenever there is reason to question the safety of the construction for the intended occupancy. Engineering analysis and load tests shall be conducted in accordance with Section 1713.
Materials and methods of construction that are not capable of being designed by approved engineering analysis or that do not comply with the applicable material design standards listed in Chapter 35, or alternative test procedures in accordance with Section 1711, shall be load tested in accordance with Section 1714.
Anchorage of the roof to walls and columns, and of walls and columns to foundations, shall be provided to resist the uplift and sliding forces that result from the application of the prescribed loads.
Concrete and masonry walls shall be anchored to floors, roofs and other structural elements that provide lateral support for the wall. Such anchorage shall provide a positive direct connection capable of resisting the horizontal forces specified in this chapter but not less than a minimum strength design horizontal force of 280 plf (4.10 kN/m) of wall, substituted for " E " in the load combinations of Section 1605.2 or 1605.3. Walls shall be designed to resist bending between anchors where the anchor spacing exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm). Required anchors in masonry walls of hollow units or cavity walls shall be embedded in a reinforced grouted structural element of the wall. See Sections 1609 for wind design requirements and see Section 1613 for earthquake design requirements.
Where supported by attachment to an exterior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary structure and designed for both vertical and lateral loads as applicable. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by the use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. Where positive connection to the primary building structure cannot be verified during inspection, decks shall be self-supporting. For decks with cantilevered framing members, connections to exterior walls or other framing members shall be designed and constructed to resist uplift resulting from the full live load specified in Table 1607.1 acting on the cantilevered portion of the deck.
Structural members, systems, components and cladding shall be designed to resist forces due to earthquake and wind, with consideration of overturning, sliding, and uplift. Continuous load paths shall be provided for transmitting these forces to the foundation. Where sliding is used to isolate the elements, the effects of friction between sliding elements shall be included as a force.
Lateral-force-resisting systems shall meet seismic detailing requirements and limitations prescribed in this code and ASCE 7, excluding Chapter 14 and Appendix 11A, even when wind code prescribed load effects are greater than seismic load effects.
Buildings and other structures and portions thereof shall be designed to resist the load combinations specified in Section 1605.2 or 1605.3 and Chapters 18 through 23, and the special seismic load combinations of Section 1605.4 where required by Section 12.3.3.3 or 12.10.2.1 of ASCE 7. Applicable loads shall be considered, including both earthquake and wind, in accordance with the specified load combinations. Each load combination shall also be investigated with one or more of the variable loads set to zero.
Where strength design or load and resistance factor design is used, structures and portions thereof shall resist the most critical effects from the following combinations of factored loads:

1.4(D + F)(Equation 16-1)


1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5 (Lr or S or R) (Equation 16-2)


1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (f1L or 0.8W)(Equation 16-3)


1.2D + 1.6W + f1L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)(Equation 16-4)


1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2S (Equation 16-5)


0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H (Equation 16-6)


0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H(Equation 16-7)


f1 = 1 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads in excess of 100 pounds per square foot (4.79 kN/m2), and for parking garage live load, and
  = 0.5 for other live loads.
f2 = 0.7 for roof configurations (such as saw tooth) that do not shed snow off the structure, and
  = 0.2 for other roof configurations.

Exception:
Where other factored load combinations are specifically required by the provisions of this code, such combinations shall take precedence.
Where Fa is to be considered in the design, the load combinations of Section 2.3.3 of ASCE 7 shall be used.
Where allowable stress design (working stress design), as permitted by this code, is used, structures and portions thereof shall resist the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations of loads:

D + F (Equation 16-8)


D + H + F + L + T (Equation 16-9)


D + H + F + (Lr or S or R) (Equation 16-10)


D + H + F + 0.75(L + T) + 0.75 (Lr or S or R)  (Equation 16-11)


D + H + F + (W or 0.7E) (Equation 16-12)


D + H + F + 0.75(W or 0.7E) + 0.75L + 0.75 (Lr or S or R) (Equation 16-13)


0.6D + W + H (Equation 16-14)


0.6D + 0.7E + H (Equation 16-15)

Exceptions:
1. Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live load or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
2. Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads.
Increases in allowable stresses specified in the appropriate material chapter or the referenced standards shall not be used with the load combinations of Section 1605.3.1, except that a duration of load increase shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 23.
Where Fa is to be considered in design, the load combinations of Section 2.4.2 of ASCE 7 shall be used.
In lieu of the basic load combinations specified in Section 1605.3.1, structures and portions thereof shall be permitted to be designed for the most critical effects resulting from the following combinations. When using these alternative basic load combinations that include wind or seismic loads, allowable stresses are permitted to be increased or load combinations reduced where permitted by the material chapter of this code or the referenced standards. For load combinations that include the counteracting effects of dead and wind loads, only two-thirds of the minimum dead load likely to be in place during a design wind event shall be used. Where wind loads are calculated in accordance with Chapter 6 of ASCE 7, the coefficient w in the following equations shall be taken as 1.3. For other wind loads, ω shall be taken as 1. When using these alternative load combinations to evaluate sliding, overturning and soil bearing at the soil-structure interface, the reduction of foundation overturning from Section 12.13.4 in ASCE 7 shall not be used. When using these alternative basic load combinations for proportioning foundations for loadings, which include seismic loads, the vertical seismic load effect, Ev , in Equation 12.4-4 of ASCE 7 is permitted to be taken equal to zero.

D + L + (Lr or S or R)(Equation 16-16)


D + L + (ωW)(Equation 16-17)


D + L + ωW + S/2(Equation 16-18)


D + L + S + ωW/2(Equation 16-19)


D + L + S + E/1.4(Equation 16-20)


0.9D + E/1.4(Equation 16-21)

Exceptions:
1. Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live loads or with more than three-fourths of the snow load or one-half of the wind load.
2. Flat roof snow loads of 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2) or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf (1.44 kN/m2), 20 percent shall be combined with seismic loads.
Where F , H or T are to be considered in the design, each applicable load shall be added to the combinations specified in Section 1605.3.2.
For both allowable stress design and strength design methods where specifically required by Section 1605.1 or by Chapters 18 through 23, elements and components shall be designed to resist the forces calculated using Equation 16-22 when the effects of the seismic ground motion are additive to gravity forces and those calculated using Equation 16-23 when the effects of the seismic ground motion counteract gravity forces.

1.2D + f1L + Em (Equation 16-22)


0.9D + Em (Equation 16-23)

where:

Em = The maximum effect of horizontal and vertical forces as set forth in Section 12.4.3 of ASCE 7.
 
f1 = 1 for floors in places of public assembly, for live loads in excess of 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2) and for parking garage live load, or
 
  = 0.5 for other live loads.
Heliport and helistop landing areas shall be designed for the following loads, combined in accordance with Section 1605:

1. Dead load, D, plus the gross weight of the helicopter, Dh, plus snow load, S.
2. Dead load, D, plus two single concentrated impact loads, L, approximately 8 feet (2438 mm) apart applied anywhere on the landing area (representing the helicopter’s two main landing gear, whether skid type or wheeled type), having a magnitude of 0.75 times the gross weight of the helicopter. Both loads acting together total one-and one half times the gross weight of the helicopter.
3. Dead load, D, plus a uniform live load, L, of 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2).

Exception:
Landing areas designed for helicopters with gross weights not exceeding 3,000 pounds (13.34 kN) in accordance with Items 1 and 2 shall be permitted to be designed using a 40 psf (1.92 kN/m2) uniform live load in Item 3, provided the landing area is identified with a 3,000 pound (13.34 kN) weight limitation. This 40 psf (1.92 kN/m2) uniform live load shall not be reduced. The landing area weight limitation shall be indicated by the numeral "3" (kips) located in the bottom right corner of the landing area as viewed from the primary approach path. The landing area weight limitation shall be a minimum of 5 feet (1524 mm) in height.
Dead loads are those loads defined in Section 1602.1. Dead loads shall be considered permanent loads.
For purposes of design, the actual weights of materials of construction and fixed service equipment shall be used. In the absence of definite information, values used shall be subject to the approval of the code enforcement official.
Live loads are those loads defined in Section 1602.1.

