CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2015 (IFC 2015)

Part I ‒ Administrative

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 1 General Requirements

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part II ‒ General Safety Provisions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Part III ‒ Building and Equipment Design Features

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 12 through 19 RESERVED

Part IV ‒ Special Occupancies and Operations

Chapter 20 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 21 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 22 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 23 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 24 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 25 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 26 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 27 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 28 Lumber Yards and Agro-Industrial, Solid Biomass and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 29 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 30 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 31 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 32 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 33 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 34 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 35 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 36 Marinas

Chapter 37 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 38 through 49 RESERVED

Part V ‒ Hazardous Materials

Chapter 50 Hazardous Materials—General Provisions

Chapter 51 Aerosols

Chapter 52 Reserved

Chapter 53 Compressed Gases

Chapter 54 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 55 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 56 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 57 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 58 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 59 Flammable Solids

Chapter 60 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 62 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 63 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 64 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 65 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 66 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 67 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 68 through 79 RESERVED

Part VI ‒ Referenced Standards

Chapter 80 Referenced Standards

Part VII ‒ Appendices

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids - Weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (Hmmp) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (Hmis) Instructions

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems - Noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Building Information Sign

Appendix K Construction Requirements for Existing Ambulatory Care Facilities

Appendix L Requirements for Fire Fighter Air Replenishment Systems

Appendix M HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS—RETROACTIVE AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER REQUIREMENT

The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appliances and heating systems, emergency and standby power systems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage battery systems and commercial kitchen equipment.

601.2 Permits

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration systems, battery systems and solar photovoltaic power systems as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.
UpCodes note: Section 7.2 of the New York State 2017 Uniform Code Supplement indicates references to the original IFC section 105.6 and 105.7 to be replaced by the following requirements:

Any provision in the 2015 IFC that indicates that a permit is required shall be deemed to be amended to indicate that a permit is required to the extent provided in:
  1. the stricter of (i) the Code Enforcement Program of the Authority Having Jurisdiction or (ii) a Part 1203-Compliant Code Enforcement Program,
  2. Section 109 of the amended and restated version of Chapter 1 found in this Supplement,

    and/or
  3. 19 NYCRR Part 1228 (“Sugarhouse Alternative Activity Provisions”).
The installation of nonportable fuel gas appliances and systems shall comply with the International Fuel Gas Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, shall comply with this section and the International Mechanical Code.
The installation shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and applicable federal, state and local rules and regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify or alter a manufacturer's instructions in any way, written approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer.
The design, construction and installation of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code.
Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection with oil-burning equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 605 and NFPA 70.
The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in Group F, M and S occupancies where utilized in equipment listed for use with waste oil and where such equipment is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the terms of its listing.
The installation shall be readily accessible for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regulators and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning and lubricating parts.
After installation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combustion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that the burner is in proper operating condition and that all accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function properly.
Contractors installing industrial oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burning equipment and another at an approved location that will be accessible in case of emergency.
After completing the installation, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall furnish the owner or operator with the name and telephone number of persons to contact for technical information or assistance and routine or emergency services.
Working clearances between oil-fired appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 70. Clearances between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accordance with NFPA 31.
Masonry chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code. Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211.
Fuel oil storage systems shall be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel-oil piping systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31.
Fuel oil storage inside buildings shall comply with Sections 603.3.2.1 through 603.3.2.5 or Chapter 57.
One or more fuel oil storage tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity of all such tanks shall not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L).

Exception: The aggregate capacity limit shall be permitted to be increased to 3,000 gallons (11 356 L) of Class II or III liquid for storage in protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7, where all of the following conditions are met:

1. The entire 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) quantity shall be stored in protected above-ground tanks.

2. The 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) capacity shall be permitted to be stored in a single tank or multiple smaller tanks.

3. The tanks shall be located in a room protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1.
Tanks installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2 shall be used only to supply fuel oil to fuel-burning or generator equipment installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2.4. Connections between tanks and equipment supplied by such tanks shall be made using closed piping systems.
The quantity of combustible liquid stored in tanks complying with Section 603.3.2 shall not be counted towards the maximum allowable quantity set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1), and such tanks shall not be required to be located in a control area.
Tanks and piping systems shall be installed and separated from other uses in accordance with Section 915 and Chapter 13, both of the International Mechanical Code, as applicable.

Exception: Protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7 shall not be required to be separated from surrounding areas.
Tanks in basements shall be located not more than two stories below grade plane.
The storage of fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with NFPA 31.
Portable unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4.

Exceptions:

1. Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters, including portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances, in one- and two-family dwellings.

2. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be allowed in accordance with Section 603.4.2.
Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets.
Portable gas-fired heating appliances located outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1.1 through 603.4.2.1.4.
The storage or use of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances is prohibited in any of the following locations:

1. Inside of any occupancy where connected to the fuel gas container.

2. Inside of tents, canopies and membrane structures.

3. On exterior balconies.

Exception: As allowed in Section 6.20 of NFPA 58.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from buildings.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located beneath, or closer than 5 feet (1524 mm) to combustible decorations and combustible overhangs, awnings, sunshades or similar combustible attachments to buildings.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of exits or exit discharges.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and operated in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.2.1 through 603.4.2.2.4.
Only listed and approved portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances utilizing a fuel gas container that is integral to the appliance shall be used.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be equipped with a tilt or tip-over switch that automatically shuts off the flow of gas if the appliance is tilted more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from the vertical.
The heating element or combustion chamber of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.
Fuel gas containers for portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall comply with Sections 603.4.2.3.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.
Only approved DOTn or ASME gas containers shall be used.
Replacement of fuel gas containers in portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be conducted while the public is present.
The maximum individual capacity of gas containers used in connection with portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg).
Gas containers shall not be stored inside of buildings except in accordance with Section 6109.9.
Heating appliances shall be listed and shall comply with Sections 603.5.1 and 603.5.2.
The heating element or combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.
Heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, the International Building Code, the International Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 70.
Chimneys, incinerators, smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boilers to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so as not to create a fire hazard.
Masonry chimneys that, upon inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be discharged into the building, or which are cracked as to be dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed chimney liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions or a flue lining system installed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code and appropriate for the intended class of chimney service.
Metal chimneys which are corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
Decorative shrouds installed at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer's instructions.
Existing factory-built chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
Existing chimney and vent connectors that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.
The fire code official is authorized to order that measures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take measures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance without notice when inspection shows the existence of an immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all necessary repairs or alterations have been made.
It shall be a violation of this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in accordance with Section 603.7) unless written authority to resume operation is given by the fire code official. Removing or breaking the means by which operation of the device is prevented shall be a violation of this code.
Commercial, industrial and residential-type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code.
Residential incinerators shall be of an approved type.
Incinerators shall be equipped with an effective means for arresting sparks.
Where the fire code official determines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet (152 m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered areas will create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric conditions, such burning shall be prohibited.
Burning shall take place only during approved hours.
The fire code official is authorized to require incinerator use to be discontinued immediately if the fire code official determines that smoke emissions are offensive to occupants of surrounding property or if the use of incinerators is determined by the fire code official to constitute a hazardous condition.
In Group I-2 occupancies, the continued use of existing flue-fed incinerators is prohibited.
Incinerators in Group I-2 occupancies shall be inspected not less than annually in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Inspection records shall be maintained on the premises and made available to the fire code official upon request
Above-ground gas meters, regulators and piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier complying with Section 312 or otherwise protected in an approved manner.

603.10 Solid Fuel-burning Heating Appliances, Chimneys and Flues

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Building permits, inspection requirements, and compliance certificates for the installation, inspection, and subsequent use of solid fuel-burning heating appliances, chimneys and flues shall be in accordance with Section 109 in Chapter 1 of the 2017 Uniform Code Supplement.
Emergency power systems and standby power systems required by this code or the International Building Code shall comply with Sections 604.1.1 through 604.1.8.
Stationary emergency and standby power generators required by this code shall be listed in accordance with UL 2200.
Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Building Code, NFPA 70, NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.
Emergency power systems shall automatically provide secondary power within 10 seconds after primary power is lost, unless specified otherwise in this code. Standby power systems shall automatically provide secondary power within 60 seconds after primary power is lost unless specified otherwise in this code.
Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be designed to provide the required power for a minimum duration of 2 hours without being refueled or recharged, unless specified otherwise in this code.
An uninterrupted source of power shall be provided for equipment where required by the manufacturer's instructions, the listing, this code or applicable referenced standards.
Emergency power systems shall be an acceptable alternative for installations that require standby power systems.
In Group I-2 occupancies, where an essential electrical system is located in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3 of the International Building Code and where new or replacement essential electrical system generators are installed, the system shall be located and installed in accordance with ASCE 24.
Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance with the original approval and Section 604.4.
Emergency and standby power systems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 through 604.2.16.
Standby power shall be provided for elevators and platform lifts as required in Sections 607.2, 1009.4, and 1009.5.
Emergency power shall be provided for emergency alarm systems as required by Section 414 of the International Building Code.
Standby power shall be provided for emergency responder radio coverage systems as required in Section 510.4.2.3. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system for a duration of not less than 24 hours.
Emergency power shall be provided for emergency voice/alarm communication systems as required in Section 907.5.2.2.5. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72.
Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs as required in Section 1013.6.3. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 90 minutes.
Essential electrical systems for Group I-2 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 407.10 of the International Building Code.
Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group I-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door. Emergency power shall be provided for the doors and locks in accordance with Section 604.

Exceptions:

1. Emergency power is not required in facilities where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required as set forth in the International Building Code.

2. Emergency power is not required where remote mechanical operating releases are provided.
Emergency and standby power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous materials as required in the following sections:

1. Sections 5004.7 and 5005.1.5 for hazardous materials.

2. Sections 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2 for highly toxic and toxic gases.

3. Section 6204.1.11 for organic peroxides.
Standby power and emergency power shall be provided for high-rise buildings as required in Section 403 of the International Building Code, and shall be in accordance with Section 604.
Standby power shall be provided for horizontal sliding doors as required in Section 1010.1.4.3. The standby power supply shall have a capacity to operate not fewer than 50 closing cycles of the door.
Standby power shall be provided for hydrogen fuel gas rooms as required by Section 5808.7.
Emergency power shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accordance with Sections 1008.3 and 1104.5.1.
Standby power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in permanent membrane structures in accordance with Section 2702 of the International Building Code. Auxiliary inflation systems shall be provided in temporary air-supported and air-inflated membrane structures in accordance with Section 3103.10.4.
Standby power shall be provided for smoke control systems as required in Section 909.11.
Emergency and standby power shall be provided in underground buildings as required in Section 405 of the International Building Code and shall be in accordance with Section 604.

