Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.1.2 are met, types of hangers shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 9.1.
Hangers certified by a registered professional engineer to include all of the following shall be an acceptable alternative to the requirements of Section 9.1:
  1. Hangers shall be designed to support five times the weight of the water-filled pipe plus 250 lb (114 kg) at each point of piping support.
  2. These points of support shall be adequate to support the system.
  3. The spacing between hangers shall not exceed the value given for the type of pipe as indicated in Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b).
  4. Hanger components shall be ferrous.
  5. Detailed calculations shall be submitted, when required by the reviewing authority, showing stresses developed in hangers, piping, and fittings, and safety factors allowed.
Shared support structures shall be certified by a registered professional engineer in accordance with 9.1.1.2 and 9.1.1.3.
The design of a shared support structure shall be based on either 9.1.1.3.1.1 or 9.1.1.3.1.2.
Sprinkler pipe and other distribution systems shall be permitted to be supported from a shared support structure designed to support five times the weight of water-filled sprinkler pipe and other supported distribution systems plus 250 lb (114 kg), based on the allowable ultimate stress.
Sprinkler pipe and other distribution systems shall be permitted to be supported from a shared support structure designed to support five times the weight of the water-filled sprinkler pipe plus 250 lb (114 kg), and one and one-half times the weight of all other supported distribution systems.
The building structure shall not be considered a shared support structure.
The requirements of 9.1.1.3.1 shall not apply to 9.2.1.3.3.
Systems that are incompatible with the fire sprinkler systems based on vibration, thermal expansion and contraction, or other factors shall not share support structures.
Where water-based fire protection systems are required to be protected against damage from earthquakes, hangers shall also meet the requirements of 9.3.7.
Unless permitted by 9.1.1.5.2 or 9.1.1.5.3, the components of hanger assemblies that directly attach to the pipe or to the building structure shall be listed.
Mild steel hangers formed from rods shall be permitted to be not listed.
Fasteners as specified in 9.1.3, 9.1.4, and 9.1.5 shall be permitted to be not listed.
Other fasteners shall be permitted as part of a hanger assembly that has been tested, listed, and installed in accordance with the listing requirements.
Unless permitted by 9.1.1.6.2 or 9.1.1.6.3, hangers and their components shall be ferrous.
Nonferrous components that have been proven by fire tests to be adequate for the hazard application, that are listed for this purpose, and that are in compliance with the other requirements of this section shall be acceptable.
Holes through solid structural members shall be permitted to serve as hangers for the support of system piping provided such holes are permitted by applicable building codes and the spacing and support provisions for hangers of this standard are satisfied.
For trapeze hangers, the minimum size of steel angle or pipe span between purlins or joists shall be such that the section modulus required in Table 9.1.1.7.1(a) does not exceed the available section modulus of the trapeze member from Table 9.1.1.7.1(b).

Table 9.1.1.7.1(a) Section Modulus Required for Trapeze Members (in.3)

Nominal Diameter of Pipe Being Supported — Schedule 10 Steel
Span (ft) 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 8 10
1.5 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.26 0.34
2.0 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.20 0.24 0.34 0.45
2.5 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.30 0.36 0.50 0.69
3.0 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.31 0.36 0.51 0.67
3.5 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.60 0.78
4.0 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.25 0.27 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.41 0.48 0.68 0.89
4.5 0.24 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.46 0.54 0.77 1.01
5.0 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.31 0.34 0.37 0.40 0.43 0.51 0.60 0.85 1.12
5.5 0.30 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.37 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.56 0.66 0.94 1.23
6.0 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.51 0.61 0.71 1.02 1.34
6.5 0.35 0.36 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.52 0.56 0.66 0.77 1.11 1.45
7.0 0.38 0.39 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.52 0.56 0.60 0.71 0.83 1.19 1.56
7.5 0.41 0.42 0.44 0.47 0.51 0.55 0.60 0.64 0.76 0.89 1.28 1.68
8.0 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.50 0.54 0.59 0.63 0.68 0.82 0.95 1.36 1.79
8.5 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.53 0.58 0.63 0.67 0.73 0.87 1.01 1.45 1.90
9.0 0.49 0.50 0.53 0.56 0.61 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.92 1.07 1.53 2.01
9.5 0.52 0.53 0.56 0.60 0.64 0.70 0.75 0.81 0.97 1.13 1.62 2.12
10.0 0.54 0.56 0.59 0.63 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.85 1.02 1.19 1.70 2.23
10.5 0.57 0.59 0.62 0.66 0.71 0.78 0.83 0.90 1.07 1.25 1.79 2.35
11.0 0.60 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.74 0.81 0.87 0.94 1.12 1.31 1.87 2.46
11.5 0.63 0.64 0.68 0.72 0.78 0.85 0.91 0.98 1.17 1.37 1.96 2.57
12.0 0.65 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.81 0.89 0.95 1.02 1.22 1.43 2.04 2.68
12.5 0.68 0.70 0.74 0.78 0.85 0.92 0.99 1.07 1.27 1.49 2.13 2.79
13.0 0.71 0.73 0.77 0.81 0.88 0.96 1.03 1.11 1.33 1.55 2.21 2.90
13.5 0.73 0.76 0.80 0.85 0.91 1.00 1.07 1.15 1.38 1.61 2.30 3.02
14.0 0.76 0.78 0.83 0.88 0.95 1.03 1.11 1.20 1.43 1.67 2.38 3.13
14.5 0.79 0.81 0.86 0.91 0.98 1.07 1.15 1.24 1.48 1.73 2.47 3.24
15.0 0.82 0.84 0.89 0.94 1.02 1.11 1.19 1.28 1.53 1.79 2.56 3.35
15.5 0.84 0.87 0.92 0.97 1.05 1.14 1.23 1.32 1.58 1.85 2.64 3.46
16.0 0.87 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.08 1.18 1.27 1.37 1.63 1.91 2.73 3.58
Nominal Diameter of Pipe Being Supported — Schedule 40 Steel
Span (ft) 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 8 10
1.5 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.14 0.15 0.18 0.22 0.30 0.41
2.0 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.24 0.29 0.40 0.55
2.5 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.25 0.30 0.43 0.56
3.0 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.25 0.27 0.30 0.36 0.43 0.60 0.82
3.5 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.26 0.29 0.32 0.35 0.42 0.51 0.70 0.96
4.0 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.29 0.33 0.36 0.40 0.48 0.58 0.80 1.10
4.5 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.29 0.33 0.37 0.41 0.45 0.54 0.65 0.90 1.23
5.0 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.33 0.37 0.41 0.45 0.49 0.60 0.72 1.00 1.37
5.5 0.30 0.31 0.33 0.36 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.54 0.66 0.79 1.10 1.51
6.0 0.33 0.34 0.36 0.39 0.44 0.49 0.54 0.59 0.72 0.87 1.20 1.64
6.5 0.36 0.37 0.40 0.42 0.48 0.54 0.59 0.64 0.78 0.94 1.31 1.78
7.0 0.38 0.40 0.43 0.46 0.52 0.58 0.63 0.69 0.84 1.01 1.41 1.92
7.5 0.41 0.43 0.46 0.49 0.55 0.62 0.68 0.74 0.90 1.08 1.51 2.06
8.0 0.44 0.46 0.49 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.79 0.96 1.16 1.61 2.19
8.5 0.47 0.48 0.52 0.56 0.63 0.70 0.77 0.84 1.02 1.23 1.71 2.33
9.0 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.59 0.66 0.74 0.81 0.89 1.08 1.30 1.81 2.47
9.5 0.52 0.54 0.58 0.62 0.70 0.78 0.86 0.94 1.14 1.37 1.91 2.60
10.0 0.55 0.57 0.61 0.65 0.74 0.82 0.90 0.99 1.20 1.45 2.01 2.74
10.5 0.58 0.60 0.64 0.69 0.77 0.86 0.95 1.04 1.26 1.52 2.11 2.88
11.0 0.60 0.63 0.67 0.72 0.81 0.91 0.99 1.09 1.32 1.59 2.21 3.01
11.5 0.63 0.66 0.70 0.75 0.85 0.95 1.04 1.14 1.38 1.66 2.31 3.15
12.0 0.66 0.68 0.73 0.78 0.88 0.99 1.08 1.19 1.44 1.73 2.41 3.29
12.5 0.69 0.71 0.76 0.82 0.92 1.03 1.13 1.24 1.5 1.81 2.51 3.43
13.0 0.71 0.74 0.79 0.85 0.96 1.07 1.17 1.29 1.56 1.88 2.61 3.56
13.5 0.74 0.77 0.82 0.88 0.99 1.11 1.22 1.34 1.62 1.95 2.71 3.70
14.0 0.77 0.80 0.85 0.91 1.03 1.15 1.26 1.39 1.68 2.02 2.81 3.84
14.5 0.80 0.83 0.88 0.95 1.07 1.19 1.31 1.43 1.74 2.1 2.91 3.97
15.0 0.82 0.86 0.91 0.98 1.10 1.24 1.35 1.48 1.8 2.17 3.01 4.11
15.5 0.85 0.88 0.94 1.01 1.14 1.28 1.4 1.53 1.86 2.24 3.11 4.25
16.0 0.88 0.91 0.97 1.05 1.18 1.32 1.44 1.58 1.92 2.31 3.21 4.39