TABLE 1607.1
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS AND MINIMUM CONCENTRATED LIVE LOADSg

OCCUPANCY OR USE UNIFORM (psf) CONCENTRATED
(lbs.)
1. Apartments (see residential) - -
2. Access floor systems
      Office use
      Computer use

50
100

2,000
2,000
3. Armories and drill rooms 150 -
4. Assembly areas and theaters
      Fixed seats (fastened to floor)
      Follow spot, projections and control rooms
      Lobbies
      Movable seats
      Stages and platforms
-
60
50
100
100
125
-
-
-
-
-
5. Balconies 100 -
      On one- and two-family residences only, and
      not exceeding 100 sq ft
60
6. Bowling alleys 75 -
7. Catwalks 40 300
8. Dance halls and ballrooms 100 -
9. Decks Same as occupancy servedh -
10. Dining rooms and restaurants 100 -
11. Dwellings (see residential) - -
12. Cornices 60 -
13. Corridors, except as otherwise indicated 100 -
14. Elevator machine room grating
         (on area of 4 in2)
- 300
15. Finish light floor plate construction
         (on area of 1 in2)
-
-
200
16. Fire escapes
         On single-family dwellings only
100

40


-
17. Garages (passenger vehicles only)
        Trucks and buses
40 Note a
See Section 1607.6
18. Grandstands (see stadium and arena bleachers) - -
19. Gymnasiums, main floors and balconies 100 -
20. Handrails, guards and grab bars See Section 1607.7
21. Hospitals
        Corridors above first floor
        Operating rooms, laboratories
        Patient rooms

80
60
40

1,000
1,000
1,000
22. Hotels (see residential) - -
23. Libraries
        Corridors above first floor
        Reading rooms
        Stack rooms

80
60
150b

1,000
1,000
1,000

continued


TABLE 1607.1—continued
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS AND MINIMUM CONCENTRATED LIVE LOADSg

OCCUPANCY OR USE UNIFORM(psf) CONCENTRATED(lbs.)
24. Manufacturing
        Heavy
        Light

250
125

3,000
2,000
25. Marquees 75 -
26. Office buildings
      Corridors above first floor
      File and computer rooms shall be
         designed for heavier loads based
         on anticipated occupancy
      Lobbies and first-floor corridors
      Offices

80

-

100
50

2,000

-

2,000
2,000
27. Penal institutions
        Cell blocks
        Corridors

40
100
-
28. Residential
       One- and two-family dwellings
           Uninhabitable attics without storagei
           Uninhabitable attics with limited storagei, j, k
           Habitable attics and sleeping areas
           All other areas except balconies and decks
           Hotels and multiple-family dwellings
           Private rooms and corridors serving them
           Public rooms and corridors serving them
10
20
30
40

40
100
-
29. Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers Note c
30. Roofs
       All roof surfaces subject to maintenance workers
         Awnings and canopies
         Fabric construction supported by a lightweight
            rigid skeleton structure
         All other construction
       Ordinary flat, pitched, and curved roofs
       Primary roof members, exposed to a work floor
         Single panel point of lower chord of roof trusses
            or any point along primary structural members
            supporting roofs:
         Over manufacturing, storage warehouses, and
            repair garages
         All other occupancies
       Roofs used for other special purposes
       Roofs used for promenade purposes
       Roofs used for roof gardens or assembly purposes


5
nonreduceable
20
20

Note l
60
100

300

2,000
300
Note l

TABLE 1607.1—continued
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS AND MINIMUM CONCENTRATED LIVE LOADSg

OCCUPANCY OR USE UNIFORM
(psf)
CONCENTRATED
(lbs.)
31. Schools
       Classrooms
       Corridors above first floor
       First-floor corridors

40
80
100

1,000
1,000
1,000
32. Scuttles, skylight ribs and accessible ceilings - 200
33. Sidewalks, vehicular driveways and yards,
       subject to trucking
250d 8,000e
34. Skating rinks 100 -
35. Stadiums and arenas
       Bleachers
       Fixed seats (fastened to floor)

100c
60c


-
36. Stairs and exits
       One- and two-family dwellings
       All other

40
100
Note f
37. Storage warehouses (shall be designed for
       heavier loads if required for anticipated storage)
         Heavy
         Light


250
125
 
38. Stores
       Retail
         First floor
         Upper floors
       Wholesale, all floors


100
75
125


1,000
1,000
1,000
39. Vehicle barriers See Section 1607.7.3
40. Walkways and elevated platforms
       (other than exitways)
60 -
41. Yards and terraces, pedestrians 100 -


1 square inch = 645.16 mm2, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kg/m3

a. Floors in garages or portions of buildings used for the storage of motor vehicles shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live loads of Table 1607.1 or the following concentrated loads: (1) for garages restricted to vehicles accommodating not more than nine passengers, 3,000 pounds acting on an area of 4.5 inches by 4.5 inches; (2) for mechanical parking structures without slab or deck which are used for storing passenger vehicles only, 2,250 pounds per wheel.

b. The loading applies to stack room floors that support nonmobile, double-faced library bookstacks, subject to the following limitations:

    1. The nominal bookstack unit height shall not exceed 90 inches;

    2. The nominal shelf depth shall not exceed 12 inches for each face; and

    3. Parallel rows of double-faced bookstacks shall be separated by aisles not less than 36 inches wide.

c. Design in accordance with the ICC 300.

d. Other uniform loads in accordance with an approved method which contains provisions for truck loadings shall also be considered where appropriate.

e. The concentrated wheel load shall be applied on an area of 20 square inches.

f. Minimum concentrated load on stair treads (on area of 4 square inches) is 300 pounds.

g. Where snow loads occur that are in excess of the design conditions, the structure shall be designed to support the loads due to the increased loads caused by drift buildup or a greater snow design determined by the code enforcement official (see Section 1608). For special-purpose roofs, see Section 1607.11.2.2.

h. See Section 1604.8.3 for decks attached to exterior walls.

i. Attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between the joist and rafter is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high by 2 feet wide, or greater, located within the plane of the truss. For attics without storage, this live load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements.

j. For attics with limited storage and constructed with trusses, this live load need only be applied to those portions of the bottom chord where there are two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high by 2 feet wide or greater, located within the plane of the truss. The rectangle shall fit between the top of the bottom chord and the bottom of any other truss member, provided that each of the following criteria is met:

    i. The attic area is accessible by a pull-down stairway or framed opening in accordance with Section 1209.2, and

    ii. The truss shall have a bottom chord pitch less than 2:12.

    iii. Bottom chords of trusses shall be designed for the greater of actual imposed dead load or 10 psf, uniformly distributed over the entire span.

k. Attic spaces served by a fixed stair shall be designed to support the minimum live load specified for habitable attics and sleeping rooms.

l. Roofs used for other special purposes shall be designed for appropriate loads as approved by the code enforcement official.
 
For occupancies or uses not designated in Table 1607.1, the live load shall be determined in accordance with a method approved by the code enforcement official.
The live loads used in the design of buildings and other structures shall be the maximum loads expected by the intended use or occupancy but shall in no case be less than the minimum uniformly distributed unit loads required by Table 1607.1.
Floors and other similar surfaces shall be designed to support the uniformly distributed live loads prescribed in Section 1607.3 or the concentrated load, in pounds (kilonewtons), given in Table 1607.1, whichever produces the greater load effects. Unless otherwise specified, the indicated concentration shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed over an area 2.5 feet by 2.5 feet [6.25 square feet (0.58 m2)] and shall be located so as to produce the maximum load effects in the structural members.
In office buildings and in other buildings where partition locations are subject to change, provisions for partition weight shall be made, whether or not partitions are shown on the construction documents, unless the specified live load exceeds 80 psf (3.83 kN/m2). The partition load shall not be less than a uniformly distributed live load of 15 psf (0.74 kN/m2).
Minimum live loads for garages having trucks or buses shall be as specified in Table 1607.6, but shall not be less than 50 psf (2.40 kN/m2), unless other loads are specifically justified and approved by the code enforcement official. Actual loads shall be used where they are greater than the loads specified in the table.