604.2.17 Exhaust ventilation systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Standby power shall be provided for mechanical exhaust ventilation systems as required in Section 608.13.1.2.1. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 2 hours.

604.2.18 Gas detection systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Emergency power shall be provided for gas detection systems where required by Sections 604.2.8 and 604.2.14. Standby power shall be provided for gas detection systems where required by Section 916.5 and 608.13.1.2.4.
Cables used for survivability of required critical circuits shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements.
Emergency and standby power systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within the time specified for the type and duration required.
Inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall be in accordance with an approved schedule established upon completion and approval of the system installation.
Records of the inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall include the date of service, name of the servicing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a detailed description of any conditions requiring correction and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be maintained.
Emergency and standby power system transfer switches shall be included in the inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by Section 604.4.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with the transfer switch manufacturer's instructions.
Emergency power systems, including all appurtenant components, shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.

Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for scheduled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate records are maintained.
The test of the transfer switch shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch from the normal position to the alternate position and then return to the normal position.
Emergency lighting shall be inspected and tested in accordance with Sections 604.6.1 through 604.6.2.1.
An activation test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed monthly. The activation test shall ensure the emergency lighting activates automatically upon normal electrical disconnect and stays sufficiently illuminated for not less than 30 seconds.
Records of tests shall be maintained. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test and the person completing the test.
For battery-powered emergency lighting, a power test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed annually. The power test shall operate the emergency lighting for not less than 90 minutes and shall remain sufficiently illuminated for the duration of the test.
Records of tests shall be maintained. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test and the person completing the test.
Routine maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be overseen by a properly instructed individual.
Identified electrical hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical conditions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of the responsible code official. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used.
Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical panelboards.
A working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working space shall be not less than the width of the equipment. Storage of materials shall not be located within the designated working space.

Exceptions:

1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by NFPA 70.

2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches (559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm).
Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident.
Multiplug adapters, such as cube adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying with NFPA 70 shall be prohibited.
Relocatable power taps shall be of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with overcurrent protection, and shall be listed in accordance with UL 1363.
Relocatable power taps shall be directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle.
Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or floor coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical damage.
Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with portable appliances.
Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, shall serve only one portable appliance.
The ampacity of the extension cords shall be not less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.
Extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage.
Extension cords shall be grounded where serving grounded portable appliances.
Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes.
Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical equipment by an approved agency and installed and maintained in accordance with all instructions included as part of such listing.
Electrical motors shall be maintained free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and debris.
Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the applicable provisions of NFPA 70.

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities.
Temporary wiring attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved manner.
Where not prohibited by other sections of this code, portable, electric space heaters shall be permitted to be used in all occupancies other than Group I-2 and in accordance with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.4.

Exception: The use of portable, electric space heaters in which the heating element cannot exceed a temperature of 212°F (100°C) shall be permitted in nonsleeping staff and employee areas in Group I-2 occupancies.
Only listed and labeled portable, electric space heaters shall be used.
Portable, electric space heaters shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle.
Portable, electric space heaters shall not be plugged into extension cords.
Portable, electric space heaters shall not be operated within 3 feet (914 mm) of any combustible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be operated only in locations for which they are listed.
Solar photovoltaic power systems shall be installed in accordance with Sections 605.11.1 through 605.11.2, the International Building Code or International Residential Code, and NFPA 70.

605.11.1 Access and Pathways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Roof access, pathways, and spacing requirements shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.1.1 through 605.11.1.3.3.

Exceptions:

1. Detached, nonhabitable Group U structures including, but not limited to, parking shade structures, carports, solar trellises and similar structures.

2. Roof access, pathways and spacing requirements need not be provided where the fire chief has determined that rooftop operations will not be employed.

605.11.1 Access and pathways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Roof access, pathways, and spacing requirements for solar photovoltaic systems shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.1.1 through 605.11.1.3.3.

Exceptions:
  1. Where an alternative ventilation method has been provided.
  2. Where vertical ventilation techniques will not be employed.
  3. Detached, non-habitable Group U structures.

605.11.1.1 Roof Access Points

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Roof access points shall be located in areas that do not require the placement of ground ladders over openings such as windows or doors, and located at strong points of building construction in locations where the access point does not conflict with overhead obstructions such as tree limbs, wires or signs.

605.11.1.1 Roof access points

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Roof access points shall be located:
  1. In areas that establish access pathways which that are independent of each other and as remote from each other as practicable so as to provide escape routes from all points along the roof;
  2. In areas that do not require the placement of ground ladders over openings such as windows or doors or areas that may cause congestion or create other hazards;
  3. At strong points of building construction, such as corners, pilasters, hips, and valleys, and other areas capable of supporting the live load from emergency responders;
  4. Where the roof access point does not conflict with overhead obstructions such as tree limbs, wires or signs;
  5. Where the accompanying ground access area does not conflict with ground obstructions such as decks, fences, or landscaping; and
  6. In areas that minimize roof tripping hazards such as vents, skylights, satellite dishes, antennas, or conduit runs.

605.11.1.2 Solar Photovoltaic Systems for Group R-3 Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Solar photovoltaic systems for Group R-3 buildings shall comply with Sections 605.11.1.2.1 through 605.11.1.2.5 605.11.1.2.6.

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to structures designed and constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code.

605.11.1.2.1 Size of Solar Photovoltaic Array

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Each photovoltaic array shall be limited to 150 feet (45 720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm). Multiple arrays shall be separated by a 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear access pathway not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm) in any direction.

605.11.1.2.2 Hip Roof Layouts Ground Access Areas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with hip roof layouts shall be located in a manner that provides a 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear access pathway from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels and modules are located. The access pathway shall be at a location on the building capable of supporting the fire fighters accessing the roof.

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.

Ground access areas shall be located beneath access roofs and roof access points so as to facilitate roof access. The minimum width of the ground access area shall be the full width of the access roof or roof access point, measured at the eave. The minimum depth shall allow for the safe placement of ground ladders for gaining entry to the access roof.

605.11.1.2.3 Single- Ridge Roofs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Panels, and modules, or arrays installed on Group R-3 buildings roofs with a single ridge shall be located in a manner that provides two, 3-foot-wide (914 mm) 36 inches wide (914 mm) access pathways extending from the eave roof access point to the ridge on each roof slope where panels and modules are located. Access pathways on opposing roof slopes shall not be located along the same plane as the truss, rafter, or other such framing system that supports the pathway.

Exceptions: This requirement shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.
  1. Roofs with slopes of 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.6 percent) and less.
  2. Structures where an access roof fronts a street, driveway, or other area readily accessible to emergency responders.
  3. One access pathway shall be required when the ridge or ventable area of a roof slope containing panels, modules or arrays is located not more than 24 inches (610 mm) vertically from an adjoining roof which contains an access roof.

605.11.1.2.4 Roofs With Hips and Valleys Hip Roofs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with roof hips and valleys shall not be located closer than 18 inches (457 mm) to a hip or a valley where panels/modules are to be placed on both sides of a hip or valley. Where panels are to be located on only one side of a hip or valley that is of equal length, the panels shall be permitted to be placed directly adjacent to the hip or valley.

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.

Panels, modules, and arrays installed on structures with hip roofs shall be located in a manner that provides a clear access pathway not less than 36 inches wide (914 mm), extending from the roof access point to the ridge, on each roof slope where panels, modules, or arrays are located.

Exceptions:
  1. Roofs with slopes of 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.6 percent) and less.
  2. Structures where an access roof fronts a street, driveway, or other area readily accessible to emergency responders.

605.11.1.2.5 Allowance for Smoke Ventilation Operations Roofs with Valleys

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings shall be located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the ridge in order to allow for fire department smoke ventilation operations.

Exception: Panels and modules shall be permitted to be located up to the roof ridge where an alternative ventilation method approved by the fire chief has been provided or where the fire chief has determined vertical ventilation techniques will not be employed.

Panels and modules shall not be located less than 18 inches (457 mm) from a valley.

Exception: Roofs with slopes of 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.6 percent) and less.

605.11.1.2.6 Allowance for Smoke Ventilation Operations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Panels and modules shall not be located less than 18 inches (457 mm) from a ridge or peak.

Exceptions:
  1. Where an alternative ventilation method has been provided.
  2. Where vertical ventilation methods will not be employed between the upper most portion of the solar photovoltaic system and the roof ridge or peak.
  3. Detached, non-habitable Group U structures.
Access to systems for buildings, other than those containing Group R-3 occupancies, shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.1.3.1 through 605.11.1.3.3.

Exception: Where it is determined by the fire code official that the roof configuration is similar to that of a Group R-3 occupancy, the residential access and ventilation requirements in Sections 605.11.1.2.1 through 605.11.1.2.5 shall be permitted to be used.
There shall be a minimum 6-foot-wide (1829 mm) clear perimeter around the edges of the roof.

Exception: Where either axis of the building is 250 feet (76 200 mm) or less, the clear perimeter around the edges of the roof shall be permitted to be reduced to a minimum 4 foot wide (1290 mm).
The solar installation shall be designed to provide designated pathways. The pathways shall meet the following requirements:

1. The pathway shall be over areas capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof.

2. The centerline axis pathways shall be provided in both axes of the roof. Centerline axis pathways shall run where the roof structure is capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof.

3. Pathways shall be a straight line not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear to roof standpipes or ventilation hatches.

4. Pathways shall provide not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear around roof access hatch with not less than one singular pathway not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear to a parapet or roof edge.
The solar installation shall be designed to meet the following requirements:

1. Arrays shall be not greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm) in distance in either axis in order to create opportunities for fire department smoke ventilation operations.

2. Smoke ventilation options between array sections shall be one of the following:

2.1. A pathway 8 feet (2438 mm) or greater in width.

2.2. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering roof skylights or gravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents on not less than one side.

2.3. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering all sides of nongravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents.