Table 9.1.1.7.1(b) Available Section Modulus of Common Trapeze Hangers (in.3)

Pipe Modulus (in.3) Angles (in.) Modulus (in.3)
in. mm
Schedule 10
1 25 0.12 11/2 × 11/2 × 3/16 0.10
11/4 32 0.19 2 × 2 × 1/8 0.13
11/2 40 0.26 2 × 11/2 × 3/16 0.18
2 50 0.42 2 × 2 × 3/16 0.19
21/2 65 0.69 2 × 2 × 1/4 0.25
3 80 1.04 21/2 × 11/2 × 3/16 0.28
31/2 90 1.38 21/2 × 2 × 3/16 0.29
4 100 1.76 2 × 2 × 5/16 0.30
5 125 3.03 21/2 × 21/2 × 3/16 0.30
6 150 4.35 2 × 2 × 3/8 0.35
21/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 0.39
3 × 2 × 3/16 0.41
Schedule 40
1 25 0.13 3 × 21/2 × 3/16 0.43
11/4 32 0.23 3 × 3 × 3/16 0.44
11/2 40 0.33 21/2 × 21/2 × 5/16 0.48
2 50 0.56 3 × 2 × 1/4 0.54
21/2 65 1.06 21/2 × 2 × 3/8 0.55
3 80 1.72 21/2 × 21/2 × 3/8 0.57
31/2 90 2.39 3 × 3 × 1/4 0.58
4 100 3.21 3 × 3 × 5/16 0.71
5 125 5.45 21/2 × 21/2 × 1/2 0.72
6 150 8.50 31/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 0.75
3 × 21/2 × 3/8 0.81
3 × 3 × 3/8 0.83
31/2 × 21/2 × 5/16 0.93
3 × 3 × 7/16 0.95
4 × 4 × 1/4 1.05
3 × 3 × 1/2 1.07
4 × 3 × 5/16 1.23
4 × 4 × 5/16 1.29
4 × 3 × 3/8 1.46
4 × 4 × 3/8 1.52
5 × 31/2 × 5/16 1.94
4 × 4 × 1/2 1.97
4 × 4 × 5/8 2.40
4 × 4 × 3/4 2.81
6 × 4 × 3/8 3.32
6 × 4 × 1/2 4.33
6 × 4 × 3/4 6.25
6 × 6 × 1 8.57
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m.
Any other sizes or shapes giving equal or greater section modulus shall be acceptable.
All angles shall be installed with the longer leg vertical.
The trapeze member shall be secured to prevent slippage.
All components of each hanger assembly that attach to a trapeze member shall conform to 9.1.1.5 and be sized to support the suspended sprinkler pipe.
The ring, strap, or clevis installed on a pipe trapeze shall be manufactured to fit the pipe size of the trapeze member.
Holes for bolts shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the diameter of the bolt.
Bolts shall be provided with a flat washer and nut.
Sprinkler piping or hangers shall not be used to support non-system components.
Sprinkler piping shall be permitted to utilize shared support structures in accordance with 9.1.1.3.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.2.2 are met, hanger rod size shall be the same as that approved for use with the hanger assembly, and the size of rods shall not be less than that given in Table 9.1.2.1.

Table 9.1.2.1 Hanger Rod Sizes

Pipe Size Diameter of Rod
in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 9.5
5 125 1/2 12.7
6 150
8 200
10 250 5/8 15.9
12 300
Rods of smaller diameters than indicated in Table 9.1.2.1 shall be permitted where the hanger assembly has been tested and listed by a testing laboratory and installed within the limits of pipe sizes expressed in individual listings.
Where the pitch of the branch line is 6 in 12 or greater, a reduction in the lateral loading on branch line hanger rods shall be done by one of the following:
  1. *Second hanger installed in addition to the required main hangers
  2. Lateral sway brace assemblies on the mains
  3. Branch line hangers utilizing an articulating structural attachment
  4. Equivalent means providing support to the branch line hanger rods
The size of the rod material of U-hooks shall not be less than that given in Table 9.1.2.4.

Table 9.1.2.4 U-Hook Rod Sizes

Pipe Size Hook Material Diameter
in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 2 50 5/l6 7.9
21/2 to 6 65 to 150 3/8 9.5
8 200 1/2 12.7
The size of the rod material for eye rods shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1.2.5.1.

Table 9.1.2.5.1 Eye Rod Sizes

Pipe Size Diameter of Rod
With Bent Eye With Welded Eye
in. mm in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 9.5 3/8 9.5
5 125 1/2 12.7 1/2 12.7
6 150 1/2 12.7 1/2 12.7
8 200 3/4 19.1 1/2 12.7
Eye rods shall be secured with lock washers to prevent lateral motion.
Where eye rods are fastened to wood structural members, the eye rod shall be backed with a large flat washer bearing directly against the structural member, in addition to the lock washer.
Threaded sections of rods shall not be formed or bent.
Unless prohibited by 9.1.3.2 or 9.1.3.3, the use of listed inserts set in concrete and listed post-installed anchors to support hangers shall be permitted for mains and branch lines.
Post-installed anchors shall not be used in cinder concrete, except for branch lines where the post-installed anchors are alternated with through-bolts or hangers attached to beams.
Post-installed anchors shall not be used in ceilings of gypsum or other similar soft material.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.3.5 are met, post-installed anchors shall be installed in a horizontal position in the sides of concrete beams.
Post-installed anchors shall be permitted to be installed in the vertical position under any of the following conditions:
  1. When used in concrete having gravel or crushed stone aggregate to support pipes 4 in. (100 mm) or less in diameter
  2. When post-installed anchors are alternated with hangers connected directly to the structural members, such as trusses and girders, or to the sides of concrete beams [to support pipe 5 in. (125 mm) or larger]
  3. When post-installed anchors are spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) apart [to support pipe 4 in. (100 mm) or larger]
Holes for post-installed anchors in the side of beams shall be above the centerline of the beam or above the bottom reinforcement steel rods.
Holes for post-installed anchors used in the vertical position shall be drilled to provide uniform contact with the shield over its entire circumference.
The depth of the post-installed anchor hole shall not be less than specified for the type of shield used.
Powder-driven studs, welding studs, and the tools used for installing these devices shall be listed.
Pipe size, installation position, and construction material into which they are installed shall be in accordance with individual listings.
Representative samples of concrete into which studs are to be driven shall be tested to determine that the studs will hold a minimum load of 750 lb (341 kg) for 2 in. (50 mm) or smaller pipe; 1000 lb (454 kg) for 214 in., 3 in., or 314 in. (65 mm, 80 mm, or 90 mm) pipe; and 1200 lb (545 kg) for 4 in. or 5 in. (100 mm or 125 mm) pipe.
Increaser couplings shall be attached directly to the powder-driven studs.
The size of a bolt used with a hanger and installed through concrete shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1.3.10.1.