TABLE 1607.6
UNIFORM AND CONCENTRATED LOADS

LOADING CLASSa UNIFORM LOAD
(pounds/linear foot of lane)
CONCENTRATED LOAD
(pounds)b
For moment design For shear design
H20-44 and HS20-44 640 18,000 26,000
H15-44 and HS15-44 480 13,500 19,500


For SI: 1 pound per linear foot = 0.01459 kN/m, 1 pound = 0.004448 kN, 1 ton = 8.90 kN.

a. An H loading class designates a two-axle truck with a semitrailer. An HS loading class designates a tractor truck with a semitrailer. The numbers following the letter classification indicate the gross weight in tons of the standard truck and the year the loadings were instituted.

b. See Section 1607.6.1 for the loading of multiple spans.
The concentrated load and uniform load shall be uniformly distributed over a 10-foot (3048 mm) width on a line normal to the centerline of the lane placed within a 12-foot-wide (3658 mm) lane. The loads shall be placed within their individual lanes so as to produce the maximum stress in each structural member. Single spans shall be designed for the uniform load in Table 1607.6 and one simultaneous concentrated load positioned to produce the maximum effect. Multiple spans shall be designed for the uniform load in Table 1607.6 on the spans and two simultaneous concentrated loads in two spans positioned to produce the maximum negative moment effect. Multiple span design loads, for other effects, shall be the same as for single spans.
Handrails, guards, grab bars as designed in ICC/ANSI A117.1 and vehicle barriers shall be designed and constructed to the structural loading conditions set forth in this section.
Handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed to resist a load of 50 plf (0.73 kN/m) applied in any direction at the top and to transfer this load through the supports to the structure. Glass handrail assemblies and guards shall also comply with Section 2407.

Exceptions:
1. For one- and two-family dwellings, only the single concentrated load required by Section 1607.7.1.1 shall be applied.
2. In Group I-3, F, H and S occupancies, for areas that are not accessible to the general public and that have an occupant load less than 50, the minimum load shall be 20 pounds per foot (0.29 kN/m).
Handrail assemblies and guards shall be able to resist a single concentrated load of 200 pounds (0.89 kN), applied in any direction at any point along the top, and have attachment devices and supporting structure to transfer this loading to appropriate structural elements of the building. This load need not be assumed to act concurrently with the loads specified in the preceding paragraph.
Intermediate rails (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 50 pounds (0.22 kN) on an area equal to 1 square foot (0.093m 2 ), including openings and space between rails. Reactions due to this loading are not required to be superimposed with those of Section 1607.7.1 or 1607.7.1.1.
Where handrails and guards are designed in accordance with the provisions for allowable stress design (working stress design) exclusively for the loads specified in Section 1607.7.1, the allowable stress for the members and their attachments are permitted to be increased by one-third.
Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room bench seat systems shall be designed to resist a single concentrated load of 250 pounds (1.11 kN) applied in any direction at any point.
Vehicle barrier systems for passenger cars shall be designed to resist a single load of 6,000 pounds (26.70 kN) applied horizontally in any direction to the barrier system and shall have anchorage or attachment capable of transmitting this load to the structure. For design of the system, the load shall be assumed to act at a minimum height of 1 foot, 6 inches (457 mm) above the floor or ramp surface on an area not to exceed 1 square foot (305 mm 2 ), and is not required to be assumed to act concurrently with any handraolil or guard loadings specified in the preceding paragraphs of Section 1607.7.1. Garages accommodating trucks and buses shall be designed in accordance with an approved method that contains provision for traffic railings.
The live loads specified in Section 1607.3 include allowance for impact conditions. Provisions shall be made in the structural design for uses and loads that involve unusual vibration and impact forces.
Elevator loads shall be increased by 100 percent for impact and the structural supports shall be designed within the limits of deflection prescribed by ASME A17.1.
For the purpose of design, the weight of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as follows to allow for impact: (1) elevator machinery, 100 percent; (2) light machinery, shaft- or motor-driven, 20 percent; (3) reciprocating machinery or power-driven units, 50 percent; (4) hangers for floors or balconies, 33 percent. Percentages shall be increased where specified by the manufacturer.
Except for roof uniform live loads, all other minimum uniformly distributed live loads, Lo, in Table 1607.1 are permitted to be reduced in accordance with Section 1607.9.1 or 1607.9.2.
Subject to the limitations of Sections 1607.9.1.1 through 1607.9.1.4, members for which a value of KLL A T is 400 square feet (37.16 m 2 ) or more are permitted to be designed for a reduced live load in accordance with the following equation:



(Equation 16-24)

where:

L = Reduced design live load per square foot (meter) of area supported by the member.
 
Lo = Unreduced design live load per square foot (meter) of area supported by the member (see Table 1607.1).
 
KLL = Live load element factor (see Table 1607.9.1).
 
AT = Tributary area, in square feet (square meters). L shall not be less than 0.50Lo for members supporting one floor and L shall not be less than 0.40Lo for members supporting two or more floors.

TABLE 1607.9.1
LIVE LOAD ELEMENT FACTOR, KLL

ELEMENT KLL
Interior columns
Exterior columns without cantilever slabs
4
4
Edge columns with cantilever slabs 3
Corner columns with cantilever slabs
Edge beams without cantilever slabs
Interior beams
2
2
2
All other members not identified above including:
    Edge beams with cantilever slabs
    Cantilever beams
    Two-way slabs
    Members without provisions for continuous shear
      transfer normal to their span
1
Live loads that exceed 100 psf (4.79 kN/m 2 ) shall not be reduced.

Exceptions:
1. The live loads for members supporting two or more floors are permitted to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent, but the live load shall not be less than L as calculated in Section 1607.9.1.
2. For uses other than storage, where approved, additional live load reductions shall be permitted where shown by the registered design professional that a rational approach has been used and that such reductions are warranted.
The live loads shall not be reduced in passenger vehicle garages except the live loads for members supporting two or more floors are permitted to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent, but the live load shall not be less than L as calculated in Section 1607.9.1.
Live loads of 100 psf (4.79 kN/m 2 ) or less shall not be reduced in public assembly occupancies.
Live loads shall not be reduced for one-way slabs except as permitted in Section 1607.9.1.1. Live loads of 100 psf (4.79 kN/m 2 ) or less shall not be reduced for roof members except as specified in Section 1607.11.2.
As an alternative to Section 1607.9.1, floor live loads are permitted to be reduced in accordance with the following provisions. Such reductions shall apply to slab systems, beams, girders, columns, piers, walls and foundations.
1. A reduction shall not be permitted in Group A occupancies.
2. A reduction shall not be permitted where the live load exceeds 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2) except that the design live load for members supporting two or more floors is permitted to be reduced by 20 percent.
3. A reduction shall not be permitted in passenger vehicle parking garages except that the live loads for members supporting two or more floors are permitted to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent.
4. For live loads not exceeding 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2), the design live load for any structural member supporting 150 square feet (13.94 m2) or more is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the following equation:

R = 0.08 (A -150)(Equation 16-25)


For SI: R = 0.861 (A -13.94)
 
Such reduction shall not exceed the smallest of:
1. 40 percent for horizontal members;
2. 60 percent for vertical members; or
3. R as determined by the following equation.

R = 23.1 (1 + D/Lo)(Equation 16-26)

where:

A = Area of floor supported by the member, square feet (m2).
 
D = Dead load per square foot (m2) of area supported.
 
Lo = Unreduced live load per square foot (m2) of area supported.
 
