Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
SCOPE

Part 8 contains general requirements for new and existing equipment.

NOTE: Sections 8.1, 8.6, 8.7, 8.9, 8.10, and 8.11 apply to both new and existing installations.

Key(s) used to access or operate elevator, escalator, moving walk, dumbwaiter, and material lift equipment shall conform to the following:

(a) Keys used to open any other lock in the building shall not access or operate the devices classified as Security Group 1, 2, 3, or 4.

(b) The same key shall be permitted to access or operate all of the devices within only one assigned group (see 8.1.2, 8.1.3, 8.1.4, or 8.1.5), and not those in any other group except as indicated in 8.1.1(c).

(c) The keys for Group 1 devices shall also be permitted to operate Group 2, 3, and 4 devices. The keys for Group 2 devices shall be permitted to operate Group 3 and 4 devices.

(d) Keys shall be kept on the premises in a location readily accessible to the personnel in the assigned group, but not where they are accessible to the general public.

(e) Elevator personnel shall have access to all assigned groups.

Group 1 covers access or operation of equipment restricted to elevator personnel, except as noted.

NOTE: See the following:

(a) Requirement 2.2.4.4(e), pit access doors.

(b) Requirement 2.7.3.4.6, access openings in machinery space floor, etc.

(c) Requirement 2.7.3.4.7(c), hoistway access doors.

(d) Requirement 2.7.5.1.4, equipment access panels.

(e) Requirement 2.7.6.3.2(b), motor controller cabinet door(s) or panel(s).

(f) Requirement 2.7.6.4.3(b), access to the means to move the car from outside the hoistway.

(g) Requirement 2.7.6.4.3(d), access to removable means to move the car from outside the hoistway.

(h) Requirement 2.7.6.5.2(b), inspection and test panel enclosure.

(i) Requirement 2.11.1.2(h), emergency access doors. (Shall also be made available to emergency personnel during an emergency.)

(j) Requirement 2.12.6.2.4, hoistway door unlocking device. (Shall also be made available to emergency personnel during an emergency.)

(k) Requirement 2.12.7.2.3, hoistway access switch.

(l) Requirement 2.12.7.3.1, hoistway access enabling switch or its locked cover.

(m) Requirement 2.26.1.4.3(b), in-car inspection operation transfer switch.

(n) Requirement 2.26.2.21, in-car stop switch or its locked cover.

(o) Requirement 3.19.4.4, access to a manual lowering valve.

(p) Requirement 3.19.4.5, access to pressure gauge fittings.

(q) Requirement 4.1.7.3(b)(4), machinery spaces and control spaces on the car top.

(r) Requirement 4.1.7.6(b)(5), machinery spaces and control spaces in the car.

(s) Requirement 4.2.5.2, screw machine controllers located away from hoistway, machine room, or machinery space.

(t) Requirement 4.2.5.5, screw machine access panels.

(u) Requirement 5.1.10.1(b), inclined elevator hoistway access switch.

(v) Requirement 5.1.11.1.2(d), inclined elevator uphill end emergency exit.

(w) Requirement 5.7.8.3, hoistway door unlocking device.

(x) Requirement 7.1.12.4, power and hand dumbwaiters without automatic transfer devices hoistway access switch.

(y) Requirement 7.9.2.16, electric material lifts with automatic transfer devices car-mounted operating devices.

Group 2 covers access or operation of equipment by authorized and elevator personnel.

NOTE: See the following:

(a) Requirement 2.7.3.4.2, machine room and control room access doors.

(b) Requirements 2.7.3.4.3 and 2.7.3.4.4, machinery spaces and control spaces as specified.

(c) Requirement 2.11.1.4, access openings for cleaning of car and hoistway enclosures.

(d) Requirement 2.14.2.6(b), access openings for cleaning of car and hoistway enclosure.

(e) Requirement 2.14.7.2.1(b), car light control switch or its locked cover.

(f) Requirement 3.19.4.1, access to manually operated shutoff valve.