Table 9.1.3.10.1 Minimum Bolt Size for Concrete

Pipe Size Size of Bolt
in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 10
5 125 1/2 13
6 150
8 200
10 250 5/8 15
12 300 3/4 20
Holes for bolts shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the diameter of the bolt.
Bolts shall be provided with a flat washer and nut.
Powder-driven studs, welding studs, and the tools used for installing these devices shall be listed.
Pipe size, installation position, and construction material into which they are installed shall be in accordance with individual listings.
Increaser couplings shall be attached directly to the powder-driven studs or welding studs.
Welding studs or other hanger parts shall not be attached by welding to steel less than U.S. Standard, 12 gauge (2.78 mm).
The size of a bolt used with a hanger and installed through steel shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1.4.5.1.

Table 9.1.4.5.1 Minimum Bolt Size for Steel

Pipe Size Size of Bolt
in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 10
5 125 1/2 12
6 150
8 200
10 250 5/8 15
12 300 3/4 20
Holes for bolts shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the diameter of the bolt.
Bolts shall be provided with a flat washer and nut.
Drive screws shall be used only in a horizontal position as in the side of a beam and only for 2 in. (50 mm) or smaller pipe.
Drive screws shall only be used in conjunction with hangers that require two points of attachments.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.5.2.2 or 9.1.5.2.3 are met, for ceiling flanges and U-hooks, screw dimensions shall not be less than those given in Table 9.1.5.2.1.

Table 9.1.5.2.1 Screw Dimensions for Ceiling Flanges and U-Hooks

Pipe Size Two Screw Ceiling Flanges
in. mm
Up to and including 2 50 Wood screw No. 18 × 11/2 in.
or
Lag screw 5/16 in. × 11/2 in.
Three Screw Ceiling Flanges
Up to and including 2 50 Wood screw No. 18 × 11/2 in.
21/2 65 Lag screw 3/8 in. × 2 in.
3 80
31/2 90
4 100 Lag screw 1/2 in. × 2 in.
5 125
6 150
8 200 Lag screw 5/8 in. × 2 in.
Four Screw Ceiling Flanges
Up to and including 2 50 Wood screw No. 18 × 11/2 in.
21/2 65 Lag screw 3/8 in. × 11/2 in.
3 80
31/2 90
4 100 Lag screw 1/2 in. × 2 in.
5 125
6 150
8 200 Lag screw 5/8 in. × 2 in.
U-Hooks
Up to and including 2 50 Drive screw No. 16 × 2 in.
21/2 65 Lag screw 3/8 in. × 21/2 in.
3 80
31/2 90
4 100 Lag screw 1/2 in. × 3 in.
5 125
6 150
8 200 Lag screw 5/8 in. × 3 in.
When the thickness of planking and thickness of flange do not permit the use of screws 2 in. (50 mm) long, screws 13/4 in. (45 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) apart.
When the thickness of beams or joists does not permit the use of screws 21/2 in. (60 mm) long, screws 2 in. (50 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) apart.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.5.3.2 are met, the size of bolt or lag screw used with a hanger and installed on the side of the beam shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1.5.3.1.

Table 9.1.5.3.1 Minimum Bolt or Lag Screw Sizes for Side of Beam Installation

Pipe Size Size of Bolt or Lag Screw Length of Lag Screw Used with Wood Beams
in. mm in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 2 50 3/8 10 21/2 64
21/2 to 6 (inclusive) 65 to 150 1/2 12 3 76
8 200 5/8 15 3 76
Where the thickness of beams or joists does not permit the use of screws 21/2 in. (64 mm) long, screws 2 in. (50 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) apart.
All holes for lag screws shall be pre-drilled 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) less in diameter than the maximum root diameter of the lag screw thread.
Holes for bolts shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the diameter of the bolt.
Bolts shall be provided with a flat washer and nut.
Wood screws shall be installed with a screwdriver.
Nails shall not be acceptable for fastening hangers.
Screws in the side of a timber or joist shall be not less than 21/2 in. (64 mm) from the lower edge where supporting branch lines and not less than 3 in. (76 mm) where supporting main lines.
The requirements of 9.1.5.6.1 shall not apply to 2 in. (51 mm) or thicker nailing strips resting on top of steel beams.
The size of coach screw rods shall not be less than the requirements of Table 9.1.5.7.1.

Table 9.1.5.7.1 Minimum Coach Screw Rod Size

Pipe Size Diameter of Rod Minimum Penetration
in. mm in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 10 3 76
Larger than 4 100 NP NP NP NP
NP: Not permitted.
The minimum plank thickness and the minimum width of the lower face of beams or joists in which coach screw rods are used shall be not less than that specified in Table 9.1.5.7.2.

Table 9.1.5.7.2 Minimum Plank Thicknesses and Beam or Joist Widths

Pipe Size Nominal Plank Thickness Nominal Width of Beam or Joist Face
in. mm in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 2 50 3 76 2 50
21/2 65 4 102 2 50
3 80
31/2 90
4 100 4 102 3 76
Coach screw rods shall not be used for support of pipes larger than 4 in. (100 mm) in diameter.
All holes for coach screw rods shall be predrilled 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) less in diameter than the maximum root diameter of the wood screw thread.
Unless the requirements of 9.2.1.1.2 are met, sprinkler piping shall be supported independently of the ceiling sheathing.
Toggle hangers shall be permitted only for the support of pipe 11/2 in. (40 mm) or smaller in size under ceilings of hollow tile or metal lath and plaster.
Where sprinkler piping is installed in storage racks, piping shall be supported from the storage rack structure or building in accordance with all applicable provisions of Sections 9.2 and 9.3.
Unless the requirements of 9.2.1.3.3 apply, sprinkler piping shall be substantially supported from the building structure, which must support the added load of the water-filled pipe plus a minimum of 250 lb (114 kg) applied at the point of hanging, except where permitted by 9.2.1.1.2, 9.2.1.3.3, and 9.2.1.4.1.
Trapeze hangers shall be used where necessary to transfer loads to appropriate structural members.
Listed flexible sprinkler hose fittings and their anchoring components intended for use in installations connecting the sprinkler system piping to sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of the listing, including any installation instructions.
When installed and supported by suspended ceilings, the ceiling shall meet ASTM C 635, Standard Specification for the Manufacture, Performance, and Testing of Metal Suspension Systems for Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panel Ceilings, and shall be installed in accordance with ASTM C 636, Standard Practice for Installation of Metal Ceiling Suspension Systems for Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panels.
Where flexible sprinkler hose fittings exceed 6 ft (1.83 m) in length and are supported by a suspended ceiling in accordance with 9.2.1.3.3.2, a hanger(s) attached to the structure shall be required to ensure that the maximum unsupported length does not exceed 6 ft (1.83 m).
Where flexible sprinkler hose fittings are used to connect sprinklers to branch lines in suspended ceilings, a label limiting relocation of the sprinkler shall be provided on the anchoring component.
Branch line hangers attached to metal deck shall be permitted only for the support of pipe 1 in. (25 mm) or smaller in size, by drilling or punching the vertical portion of the metal deck and using through bolts.
The distance from the bottom of the bolt hole to the bottom of the vertical member shall be not less than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm).
Where sprinkler piping is installed below ductwork, piping shall be supported from the building structure or from the ductwork supports, provided such supports are capable of handling both the load of the ductwork and the load specified in 9.2.1.3.1.
The maximum distance between hangers shall not exceed that specified in Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b), except where the provisions of 9.2.4 apply.