2.4. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering 4-foot by 8-foot (1290 mm by 2438 mm) "venting cutouts" every 20 feet (6096 mm) on alternating sides of the pathway.
Ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays shall comply with Section 605.11 and this section. Setback requirements shall not apply to ground-mounted, free-standing photovoltaic arrays. A clear, brush-free area of 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be required for ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays.
Accessible portions of abandoned cables in air-handling plenums shall be removed. Cables that are unused and have not been tagged for future use shall be considered abandoned.
Refrigeration systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
The use and purity of new, recovered and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
A change in the type of refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be accessible to the fire department at all times as required by the fire code official.
Refrigeration equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section 606.6.1. Records of tests shall be maintained. Tests of emergency devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems.
The following emergency devices or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and as required by the fire code official.

1. Treatment and flaring systems.

2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigeration control boxes.

3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems.

4. Detection and alarm systems.
Refrigeration units or systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code for the classification of refrigerants listed therein.
Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the International Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. The detector shall transmit a signal to an approved location.
Where flammable refrigerants are used and compliance with Section 1106 of the International Mechanical Code is required, remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in the machinery room as required by Sections 606.9.1 and 606.9.2 shall be provided at an approved location immediately outside the machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide off-only control of refrigerant compressors, refrigerant pumps and normally closed automatic refrigerant valves located in the machinery room. Additionally, this equipment shall be automatically shut off when the refrigerant vapor concentration in the machinery room exceeds the vapor detector's upper detection limit or 25 percent of the LEL, whichever is lower.
A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide on-only control of the machinery room ventilation fans.
Permanently installed refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2.
Each high- and intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a single automatic valve providing a crossover connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic crossover valves shall comply with Sections 606.10.1.1 through 606.10.1.3.
Automatic crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone rises to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices.
Where required by the fire code official, automatic crossover valves shall be capable of manual operation.
Refrigeration system zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by interconnection of the two zones.
An automatic emergency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2.
Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be permitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system provides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis for determining operation of a crossover valve.
The lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in system pressure to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices. Activation of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop.
Flammable and combustible materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 50, 53, 55 and 57.

Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, tools and incidental materials necessary for the safe and proper operation and maintenance of the system.
Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems discharging to the atmosphere from refrigeration systems containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants or ammonia shall comply with Sections 606.12.3 through 606.12.5.
Refrigeration systems and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall be in accordance with ASHRAE 15.
Refrigeration systems using ammonia refrigerant and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall comply with IIAR-2 for system design and installation and IIAR-7 for operating procedures.
Discharge piping and devices connected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event the fusible plug or rupture member functions.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7. Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density less than the density of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7.
Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere in accordance with one of the following methods:

1. Directly to atmosphere where the fire code official determines, on review of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environmental hazard would not result from atmospheric discharge of ammonia.

2. Through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6.

3. Through a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7.

4. Through an approved ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 606.12.8.

5. By other approved means.

Exception: Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.
Treatment systems shall be designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accordance with Chapter 60.
Flaring systems for incineration of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be designed to prevent blowback and shall not expose structures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP-gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for one and one-half the required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system. Standby electrical power, where required to complete the incineration process, shall be in accordance with Section 604.
Ammonia diffusion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of water for each pound of ammonia (8.3 L of water for each 1 kg of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of the tank, but not lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of water and ammonia without overflowing.
Exhaust from mechanical ventilation systems serving refrigeration machinery rooms containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants, other than ammonia, capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce the discharge concentrations to those values or lower.
The fire code official shall be notified immediately when a discharge becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in accordance with Section 5003.3.1.
A record of refrigerant quantities brought into and removed from the premises shall be maintained.
Where refrigerants of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the International Mechanical Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70.

Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the International Mechanical Code.
Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more shall comply with the requirements in Chapter 11. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation in accordance with ASME A17.1/CSA B44.
In buildings and structures where standby power is required or furnished to operate an elevator, standby power shall be provided in accordance with Section 604. Operation of the system shall be in accordance with Sections 607.2.1 through 607.2.4.
Standby power shall be manually transferable to all elevators in each bank.
Where only one elevator is installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power.
Where two or more elevators are controlled by a common operating system, all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the designated landing and disconnect from the standby power source. After all elevators have been returned to the designated level, not less than one elevator shall remain operable from the standby power source.
Where standby power is connected to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air conditioning shall be connected to the standby power source.
An approved pictorial sign of a standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVATOR. USE EXIT STAIRS.

Exceptions:

1. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress complying with Section 1009.4.

2. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.
Where fire service access elevators are required by Section 3007 of the International Building Code, fire service access elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture.
Where occupant evacuation elevators are provided in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code, occupant evacuation elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture.
Methods to prevent water from infiltrating into a hoistway enclosure required by Section 3007.3 and Section 3008.3 of the International Building Code shall be maintained.
Keys for the elevator car doors and fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location for immediate use by the fire department.
Buildings with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall, Phase II emergency in-car operation, or a fire service access elevator shall be equipped to operate with a standardized fire service elevator key approved by the fire code official.

Exception: The owner shall be permitted to place the building's nonstandardized fire service elevator keys in a key box installed in accordance with Section 506.1.2.
Standardized fire service elevator keys shall comply with all of the following:

1. All fire service elevator keys within the jurisdiction shall be uniform and specific for the jurisdiction. Keys shall be cut to a uniform key code.

2. Fire service elevator keys shall be of a patent-protected design to prevent unauthorized duplication.

3. Fire service elevator keys shall be factory restricted by the manufacturer to prevent the unauthorized distribution of key blanks. Uncut key blanks shall not be permitted to leave the factory.

4. Fire service elevator keys subject to these rules shall be engraved with the words "DO NOT DUPLICATE."
Access to standardized fire service elevator keys shall be restricted to the following:

1. Elevator owners or their authorized agents.

2. Elevator contractors.

3. Elevator inspectors of the jurisdiction.

4. Fire code officials of the jurisdiction.

5. The fire department and other emergency response agencies designated by the fire code official.
A person shall not duplicate a standardized fire service elevator key or issue, give, or sell a duplicated key unless in accordance with this code.
The building owner shall provide up to three standardized fire service elevator keys where required by the fire code official, upon installation of a standardized fire service key switch or switches in the building.

Section 608 Stationary Storage Battery Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.

608.1 Scope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L) for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA), or more than 1,000 pounds (454 kg) for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer, used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterruptible power supplies shall comply with this section and Table 608.1.

TABLE 608.1 BATTERY REQUIREMENTS

REQUIREMENT NONRECOMBINANT BATTERIES RECOMBINANT BATTERIES OTHER BATTERIES
Vented (Flooded) Lead Acid Batteries Vented (Flooded) Nickel-Cadmium
(Ni-Cd) Batteries
Valve Regulated Lead-
Acid (VRLA) Cells
Lithium-Ion Cells Lithium Metal Cells
Safety caps Venting caps
(608.2.1)
Venting caps
(608.2.1)
Self-resealing flame-
arresting caps
(608.2.2)
No caps No caps
Thermal runaway management Not required Not required Required
(608.3)
Not required Required
(608.3)
Spill control Required
(608.5)
Required
(608.5)
Not required Not required Not required
Neutralization Required
(608.5.1)
Required
(608.5.1)
Required
(608.5.2)
Not required Not required
Ventilation Required
(608.6.1; 608.6.2)
Required
(608.6.1; 608.6.2)
Required
(608.6.1; 608.6.2)
Not required Not required
Signage Required
(608.7)
Required
(608.7)
Required
(608.7)
Required
(608.7)
Required
(608.7)
Seismic protection Required
(608.8)
Required
(608.8)
Required
(608.8)
Required
(608.8)
Required
(608.8)
Smoke detection Required
(608.9)
Required
(608.9)
Required
(608.9)
Required
(608.9)
Required
(608.9)

608.2 Safety Caps

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Safety caps for stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.2.1 and 608.2.2.

608.2.1 Nonrecombinant Batteries

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Vented lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batteries shall be provided with safety venting caps.

608.2.2 Recombinant Batteries

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
VRLA batteries shall be equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents.

608.3 Thermal Runaway

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
VRLA and lithium metal polymer battery systems shall be provided with a listed device or other approved method to preclude, detect and control thermal runaway.

608.4 Room Design and Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Enclosure of stationary battery systems shall comply with the International Building Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room with the equipment they support.

608.4.1 Separate Rooms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where stationary batteries are installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance.

608.4.2 Occupied Work Centers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where a system of VRLA, lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing batteries is situated in an occupied work center, it shall be allowed to be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to prevent access by unauthorized personnel.

608.4.3 Cabinets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where stationary batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment that they support.

608.5 Spill Control and Neutralization

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An approved method and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a "spill" is defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte.

Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion, lithium metal polymer or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill control.

608.5.1 Nonrecombinant Battery Neutralization

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For battery systems containing lead acid, nickel cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the method and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of the total capacity from the largest cell or block to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

608.5.2 Recombinant Battery Neutralization

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For VRLA or other types of batteries with immobilized electrolyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of 3.0 percent of the capacity of the largest cell or block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require neutralization.

608.6 Ventilation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Ventilation of stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2.

608.6.1 Room Ventilation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the following:

1. For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd and VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1.0 percent of the total volume of the room; or

2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (1 ft3/min/ft2) [0.0051 m3/s • m2] of floor area of the room.

Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require additional ventilation beyond that which would normally be required for human occupancy of the space in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

608.6.2 Cabinet Ventilation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where VRLA batteries are installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or naturally vented by one of the following methods:

1. The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of simultaneous "boost" charging of all the batteries in the cabinet.

2. Where calculations are not available to substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [1 ft3/min/ft2 or 0.0051 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in which the cabinet is installed shall be ventilated as required in Section 608.6.1.

608.6.3 Supervision

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Mechanical ventilation systems where required by Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2 shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

608.7 Signage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Signs shall comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 608.7.2.

608.7.1 Equipment Room and Building Signage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Doors into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing stationary battery systems shall be provided with approved signs. The signs shall state that:

1. The room contains energized battery systems.

2. The room contains energized electrical circuits.

3. The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are corrosive liquids.

608.7.2 Cabinet Signage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Cabinets shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the contained battery system. There shall be signs within the cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and fire hazards.

608.8 Seismic Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The battery systems shall be seismically braced in accordance with the International Building Code.

608.9 Smoke Detection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2 in rooms containing stationary battery systems.

Section 608 Energy Storage Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.