R = Reduction in percent.
Where uniform floor live loads are involved in the design of structural members arranged so as to create continuity, the minimum applied loads shall be the full dead loads on all spans in combination with the floor live loads on spans selected to produce the greatest effect at each location under consideration. It shall be permitted to reduce floor live loads in accordance with Section 1607.9.
The structural supports of roofs and marquees shall be designed to resist wind and, where applicable, snow and earthquake loads, in addition to the dead load of construction and the appropriate live loads as prescribed in this section, or as set forth in Table 1607.1. The live loads acting on a sloping surface shall be assumed to act vertically on the horizontal projection of that surface.
Where uniform roof live loads are reduced to less than 20 psf (0.96 kN/m 2 ) in accordance with Section 1607.11.2.1 and are involved in the design of structural members arranged so as to create continuity, the minimum applied loads shall be the full dead loads on all spans in combination with the roof live loads on adjacent spans or on alternate spans, whichever produces the greatest effect. See Section 1607.11.2 for minimum roof live loads and Section 7.5 of ASCE 7 for partial snow loading.
The minimum uniformly distributed roof live loads, Lo , in Table 1607.1 are permitted to be reduced according to the following provisions.
Ordinary flat, pitched and curved roofs are permitted to be designed for a reduced roof live load as specified in the following equation or other controlling combinations of loads in Section 1605, whichever produces the greater load. In structures where special scaffolding is used as a work surface for workers and materials during maintenance and repair operations, a lower roof load than specified in the following equation shall not be used unless approved by the code enforcement official. Greenhouses shall be designed for a minimum roof live load of 12 psf (0.58 kN/m 2 ).

Lr = Lo R1R2 (Equation 16-27)


where: 12 Lr 20
For SI: Lr = Lo R1R2
where: 0.58 Lr 0.96
Lr = Reduced live load per square foot (m2) of horizontal projection in pounds per square foot (kN/m2).

The reduction factors R1 and R2 shall be determined as follows:

R1 = 1 for At 200 square feet (18.58 m2)  (Equation 16-28)


R1 = 1.2 - 0.001At for 200 square feet < At < 600 square feet(Equation 16-29)


For SI: 1.2 - 0.011At for 18.58 square meters < At < 55.74 square meters


R1 = 0.6 for At > 600 square feet (55.74 m2)  (Equation 16-30)

where:

At = Tributary area (span length multiplied by effective width) in square feet (m2) supported by any structural member, and
 
R2 = 1 for F 4 (Equation 16-31)
 
R2 = 1.2 - 0.05 F for 4 < F < 12 (Equation 16-32)
 
R2 = 0.6 for F > 12 (Equation 16-33)

where:

F =For a sloped roof, the number of inches of rise per foot (for SI: F = 0.12 × slope, with slope expressed as a percentage), or for an arch or dome, the rise-to-span ratio multiplied by 32.
Roofs used for promenade purposes, roof gardens , assembly purposes or other special purposes shall be designed for a minimum live load as required in Table 1607.1. Such roof live loads are permitted to be reduced in accordance with 1607.9.
Where roofs are to be landscaped, the uniform design live load in the landscaped area shall be 20 psf (0.958 kN/m 2 ). The weight of the landscaping materials shall be considered as dead load and shall be computed on the basis of saturation of the soil.
Awnings and canopies shall be designed for uniform live loads as required in Table 1607.1 as well as for snow loads and wind loads as specified in Sections 1608 and 1609.
The crane live load shall be the rated capacity of the crane. Design loads for the runway beams, including connections and support brackets, of moving bridge cranes and monorail cranes shall include the maximum wheel loads of the crane and the vertical impact, lateral and longitudinal forces induced by the moving crane.
The maximum wheel loads shall be the wheel loads produced by the weight of the bridge, as applicable, plus the sum of the rated capacity and the weight of the trolley with the trolley positioned on its runway at the location where the resulting load effect is maximum.
The maximum wheel loads of the crane shall be increased by the percentages shown below to determine the induced vertical impact or vibration force:

Monorail cranes (powered) 25 percent

Cab-operated or remotely operated bridge cranes (powered) 25 percent

Pendant-operated bridge cranes (powered) 10 percent

Bridge cranes or monorail cranes with hand-geared bridge, trolley and hoist 0 percent
The lateral force on crane runway beams with electrically powered trolleys shall be calculated as 20 percent of the sum of the rated capacity of the crane and the weight of the hoist and trolley. The lateral force shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a runway beam, in either direction perpendicular to the beam, and shall be distributed according to the lateral stiffness of the runway beam and supporting structure.
The longitudinal force on crane runway beams, except for bridge cranes with hand-geared bridges, shall be calculated as 10 percent of the maximum wheel loads of the crane. The longitudinal force shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a runway beam, in either direction parallel to the beam.
Interior walls and partitions that exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, including their finish materials, shall have adequate strength to resist the loads to which they are subjected but not less than a horizontal load of 5 psf (0.240 kN/m2).

Exception:
Fabric partitions complying with Section 1607.13.1 shall not be required to resist the minimum horizontal load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m2).
Fabric partitions that exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, including their finish materials, shall have adequate strength to resist the following load conditions:
1. A horizontal distributed load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m2) applied to the partition framing. The total area used to determine the distributed load shall be the area of the fabric face between the framing members to which the fabric is attached. The total distributed load shall be uniformly applied to such framing members in proportion to the length of each member.
2. A concentrated load of 40 pounds (0.176 kN) applied to an 8-inch diameter (203 mm) area [50.3 square inches (32 452 mm2)] of the fabric face at a height of 54 inches (1372 mm) above the floor.
Design snow loads shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 7 of ASCE 7, but the design roof load shall not be less than that determined by Section 1607.
The ground snow loads to be used in determining the design snow loads for roofs shall be determined in accordance with ASCE 7 or Figure 1608.2. When using Figure 1608.2 for sites at elevations above 1,000 feet (304 m), the ground snow load shall be increased from the mapped value by 2 psf (0.095 kN/m2) for every 100 feet (30 480 mm) above 1,000 feet (304 m). Site-specific case studies may be made in lieu of snow loads in Figure 1608.2 or ASCE 7. Ground snow load determination for site-specific case studies shall be approved and shall be based on an extreme value statistical analysis of data available in the vicinity of the site using a value with a 2-percent annual probability of being exceeded (50-year mean recurrence interval.





For Si: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.


FIGURE 1608.2
GROUND SNOW LOADS, pg, FOR NEW YORK STATE (psf) GROUND SNOW LOADS AT ELEVATIONS ABOVE 1000 FEET SHALL BE INCREASED BY 2 PSF FOR EVERY 100 FEET ABOVE ELEVATION 1000 FEET
Buildings, structures and parts thereof shall be designed to withstand the minimum wind loads prescribed herein. Decreases in wind loads shall not be made for the effect of shielding by other structures.





FIGURE 1609
BASIC WIND SPEED (3-SECOND GUST) MID AND NORTHERN ATLANTIC HURRICANE COASTLINE
Wind loads on every building or structure shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 6 of ASCE 7. The type of opening protection required, the basic wind speed and the exposure category for a site is permitted to be determined in accordance with Section 1609 or ASCE 7. Wind shall be assumed to come from any horizontal direction and wind pressures shall be assumed to act normal to the surface considered.

Exceptions:
1. Subject to the limitations of Section 1609.1.1.1, the provisions of SBCCI SSTD 10 shall be permitted for applicable Group R-2 and R-3 buildings.
2. Subject to the limitations of Section 1609.1.1.1, residential structures using the provisions of the AF&PA WFCM.
3. Designs using NAAMM FP 1001.
4. Designs using TIA/EIA-222 for antenna-supporting structures and antennas.
The provisions of SSTD 10 are applicable only to buildings located within Exposure B or C as defined in Section 1609.4. The provisions of SBCCI SSTD 10 and the AF&PA; WFCM shall not apply to buildings sited on the upper half of an isolated hill, ridge or escarpment meeting the following conditions:
1. The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or higher if located in Exposure B or 30 feet (9144 mm) or higher if located in Exposure C;
2. The maximum average slope of the hill exceeds 10 percent; and
3. The hill, ridge or escarpment is unobstructed upwind by other such topographic features for a distance from the high point of 50 times the height of the hill or 1 mile (1.61 km), whichever is greater.
In wind-borne debris regions, glazing in buildings shall be impact-resistant or protected with an impact-resistant covering meeting the requirements of an approved impact-resisting standard or ASTM E 1996 and ASTM E 1886 referenced therein as follows:
1. Glazed openings located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of grade shall meet the requirements of the Large Missile Test of ASTM E 1996.
2. Glazed openings located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above grade shall meet the provisions of the Small Missile Test of ASTM E 1996.