Table 9.2.2.1(a) Maximum Distance Between Hangers (ft-in.)

Nominal Pipe Size (in.)
3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8
Steel pipe except threaded lightwall NA 12—0 12—0 15—0 15—0 15—0 15—0 15—0 15—0 15—0 15—0 15—0
Threaded lightwall steel pipe NA 12—0 12—0 12—0 12—0 12—0 12—0 NA NA NA NA NA
Copper tube 8—0 8—0 10—0 10—0 12—0 12—0 12—0 15—0 15—0 15—0 15—0 15—0
CPVC 5—6 6—0 6—6 7—0 8—0 9—0 10—0 NA NA NA NA NA
Ductile—iron pipe NA NA NA NA NA NA 15—0 NA 15—0 NA 15—0 15—0
NA: Not applicable.

Table 9.2.2.1(b) Maximum Distance Between Hangers (m-mm)

Nominal Pipe Size (mm)
20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 200
Steel pipe except threaded lightwall NA 3.66 3.66 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57
Threaded lightwall steel pipe NA 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 NA NA NA NA NA
Copper tube 2.44 2.44 3.05 3.05 3.66 3.66 3.66 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57 4.57
CPVC 1.68 1.83 1.98 2.13 2.44 2.74 3.05 NA NA NA NA NA
Ductile-iron pipe NA NA NA NA NA NA 4.57 NA 4.57 NA 4.57 4.57
NA: Not applicable.
The maximum distance between hangers for listed nonmetallic pipe shall be modified as specified in the individual product listings.
Subsection 9.2.3 shall apply to the support of steel pipe or copper tube as specified in 6.3.1 and subject to the provisions of 9.2.2.
Unless the requirements of 9.2.3.2.2 through 9.2.3.2.5 are met, there shall be not less than one hanger for each section of pipe.
Unless the requirements of 9.2.3.2.3 are met, where sprinklers are spaced less than 6 ft (1.8 m) apart, hangers spaced up to a maximum of 12 ft (3.7 m) shall be permitted.
For welded or mechanical outlets on a continuous section of pipe, hanger spacing shall be according to Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b).
Starter lengths less than 6 ft (1.8 m) shall not require a hanger, unless on the end line of a sidefeed system or where an intermediate cross main hanger has been omitted.
A single section of pipe shall not require a hanger when the cumulative distance between hangers on the branch line does not exceed the spacing required by Table 9.2.2.1(a) and Table 9.2.2.1(b).
The distance between a hanger and the centerline of an upright sprinkler shall not be less than 3 in. (76 mm).
For steel pipe, the unsupported horizontal length between the end sprinkler and the last hanger on the line shall not be greater than 36 in. (0.9 m) for 1 in. (25 mm) pipe, 48 in. (1.2 m) for 11/4 in. (32 mm) pipe, and 60 in. (1.5 m) for 11/2 in. (40 mm) or larger pipe.
For copper tube, the unsupported horizontal length between the end sprinkler and the last hanger on the line shall not be greater than 18 in. (457 mm) for 1 in. (25 mm) pipe, 24 in. (610 mm) for 11/4 in. (32 mm) pipe, and 30 in. (762 mm) for 11/2 in. (40 mm) or larger pipe.
Where the limits of 9.2.3.4.1 and 9.2.3.4.2 are exceeded, the pipe shall be extended beyond the end sprinkler and shall be supported by an additional hanger.
Where the maximum static or flowing pressure, whichever is greater at the sprinkler, applied other than through the fire department connection, exceeds 100 psi (6.9 bar) and a branch line above a ceiling supplies sprinklers in a pendent position below the ceiling, the hanger assembly supporting the pipe supplying an end sprinkler in a pendent position shall be of a type that prevents upward movement of the pipe.
The unsupported length between the end sprinkler in a pendent position or drop nipple and the last hanger on the branch line shall not be greater than 12 in. (305 mm) for steel pipe or 6 in. (152 mm) for copper pipe.
When the limit of 9.2.3.4.4.2 is exceeded, the pipe shall be extended beyond the end sprinkler and supported by an additional hanger.
The hanger closest to the sprinkler shall be of a type that prevents upward movement of the pipe.
The cumulative horizontal length of an unsupported armover to a sprinkler, sprinkler drop, or sprig shall not exceed 24 in. (610 mm) for steel pipe or 12 in. (305 mm) for copper tube.
Where the maximum static or flowing pressure, whichever is greater at the sprinkler, applied other than through the fire department connection, exceeds 100 psi (6.9 bar) and a branch line above a ceiling supplies sprinklers in a pendent position below the ceiling, the cumulative horizontal length of an unsupported armover to a sprinkler or sprinkler drop shall not exceed 12 in. (305 mm) for steel pipe and 6 in. (152 mm) for copper tube.
The hanger closest to the sprinkler shall be of a type that prevents upward movement of the pipe.
Wall-mounted sidewall sprinklers shall be restrained to prevent movement.
Sprigs 4 ft (1.2 m) or longer shall be restrained against lateral movement.
Unless the requirements of 9.2.4.2, 9.2.4.3, 9.2.4.4, 9.2.4.5, or 9.2.4.6 are met, hangers for mains shall be in accordance with 9.2.2, between each branch line, or on each section of pipe, whichever is the lesser dimension.
For welded or mechanical outlets on a continuous section of pipe, hanger spacing shall be according to Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b).
For cross mains in steel pipe systems in bays having two branch lines, the intermediate hanger shall be permitted to be omitted, provided that a hanger attached to a purlin is installed on each branch line located as near to the cross main as the location of the purlin permits.
The remaining branch line hangers shall be installed in accordance with 9.2.3.
For cross mains in steel pipe systems only in bays having three branch lines, either side or center feed, one (only) intermediate hanger shall be permitted to be omitted, provided that a hanger attached to a purlin is installed on each branch line located as near to the cross main as the location of the purlin permits.
The remaining branch line hangers shall be installed in accordance with 9.2.3.
For cross mains in steel pipe systems only in bays having four or more branch lines, either side or center feed, two intermediate hangers shall be permitted to be omitted, provided the maximum distance between hangers does not exceed the distances specified in 9.2.2 and a hanger attached to a purlin on each branch line is located as near to the cross main as the purlin permits.
At the end of the main, intermediate trapeze hangers shall be installed unless the main is extended to the next framing member with a hanger installed at this point, in which event an intermediate hanger shall be permitted to be omitted in accordance with 9.2.4.3, 9.2.4.4, and 9.2.4.5.
A single section of pipe shall not require a hanger when the cumulative distance between hangers on the main does not exceed the spacing required by Table 9.2.2.1(a) and Table 9.2.2.1(b).
Risers shall be supported by riser clamps or by hangers located on the horizontal connections within 24 in. (610 mm) of the centerline of the riser.
Riser clamps supporting risers by means of set screws shall not be used.
Riser clamps anchored to walls using hanger rods in the horizontal position shall not be permitted to vertically support risers.
In multistory buildings, riser supports shall be provided at the lowest level, at each alternate level above, above and below offsets, and at the top of the riser.
Supports above the lowest level shall also restrain the pipe to prevent movement by an upward thrust where flexible fittings are used.
Where risers are supported from the ground, the ground support shall constitute the first level of riser support.
Where risers are offset or do not rise from the ground, the first ceiling level above the offset shall constitute the first level of riser support.
Distance between supports for risers shall not exceed 25 ft (7.6 m).
Pipe stands shall be sized to support a minimum of five times the weight of the water-filled pipe plus 250 lb (114 kg).