(g) Requirement 4.1.7.2(i), control rooms.

(h) Requirement 4.1.7.4(b)(5), control spaces exterior to the hoistway.

(i) Requirement 5.6.1.25.2(b), rooftop elevator keyed operation switch.

(j) Requirement 6.1.6.2.1(d), escalator starting switch.

(k) Requirement 6.1.7.3.3, escalator side access door to interior.

(l) Requirement 6.2.6.2.1(d), moving walk starting switch.

(m) Requirement 6.2.7.3.3, moving walk side access door to interior.

Group 3 covers access or operation of equipment by emergency, authorized, and elevator personnel.

NOTE: See the following:

(a) Requirements 2.27.2.4.1 and 2.27.8, emergency or standby power access selector switch.

(b) Requirements 2.27.3.1.1 and 2.27.8, Phase I emergency recall operation switch.

(c) Requirements 2.27.3.3 and 2.27.8, Phase II emergency in-car operation switch.

(d) Side emergency exit doors on existing equipment.

(e) Requirement 8.4.10.1.3(d), earthquake hoistway scan.

Group 4 covers access or operation of equipment not classified as Group 1, 2, or 3.

NOTE: See the following:

(a) Requirement 5.3.1.18.3, private residence elevator key-operated switch for exterior operation.

(b) Requirement 5.3.1.18.3, private residence inclined elevator keyed operation switch.

Section 8.2 contains certain design data, formulas, and charts for the designer. It is not intended to limit design. More detailed design and calculation methods shall be permitted to be used, provided that the stresses and deflections required by other sections of this Code are not exceeded.

The following formulas shall be used for determining the minimum rated load of passenger elevators (see also 2.16.1).

For an elevator having an inside net platform area of not more than 4.65 m2 (50 ft2)

(SI Units)

W = 35A2 + 325A

(Imperial Units)

W = 0.667A2 + 66.7A

For an elevator having an inside net platform area of more than 4.65 m2 (50 ft2)

(SI Units)

W = 2.45A2 + 610A — 620

(Imperial Units)

W = 0.0467A2 + 125A — 1,367

where

A = inside net platform area, m2 (ft2), as specified in Fig. 8.2.1.2
W = minimum rated load, kg (lb)

Figure 8.2.1.2 gives the minimum rated loads for various inside net platform areas.

The stresses and deflections in side-post-type car frame and platform members shall be based on the data and formulas listed in 8.2.2.

All stresses and their resultant deflections, not only those based on the data and formulas listed in this Section, shall be considered when side-post-type car frames are located off the platform centerline by more than one-eighth of the distance from the front to the back of the platform.

For cars with corner-post, underslung-type, or other special car frame and platform construction, the formulas and specified methods of calculation of loads and the resulting stresses and deflections do not generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific conditions and requirements in each case.

The maximum allowable stresses and deflections of members of all car frames and platforms shall be not more than those permitted by 2.15.10 and 2.15.11.

The symbols used in the formulas in 8.2.2 shall have the following meaning:
A = net area of section, m2 (in.2)
B = inside clear width of car, mm (in.)
C = net weight of complete elevator car, kg (lb)
D = distance between guide rails, mm (in.)
E = modulus of elasticity of material used, MPa (psi)
G = load supported by crosshead with the maximum load for the class of loading in car at rest at top terminal landing, kg (lb)
H = vertical center distance between upper and lower guide shoes (or rollers), mm (in.)
I = moment of inertia of member, gross section, mm4 (in.4)
K = turning moment as determined by class of loading, N.mm (lbf-in.)
L = free length of uprights (distance from lowest fastening in crosshead to top fastening in plank), mm (in.)
R = least radius of gyration of section, mm (in.)
W = rated load, kg (lb)
Z = combined section moduli of plank members, gross section, mm3 (in.3)
Zu = section modulus of one upright, gross section, mm3 (in.3)

Fig. 8.2.1.2 Minimum Rated Load for Passenger Elevators

The stresses in the car frame crosshead shall be based on the total load supported by the crosshead with the car and the maximum load for the class of loading in the car when at rest at the top terminal landing.
The stresses in the car frame plank when the stringers are supported directly on the plank members shall be based on the sum of five-eighths of the platform weight uniformly distributed plus the concentrated loads due to the tension in the compensation means and the traveling cables with car at top of its travel plus the loading specified in 8.2.2.3(a) or (b).