608.1 Scope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems having capacities exceeding the values shown in Table 608.1 shall comply with Section 608.2 through 608.17.7.7. Energy storage systems in Group R3 and R-4 occupancies shall comply with Section 608.18.
TABLE 608.1
ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM THRESHOLD QUANTITIES
TECHNOLOGY ENERGY CAPACITY a
Lead-acid batteries, all types 70 kWh (252 Megajoules) c
Nickel-cadmium batteries (Ni-Cd) 70 kWh (252 Megajoules)
Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) 70 kWh (252 Megajoules)
Lithium-ion batteries 20 kWh (72 Megajoules)
Flow batteries b 20 kWh (72 Megajoules)
Other battery technologies 10 kWh (36 Megajoules)
Capacitor energy storage systems 3 kWh (10.8 Mega joules)
Other electrochemical energy storage
systems
technologies
3 kWh (10.8 Mega joules)
  1. Energy capacity is the total energy capable of being stored (nameplate rating), not the usable energy rating. For units rated in Amp-Hours, kWh shall equal rated voltage times amp-hour rating divided by 1000.
  2. Shall include vanadium, zinc-bromine, polysulfide-bromide, and other flowing electrolyte type technologies.
  3. An installation that exceeds 50 gallons of lead-acid battery electrolyte shall be considered to have exceeded the threshold quantities of this Table.

608.2 Applicability

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The provisions of this Section 608 shall apply to the installation, operation, maintenance, repair, retrofitting, testing, commissioning and decommissioning of both stationary energy storage systems and mobile energy storage systems.

Exceptions:
  1. Equipment associated with the generation, control, transformation, transmission, or distribution of energy installations that is under the exclusive control of an electric utility.
  2. Outdoor stationary vehicle charging stations with a capacity of 250 kWh or less. Electrical connections between the charging station and buildings shall meet the requirements of NFPA 70.

608.2.1 Electrical wiring and equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection with energy storage systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with this Chapter and NFPA 70.

608.2.2 Mixed system installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where approved by the fire code official, the aggregate nameplate kWh energy capacity of all energy storage systems in a fire area shall not exceed the maximum quantity specified for any of the energy storage systems in this chapter. Where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, a hazard mitigation analysis shall be provided and approved to evaluate any potential adverse interaction between the various energy storage systems and technologies.

608.3 Permits

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Building permits and operating permits shall be provided in accordance with Section 108 of the 2017 Uniform Code Supplement.

608.4 Construction documents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The following information shall be provided with the permit application:
  1. Location and layout diagram of the room or area in which the energy storage system is to be installed.
  2. Details on the fire-resistance rating of assemblies enclosing the energy storage system.
  3. The quantities and types of energy storage system to be installed.
  4. Manufacturer's specifications, ratings and listings of each energy storage system.
  5. Description of energy storage management systems and their operation.
  6. Location and content of required signage.
  7. Details on fire suppression, smoke or fire detection, thermal management, ventilation, exhaust and deflagration venting systems, if provided.
  8. Support arrangement associated with the installation, including any required seismic restraint.
  9. A commissioning plan complying with 608.9.1.
  10. A decommissioning plan complying with 608.9.3.
  11. Peer reviewer identification and qualifications, where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

608.5 Hazard mitigation analysis

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) or other approved hazard mitigation analysis shall be provided under any of the following conditions:
  1. Where energy storage system technologies not specifically identified in Table 608.1 are provided.
  2. More than one energy storage system technology is provided in a room or enclosed area.
  3. Where allowed as a basis for increasing maximum allowable quantities. See Section 608.12.2.

608.5.1 Fault condition

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The hazard mitigation analysis shall evaluate the consequences of the following failure modes. Only single failure modes shall be considered.
  1. A thermal runaway condition in a single energy storage system rack, module or unit.
  2. Failure of any energy storage management system.
  3. Failure of any required ventilation or exhaust system.
  4. Voltage surges on the primary electric supply.
  5. Short circuits on the load side of the energy storage system.
  6. Failure of the smoke detection, fire detection, fire suppression, or gas detection system.
  7. Required spill neutralization not being provided or failure of a required secondary containment system.

608.5.2 Analysis approval

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The fire code official may approve the hazardous mitigation analysis provided the consequences of the hazard mitigation analysis demonstrate:
  1. Fires will be contained within unoccupied energy storage system rooms or areas for the minimum duration of the fire-resistance rated assemblies identified in Section 608.14.4.
  2. Fires in occupied work centers will be detected in time to allow occupants within the room or area to safely evacuate.
  3. Toxic and highly toxic gases released during fires will not reach concentrations in excess of OSHA-regulated IDLH levels in the building or in adjacent means of egress routes during the time deemed necessary to evacuate occupants from any affected area.
  4. Flammable gases released from energy storage systems during charging, discharging and normal operation will not exceed 25 percent of their lower flammability limit (LFL).
  5. Flammable gases released from energy storage systems during fire, overcharging and other abnormal conditions will be controlled through the use of ventilation of the gases preventing accumulation or by deflagration venting.

608.5.3 Additional protection measures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Construction, equipment and systems that are required for the energy storage system to comply with the hazardous mitigation analysis, including but not limited to those specifically described in Section 608 shall be installed, maintained and tested in accordance with nationally recognized standards and specified design parameters.

608.6 Large scale fire test

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required elsewhere in Section 608, large scale fire testing shall be conducted on a representative energy storage system in accordance with UL 9540A or approved equivalent. The testing shall be conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory and show that a fire involving one energy storage system will not propagate to an adjacent energy storage system. In addition, the testing shall demonstrate that, where the energy storage system is installed within a room, enclosed area or walk-in energy storage system unit, a fire will be contained within the room, enclosed area or walk-in energy storage system unit for a duration equal to the fire-resistance rating of the room assemblies as specified in Section 608.14.4. The test report shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval.

608.7 Fire remediation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where a fire or other event has damaged the energy storage system, the system owner, agent, or lessee shall, at their expense, comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 608.7.2, or remove damaged equipment from the premises to a safe location.

608.7.1 Fire mitigation personnel

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where, required by the fire code official, the system owner, agent or lessee shall, at their expense, immediately dispatch one or more fire mitigation personnel to the premises. The personnel shall remain on duty continuously after the fire department leaves the premises and until the damaged energy storage system equipment is removed from the premises, or earlier if the fire code official indicates the public safety hazard has been abated.

608.7.2 Duties

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
On-duty fire mitigation personnel shall have the following responsibilities:
  1. Keep diligent watch for fires, obstructions to means of egress, and other hazards.
  2. Immediately contact the fire department if their assistance is needed to mitigate any hazards or extinguish fires.
  3. Take prompt measures for remediation of hazards in accordance with the decommissioning plan in Section 608.9.3.
  4. Take prompt measures to assist in evacuation from the structures.

608.8 Peer review

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the owner or the owner’s authorized agent shall be responsible for retaining and furnishing the services of a registered design professional or special expert, who will perform as a peer reviewer, subject to the approval of the fire code official.

608.8.1 Costs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The costs of special services, where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, shall be borne by the owner or the owner’s authorized agent.

608.8.2 Special expert

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where the scope of work is limited or focused in an area that does not require the services of a registered design professional or the special knowledge and skills associated with the practice of architecture or engineering, an approved special expert may be employed by the owner or the owner’s authorized agent as the person in responsible charge of the limited or focused activity.

608.8.2.1 Scope of work

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The scope of work of a special expert shall be limited to the area of expertise as demonstrated in the documentation submitted to the fire code official for review and approval.

608.8.2.2 Special expert qualifications

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Special experts are those individuals who possess the following qualifications:
  1. Has credentials of education and experience in an area of practice that is needed to evaluate risks and safe operations associated with the design, operation and special hazards of energy storage systems.
  2. Licensing or registration, when required by any other applicable statute, regulation, or local law or ordinance.

608.9 Commissioning, decommissioning, operation and maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage system commissioning, energy storage system decommissioning, operation, and maintenance shall be conducted in accordance with this section.

608.9.1 Commissioning

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage system commissioning of newly installed energy storage systems, and existing energy storage systems that have been retrofitted, replaced or previously decommissioned and are returning to service, shall be conducted prior to the energy storage system being placed in service, in accordance with a commissioning plan that has been approved prior to initiating commissioning. The commissioning plan shall include the following:
  1. A narrative description of the activities that will be accomplished during each phase of commissioning including the personnel intended to accomplish each of the activities.
  2. A listing of the specific energy storage system and associated components, controls and safety related devices to be tested, a description of the tests to be performed and the functions to be tested.
  3. Conditions under which all testing will be performed, which are representative of the conditions during normal operation of the system.
  4. Documentation of the owner's project requirements and the basis of design necessary to understand the installation and operation of the energy storage system.
  5. Verification that required equipment and systems are installed in accordance with the approved plans and specifications.
  6. Integrated testing for all fire and safety systems.
  7. Testing for any required thermal management, ventilation or exhaust systems associated with the energy storage system installation.
  8. Preparation and delivery of operation and maintenance documentation.
  9. Training of facility operating and maintenance staff.
  10. Identification and documentation of the requirements for maintaining system performance to meet the original design intent during the operation phase.
  11. Identification and documentation of personnel who are qualified to service, maintain and decommission the energy storage system, and respond to incidents involving the energy storage system, including documentation that such service has been contracted for.
  12. A decommissioning plan in accordance with Section 608.9.3.
Exception: Energy storage system commissioning shall not be required for lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery systems at facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities that comply with NFPA 76 and operate at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC. However, a decommissioning plan shall be provided and maintained where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

608.9.1.1 Initial acceptance testing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
During the commissioning process an energy storage system shall be evaluated for proper operation in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the commissioning plan prior to final approval.

608.9.1.2 Commissioning report

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A report describing the results of the energy storage system commissioning and including the results of the initial acceptance testing required in Section 608.9.1.1 shall be provided to the fire code official prior to final inspection and approval and maintained at an approved on-site location.

608.9.2 Operation and Maintenance Manual

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An Operation and Maintenance Manual (O&M) shall be provided to both the energy storage system owner or their authorized agent and to the energy storage system operator before the energy storage system is put into operation. The energy storage system shall be operated and maintained in accordance with the manual. A copy of the manual shall be retained at an approved onsite location and be available to the fire code official. The O&M shall include the following:
  1. Manufacturer's O&M for the entire energy storage system or for each component of the system requiring maintenance, that clearly identifies the required routine maintenance actions.
  2. Name, address and phone number of a service agency that has been contracted to service the energy storage system and its associated safety systems.
  3. Maintenance and calibration information, including wiring diagrams, control drawings, schematics, system programming instructions and control sequence descriptions, for all energy storage systems controls.
  4. Desired or field-determined control set points that are permanently recorded on control drawings at control devices or, for digital control systems, in system programming instructions.
  5. A schedule for inspecting and recalibrating all energy storage system controls.
  6. A service record log form that lists the schedule for all required servicing and maintenance actions and space for logging such actions that are completed over time and retained on site.
  7. Inspection and testing records shall be maintained in the O&M.