The pipe stand base shall be secured by an approved method.
Where pipe stands are utilized, they shall be approved.
Where water-based fire protection systems are required to be protected against damage from earthquakes, the requirements of Section 9.3 shall apply, unless the requirements of 9.3.1.2 are met.
Alternative methods of providing earthquake protection of sprinkler systems based on a seismic analysis certified by a registered professional engineer such that system performance will be at least equal to that of the building structure under expected seismic forces shall be permitted.
Braces and restraints shall not obstruct sprinklers and shall comply with the obstruction rules of Chapter 8.
Listed flexible pipe couplings joining grooved end pipe shall be provided as flexure joints to allow individual sections of piping 21/2 in. (65 mm) or larger to move differentially with the individual sections of the building to which it is attached.
Couplings shall be arranged to coincide with structural separations within a building.
Systems having more flexible couplings than required by this section shall be provided with additional sway bracing as required in 9.3.5.5.9.
The flexible couplings shall be installed as follows:
  1. *Within 24 in. (610 mm) of the top and bottom of all risers, unless the following provisions are met:
    1. In risers less than 3 ft (0.9 m) in length, flexible couplings are permitted to be omitted.
    2. In risers 3 ft to 7 ft (0.9 m to 2.1 m) in length, one flexible coupling is adequate.
  2. Within 12 in. (305 mm) above and within 24 in. (610 mm) below the floor in multistory buildings
  3. On both sides of concrete or masonry walls within 1 ft (305 mm) of the wall surface, unless clearance is provided in accordance with 9.3.4
  4. *Within 24 in. (610 mm) of building expansion joints
  5. Within 24 in. (610 mm) of the top of drops exceeding 15 ft (4.6 m) in length to portions of systems supplying more than one sprinkler, regardless of pipe size
  6. Within 24 in. (610 mm) above and 24 in. (610 mm) below any intermediate points of support for a riser or other vertical pipe
When the flexible coupling below the floor is above the tie-in main to the main supplying that floor, a flexible coupling shall be provided in accordance with one of the following:
  1. *On the horizontal portion within 24 in. (610 mm) of the tie-in where the tie-in is horizontal
  2. *On the vertical portion of the tie-in where the tie-in incorporates a riser
Flexible couplings for drops to hose lines, rack sprinklers, mezzanines, and freestanding structures shall be installed regardless of pipe sizes as follows:
  1. Within 24 in. (610 mm) of the top of the drop
  2. Within 24 in. (610 mm) above the uppermost drop support attachment, where drop supports are provided to the structure, rack, or mezzanine
  3. Within 24 in. (610 mm) above the bottom of the drop where no additional drop support is provided
An approved seismic separation assembly shall be installed where sprinkler piping, regardless of size, crosses building seismic separation joints at ground level and above.
Seismic separation assemblies shall consist of flexible fittings or flexible piping so as to allow movement sufficient to accommodate closing of the separation, opening of the separation to twice its normal size, and movement relative to the separation in the other two dimensions in an amount equal to the separation distance.
The seismic separation assembly shall include a four-way brace upstream and downstream within 6 ft (1.8 m) of the seismic separation assembly.
Bracing shall not be attached to the seismic separation assembly.
Clearance shall be provided around all piping extending through walls, floors, platforms, and foundations, including drains, fire department connections, and other auxiliary piping.
Unless the requirements of 9.3.4.3 through 9.3.4.7 are met, where pipe passes through holes in platforms, foundations, walls, or floors, the holes shall be sized such that the diameter of the holes is nominally 2 in. (50 mm) larger than the pipe for pipe 1 in. (25 mm) nominal to 31/2 in. (90 mm) nominal and 4 in. (100 mm) larger than the pipe for pipe 4 in. (100 mm) nominal and larger.
Where clearance is provided by a pipe sleeve, a nominal diameter 2 in. (50 mm) larger than the nominal diameter of the pipe shall be acceptable for pipe sizes 1 in. (25 mm) through 31/2 in. (90 mm), and the clearance provided by a pipe sleeve of nominal diameter 4 in. (100 mm) larger than the nominal diameter of the pipe shall be acceptable for pipe sizes 4 in. (100 mm) and larger.
No clearance shall be required for piping passing through gypsum board or equally frangible construction that is not required to have a fire resistance rating.
No clearance shall be required if flexible couplings are located within 1 ft (305 mm) of each side of a wall, floor, platform, or foundation.
No clearance shall be required where horizontal piping passes perpendicularly through successive studs or joists that form a wall or floor/ceiling assembly.
No clearance shall be required where nonmetallic pipe has been demonstrated to have inherent flexibility equal to or greater than the minimum provided by flexible couplings located within 1 ft (305 mm) of each side of a wall, floor, platform, or foundation.
Where required, the clearance shall be filled with a flexible material that is compatible with the piping material.
Clearance from structural members not penetrated or used, collectively or independently, to support the piping shall be at least 2 in. (50 mm).
No clearance shall be required where piping is supported by holes through structural members as permitted by 9.1.1.6.3.
The system piping shall be braced to resist both lateral and longitudinal horizontal seismic loads and to prevent vertical motion resulting from seismic loads.
The structural components to which bracing is attached shall be determined to be capable of resisting the added applied seismic loads.
Horizontal loads on system piping shall be determined in accordance with 9.3.5.9.
A shared support structure shall be permitted to support both the gravity loads addressed in 9.1.1.3.1 and the seismic loads addressed in 9.3.5.9.
When a shared support structure is used to support gravity and seismic loads, the structure shall be designed to support these loads for all pipe and distribution systems on the structure using either 9.3.5.9.5 or 9.3.5.9.6 with an importance factor, Ip, of 1.5 being applied to all of the distribution systems.
If a shared support structure is used to support sprinkler pipe and other distribution systems per 9.1.1.3.1 and that structure does not provide seismic resistance as required in 9.3.5.1.4, the following shall be met:
  1. The sprinkler pipe shall be braced using the method in 9.3.5.6 with the zone of influence including the water- filled sprinkler pipe and all other distribution systems that are not independently equipped with seismic protection and attached to the shared support structure.
  2. The sprinkler sway bracing attachment shall be connected to the same building or structure as the shared support structure.
Bracing requirements of 9.3.5 shall not apply to drain piping downstream of the drain valve.
Sway bracing assemblies shall be listed for a maximum load rating, unless the requirements of 9.3.5.2.2 are met.
Where sway bracing utilizing pipe, angles, flats, or rods as shown in Table 9.3.5.11.8(a), Table 9.3.5.11.8(b), and Table 9.3.5.11.8(c) is used, the components shall not require listing.
Bracing fittings and connections used with those specific materials shall be listed.
The loads shall be reduced as shown in Table 9.3.5.2.3 for installations where the brace is less than 90 degrees from vertical.