Exceptions:
1. Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 7/16 inch (11.1 mm) and maximum panel span of 8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening protection in one- and two-story buildings. Panels shall be precut so that they shall be attached to the framing surrounding the opening containing the product with the glazed opening. Panels shall be secured with the attachment hardware provided. Attachments shall be designed to resist the components and cladding loads determined in accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7. Attachment in accordance with Table 1609.1.2 is permitted for buildings with a mean roof height of 33 feet (10 058 mm) or less where wind speeds do not exceed 130 mph (57.2 m/s).
2. Glazing in Occupancy Category I and II buildings as defined in Section 1604.5, shall be permitted to be unprotected. Where glazing is unprotected, it shall be assumed to be an opening, and the building shall be evaluated to determine if the openings are of sufficient area to constitute an open or partially enclosed building as defined by ASCE 7. Open and partially enclosed buildings shall be designed in accordance with the applicable provisions of ASCE 7.
3. Glazing in Occupancy Category III or IV buildings located over 60 feet (18 288 mm) above the ground and over 30 feet (9144 mm) above aggregate surface roofs located within 1,500 feet (458 m) of the building shall be permitted to be unprotected.

TABLE 1609.1.2
WIND-BORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING SCHEDULE FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELSa,b,c,d

FASTENER
TYPE
FASTENER SPACING (inches)
Panel Span
≤ 4 feet
4 feet
<
Panel Span ≤ 6 feet
6 feet < Panel
Span ≤ 8 feet
No. 6 screws 16 12 9
No. 8 screws 16 16 12


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.4 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.44 m/s.

a. This table is based on a maximum wind speed (3-second gust) of 130 mph and mean roof height of 33 feet or less.

b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from the edge of the panel.

c. Fasteners shall be long enough to penetrate through the exterior wall covering a minimum of 1.75 inches into wood wall framing; a minimum of 1.25 inches into concrete block or concrete; or into steel framing by at least three threads. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 2.5 inches from the edge of concrete block or concrete.

d. Where screws are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be attached utilizing vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum withdrawal capacity of 490 pounds.
Louvers protecting intake and exhaust ventilation ducts not assumed to be open that are located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of grade shall meet requirements of an approved impact-resisting standard or the Large Missile Test of ASTM E 1996.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of Section 1609, have the meanings shown herein.

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS.
Areas vulnerable to hurricanes defined as:

1. The U. S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 mph (40 m/s) and
2. Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands and American Samoa.

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION.
Portions of hurricane-prone regions that are within 1 mile (1.61 km) of the coastal mean high water line where the basic wind speed is 110 mph (48 m/s) or greater; or portions of hurricane-prone regions where the basic wind speed is 120 mph (53 m/s) or greater; or Hawaii.
The basic wind speed, in mph, for the determination of the wind loads shall be determined by Figure 1609. Basic wind speed for the special wind regions indicated, near mountainous terrain and near gorges shall be in accordance with local jurisdiction requirements. Basic wind speeds determined by the local jurisdiction shall be in accordance with Section 6.5.4 of ASCE 7.

In nonhurricane-prone regions, when the basic wind speed is estimated from regional climatic data, the basic wind speed shall be not less than the wind speed associated with an annual probability of 0.02 (50-year mean recurrence interval), and the estimate shall be adjusted for equivalence to a 3-second gust wind speed at 33 feet (10 m) above ground in Exposure Category C. The data analysis shall be performed in accordance with Section 6.5.4.2 of ASCE 7.
When required, the 3-second gust basic wind speeds of Figure 1609 shall be converted to fastest-mile wind speeds, Vfm , using Table 1609.3.1 or Equation 16-34.

 

(Equation 16-34)


where:

V3S = 3-second gust basic wind speed from Figure 1609.

TABLE 1609.3.1
EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDSa,b,c

V3S 85 90 100 105 110 120 125 130 140 145 150 160 170
Vfm 71 76 85 90 95 104 109 114 123 128 133 142 152


For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.44 m/s.

a. Linear interpolation is permitted.

b. V3S is the 3-second gust wind speed (mph).

c. Vfm is the fastest mile wind speed (mph).
For each wind direction considered, an exposure category that adequately reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as from constructed features.
For each selected wind direction at which the wind loads are to be evaluated, the exposure of the building or structure shall be determined for the two upwind sectors extending 45 degrees (0.79 rad) either side of the selected wind direction. The exposures in these two sectors shall be determined in accordance with Sections 1609.4.2 and 1609.4.3 and the exposure resulting in the highest wind loads shall be used to represent winds from that direction.
A ground surface roughness within each 45-degree (0.79 rad) sector shall be determined for a distance upwind of the site as defined in Section 1609.4.3 from the categories defined below, for the purpose of assigning an exposure category as defined in Section 1609.4.3.

Surface Roughness B.
Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger.

Surface Roughness C.
Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 30 feet (9144 mm). This category includes flat open country, grasslands, and all water surfaces in hurricane-prone regions.

Surface Roughness D.
Flat, unobstructed areas and water surfaces outside hurricane-prone regions. This category includes smooth mud flats, salt flats and unbroken ice.
An exposure category shall be determined in accordance with the following:

Exposure B.
Exposure B shall apply where the ground surface roughness condition, as defined by Surface Roughness B, prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 2,600 feet (792 m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever is greater.

Exception:
For buildings whose mean roof height is less than or equal to 30 feet (9144 mm), the upwind distance is permitted to be reduced to 1,500 feet (457 m).

Exposure C.
Exposure C shall apply for all cases where Exposures B or D do not apply.

Exposure D.
Exposure D shall apply where the ground surface roughness, as defined by Surface Roughness D, prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 5,000 feet (1524 m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever is greater. Exposure D shall extend inland from the shoreline for a distance of 600 feet (183 m) or 20 times the height of the building, whichever is greater.
The roof deck shall be designed to withstand the wind pressures determined in accordance with ASCE 7.
Roof coverings shall comply with Section 1609.5.1.

Exception:
Rigid tile roof coverings that are air permeable and installed over a roof deck complying with Section 1609.5.1 are permitted to be designed in accordance with Section 1609.5.3.

Asphalt shingles installed over a roof deck complying with Section 1609.5.1 shall be tested to determine the resistance of the sealant to uplift forces using ASTM D 6381.

Asphalt shingles installed over a roof deck complying with Section 1609.5.1 are permitted to be designed using UL 2390 to determine appropriate uplift and force coefficients applied to the shingle.
Wind loads on rigid tile roof coverings shall be determined in accordance with the following equation:



(Equation 16-35)


where:

b
= Exposed width, feet (mm) of the roof tile.

CL
= Lift coefficient. The lift coefficient for concrete and clay tile shall be 0.2 or shall be determined by test in accordance with Section 1715.2.

GC
p = Roof pressure coefficient for each applicable roof zone determined from Chapter 6 of ASCE 7. Roof coefficients shall not be adjusted for internal pressure.

L
= Length, feet (mm) of the roof tile.

L
a = Moment arm, feet (mm) from the axis of rotation to the point of uplift on the roof tile. The point of uplift shall be taken at 0.76 L from the head of the tile and the middle of the exposed width. For roof tiles with nails or screws (with or without a tail clip), the axis of rotation shall be taken as the head of the tile for direct deck application or as the top edge of the batten for battened applications. For roof tiles fastened only by a nail or screw along the side of the tile, the axis of rotation shall be determined by testing. For roof tiles installed with battens and fastened only by a clip near the tail of the tile, the moment arm shall be determined about the top edge of the batten with consideration given for the point of rotation of the tiles based on straight bond or broken bond and the tile profile.