608.9.2.1 Systems monitoring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Systems that monitor and protect the energy storage system installation shall also be inspected and tested in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Section 608.9.2.

608.9.3 Decommissioning

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be notified prior to energy storage system decommissioning. Decommissioning or removal of the energy storage system from service, and from the facility in which it is located, shall be performed in accordance with the decommissioning plan. The plan shall include details on providing a safe and orderly shutdown of the energy storage system that includes the following:
  1. A narrative description of the activities to be accomplished for removing the energy storage system from service, and from the facility in which it is located.
  2. A listing of any contingencies for removing an intact operational energy storage system from service, and for removing an energy storage system from service that has been damaged by a fire or other event.

608.10 Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems and equipment shall comply with Sections 608.10.1 through 608.10.9.

608.10.1 Energy storage system listings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems shall be listed in accordance with UL 9540 or approved equivalent.

Exception: Lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery systems installed in facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities and operating at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC in accordance with NFPA 76 are not required to be listed.

608.10.2 Equipment listing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Chargers, inverters, energy storage management systems shall be covered as part of the UL 9540 listing or shall be listed separately.

608.10.3 Utility interactive systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Only inverters listed and labeled for utility interactive system use and identified as interactive shall be allowed to operate in parallel with the electric utility power system to supply power to common loads. Inverters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1741.

608.10.4 Energy storage management system

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by the energy storage system listing an approved energy storage management system shall be provided that monitors and balances cell voltages, currents and temperatures within the manufacturer's specifications. The system shall disconnect electrical connections to the energy storage system or otherwise place it in a safe condition if potentially hazardous temperatures or other conditions such as short circuits, over voltage or under voltage are detected.

608.10.5 Enclosures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Enclosures of energy storage systems shall be of noncombustible construction.

608.10.6 Repairs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Repairs of energy storage systems shall only be done by qualified personnel. Repairs with other than identical parts shall be considered a retrofit and comply with Section 608.10.7. Repairs shall be documented in the service records log.

608.10.7 Retrofits

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Retrofitting of an existing energy storage system shall comply with the following:
  1. A building permit shall be obtained in accordance with Section 108 of the 2017 Uniform Code Supplement.
  2. New batteries, battery modules, capacitors and similar energy storage system components shall be listed.
  3. Energy storage management systems and other monitoring systems shall be connected and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  4. The overall installation shall continue to comply with UL 9540 listing requirements, where applicable.
  5. Systems that have been retrofitted shall be commissioned in accordance with Section 608.9.1.
  6. Retrofits shall be documented in the service records log.
Exception: Retrofitting of lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries with other lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries at facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities that comply with NFPA 76 and operate at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC.

608.10.8 Replacements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Replacements of energy storage systems shall be considered new energy storage system installations and shall comply with the provisions of Section 608 as applicable to new energy storage systems. The energy storage system being replaced shall be decommissioned in accordance with Section 608.9.3.

608.10.9 Reused and repurposed equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Equipment and materials shall only be reused or reinstalled as approved by the fire code official. Storage batteries previously used in other applications, such as electric vehicle propulsion, shall not be reused in applications regulated by this Chapter, unless (1) approved by the fire code official and (2) the equipment is refurbished by a battery refurbishing company approved in accordance with UL 1974.

608.11 General installations requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems shall comply with the requirements of Sections 608.11.1 through 608.11.12.

608.11.1 Electrical disconnects

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where the energy storage system disconnecting means is not within sight of the main electrical service disconnecting means, placards or directories shall be installed at the location of the main electrical service disconnecting means indicating the location of stationary storage battery system disconnecting means, in accordance with NFPA 70.

Exception: Electrical disconnects for lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery systems at facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities and operating at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC shall be permitted to have electrical disconnects signage in accordance with NFPA 76.

608.11.2 Working clearances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Access and working space shall be provided and maintained about all electrical equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment, in accordance with NFPA 70 and the manufacturer's instructions.

608.11.3 Fire-resistance rated construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Rooms and other indoor areas containing energy storage systems shall be separated from other areas of the building in accordance with Section 608.14.4 and Chapter 7 of this code. Energy storage systems shall be permitted to be in the same room as the equipment they support.

608.11.4 Seismic and structural design

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Stationary energy storage systems shall comply with the seismic design requirements in Chapter 16 of the International Building Code and shall not exceed the floor loading limitation of the building

608.11.5 Vehicle impact protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where energy storage systems are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, including fork lifts, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312 of this code.

608.11.6 Combustible storage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Combustible materials shall not be stored in energy storage system rooms, areas, or walk-in energy storage system units. Combustible materials in occupied work centers covered by Section 608.11.10 shall be stored at least 3 feet (914 mm) from energy storage system cabinets.

608.11.7 Toxic and highly toxic gases

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems installed indoors and that have the potential to release toxic and highly toxic gas during charging, discharging and normal use conditions shall be provided with a hazardous exhaust system in accordance with Section 502.8 of the International Mechanical Code.

608.11.8 Signage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Approved signs shall be provided on or adjacent to all entry doors to energy storage system rooms or areas, to walk-in energy storage system units located outdoors, on rooftops, or in open parking garages, and on enclosures of energy storage system cabinets. Signs shall be designed to meet both the requirements of this section and of NFPA 70. The signage shall include the following or equivalent.
  1. "Energy Storage System", "Battery Storage System", "Capacitor Energy Storage System", or the equivalent.
  2. The identification of the electrochemical energy storage system technology present and its rated capacity.
  3. "Energized electrical circuits"
  4. If water reactive electrochemical energy storage systems are present the signage shall include "APPLY NO WATER"
  5. Current contact information, including phone number, for personnel with the technical knowledge of the system who is authorized to service the equipment and for fire mitigation personnel required by Section 608.7.1.

608.11.9 Security of installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Rooms, areas and walk-in energy storage system units in which electrochemical energy storage systems are located shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in an approved manner. Security barriers, fences, landscaping, and other enclosures shall not inhibit the required air flow to or exhaust from the electrochemical energy storage system and its components.

608.11.10 Occupied work centers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Electrochemical energy storage systems located in rooms or areas occupied by personnel not directly involved with maintenance, service and testing of the systems shall comply with the following:
  1. Electrochemical energy storage systems located in occupied work centers shall be housed in locked noncombustible cabinets or other enclosures to prevent access by unauthorized personnel.
  2. Where electrochemical energy storage systems are contained in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinets shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment that they support.
  3. Cabinets shall include signage complying with Section 608.11.8.

608.11.11 Open rack installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where electrochemical energy storage systems are installed in a separate equipment room and only authorized personnel have access to the room, they shall be permitted to be installed on an open rack.

608.11.12 Walk-in units

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Walk-in energy storage system units shall only be entered for inspection, maintenance and repair of energy storage system units and ancillary equipment and shall not be occupied for other purposes.

608.12 Electrochemical Energy Storage System Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by Section 608.14 through 608.17, the protection of electrochemical energy storage systems shall be in accordance with Sections 608.12.1 through 608.12.8

608.12.1 Size and separation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Electrochemical energy storage systems shall be segregated into groups not exceeding 50 kWh (180 Mega joules). Each group shall be separated a minimum 3 feet (914 mm) from other groups and from walls in the storage room or area. The storage arrangements shall comply with Chapter 10 of this code.

Exceptions:
  1. Lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery systems in facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities and operating at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC in accordance with NFPA 76.
  2. Larger capacities or smaller separation distances shall be permitted based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6.

608.12.2 Maximum allowable quantities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Fire areas within rooms, areas and walk-in energy storage system units containing electrochemical energy storage systems shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 608.12.

Exceptions:
  1. Where approved by the fire code official, rooms, areas and walk-in energy storage system units containing electrochemical energy storage systems that exceed the amounts in Table 608.12 shall be permitted based on a hazard mitigation analysis in accordance with Section 608.5 and large-scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6.
  2. Lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery systems installed in facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities and operating at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC in accordance with NFPA 76.
  3. Dedicated use buildings in compliance with Section 608.14.1.
TABLE 608.12
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITIES OF ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
TECHNOLOGY MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE
QUANTITIES a
STORAGE BATTERIES
Lead-acid, all types Unlimited
Nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) Unlimited
Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) Unlimited
Lithium-ion 600 kWh
Flow batteries b 600 kWh
Other battery technologies 200 kWh
CAPACITORS
All types 20 kWh
OTHER ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM
All types 20 kWh
  1. For electrochemical energy storage system units rated in Amp-Hours, kWh shall equal rated voltage times the Amp-hour rating divided by 1000
  2. Shall include vanadium, zinc-bromine, polysulfide-bromide, and other flowing electrolyte type technologies

608.12.2.1 Mixed electrochemical energy systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where rooms, areas and walk-in energy storage system units contain different types of electrochemical energy technologies, the total aggregate quantities of the systems shall be determined based on the sum of percentages of each technology type quantity divided by the maximum allowable quantity of each technology type. The sum of the percentages shall not exceed 100 percent of the maximum allowable quantity

608.12.3 Elevation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Electrochemical energy storage systems shall not be located in the following areas:
  1. Where the floor is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or
  2. Where the floor is located below the lowest level of exit discharge.
Exceptions:
  1. Lead-acid and Nickel-cadmium battery systems less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC installed in facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities in accordance with NFPA 76.
  2. Where approved by the fire code official, installations shall be permitted in underground vaults complying with NFPA 70, Article 450, Part III.
  3. Where approved by the fire code official, installations shall be permitted on higher and lower floors, based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6 or on hazard mitigation analysis complying with Section 608.5.

608.12.4 Fire detection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An approved automatic smoke detection system or radiant energy– sensing fire detection system complying with Section 907 shall be installed in rooms, indoor areas, and walk-in energy storage system units containing electrochemical energy storage systems. An approved radiant energy–sensing fire detection system shall be installed to protect open parking garage and rooftop installations. Alarm signals from detection systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

608.12.4.1 System status

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, visible annunciation shall be provided on cabinet exteriors or in other approved locations to indicate that potentially hazardous conditions associated with the energy storage system exist.