Table 9.3.5.2.3 Allowable Horizontal Load on Brace Assemblies Based on Weakest Component of Brace Assembly

Brace Angle Degrees from Vertical Allowable Horizontal Load
30 to 44 Listed load rating divided by 2.000
45 to 59 Listed load rating divided by 1.414
60 to 89 Listed load rating divided by 1.155
90 Listed load rating
Unless permitted by 9.3.5.3.2, components of sway brace assemblies shall be ferrous.
Nonferrous components that have been proven by fire tests to be adequate for the hazard application, that are listed for this purpose, and that are in compliance with the other requirements of this section shall be acceptable.
Sway braces shall be designed to withstand forces in tension and compression, unless the requirements of 9.3.5.4.2 are met.
Tension-only bracing systems shall be permitted for use where listed for this service and where installed in accordance with their listing limitations, including installation instructions.
For all braces, whether or not listed, the maximum allowable load shall be based on the weakest component of the brace with safety factors.
Lateral sway bracing shall be provided on all feed and cross mains regardless of size and all branch lines and other piping with a diameter of 21/2 in. (65 mm) and larger.
Where branch lines are not provided with lateral sway bracing, they shall be provided with restraint in accordance with 9.3.6.
Lateral sway bracing shall be in accordance with either Table 9.3.5.5.2(a), (b), (c), (d), or (e), or 9.3.5.5.3, based on the piping material of the sprinkler system.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(a) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy = 30 ksi) Schedule 10 Steel Pipe

Pipe (in.) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
1 111 89 73 63 52
11/4 176 141 116 99 83
11/2 241 193 158 136 114
2 390 312 256 219 183
21/2 641 513 420 360 301
3 966 773 633 543 454
31/2 1281 1025 840 720 603
4 1634 1307 1071 918 769
5 2814 2251 1844 1581 1324
6 and largere 4039 3231 2647 2269 1900
Note: ASTM A 106 Grade B or ASTM A 53 Grade B has an Fy = 35 ksi. An Fy = 30 ksi was used also as a conservative value to account for differences in material properties as well as other operational stresses.
a The tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.
b Assumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.
c Assumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.
d Assumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.
e Larger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(b) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy= 30 ksi) Schedule 40 Steel Pipe

Pipe (in.) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
1 121 97 79 68 57
11/4 214 171 140 120 100
11/2 306 245 201 172 144
2 520 416 341 292 245
21/2 984 787 645 553 463
3 1597 1278 1047 897 751
31/2 2219 1775 1455 1247 1044
4 2981 2385 1954 1675 1402
5 5061 4049 3317 2843 2381
6 and largere 7893 6314 5173 4434 3713
Note: ASTM A 106 Grade B or ASTM A 53 Grade B has an Fy = 35 ksi. An Fy = 30 ksi was used also as a conservative value to account for differences in material properties as well as other operational stresses.
a The tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.
b Assumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.
c Assumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.
d Assumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.
e Larger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(c) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy = 30 ksi) Schedule 5 Steel Pipe

Pipe (in.) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
1 71 56 46 40 33
11/4 116 93 76 65 55
11/2 154 124 101 87 73
2 246 197 161 138 116
21/2 459 367 301 258 216
3 691 552 453 388 325
31/2 910 728 597 511 428
4e 1160 928 760 652 546
Note: ASTM A 106 Grade B or ASTM A 53 Grade B has an Fy = 35 ksi. An Fy = 30 ksi was used also as a conservative value to account for differences in material properties as well as other operational stresses.
a The tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.
b Assumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.
c Assumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.
d Assumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.
e Larger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(d) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy = 8 ksi) CPVC Pipe

Pipe (in.) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
3/4 15 12 10 8 7
1 28 22 18 15 13
11/4 56 45 37 30 26
11/2 83 67 55 45 39
2 161 129 105 87 76
21/2 286 229 188 154 135
3 516 413 338 278 243
a The tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.
b Assumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.
c Assumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.
d Assumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(e) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy = 30 ksi) Type M Copper Tube (with Soldered Joints)

Pipe (in.) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
3/4 16 13 10 9 8
1 29 24 19 16 14
11/4 53 42 35 28 25
11/2 86 69 56 46 41
2e 180 144 118 97 85
a The tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.
b Assumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.
c Assumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.
d Assumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.
e Larger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.
Specially listed nonstandard pipe shall be permitted using the values in Table 9.3.5.5.2(c) or with values provided by the manufacturer.
Spacing shall not exceed a maximum interval of 40 ft (12.2 m) on center.
The maximum permissible load in the zone of influence of a sway brace shall not exceed the values given in Table 9.3.5.5.2(a) through Table 9.3.5.5.2(e) or the values calculated in accordance with 9.3.5.5.3.
The maximum load (Fpw) in the zone of influence for specially listed pipe shall be calculated. (See Annex E.)
The requirements of 9.3.5.5.1 shall not apply to 21/2 in. (65 mm) starter pieces that do not exceed 12 ft (3.66 m) in length.
The distance between the last brace and the end of the pipe shall not exceed 6 ft (1.8 m).
Where there is a change in direction of the piping, the cumulative distance between consecutive lateral sway braces shall not exceed the maximum permitted distance in accordance with 9.3.5.5.2.2.
The last length of pipe at the end of a feed or cross main shall be provided with a lateral brace.
Lateral braces shall be allowed to act as longitudinal braces if they are within 24 in. (610 mm) of the centerline of the piping braced longitudinally and the lateral brace is on a pipe of equal or greater size than the pipe being braced longitudinally.
Where flexible couplings are installed on mains other than as required in 9.3.2, a lateral brace shall be provided within 24 in. (610 mm) of every other coupling, including flexible couplings at grooved fittings, but not more than 40 ft (12.2 m) on center.
The requirements of 9.3.5.5 shall not apply to pipes individually supported by rods less than 6 in. (152 mm) long measured between the top of the pipe and the point of attachment to the building structure.
The requirements of 9.3.5.5 shall not apply where U-type hooks of the wraparound type or those U-type hooks arranged to keep the pipe tight to the underside of the structural element shall be permitted to be used to satisfy the requirements for lateral sway bracing, provided the legs are bent out at least 30 degrees from the vertical and the maximum length of each leg and the rod size satisfies the conditions of Table 9.3.5.11.8(a), Table 9.3.5.11.8(b), and Table 9.3.5.11.8(c).
Longitudinal sway bracing spaced at a maximum of 80 ft (24.4 m) on center shall be provided for feed and cross mains.
Longitudinal braces shall be allowed to act as lateral braces if they are within 24 in. (610 mm) of the centerline of the piping braced laterally.
The distance between the last brace and the end of the pipe or a change in direction shall not exceed 40 ft (12.2 m).
Each run of pipe between changes in direction shall be provided with both lateral and longitudinal bracing, unless the requirements of 9.3.5.7.2 are met.
Pipe runs less than 12 ft (3.7 m) in length shall be permitted to be supported by the braces on adjacent runs of pipe.
Tops of risers exceeding 3 ft (1 m) in length shall be provided with a four-way brace.
Riser nipples shall be permitted to omit the fourway brace required by 9.3.5.8.1.
When a four-way brace at the top of a riser is attached on the horizontal piping, it shall be within 24 in. (610 mm) of the centerline of the riser and the loads for that brace shall include both the vertical and horizontal pipe.
Distance between four-way braces for risers shall not exceed 25 ft (7.6 m).
Four-way bracing shall not be required where risers penetrate intermediate floors in multistory buildings where the clearance does not exceed the limits of 9.3.4.
The horizontal seismic load for the braces shall be as determined in 9.3.5.9.6 or 9.3.5.9.7, or as required by the authority having jurisdiction.
The weight of the system being braced (Wp) shall be taken as 1.15 times the weight of the water-filled piping. (See A.9.3.5.9.1.)
The horizontal force, Fpw, acting on the brace shall be taken as Fpw = CpWp, where Cp is the seismic coefficient selected in Table 9.3.5.9.3 utilizing the short period response parameter, Ss.