M
a = Aerodynamic uplift moment, feet-pounds (N-mm) acting to raise the tail of the tile.

q
h = Wind velocity pressure, psf (kN/m 2 ) determined from Section 6.5.10 of ASCE 7.

Concrete and clay roof tiles complying with the following limitations shall be designed to withstand the aerodynamic uplift moment as determined by this section.
1. The roof tiles shall be either loose laid on battens, mechanically fastened, mortar set or adhesive set.
2. The roof tiles shall be installed on solid sheathing which has been designed as components and cladding.
3. An underlayment shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 15.
4. The tile shall be single lapped interlocking with a minimum head lap of not less than 2 inches (51 mm).
5. The length of the tile shall be between 1.0 and 1.75 feet (305 mm and 533 mm).
6. The exposed width of the tile shall be between 0.67 and 1.25 feet (204 mm and 381 mm).
7. The maximum thickness of the tail of the tile shall not exceed 1.3 inches (33 mm).
8. Roof tiles using mortar set or adhesive set systems shall have at least two-thirds of the tile's area free of mortar or adhesive contact.
Basement, foundation and retaining walls shall be designed to resist lateral soil loads. Soil loads specified in Table 1610.1 shall be used as the minimum design lateral soil loads unless specified otherwise in a soil investigation report approved by the code enforcement official. Basement walls and other walls in which horizontal movement is restricted at the top shall be designed for at-rest pressure. Retaining walls free to move and rotate at the top are permitted to be designed for active pressure. Design lateral pressure from surcharge loads shall be added to the lateral earth pressure load. Design lateral pressure shall be increased if soils with expansion potential are present at the site.

Exception:
Basement walls extending not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) below grade and supporting flexible floor systems shall be permitted to be designed for active pressure.

TABLE 1610.1
SOIL LATERAL LOAD

DESCRIPTION OF BACKFILL MATERIALc UNIFIED SOIL

CLASSIFICATION
DESIGN LATERAL SOIL LOADa

(pound per square foot per foot of depth)
Active pressure At-rest pressure
Well-graded, clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes GW 30 60
Poorly graded clean gravels; gravel-sand mixes GP 30 60
Silty gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand mixes GM 40 60
Clayey gravels, poorly graded gravel-and-clay mixes GC 45 60
Well-graded, clean sands; gravelly sand mixes SW 30 60
Poorly graded clean sands; sand-gravel mixes SP 30 60
Silty sands, poorly graded sand-silt mixes SM 45 60
Sand-silt clay mix with plastic fines SM-SC 45 100
Clayey sands, poorly graded sand-clay mixes SC 60 100
Inorganic silts and clayey silts ML 45 100
Mixture of inorganic silt and clay ML-CL 60 100
Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity CL 60 100
Organic silts and silt clays, low plasticity OL Note b Note b
Inorganic clayey silts, elastic silts MH Note b Note b
Inorganic clays of high plasticity CH Note b Note b
Organic clays and silty clays OH Note b Note b


For SI: 1 pound per square foot per foot of depth = 0.157 kPa/m, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

a. Design lateral soil loads are given for moist conditions for the specified soils at their optimum densities. Actual field conditions shall govern. Submerged or saturated soil pressures shall include the weight of the buoyant soil plus the hydrostatic loads.

b. Unsuitable as backfill material.

c. The definition and classification of soil materials shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2487.
Each portion of a roof shall be designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will accumulate on it if the primary drainage system for that portion is blocked plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet of the secondary drainage system at its design flow.

R = 5.2 (ds + dh) (Equation 16-36)

For SI: R = 0.0098 (ds + dh)

where:

dh
= Additional depth of water on the undeflected roof above the inlet of secondary drainage system at its design flow (i.e., the hydraulic head), in inches (mm).

ds
= Depth of water on the undeflected roof up to the inlet of secondary drainage system when the primary drainage system is blocked (i.e., the static head), in inches (mm).

R
= Rain load on the undeflected roof, in psf (kN/m2). When the phrase "undeflected roof" is used, deflections from loads (including dead loads) shall not be considered when determining the amount of rain on the roof.
For roofs with a slope less than 1/4 inch per foot [1.19 degrees (0.0208 rad)], the design calculations shall include verification of adequate stiffness to preclude progressive deflection in accordance with Section 8.4 of ASCE 7.
Roofs equipped with hardware to control the rate of drainage shall be equipped with a secondary drainage system at a higher elevation that limits accumulation of water on the roof above that elevation. Such roofs shall be designed to sustain the load of rainwater that will accumulate on them to the elevation of the secondary drainage system plus the uniform load caused by water that rises above the inlet of the secondary drainage system at its design flow determined from Section 1611.1. Such roofs shall also be checked for ponding instability in accordance with Section 1611.2.
Within flood hazard areas as established in Section 1612.3, all new construction of buildings, structures and portions of buildings and structures, including substantial improvement and restoration of substantial damage to buildings and structures, shall be designed and constructed to resist the effects of flood hazards and flood loads. For buildings that are located in more than one flood hazard area, the provisions associated with the most restrictive flood hazard area shall apply.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section, have the meanings shown herein.

BASE FLOOD.
The flood having a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION.
The elevation of the base flood, including wave height, relative to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD), North American Vertical Datum (NAVD) or other datum specified on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM).

BASEMENT.
The portion of a building having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.

DESIGN FLOOD.
The flood associated with the greater of the following two areas:

1. Area with a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or greater chance of flooding in any year; or

2. Area designated as a flood hazard area on a community's flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated.

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION.
The elevation of the "design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO, the design flood elevation shall be the elevation of the highest existing grade of the building's perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO where a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth number shall be taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm).

DRY FLOODPROOFING.
A combination of design modifications that results in a building or structure, including the attendant utility and sanitary facilities, being water tight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capacity to resist loads as identified in ASCE 7.

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION.
Any buildings and structures for which the "start of construction" commenced before the effective date of the community’s first flood plain management code, ordinance or standard. "Existing construction" is also referred to as "existing structures."

EXISTING STRUCTURE.
See "Existing construction."

FLOOD or FLOODING.
A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land from:

1. The overflow of inland or tidal waters.

2. The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source.

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS.
Any construction material capable of withstanding direct and prolonged contact with floodwaters without sustaining any damage that requires more than cosmetic repair.

FLOOD HAZARD AREA.
The greater of the following two areas:

1. The area within a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or greater chance of flooding in any year.

2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a community's flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated.

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH VELOCITY WAVE ACTION.
Area within the flood hazard area that is subject to high velocity wave action, and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) or other flood hazard map as Zone V, VO, VE or V1-30.

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM).
An official map of a community on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has delineated both the special flood hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY.
The official report provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency containing the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the Flood Boundary and Floodway Map (FBFM), the water surface elevation of the base flood and supporting technical data.

FLOODWAY.
The channel of the river, creek or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than a designated height.

LOWEST FLOOR.
The floor of the lowest enclosed area, including basement, but excluding any unfinished or flood-resistant enclosure, usable solely for vehicle parking, building access or limited storage provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in violation of this section.

SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA.
The land area subject to flood hazards and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map or other flood hazard map as Zone A, AE, A1-30, A99, AR, AO, AH, V, VO, VE or V1-30.

START OF CONSTRUCTION.
The date of permit issuance for new construction and substantial improvements to existing structures, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, placement or other improvement is within 180 days after the date of issuance. The actual start of construction means the first placement of permanent construction of a building (including a manufactured home) on a site, such as the pouring of a slab or footings, installation of pilings or construction of columns.

Permanent construction does not include land preparation (such as clearing, excavation, grading or filling), the installation of streets or walkways, excavation for a basement, footings, piers or foundations, the erection of temporary forms or the installation of accessory buildings such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main building. For a substantial improvement, the actual "start of construction" means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE.
Damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT.
Any repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of a building or structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the improvement or repair is started. If the structure has sustained substantial damage, any repairs are considered substantial improvement regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not, however, include either:

1. Any project for improvement of a building required to correct existing health, sanitary or safety code violations identified by the code enforcement official and that are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions.