608.12.5 Fire suppression systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Rooms and areas within buildings and walk-in energy storage system units containing electrochemical energy storage systems shall be protected by an automatic fire suppression system designed and installed in accordance with one of the following:
  1. An automatic sprinkler system designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 with a minimum density of 0.3 gpm/ft2 based on the fire area or on a 2,500 ft2 design area, whichever is smaller.
  2. Where approved, based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6, an automatic sprinkler system designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 with a sprinkler hazard classification.
  3. Where approved, based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6, the following alternate automatic fire extinguishing systems designed and installed in accordance with Section 904:
    1. NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
    2. NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection
    3. NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
    4. NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
    5. NFPA 2010, Standard for Fixed Aerosol Fire Extinguishing Systems
Exception: Fire suppression systems for lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery systems at facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities that operate at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC shall be provided where required by NFPA 76.

608.12.5.1 Water reactive systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where an electrochemical energy storage system that utilizes water reactive materials is approved based on large-scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6, it shall be protected by an approved alternative automatic fire extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.

608.12.6 Maximum enclosure size

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Outdoor walk-in energy storage system units housing energy storage systems shall not exceed 4,028 cubic feet, not including bolt-on HVAC and related equipment, as approved. Outdoor walk-in energy storage system units exceeding these limitations shall be considered indoor installations and comply with the requirements in Section 608.14.

608.12.7 Vegetation control

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Areas within 10 feet (3 m) on each side of outdoor energy storage system shall be cleared of combustible vegetation and other combustible growth. Single specimens of trees, shrubbery, or cultivated ground cover such as green grass, ivy, succulents, or similar plants used as ground covers shall be permitted, provided that they do not form a means of readily transmitting fire.

Exception: A reduced clearance to combustible vegetation shall be permitted based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6.

608.12.8 Means of egress separation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems located outdoors and in open parking garages shall be separated from any means of egress to ensure safe egress under fire conditions by no less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

Exception: The fire code official may approve a reduced separation distance if large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6 is provided that shows that a fire involving the energy storage system will not adversely impact occupant egress.

608.13 Electrochemical energy storage system technology specific protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Electrochemical energy storage system installations shall comply with the requirements of this section in accordance with the applicable requirements of Table 608.13.
TABLE 608.13
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM
TECHNOLOGY SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS
COMPLIANCE
REQUIREDb
BATTERY TECHNOLOGY OTHER ENERGY
STORAGE SYSTEM
AND BATTERY
TECHNOLOGIESb
CAPACITOR
ENERGY
STORAGE
SYSTEMb
Lead-acid Ni-Cad
and
Ni-MH
Lithium-ion Flow
608.13.1 Exhaust
ventilation
Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
608.13.2 Spill control
and neutralization
Yesc Yesc No Yes Yes Yes
608.13.3 Explosion
control
Yesa Yesa Yes No Yes Yes
608.13.4 Safety
caps
Yes Yes No No Yes Yes
608.13.5 Thermal
runaway
Yesd Yes Yese No Yese Yes
  1. Not required for lead-acid and nickel cadmium batteries at facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities that comply with NFPA 76 and operate at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC.
  2. Protection shall be provided unless documentation acceptable to the fire code official is provided that provides justification why the protection is not necessary based on the technology used.
  3. Applicable to vented (i.e. flooded) type nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries.
  4. Not required for vented (i.e. flooded) type lead-acid batteries.
  5. The thermal runaway protection is permitted to be part of an energy storage management system that has been evaluated with the battery as part of the evaluation to UL 1973.

608.13.1 Exhaust ventilation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by Table 608.13 or elsewhere in this code, exhaust ventilation shall be provided for rooms, areas, and walk-in energy storage system units containing electrochemical energy storage systems in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and Section 608.13.1.1 or 608.13.1.2

608.13.1.1 Ventilation based upon LFL

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The exhaust ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of flammable gas to 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) of the total volume of the room, area, or walk-in energy storage system unit during the worst-case event of simultaneous charging of batteries at the maximum charge rate, in accordance with nationally recognized standards.

608.13.1.2 Ventilation based upon exhaust rate

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 ft3/min/ft2(5.1 L/sec/m2) of floor area of the room, area, or walk-in energy storage system unit. The ventilation shall be either continuous or shall be activated by a gas detection system in accordance with Section 608.13.1.2.4.

608.13.1.2.1 Standby power

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided with a minimum of two hours of standby power in accordance with Section 604.2.17.

608.13.1.2.2 Installation instructions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Required mechanical exhaust ventilation systems shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and the International Mechanical Code.

608.13.1.2.3 Supervision

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Required mechanical exhaust ventilation systems shall be supervised by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

608.13.1.2.4 Gas detection system

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by Section 608.13.1.2, rooms, areas, and walk-in energy storage system units containing energy storage systems shall be protected by an approved continuous gas detection system that complies with Section 916 of this code and with the following:
  1. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate the mechanical ventilation system when the level of flammable gas in the room, area, or walk-in energy storage system unit exceeds 25 percent of the LFL.
  2. The mechanical ventilation system shall remain on until the flammable gas detected is less than 25 percent of the LFL.
  3. The gas detection system shall be provided with a minimum of 2 hours of standby power in accordance with requirements for emergency and standby power systems for gas detection systems in Section 916 of this code.
  4. Failure of the gas detection system shall annunciate a trouble signal at an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

608.13.2 Spill control and neutralization

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by Table 608.13 or elsewhere in this code, areas containing free-flowing liquid electrolyte or hazardous materials shall be provided with spill control and neutralization in accordance with this section.

608.13.2.1 Spill control

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Spill control shall be provided to prevent the flow of liquid electrolyte or hazardous materials to adjoining rooms or areas. The method shall be capable of containing a spill from the single largest battery or vessel.

608.13.2.2 Neutralization

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An approved method to neutralize spilled liquid electrolyte shall be provided that is capable of neutralizing a spill from the largest battery or vessel to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

608.13.2.3 Communication Utilities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The requirements of Section 608.13.2 only apply where the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L) for leadacid and nickel-cadmium battery systems operating at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC that are located at facilities under the exclusive control of communications utilities and those facilities comply with NFPA 76 in addition to applicable requirements of this code.

608.13.3 Explosion control

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by Table 608.13 or elsewhere in this code, explosion control complying with Section 911 shall be provided for rooms, areas or walk-in energy storage system units containing electrochemical energy storage system technologies.

Exceptions:
  1. Where approved by the fire code official, explosion control may be waived based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6 which demonstrates that flammable gases are not liberated from electrochemical energy storage system cells or modules.
  2. Where approved by the fire code official, explosion control may be waived based on documentation provided that demonstrates that the electrochemical energy storage system technology to be used does not have the potential to release flammable gas concentrations in excess of 25 percent of the LFL anywhere in the room, area, walk-in energy storage system unit or structure under thermal runaway or other fault conditions.

608.13.4 Safety caps

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by Table 608.13 or elsewhere in this code, vented batteries and other energy storage systems shall be provided with flame arresting safety caps.

608.13.5 Thermal runaway

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by Table 608.13 or elsewhere in this code, batteries and other energy storage systems shall be provided with a listed device or other approved method to prevent, detect and minimize the impact of thermal runaway

608.14 Indoor installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Indoor energy storage system installations shall be in accordance with Sections 608.14.1 through 608.14.4.

608.14.1 Dedicated use buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Dedicated use buildings in compliance with this section shall be classified as Group F-1 occupancies. For the purpose of Table 608.14, dedicated use energy storage system buildings shall comply with all the following:
  1. The building shall only be used for energy storage systems, electrical energy generation, and other electrical grid related operations.
  2. Other occupancy types shall not be permitted in the building.
  3. Occupants in the rooms and areas containing energy storage systems are limited to personnel that operate, maintain, service, test and repair the energy storage system and other energy systems.
  4. Administrative and support personnel shall be permitted in areas within the buildings that do not contain energy storage systems provided:
    1. The areas do not occupy more than 10 percent of the building area of the story in which they are located.
    2. A means of egress is provided from the administrative and support use areas to the public way that does not require occupants to traverse through areas containing energy storage systems or other energy system equipment
TABLE 608.14
INDOOR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS
COMPLIANCE
REQUIRED
DEDICATED USE
BUILDINGSa
NON-DEDICATED USE
BUILDINGSb
608.11 General installation requirements Yes Yes
608.12.1 Size and separation Yes Yes
608.12.2 Maximum allowable quantities No Yes
608.12.3 Elevation Yes Yes
608.12.4 Smoke and automatic fire detectione Yesc Yes
608.12.5 Fire suppression systems Yesd Yes
608.14.3 Dwelling units and sleeping units NA Yes
608.14.4 Fire-resistance rating Yes Yes
608.13 Technology specific protection Yes Yes

NA = Not allowed.
  1. See Section 608.14.1.
  2. See Section 608.14.2.
  3. Where approved by the fire code official, alarm signals are not required to be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.
  4. Where approved by the fire code official, fire suppression systems are permitted to be omitted in dedicated use buildings located more than 100 feet (30.5 M) from buildings, lot lines, public ways, stored combustible materials, hazardous materials, high piled stock and other exposure hazards.
  5. Lead-acid and nickel-cadmium battery systems installed in Group U buildings and structures less than 1500 ft2 (140 m2) under the exclusive control of communications utilities and operating at less than 50 VAC and 60 VDC in accordance with NFPA 76 are not required to have an approved automatic smoke or fire detection system.

608.14.2 Non-dedicated use buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For the purpose of Table 608.14, non-dedicated use buildings include all buildings that contain energy storage systems and do not comply with the Section 608.14.1 dedicated use building requirements.

608.14.3 Dwelling units and sleeping units

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems shall not be installed in sleeping units or in habitable spaces of dwelling units.

608.14.4 Fire-resistance rating

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Separation shall be provided by 2 hour rated fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code and 2 hour rated horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, as appropriate. Rooms and areas containing energy storage systems shall be protected on the system side as follows:
  1. In dedicated use buildings, fire-resistance rated assemblies shall be provided between rooms and areas containing energy storage systems and areas in which administrative and support personnel are located.
  2. In non-dedicated use buildings, fire-resistance rated assemblies shall be provided between rooms and areas containing energy storage systems and other areas in the building.

608.15 Outdoor installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Outdoor installations shall be in accordance with Sections 608.15.1 through 608.15.3. Exterior wall installations for individual energy storage system units not exceeding 20 kWh shall be in accordance with Sections 608.15.3 and 608.15.4.