Table 9.3.5.9.3 Seismic Coefficient Table

Ss Cp
0.33 or less 0.35
0.40 0.38
0.50 0.40
0.60 0.42
0.70 0.42
0.75 0.42
0.80 0.44
0.90 0.48
0.95 0.50
1.00 0.51
1.10 0.54
1.20 0.57
1.25 0.58
1.30 0.61
1.40 0.65
1.50 0.70
1.60 0.75
1.70 0.79
1.75 0.82
1.80 0.84
1.90 0.89
2.00 0.93
2.10 0.98
2.20 1.03
2.30 1.07
2.40 1.12
2.50 1.17
2.60 1.21
2.70 1.26
2.80 1.31
2.90 1.35
3.00 1.40
The value of Ss used in Table 9.3.5.9.3 shall be obtained from the authority having jurisdiction or from seismic hazard maps.
Linear interpolation shall be permitted to be used for intermediate values of Ss.
The horizontal force, Fpw, acting on the brace shall be permitted to be determined in accordance with Section 13.3.1 of SEI/ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads of Buildings and Other Structures, multiplied by 0.7 to convert to allowable stress design (ASD).
Where data for determining Cp are not available, the horizontal seismic force acting on the braces shall be determined as specified in 9.3.5.9.3 with Cp = 0.5.
The zone of influence for lateral braces shall include all branch lines and mains tributary to the brace, except branch lines that are provided with longitudinal bracing or as prohibited by 9.3.5.9.6.1.
When riser nipples are provided in systems requiring seismic protection and are longer than 4 ft (1.2 m), the weight of the water-filled branch line pipe in the zone of influence (Wp) as defined by 9.3.5.9.1, including the length of the riser nipple, multiplied by the seismic coefficient (Cp), and by the height of the riser nipple (Hr), divided by the section modulus (S) of the riser nipple piping shall not meet or exceed the yield strength (Fy) of the riser nipple piping. If the calculated value is equal to or greater than the yield strength or the riser nipple, the longitudinal seismic load of each line shall be evaluated individually and branch lines shall be provided with longitudinal sway bracing per 9.3.5.6.

where:

Hr = length of riser nipple piping (in inches)
Wp = tributary weight (in pounds) for the branch line or portion of branch line within the zone of influence including the riser nipple
Cp = seismic coefficient
S = sectional modulus of the riser nipple pipe
Fy = allowable yield strength of 30,000 psi for steel, 30,000 psi for copper (soldered), 8000 psi for CPVC
If the calculated value is equal to or greater than the yield strength of the riser nipple, the longitudinal seismic load of each line shall be evaluated individually and branch lines shall be provided with longitudinal sway bracing per 9.3.5.4.
The zone of influence for longitudinal braces shall include all mains tributary to the brace.
Where the horizontal seismic loads used exceed 0.5 Wp and the brace angle is less than 45 degrees from vertical or where the horizontal seismic load exceeds 1.0 Wp and the brace angle is less than 60 degrees from vertical, the braces shall be arranged to resist the net vertical reaction produced by the horizontal load.
Bracing shall be attached directly to the system pipe.
Sway bracing shall be tight.
For individual braces, the slenderness ratio (l/r) shall not exceed 300, where l is the length of the brace and r is the least radius of gyration.
Where threaded pipe is used as part of a sway brace assembly, it shall not be less than Schedule 30.
All parts and fittings of a brace shall lie in a straight line to avoid eccentric loadings on fittings and fasteners.
For longitudinal braces only, the brace shall be permitted to be connected to a tab welded to the pipe in conformance to 6.5.2.
For tension-only braces, two tension-only brace components opposing each other must be installed at each lateral or longitudinal brace location.
The loads determined in 9.3.5.9 shall not exceed the lesser of the maximum allowable loads provided in Table 9.3.5.11.8(a), Table 9.3.5.11.8(b), and Table 9.3.5.11.8(c) or the manufacturer's certified maximum allowable horizontal loads for brace angles of 30 to 44 degrees, 45 to 59 degrees, 60 to 89 degrees, or 90 degrees.

Table 9.3.5.11.8(a) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r = 100 for Steel Braces with Fy = 36 ksi

Brace Shape and Size (in.) Area (in.2) Least Radius of Gyration (r) (in.) Maximum Length for l/r = 100 Maximum Horizontal Load (lb)
Brace Angle
ft in. 30° to 44° Angle from Vertical 45° to 59° Angle from Vertical 60° to 90° Angle from Vertical
Pipe
Schedule 40
1 0.494 0.421 3 6 3,150 4,455 5,456
11/4 0.669 0.540 4 6 4,266 6,033 7,389
11/2 0.799 0.623 5 2 5,095 7,206 8,825
2 1.07 0.787 6 6 6,823 9,650 11,818
Angles 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 0.688 0.292 2 5 4,387 6,205 7,599
2 × 2 × 1/4 0.938 0.391 3 3 5,982 8,459 10,360
21/2 × 2 × 1/4 1.06 0.424 3 6 6,760 9,560 11,708
21/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 1.19 0.491 4 1 7,589 10,732 13,144
3 × 21/2 × 1/4 1.31 0.528 4 4 8,354 11,814 14,469
3 × 3 × 1/4 1.44 0.592 4 11 9,183 12,987 15,905
Rods
(all thread)
3/8 0.07 0.075 0 7 446 631 773
1/2 0.129 0.101 0 10 823 1,163 1,425
5/8 0.207 0.128 1 0 1,320 1,867 2,286
3/4 0.309 0.157 1 3 1,970 2,787 3,413
7/8 0.429 0.185 1 6 2,736 3,869 4,738
Rods
(threaded at ends only)
3/8 0.11 0.094 0 9 701 992 1,215
1/2 0.196 0.125 1 0 1,250 1,768 2,165
5/8 0.307 0.156 1 3 1,958 2,769 3,391
3/4 0.442 0.188 1 6 2,819 3,986 4,882
7/8 0.601 0.219 1 9 3,833 5,420 6,638
Flats 11/2 ×1/4 0.375 0.0722 0 7 2,391 3,382 4,142
2 ×1/4 0.5 0.0722 0 7 3,189 4,509 5,523
2 × 3/8 0.75 0.1082 0 10 4,783 6,764 8,284

Table 9.3.5.11.8(b) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r = 200 for Steel Braces with Fy = 36 ksi

Brace Shape and Size (in.) Area (in.2) Least Radius of Gyration (r) (in.) Maximum Length for l/r = 200 Maximum Horizontal Load (lb)
Brace Angle
ft in. 30° to 44° Angle from Vertical 45° to 59° Angle from Vertical 60° to 90° Angle from Vertical
Pipe
Schedule 40
1 0.494 0.421 7 0 926 1310 1604
11/4 0.669 0.540 9 0 1254 1774 2173
11/2 0.799 0.623 10 4 1498 2119 2595
2 1.07 0.787 13 1 2006 2837 3475
Angles 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 0.688 0.292 4 10 1290 1824 2234
2 × 2 × 1/4 0.938 0.391 6 6 1759 2487 3046
21/2 × 2 × 1/4 1.06 0.424 7 0 1988 2811 3442
21/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 1.19 0.491 8 2 2231 3155 3865
3 × 21/2 × 1/4 1.31 0.528 8 9 2456 3474 4254
3 × 3 × 1/4 1.44 0.592 9 10 2700 3818 4677
Rods
(all thread)
3/8 0.07 0.075 1 2 131 186 227
1/2 0.129 0.101 1 8 242 342 419
5/8 0.207 0.128 2 1 388 549 672
3/4 0.309 0.157 2 7 579 819 1004
7/8 0.429 0.185 3 0 804 1138 1393
Rods
(threaded at ends only)
3/8 0.11 0.094 1 6 206 292 357
1/2 0.196 0.125 2 0 368 520 637
5/8 0.307 0.156 2 7 576 814 997
3/4 0.442 0.188 3 1 829 1172 1435
7/8 0.601 0.219 3 7 1127 1594 1952
Flats 11/2 × 1/4 0.375 0.0722 1 2 703 994 1218
2 × 1/4 0.5 0.0722 1 2 938 1326 1624
2 × 3/8 0.75 0.1082 1 9 1406 1989 2436