2. Any alteration of a historic structure provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure's continued designation as a historic structure.
To establish flood hazard areas, the governing body shall adopt a flood hazard map and supporting data. The flood hazard map shall include, at a minimum, areas of special flood hazard as identified by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the applicable flood insurance study for the region, as amended or revised with the accompanying Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) and Flood Boundary and Floodway Map (FBFM) and related supporting data along with any revisions thereto. The adopted flood hazard map and supporting data are hereby adopted by reference and declared to be part of this section.
The design and construction of buildings and structures located in flood hazard areas, including flood hazard areas subject to high velocity wave action, shall be in accordance with ASCE 24.
The following documentation shall be prepared and sealed by a registered design professional and submitted to the code enforcement official:

1. For construction in flood hazard areas not subject to high-velocity wave action:
1.1. The elevation of the lowest floor, including the basement, as required by the lowest floor elevation inspection in Section 109.3.3.
1.2. For fully enclosed areas below the design flood elevation where provisions to allow for the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters do not meet the minimum requirements in Section 2.6.2.1 of ASCE 24, construction documents shall include a statement that the design will provide for equalization of hydrostatic flood forces in accordance with Section 2.6.2.2 of ASCE 24.
1.3. For dry floodproofed nonresidential buildings, construction documents shall include a statement that the dry floodproofing is designed in accordance with ASCE 24.
2. For construction in flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity wave action:
2.1. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member as required by the lowest floor elevation inspection in Section 109.3.3.
2.2. Construction documents shall include a statement that the building is designed in accordance with ASCE 24, including that the pile or column foundation and building or structure to be attached thereto is designed to be anchored to resist flotation, collapse and lateral movement due to the effects of wind and flood loads acting simultaneously on all building components, and other load requirements of Chapter 16.
2.3. For breakaway walls designed to resist a nominal load of less than 10 psf (0.48 kN/m2) or more than 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2), construction documents shall include a statement that the breakaway wall is designed in accordance with ASCE 24.
Every structure, and portion thereof, including nonstructural components that are permanently attached to structures and their supports and attachments, shall be designed and constructed to resist the effects of earthquake motions in accordance with ASCE 7, excluding Chapter 14 and Appendix 11A. The seismic design category for a structure is permitted to be determined in accordance with Section 1613 or ASCE 7.

Exceptions:


1. Detached one- and two-family dwellings, assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C, or located where the mapped short-period spectral response acceleration, SS, is less than 0.4 g.
2. The seismic-force-resisting system of wood-frame buildings that conform to the provisions of Section 2308 are not required to be analyzed as specified in this section.
3. Agricultural storage structures intended only for incidental human occupancy.
4. Structures that require special consideration of their response characteristics and environment that are not addressed by this code or ASCE 7 and for which other regulations provide seismic criteria, such as vehicular bridges, electrical transmission towers, hydraulic structures, buried utility lines and their appurtenances and nuclear reactors.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section, have the meanings shown herein.

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION.
The earthquake ground motion that buildings and structures are specifically proportioned to resist in Section 1613.

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION.
The most severe earthquake effects considered by this code.

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS.
For the purposes of determining seismic loads in ASCE 7, mechanical systems shall include plumbing systems as specified therein.

ORTHOGONAL.
To be in two horizontal directions, at 90 degrees (1.57 rad) to each other.

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY.
A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site.

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM.
That part of the structural system that has been considered in the design to provide the required resistance to the prescribed seismic forces.

SITE CLASS.
A classification assigned to a site based on the types of soils present and their engineering properties as defined in Section 1613.5.2.

SITE COEFFICIENTS.
The values of Fa and Fv indicated in Tables 1613.5.3(1) and 1613.5.3(2), respectively.
Additions, alterations, modification, or change of occupancy of existing buildings shall be in accordance with the Existing Building Code of New York State.
Where required by Section 1705.3, the statement of special inspections shall include the special inspections required by Section 1705.3.1.
Seismic ground motion values shall be determined in accordance with this section.





NOTE:
Contours are % g. This map is based on the 2008 USGS map representing a 2% probability of exceedance within a 50 year period.

FIGURE 1613.5(1) MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR NEW YORK STATE OF 0.2 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B






NOTE:
Contours are % g. This map is based on the 2008 USGS map representing a 2% probability of exceedance within a 50 year period.

FIGURE 1613.5(2) MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION FOR NEW YORK STATE OF 1 SEC SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION (5% OF CRITICAL DAMPING), SITE CLASS B


TABLE 1613.5.2
SITE CLASS DEFINITIONS

SITE CLASS SOIL PROFILE
NAME
AVERAGE PROPERTIES IN TOP 100 feet, SEE SECTION 1613.5.5
Soil shear wave velocity, vs, (ft/s) Standard penetration resistance, N Soil undrained shear strength, su, (psf)
A Hard rock vs > 5,000 N/A N/A
B Rock 2,500<vs ≤ 5,000 N/A N/A
C Very dense soil and soft rock 1,200< vs ≤ 2,500 N > 50 su ≥ 2,000
D Stiff soil profile 600 ≤ vs ≤ 1,200 15 ≤ N ≤ 50 1,000? su ≤ 2,000
E Soft soil profile vs <600 N < 15 su <1,000
E - Any profile with more than 10 feet of soil having the following characteristics:
1. Plasticity index PI >20,
2. Moisture content w ≥ 40%, and
3. Undrained shear strength su <500 psf
F - Any profile containing soils having one or more of the following characteristics:
1. Soils vulnerable to potential failure or collapse under seismic loading such as liquefiable soils, quick and highly sensitive clays, collapsible weakly cemented soils.
2. Peats and/or highly organic clays (H >10 feet of peat and/or highly organic clay where H= thickness of soil)
3. Very high plasticity clays (H >25 feet with plasticity index PI >75)
4. Very thick soft/medium stiff clays (H >120 feet)


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. N/A = Not applicable
The parameters Ss and S1 shall be determined from the 0.2 and 1-second spectral response accelerations shown on Figures 1613.5(1) and 1613.5(2). Where S1 is less than or equal to 0.04 and Ss is less than or equal to 0.15, the structure is permitted to be assigned to Seismic Design Category A.
Based on the site soil properties, the site shall be classified as either Site Class A, B, C, D, E or F in accordance with Table 1613.5.2. When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the site class, Site Class D shall be used unless the code enforcement official or geotechnical data determines that Site Class E or F soil is likely to be present at the site.
The maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration for short periods, SMS , and at 1-second period, SM1 , adjusted for site class effects shall be determined by Equations 16-37 and 16-38, respectively:

SMS = FaSs(Equation 16-37)


SM1 = Fv S1(Equation 16-38)

where:

Fa = Site coefficient defined in Table 1613.5.3(1).
 
Fv = Site coefficient defined in Table 1613.5.3(2).
 
SS = The mapped spectral accelerations for short periods as determined in Section 1613.5.1.
 
S1 = The mapped spectral accelerations for a 1-second period as determined in Section 1613.5.1.


TABLE 1613.5.3(1)
VALUES OF SITE COEFFICIENT Faa

SITE CLASS MAPPED SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION AT SHORT PERIOD
Ss ≤ 0.25 Ss = 0.50 Ss = 0.75 Ss = 1.00 Ss 1.25
A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0
D 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0
E 2.5 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9
F Note b Note b Note b Note b Note b


a. Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of mapped spectral response acceleration at short period, Ss.

b. Values shall be determined in accordance with Section 11.4.7 of ASCE 7.


TABLE 1613.5.3(2)
VALUES OF SITE COEFFICIENT FV a

SITE CLASS MAPPED SPECTRAL RESPONSE ACCELERATION AT 1-SECOND PERIOD
S1≤0.1 S1= 0.2 S1= 0.3 S1= 0.4 S10.5
A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
C 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3
D 2.4 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5
E 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.4
F Note b Note b Note b Note b Note b


a. Use straight-line interpolation for intermediate values of mapped spectral response acceleration at 1-second period, S1.

b. Values shall be determined in accordance with Section 11.4.7 of ASCE 7.
Five-percent damped design spectral response acceleration at short periods, SDS , and at 1-second period, SD 1, shall be determined from Equations 16-39 and 16-40, respectively:

 

(Equations 16-39)




 (Equations 16-40)


SMS = The maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations for short period as determined in Section 1613.5.3.
 