608.15.1 Remote outdoor installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For the purpose of Table 608.15, remote outdoor installations include energy storage systems located more than 100 feet (30.5 M) from buildings, lot lines, public ways, stored combustible materials, hazardous materials, high piled stock and other exposure hazards.
TABLE 608.15
OUTDOOR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM INSTALLATIONSa
COMPLIANCE REQUIRED REMOTE INSTALLATIONSa INSTALLATIONS NEAR
EXPOSURESb
608.11 General installation requirements Yes Yes
608.12.1 Size and separation No Yesc
608.12.2 Maximum allowable quantities No Yes
608.12.4 Smoke and automatic fire detection Yes Yes
608.12.5 Fire suppression systems Yesd Yes
608.12.6 Maximum enclosure size Yes Yes
608.12.7 Vegetation control Yes Yes
608.12.8 Means of egress separation Yes Yes
608.15.3 Clearance to exposures Yes Yes
608.13 Technology specific protection Yes Yes
  1. See Section 608.15.1.
  2. See Section 608.15.2.
  3. In outdoor walk-in energy storage system units, spacing is not required between energy storage system units and the walls of the enclosure.
  4. Where approved by the fire code official, fire suppression systems are permitted to be omitted.

608.15.2 Installations near exposures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For the purpose of Table 608.15, installations near exposures include all outdoor energy storage system installations that do not comply with Section 608.15.1 remote outdoor location requirements.

608.15.3 Clearance to exposures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems located outdoors shall be separated by a minimum 10 feet (3048 mm) from the following exposures:
  1. Lot lines
  2. Public ways
  3. Buildings
  4. Stored combustible materials
  5. Hazardous materials
  6. High-piled storage
  7. Other exposure hazards
Exceptions:
  1. Clearances from exposures are permitted to be reduced to 3 feet (914 mm) where a 1-hour free standing fire barrier, suitable for exterior use, and extending 5 feet (1.5 m) above and 5 feet (1.5 m) horizontally beyond the physical boundary of the energy storage system installation is provided to protect the exposure.
  2. Clearances to buildings are permitted to be reduced to 3 feet (914 mm) where noncombustible exterior walls without openings or combustible overhangs are provided on the wall adjacent to the energy storage system and the fire-resistance rating of the exterior wall is no less than 2 hours.
  3. Clearances to buildings are permitted to be reduced to 3 feet (914.4 mm) where a weatherproof enclosure constructed of noncombustible materials is provided over the energy storage system, and it has been demonstrated that a fire within the enclosure will not ignite combustible materials outside the enclosure based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6.
  4. Where exterior wall installations in accordance with Section 608.15.4 are provided, the clearance between the energy storage system and the wall in which it is mounted, is permitted to be reduced to zero.

608.15.4 Exterior wall installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems shall be permitted to be installed outdoors on exterior walls of buildings when all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The maximum energy capacity of individual energy storage system units shall not exceed 20 kWh.
  2. The energy storage system shall comply with applicable requirements in Section 608.15.
  3. The energy storage system shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and their listing.
  4. Individual energy storage system units shall be separated from each other by at least 3 feet (914 mm).
  5. The energy storage system shall be separated from doors, windows, operable openings into buildings, or HVAC inlets by at least 5 feet (1524 mm)
Exception: Smaller separation distances in items 4 and 5 shall be permitted based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6.

608.16 Special installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Rooftop and open parking garage energy storage system installations shall comply with Sections 608.16.1 through 608.16.6.

608.16.1 Rooftop installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For the purpose of Table 608.16, rooftop energy storage system installations are those located on the roofs of buildings.

TABLE 608.16
SPECIAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS
COMPLIANCE REQUIRED ROOFTOPSa OPEN PARKING
GARAGESb
608.11 General installation requirements Yes Yes
608.12.1 Size and separation Yes Yes
608.12.2 Maximum allowable quantities Yes Yes
608.12.4 Smoke and automatic fire detection Yes Yes
608.12.6 Maximum enclosure size Yes Yes
608.12.8 Means of egress separation Yes Yes
608.16.3 Clearance to exposures Yes Yes
608.16.4 Fire suppression systems Yes Yes
608.16.5 Rooftop installations Yes No
608.16.6 Open parking garage installations No Yes
608.13 Technology specific protection Yes Yes
  1. See Section 608.16.1.
  2. See Section 608.16.2.

608.16.2 Open parking garage installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For the purpose of Table 608.16, open parking garage energy storage system installations are those located in a structure or portion of a structure that complies with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.

608.16.3 Clearance to exposures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems located on rooftops and in open parking garages shall be separated by a minimum 10 feet (3048 mm) from the following exposures:
  1. Buildings, except the building on which a rooftop energy storage system is mounted
  2. Any portion of the building on which a rooftop system is mounted that is elevated above the rooftop on which the system is installed
  3. Lot lines
  4. Public ways
  5. Stored combustible materials
  6. Locations where motor vehicles can be parked
  7. Hazardous materials
  8. Other exposure hazards
Exceptions:
  1. Clearances from exposures are permitted to be reduced to 3 feet (914 mm) where a 1-hour free standing fire barrier, suitable for exterior use, and extending 5 feet (1.5 m) above and extending 5 feet (1.5 m) beyond the physical boundary of the energy storage system installation is provided to protect the exposure.
  2. Clearances are permitted to be reduced to 3 feet (914.4 mm) where a weatherproof enclosure constructed of noncombustible materials is provided over the energy storage system and it has been demonstrated that a fire within the enclosure will not ignite combustible materials outside the enclosure based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6.

608.16.4 Fire suppression systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems located in walk-in energy storage system units on rooftops or in walk-in energy storage system units in open parking garages shall be provided with automatic fire suppression systems within the energy storage system enclosure in accordance with Section 608.12.5. Areas containing energy storage systems other than walk-in energy storage system units in open parking structures on levels not open above to the sky shall be provided with an automatic fire suppression system complying with Section 608.12.5.

Exception: A fire suppression system is not required in open parking garages if large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6 is provided that shows that a fire will not impact the exposures in Section 608.16.3.

608.16.5 Rooftop

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems and associated equipment that are located on rooftops and not enclosed by building construction shall comply with the following:
  1. Stairway access to the roof for emergency response and fire department personnel shall be provided either through a bulkhead from the interior of the building or a stairway on the exterior of the building.
  2. Service walkways at least 5 feet (1524 mm) in width shall be provided for service and emergency personnel from the point of access to the roof to the system.
  3. Energy storage systems and associated equipment shall be located from the edge of the roof a distance equal to at least the height of the system, equipment, or component but not less than 5 feet (1.5 m).
  4. The roofing materials under and within 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from an energy storage system or associated equipment shall be noncombustible or shall have a Class A rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E108 or UL 790.
  5. A Class I standpipe outlet shall be installed at an approved location on the roof level of the building or in the stairway bulkhead at the top level.
  6. The energy storage system shall be the minimum of 10 feet from the fire service access point on the roof top.
  7. Energy storage systems shall not be located within 50 feet (15,240 mm) of air inlets for building HVAC systems.

    Exception: This distance shall be permitted to be reduced to 25 feet (7.620 mm) if the automatic fire alarm system monitoring the radiant-energy sensing detectors deenergizes the ventilation system connected to the air intakes upon detection of fire.

608.16.6 Open parking garages

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems and associated equipment that are located in open parking garages shall comply with all of the following:
  1. Energy storage systems shall not be located within 50 feet (15,240 mm) of air inlets for building HVAC systems.

    Exception: This distance shall be permitted to be reduced to 25 feet (7.620 mm) if the automatic fire alarm system monitoring the radiant-energy sensing detectors deenergizes the ventilation system connected to the air intakes upon detection of fire.
  2. Energy storage systems shall not be located within 25 feet (7620 mm) of exits where located on a covered level of the parking structure not directly open to the sky above.
  3. An approved fence with a locked gate or other approved barrier shall be provided to keep the general public at least 5 feet (1024 mm) from the outer enclosure of the energy storage system.

608.17 Mobile energy storage system equipment and operations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Mobile energy storage system equipment and operations shall comply with Sections 608.17.1 through 608.17.7.7.

608.17.1 Charging and storage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For the purpose of Section 608.17, charging and storage covers the operation where mobile energy storage systems are charged and stored so they are ready for deployment to another site, and where they are charged and stored after a deployment.

608.17.2 Deployment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
For the purpose of Section 608.17, deployment covers operations where mobile energy storage systems are located at a site other than the charging and storage site and are being used to provide power.

608.17.3 Permits

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Building permits and operating permits shall be provided as required by Section 108 of the 2017 Uniform Code Supplement.

608.17.4 Construction documents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Construction documents complying with Section 608.4 shall be provided with the building permit application for mobile energy storage system charging and storage locations.

608.17.4.1 Deployment documents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The following information shall be provided with the operating permit applications for mobile energy storage system deployments:
  1. Relevant information for the mobile energy storage system equipment and protection measures in the construction documents required by Section 608.4.
  2. Location(s) and layout diagram(s) of the area(s) in which the mobile energy storage system is to be deployed, including a scale diagram of all nearby exposures.
  3. Location and content of signage, including no smoking signs and signage complying with Section 608.11.8.
  4. Description of fencing to be provided around the energy storage system, including locking methods.
  5. Details on fire suppression, smoke and automatic fire detection, system monitoring, thermal management, exhaust ventilation, and explosion control, if provided.
  6. The intended duration of the deployment operation, including anticipated connection and disconnection times and dates.
  7. Location and description of local staging stops during transit to the deployment site. See Section 608.17.7.5.
  8. Description of the temporary wiring, including connection methods, conductor type and size, and circuit overcurrent protection to be provided.
  9. Description of how fire suppression system connections to water supplies or extinguishing agents are to be provided.
  10. Contact information for personnel who are responsible for maintaining and servicing the equipment and responding to emergencies as required by Section 608.7.1.

608.17.5 Approved locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Locations where mobile energy storage systems are charged, stored and deployed shall be restricted to the locations established on the building permits and operating permits.

608.17.5.1 Local staging

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Mobile energy storage systems in transit from the charging and storage location to the deployment location and back shall not be parked within 100 feet (30,480 mm) of an occupied building for more than one hour during transit, unless specifically permitted by Section 608.17.3.