Table 9.3.5.11.8(c) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r = 300 for Steel Braces with Fy = 36 ksi

Brace Shape and Size (in.) Area (in.2) Least Radius of Gyration (r) (in.) Maximum Length for l/r = 300 Maximum Horizontal Load (lb)
Brace Angle
ft in. 30° to 44° Angle from Vertical 45° to 59° Angle from Vertical 60° to 90° Angle from Vertical
Pipe
Schedule 40
1 0.494 0.421 10 6 412 582 713
11/4 0.669 0.540 13 6 558 788 966
11/2 0.799 0.623 15 6 666 942 1153
2 1.07 0.787 19 8 892 1261 1544
Angles 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 0.688 0.292 7 3 573 811 993
2 × 2 × 1/4 0.938 0.391 9 9 782 1105 1354
21/2 × 2 × 1/4 1.06 0.424 10 7 883 1249 1530
21/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 1.19 0.491 12 3 992 1402 1718
3 × 21/2 × 1/4 1.31 0.528 13 2 1092 1544 1891
3 × 3 × 1/4 1.44 0.592 14 9 1200 1697 2078
Rods
(all thread)
3/8 0.07 0.075 1 10 58 82 101
1/2 0.129 0.101 2 6 108 152 186
5/8 0.207 0.128 3 2 173 244 299
3/4 0.309 0.157 3 11 258 364 446
7/8 0.429 0.185 4 7 358 506 619
Rods (threaded at ends only) 3/8 0.11 0.094 2 4 92 130 159
1/2 0.196 0.125 3 1 163 231 283
5/8 0.307 0.156 3 10 256 362 443
3/4 0.442 0.188 4 8 368 521 638
7/8 0.601 0.219 5 5 501 708 867
Flats 11/2 × 1/4 0.375 0.0722 1 9 313 442 541
2 × 1/4 0.5 0.0722 1 9 417 589 722
2 × 3/8 0.75 0.1082 2 8 625 884 1083
Other pipe schedules and materials not specifically included in Table 9.3.5.11.8(a), Table 9.3.5.11.8(b), and Table 9.3.5.11.8(c) shall be permitted to be used if certified by a registered professional engineer to support the loads determined in accordance with the criteria in the tables.
Calculations shall be submitted where required by the authority having jurisdiction.
C-type clamps including beam and large flange clamps, with or without restraining straps, shall not be used to attach braces to the building structure.
Powder-driven fasteners shall not be used to attach braces to the building structure, unless they are specifically listed for service in resisting lateral loads in areas subject to earthquakes.
For individual fasteners, the loads determined in 9.3.5.9 shall not exceed the allowable loads provided in Figure 9.3.5.12.1.

FIGURE 9.3.5.12.1 Maximum Loads for Various Types of Structures and Maximum Loads for Various Types of Fasteners to Structures.

The type of fasteners used to secure the bracing assembly to the structure shall be limited to those shown in Figure 9.3.5.12.1 or to listed devices.
For connections to wood, through-bolts with washers on each end shall be used, unless the requirements of 9.3.5.12.4 are met.
Where it is not practical to install through-bolts due to the thickness of the wood member in excess of 12 in. (305 mm) or inaccessibility, lag screws shall be permitted and holes shall be pre-drilled 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) smaller than the maximum root diameter of the lag screw.
Holes for through-bolts and similar listed attachments shall be 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the diameter of the bolt.
The requirements of 9.3.5.12 shall not apply to other fastening methods, which shall be acceptable for use if certified by a registered professional engineer to support the loads determined in accordance with the criteria in 9.3.5.9.
Calculations shall be submitted where required by the authority having jurisdiction.
Concrete anchors shall be prequalified for seismic applications in accordance with ACI 355.2, Qualification of Post-Installed Mechanical Anchors in Concrete and Commentary, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Concrete anchors other than those shown in Figure 9.3.5.12.1 shall be acceptable for use where designed in accordance with the requirements of the building code and certified by a registered professional engineer.
A length of pipe shall not be braced to sections of the building that will move differentially.
Restraint is considered a lesser degree of resisting loads than bracing and shall be provided by use of one of the following:
  1. Listed sway brace assembly
  2. Wraparound U-hook satisfying the requirements of 9.3.5.5.11
  3. No. 12, 440 lb (200 kg) wire installed at least 45 degrees from the vertical plane and anchored on both sides of the pipe
  4. CPVC hangers utilizing two points of attachment
  5. *Hanger not less than 45 degrees from vertical installed within 6 in. (152 mm) of the vertical hanger arranged for restraint against upward movement, provided it is utilized such that l/r does not exceed 400, where the rod shall extend to the pipe or have a surge clip installed
  6. Other approved means
Wire used for restraint shall be located within 2 ft (610 mm) of a hanger.
The hanger closest to a wire restraint shall be of a type that resists upward movement of a branch line.
The end sprinkler on a branch line shall be restrained.
Branch lines shall be laterally restrained at intervals not exceeding those specified in Table 9.3.6.4(a) or Table 9.3.6.4(b) based on branch line diameter and the value of Cp.

Table 9.3.6.4(a) Maximum Spacing (ft) of Steel Branch Line Restraints

Pipe (in.) Seismic Coefficient (Cp)
Cp ≤ 0.50 0.5 < Cp ≤ 0.71 Cp > 0.71
1 43 36 26
11/4 46 39 27
11/2 49 41 29
2 53 45 31

Table 9.3.6.4(b) Maximum Spacing (ft) of CPVC and Copper Branch Line Restraints

Pipe (in.) Seismic Coefficient (Cp)
Cp ≤ 0.50 0.5 < Cp ≤ 0.71 Cp > 0.71
3/4 31 26 18
1 34 28 20
11/4 37 31 22
11/2 40 34 24
2 45 38 27
Where the branch lines are supported by rods less than 6 in. (152 mm) long measured between the top of the pipe and the point of attachment to the building structure, the requirements of 9.3.6.1 through 9.3.6.4 shall not apply and additional restraint shall not be required for the branch lines.
Sprigs 4 ft (1.2 m) or longer shall be restrained against lateral movement.
Drops and armovers shall not require restraint.
Where seismic protection is provided, C-type clamps (including beam and large flange clamps) used to attach hangers to the building structure shall be equipped with a restraining strap unless the provisions of 9.3.7.1.1 are satisfied.
As an alternative to the installation of a required restraining strap, a device investigated and specifically listed to restrain the clamp to the structure is permitted where the intent of the device is to resist the worst-case expected horizontal load.
The restraining strap shall be listed for use with a C-type clamp or shall be a steel strap of not less than 16 gauge (1.57 mm) thickness and not less than 1 in. (25.4 mm) wide for pipe diameters 8 in. (200 mm) or less and 14 gauge (1.98 mm) thickness and not less than 11/4 in. (31.7 mm) wide for pipe diameters greater than 8 in. (200 mm).
The restraining strap shall wrap around the beam flange not less than 1 in. (25.4 mm).
A lock nut on a C-type clamp shall not be used as a method of restraint.
A lip on a "C" or "Z" purlin shall not be used as a method of restraint.
Where purlins or beams do not provide a secure lip to a restraining strap, the strap shall be through-bolted or secured by a self-tapping screw.
In areas where the horizontal force factor exceeds 0.50 Wp, powder-driven studs shall be permitted to attach hangers to the building structure where they are specifically listed for use in areas subject to earthquakes.
Where seismic protection is provided, concrete anchors used to secure hangers to the building structure shall be in accordance with ACI 355.2, Qualification of Post-Installed Mechanical Anchors in Concrete and Commentary, and installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
UpCodes Premium
Leverage the most sophisticated code compliance platform.
TRY FREE FOR TWO WEEKS VISIT PRICING