SM1 = The maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations for 1-second period as determined in Section 1613.5.3.
Site classification for Site Class C, D or E shall be determined from Table 1613.5.5.

The notations presented below apply to the upper 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the site profile. Profiles containing distinctly different soil and/or rock layers shall be subdivided into those layers designated by a number that ranges from 1 to n at the bottom where there is a total of n distinct layers in the upper 100 feet (30 480 mm). The symbol i then refers to any one of the layers between 1 and n .

where:

vsi = The shear wave velocity in feet per second (m/s).
 
di = The thickness of any layer between 0 and 100 feet (30 480 mm).




(Equation 16-41)


where:

Ni
is the Standard Penetration Resistance (ASTM D 1586) not to exceed 100 blows/foot (305 mm) as directly measured in the field without corrections. When refusal is met for a rock layer, Ni shall be taken as 100 blows/foot (305 mm).



(Equation 16-42)


where Ni and di in Equation 16-42 are for cohesionless soil, cohesive soil and rock layers.



 (Equation 16-43)


Use di and Ni for cohesionless soil layers only in Equation 16-43.

ds = The total thickness of cohesionless soil layers in the top 100 feet (30 480 mm).
 
m = The number of cohesionless soil layers in the top 100 feet (30 480 mm).
 
sui = The undrained shear strength in psf (kPa), not to exceed 5,000 psf (240 kPa), ASTM D 2166 or D 2850.




 (Equation 16-44)4)


dc = The total thickness of cohesive soil layers in the top 100 feet (30 480 mm).
 
k = The number of cohesive soil layers in the top 100 feet (30 480 mm).
 
PI = The plasticity index, ASTM D 4318.
 
w = The moisture content in percent, ASTM D 2216.


Where a site does not qualify under the criteria for Site Class F and there is a total thickness of soft clay greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) where a soft clay layer is defined by: su < 500 psf (24 kPa), w ≥ 40 percent, and PI > 20, it shall be classified as Site Class E.

The shear wave velocity for rock, Site Class B, shall be either measured on site or estimated by a geotechnical engineer or engineering geologist/seismologist for competent rock with moderate fracturing and weathering. Softer and more highly fractured and weathered rock shall either be measured on site for shear wave velocity or classified as Site Class C.

The hard rock category, Site Class A, shall be supported by shear wave velocity measurements either on site or on profiles of the same rock type in the same formation with an equal or greater degree of weathering and fracturing. Where hard rock conditions are known to be continuous to a depth of 100 feet (30 480 mm), surficial shear wave velocity measurements are permitted to be extrapolated to assess v>vs.

The rock categories, Site Classes A and B, shall not be used if there is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) of soil between the rock surface and the bottom of the spread footing or mat foundation.

TABLE 1613.5.5
SITE CLASSIFICATIONa

SITE CLASS vs N or N ch su
E < 600 ft/s < 15 < 1,000 psf
D 600 to 1,200 ft/s 15 to 50 1,000 to 2,000 psf
C C 1,200 to 2,500 ft/s > 50 2,000


For SI: 1 foot per second = 304.8 mm per second, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kN/m2.

a. If the su method is used and theNch andsu criteria differ, select the category ith the softer soils (for example, use Site Class E instead of D).
1. Check for the four categories of Site Class F requiring site-specific evaluation. If the site corresponds to any of these categories, classify the site as Site Class F and conduct a site-specific evaluation.
2. Check for the existence of a total thickness of soft clay > 10 feet (3048 mm) where a soft clay layer is defined by: su < 500 psf (24 kPa), w ≥ 40 percent and PI > 20. If these criteria are satisfied, classify the site as Site Class E.
3. Categorize the site using one of the following three methods with vs, N, and su and computed in all cases as specified.
3.1. vs, for the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) (vs method).
3.2. N for the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) ( N method).
3.3. Nch for cohesionless soil layers (PI < 20) in the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) and average, su for cohesive soil layers (PI > 20) in the top 100 feet (30 480 mm) (su method).
Occupancy Category I, II or III structures located where the mapped spectral response acceleration parameter at 1-second period, Sl , is greater than or equal to 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category E. Occupancy Category IV structures located where the mapped spectral response acceleration parameter at 1-second period, S1 , is greater than or equal to 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic Design Category F. All other structures shall be assigned to a seismic design category based on their occupancy category and the design spectral response acceleration coefficients, SDS and SD1 , determined in accordance with Section 1613.5.4 or the site-specific procedures of ASCE 7. Each building and structure shall be assigned to the more severe seismic design category in accordance with Table 1613.5.6(1) or 1613.5.6(2), irrespective of the fundamental period of vibration of the structure, Ti>T .

TABLE 1613.5.6(1) SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY BASED ON SHORT-PERIOD RESPONSE ACCELERATIONS


VALUE OFSDS OCCUPANCY CATEGORY
I or II III IV
SDS < 0.167g A A A
0.167g ≤ SDS < 0.33g B B C
0.33g ≤ SDS < 0.50g C C D
0.50g ≤ SDS D D D


TABLE 1613.5.6(2)
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY BASED ON 1-SECOND PERIOD RESPONSE ACCELERATION 

VALUE OFSD1 OCCUPANCY CATEGORY
I or II III IV
SD1 < 0.067g A A A
0.067g ≤ SD1 < 0.133g B B C
0.133g ≤ SD1 < 0.20g C C D
0.20g ≤ SD1 D D D
Where S1 is less than 0.75, the seismic design category is permitted to be determined from Table 1613.5.6(1) alone when all of the following apply:
1. In each of the two orthogonal directions, the approximate fundamental period of the structure, Ta, in each of the two orthogonal directions determined in accordance with Section 12.8.2.1 of ASCE 7, is less than 0.8 Ts determined in accordance with Section 11.4.5 of ASCE 7.
2. In each of the two orthogonal directions, the fundamental period of the structure used to calculate the story drift is less than Ts.
3. Equation 12.8-2 of ASCE 7 is used to determine the seismic response coefficient, Cs.
4. The diaphragms are rigid as defined in Section 12.3.1 in ASCE 7 or for diaphragms that are flexible, the distance between vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system does not exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm).
Where the alternate simplified design procedure of ASCE 7 is used, the seismic design category shall be determined in accordance with ASCE 7.
The provisions of Section 1613.6 shall be permitted as alternatives to the relevant provisions of ASCE 7.
Add the following text at the end of Section 12.3.1.1 of ASCE 7:

Diaphragms constructed of wood structural panels or untopped steel decking shall also be permitted to be idealized as flexible, provided all of the following conditions are met:
1. Toppings of concrete or similar materials are not placed over wood structural panel diaphragms except for nonstructural toppings no greater than 11/2 inches (38 mm) thick.
2. Each line of vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system complies with the allowable story drift of Table 12.12-1.
3. Vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system are light-framed walls sheathed with wood structural panels rated for shear resistance or steel sheets.
4. Portions of wood structural panel diaphragms that cantilever beyond the vertical elements of the lateral-force-resisting system are designed in accordance with Section 2305.2.5 of the Building Code of New York State.
Add the following exception to the end of Section 17.5.4.2 of ASCE 7:

Exception:
For isolated structures designed in accordance with this standard, the Structural System Limitations and the Building Height Limitations in Table 12.2-1 for ordinary steel concentrically braced frames (OCBFs) as defined in Chapter 11 and ordinary moment frames (OMFs) as defined in Chapter 11 are permitted to be taken as 160 feet (48 768 mm) for structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F, provided that the following conditions are satisfied:
1. The value of of RI as defined in Chapter 17 is taken as 1.
2. For OMFs and OCBFs, design is in accordance with AISC 341.
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