608.17.6 Charging and storage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Installations where mobile energy storage systems are charged and stored shall be treated as permanent indoor or outdoor energy storage system installations, and shall comply with the following sections, as applicable:
  1. Indoor charging and storage shall comply with Section 608.14.
  2. Outdoor charging and storage shall comply with Section 608.15.
  3. Charging and storage on rooftops and in open parking garages shall comply with Section 608.16.
Exceptions:
  1. Electrical connections shall be permitted to be made using temporary wiring complying with the manufacturer's instructions, the UL 9540 listing, and NFPA 70.
  2. Fire suppression system connections to the water supply shall be permitted to use approved temporary connections.

608.17.7 Deployed mobile energy storage system requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Deployed mobile energy storage system equipment and operations shall comply with this section and Table 608.17.

TABLE 608.17
MOBILE ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS
COMPLIANCE REQUIRED DEPLOYMENTa
608.11 General installation requirements Yesb
608.12.1 Size and separation Yesc
608.12.2 Maximum allowable quantities Yes
608.12.4 Smoke and automatic fire detection Yese
608.12.5 Fire suppression systems Yesd
608.12.6 Maximum enclosure size Yes
608.12.7 Vegetation control Yes
608.12.8 Means of egress separation Yes
608.13 Technology specific protection Yes
  1. See Section 608.17.2.
  2. Mobile operations on wheeled vehicle or trailers shall not be required to comply with the seismic and structural load requirements of Section 608.11.4.
  3. In walk-in energy storage system units, spacing is not required between energy storage system units and the walls of the enclosure.
  4. Fire suppression system connections to the water supply shall be permitted to use approved temporary connections.
  5. Alarm signals are not required to be transmitted to an approved location for mobile energy storage systems deployed 30 days or less.

608.17.7.1 Duration

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The duration of a mobile energy storage system deployment shall not exceed 30 days.

Exceptions:
  1. Mobile energy storage system deployments that provide power for durations longer than 30 days shall comply with Section 608.17.6.
  2. Mobile energy storage system deployments shall not exceed 180 days unless additional operating permits are obtained.

608.17.7.2 Restricted locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Deployed mobile energy storage system operations shall not be located indoors, in covered parking garages, on rooftops, below grade, or under building overhangs.

608.17.7.3 Clearance to exposures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Deployed mobile energy storage systems shall be separated by a minimum 50 feet (15.3 M) from public seating areas and from tents, canopies and membrane structures with an occupant load of 30 or more. Deployed mobile energy storage systems shall be separated by a minimum 10 feet (3048 mm) from the following exposures:
  1. Public ways
  2. Buildings
  3. Stored combustible materials
  4. Hazardous materials
  5. High-piled stock
  6. Other exposure hazards

608.17.7.4 Electrical connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Electrical connections shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the UL 9540 listing. Temporary wiring for electrical power connections shall comply with NFPA 70. Fixed electrical wiring shall not be provided.

608.17.7.5 Fencing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An approved fence with a locked gate or other approved barrier shall be provided to keep the general public at least 5 feet (1024 mm) from the outer enclosure of a deployed mobile energy storage system.

608.17.7.6 Smoking

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Smoking shall be prohibited within 10 feet (3048 mm) of mobile energy storage systems. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Section 310.

608.18 Energy storage systems in Group R-3, and R-4 Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems in Group R-3 and R-4 occupancies shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Sections 608.18.1 through 608.18.9. The temporary use of an owner or occupant's electric powered vehicle as an energy storage system shall be in accordance with Section 608.18.11.

Energy storage system installations exceeding the permitted aggregate ratings in Section 608.18.4 shall be installed in accordance with Section 608.2 through 608.17.7.7.

608.18.1 Equipment listings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems listed and labeled solely for utility or commercial use shall not be used for residential applications.

Exceptions:
  1. Where approved by the fire code official, repurposed unlisted battery systems from electric vehicles are allowed to be installed outdoors or in detached dedicated cabinets located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from exterior walls, property lines and public ways.
  2. Energy storage systems less than 1 kWh (3.6 megajoules).

608.18.2 Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and their listing.

608.18.2.1 Spacing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Individual units shall be separated from each other by at least 3 feet of spacing unless smaller separation distances are documented to be adequate based on large scale fire testing complying with Section 608.6.

608.18.3 Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems shall only be installed in the following locations:
  1. Detached garages and detached accessory structures.
  2. Attached garages separated from the dwelling unit living space and sleeping units in accordance with Section 406.3.4 of the International Building Code.
  3. Outdoors on exterior walls located a minimum 3 ft. from doors and windows.
  4. Utility closets and storage or utility spaces within dwelling units and sleeping units

608.18.4 Energy ratings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Individual energy storage system units shall have a maximum rating of 20 kWh. The aggregate rating shall not exceed:
  1. 40 kWh within utility closets and storage or utility spaces
  2. 80 kWh in attached or detached garages and detached accessory structures
  3. 80 kWh on exterior walls
  4. 80 kWh outdoors on the ground

608.18.5 Electrical installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70. Inverters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1741 or provided as part of the UL 9540 listing. Systems connected to the utility grid shall use inverters listed for utility interaction.

608.18.6 Fire detection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Rooms and areas within dwellings units, sleeping units and attached garages in which energy storage systems are installed shall be protected by smoke alarms in accordance with Section 907. A heat detector or heat alarm listed and interconnected to the smoke alarms shall be installed in locations within dwelling units, sleeping units and attached garages where smoke alarms cannot be installed based on their listing.

608.18.7 Fire-resistance rating

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Rooms and areas containing energy storage systems shall be protected on the system side by 2-hour rated fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code and 2 hour rated horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, as applicable.

608.18.8 Protection from impact

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems installed in a location subject to vehicle damage shall be protected by approved barriers.

608.18.9 Ventilation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Indoor installations of energy storage systems that include batteries that produce hydrogen or other flammable gases during charging shall be provided with exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 608.13.1.

608.18.10 Toxic and highly toxic gas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Energy storage systems that have the potential to release toxic or highly toxic gas during charging, discharging and normal use conditions shall not be installed within Group R-3 and R-4 occupancies.

608.18.11 Electric vehicle use

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The temporary use of an owner or occupant's electric powered vehicle to power a dwelling unit or sleeping unit while parked in an attached or detached garage or outside, shall comply with the vehicle manufacturer's instructions and NFPA 70. The batteries on electric vehicles shall not contribute to the aggregate energy limitations in Section 608.18.4.
Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall comply with the requirements of the International Mechanical Code.
A Type I hood shall be installed at or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that produce grease vapors.

Exception: A Type I hood shall not be required for an electric cooking appliance where an approved testing agency provides documentation that the appliance effluent contains 5 mg/m3 or less of grease when tested at an exhaust flow rate of 500 cfm (0.236 m3/s) in accordance with UL 710B.
Commercial cooking systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Sections 609.3.1 through 609.3.4.
The ventilation system in connection with hoods shall be operated at the required rate of air movement, and classified grease filters shall be in place when equipment under a kitchen grease hood is used.
Where grease extractors are installed, they shall be operated when the commercial-type cooking equipment is used.
Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at intervals as required by Sections 609.3.3.1 through 609.3.3.3.
Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be inspected at intervals specified in Table 609.3.3.1 or as approved by the fire code official. Inspections shall be completed by qualified individuals.

TABLE 609.3.3.1 COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM INSPECTION FREQUENCY

TYPE OF COOKING OPERATIONS FREQUENCY OF
INSPECTION
High-volume cooking operations such as 24-
hour cooking, charbroiling or wok cooking
3 months
Low-volume cooking operations such as
places of religious worship, seasonal busi-
nesses and senior centers
12 months
Cooking operations utilizing solid fuel-burn-
ing cooking appliances
1 month
All other cooking operations 6 months
If during the inspection it is found that hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts or other appurtenances have an accumulation of grease, such components shall be cleaned in accordance with ANSI/IKECA C 10.
Records for inspections shall state the individual and company performing the inspection, a description of the inspection and when the inspection took place. Records for cleanings shall state the individual and company performing the cleaning and when the cleaning took place. Such records shall be completed after each inspection or cleaning and maintained.
When a commercial kitchen hood or duct system is inspected, a tag containing the service provider name, address, telephone number and date of service shall be provided in a conspicuous location. Prior tags shall be covered or removed.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be serviced as required in Section 904.12.6.
Gas-fired commercial cooking appliances installed on casters and appliances that are moved for cleaning and sanitation purposes shall be connected to the piping system with an appliance connector listed as complying with ANSI Z21.69. The commercial cooking appliance connector installation shall be configured in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Movement of appliances with casters shall be limited by a restraining device installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturer's instructions.
Storage of cooking oil (grease) in commercial cooking operations utilizing above-ground tanks with a capacity greater than 60 gal (227 L) installed within a building shall comply with Sections 610.2 through 610.7 and NFPA 30. For purposes of this section, cooking oil shall be classified as a Class IIIB liquid unless otherwise determined by testing.
Metallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be listed in accordance with UL 142 or UL 80, and shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer's instructions.
Nonmetallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer's instructions and shall also comply with all of the following:

1. Tanks shall be listed for use with cooking oil, including maximum temperature to which the tank will be exposed during use.

2. Tank capacity shall not exceed 200 gallons (757 L) per tank.
Cooking oil storage system components shall include but are not limited to piping, connections, fittings, valves, tubing, hose, pumps, vents and other related components used for the transfer of cooking oil, and are permitted to be of either metallic or nonmetallic construction.
The design, fabrication and assembly of system components shall be suitable for the working pressures, temperatures and structural stresses to be encountered by the components.
System components that come in contact with heated cooking oil shall be rated for the maximum operating temperatures expected in the system.
Normal and emergency venting shall be provided for cooking oil storage tanks.
Normal vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall have a minimum effective area not smaller than the largest filling or withdrawal connection. Normal vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building.
Emergency relief vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall be in the form of a device or devices that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by an exposure fire. For nonmetallic tanks, the emergency relief vent shall be allowed to be in the form of construction. Emergency vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building.
Electrical equipment used for heating cooking oil in cooking oil storage systems shall be listed to UL 499 and shall comply with NFPA 70. Use of electrical immersion heaters shall be prohibited in nonmetallic tanks.
Electrical equipment used for the operation of cooking oil storage systems shall comply with NFPA 70.
Hyperbaric facilities shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 99.
Records shall be maintained of all testing and repair conducted on the hyperbaric chamber and associated devices and equipment. Records shall be available to the fire code official.
Resources
Help us
keep law free