(a) For passenger and Class A freight loading, five-eighths of the rated load uniformly distributed.

(b) For Classes B and C freight loading, the loading as specified in 8.2.2.6.

In calculating the stress resulting from oil buffer or elastomeric buffer engagement, one-half the sum of the weight of the car and its rated load shall be considered as being concentrated at each end of the plank with the buffer force applied at the middle. The buffer force shall be considered to be that required to produce gravity retardation with rated load in the car.

The following formula shall be used to determine the stress resulting from buffer engagement:

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

Where more than one buffer is used, the formula shall be modified to suit the location of the buffers.

NOTE (8.2.2.4): Symbols used in the preceding formula are defined in 8.2.2.1.1.

The total stress in each car frame upright due to tension and bending, and the slenderness ratio of each upright and its moment of inertia, shall be determined in accordance with the formulas in 8.2.2.5.1 through 8.2.2.5.3.

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

Where KL/4HZu is the bending stress in each upright in the plane of the frame due to live load W on the platform for the class of loading A, B, or C for which the elevator is to be used (see 2.16.2.2); G/2A is the tensile strength in each upright, and K is determined by the following formulas [see Fig. 8.2.2.5.1]:

(a) For Class A freight loading or passenger loading

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

(b) For Class B freight loading

(SI Units)

whichever is greater.

(Imperial Units)

whichever is greater.

(c) For Class C freight loading

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

NOTE (8.2.2.5.1): Symbols used in the preceding formulas are defined in 8.2.2.1.1.

Fig. 8.2.2.5.1 Turning Moment Based on Class of Loading

GENERAL NOTE: See 8.2.2.5.1 for formulas in SI units.

The slenderness ratio L/R for uprights subject to compressions other than those resulting from safety and buffer action shall not exceed 120. Where the upper side-brace connections on passenger elevator car frame uprights are located at a point less than two-thirds of L from the bottom, (top fastening in car frame plank) a slenderness ratio of L/R not exceeding 160 is permissible (L/R ≤ 160).

NOTE (8.2.2.5.2): Symbols used in the above formulas are defined in 8.2.2.1.1.

The moment of inertia of each upright shall be not less than determined by the following formula:

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

NOTE (8.2.2.5.3): Symbols used in the preceding formula are defined in 8.2.2.1.1.

The calculation for stresses in the platform members of freight elevators shall be based on the following concentrated loads assumed to occupy the position that will produce the maximum stress:

(a) for Class A Loading, 25% of the rated load

(b) for Class B Loading, 75% of the rated load or 15 400 kg (34,000 lb), whichever is less, divided into two equal parts 1 525 mm (60 in.) apart

(c) for Class C1 Loading, with a load rating of 9 000 kg (20,000 lb) or less, 80% of the rated load divided into two equal parts, 765 mm (30 in.) apart

(d) for Class C2 Loading, with a load rating of 9 000 kg (20,000 lb) or less, 80% of the rated load or of the loaded truck weight, whichever is greater, divided into two equal parts, 765 mm (30 in.) apart

(e) for Class C1 or C2 Loading, with a rated load in excess of 9 000 kg (20,000 lb), 80% of the 9 000 kg (20,000 lb) or of the maximum loaded truck weight, whichever is greater, divided into two equal parts, 765 mm (30 in.) apart

(f) for Class C3 Loading, determined on the basis of the actual loading conditions but not less than that required for Class A loading

The stresses in hoisting rope hitch plates and shapes shall be based on the total applied rope load with the car and its rated load at rest at the top terminal landing.
The following formulas give the buffer reaction and the impact on the car and counterweight buffer supports resulting from buffer engagement [see 2.1.2.3(a) or 3.22.1.2.1]:

(a) Buffer Reaction

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

(b) Impact

P = 2R

The following formulas give the buffer reaction and the impact on the supports of car and counterweight spring buffers that do not fully compress under the conditions outlined in 2.1.2.3(a):

(a) Buffer reaction

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

(b) Impact

P = R

where

P = impact, N (lbf)
R = buffer reaction, N (lbf)
S = buffer stroke, m (ft)
V = speed at impact (for electric), m/s (ft/s); operating speed in the down direction (for hydraulic), m/s (ft/s)
W = weight of car plus rated load or weight of counterweight, kg (lb)

The following formula gives the value of the stopping distance based on gravity retardation from any initial velocity (see 2.4.6, 2.4.8, 2.4.9, and 2.22.4.1):

(SI Units)

S = 51V 2

(Imperial Units)

where

S = free fall (gravity stopping distance), mm (in.)
V = initial velocity, m/s (ft/min)

Figure 8.2.4 shows the gravity stopping distances from various initial velocities.

Fig. 8.2.4 Gravity Stopping Distances

Figure 8.2.5 gives the maximum governor tripping speeds for various rated speeds (see 2.18.2.1).

Fig. 8.2.5 Maximum Governor Tripping Speeds

The following formulas shall be used to determine the maximum and minimum stopping distances for Type B car and counterweight safeties (see 2.17.3):

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

where

S = maximum stopping distance, m (ft)
S ' = minimum stopping distance, m (ft)
V = governor tripping speed, m/s (ft/min)

Figure 8.2.6 shows the maximum and minimum stopping distances from various governor tripping speeds.

Fig. 8.2.6 Stopping Distances for Type B Car and Counterweight Safeties

Figure 8.2.7 shows the minimum factors of safety for suspension wire ropes of power elevators for various rope speeds (see 2.20.3).

Fig. 8.2.7 Minimum Factors of Safety of Suspension Members of Power Passenger and Freight Elevators

Plungers shall be designed and constructed in accordance with one of the formulas in 8.2.8.1.1 through 8.2.8.1.4.

(a) Where slenderness ratio of plunger is less than 120

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

(b) Where slenderness ratio of plunger is greater than 120

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

Formulas are for steel where

A = net sectional area of plunger (area of metal), m2 (in.2)
L = maximum free length of plunger, mm (in.). Where a plunger-follower guide conforming to 3.18.2.7 is used, L shall be taken as one-half the amount that the free length would be if no follower guide were provided.
R = radius of gyration of plunger section, mm (in.)
W = allowable gross weight to be sustained by plunger, N (lbf). Where a counterweight is provided, the weight of the counterweight plus the unbalanced weight of the counterweight ropes shall be permitted to be deducted in determining W. In determining W, one-half of the weight of the plunger shall be included except where a plunger-follower guide conforming to 3.18.2.7 is used, in which case, three-fourths of the plunger weight shall be included.
W/A = fiber stress, kPa (psi)

NOTE [8.2.8.1.1(a) and (b)]: Figure 8.2.8.1.1 has been calculated from the formulas given in 8.2.8.1.1 for the more usual pipe sizes and pipe schedules and indicate allowable gross loads directly.

(c) Plungers having a free length of 7.6 m (25 ft) or less shall be permitted to be accepted without further examination for strength and elastic stability, provided all of the following conditions exist:

(1) the working pressure is 2 070 kPa (300 psi) or less

(2) the plunger is 100 mm (4 in.) nominal pipe size or larger

(3) pipe not lighter than schedule 40 is used, and not more than 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) of metal has been removed from the wall thickness in machining

(d) Plungers With Varying Cross Section. For plungers with varying cross section, the stress shall be calculated for a factor of safety of at least 3 using accepted methods for elastic stability.

Fig. 8.2.8.1.1 Allowable Gross Loads

GENERAL NOTES:

  1. Curves are based upon the removal of not more than 1.5 mm (0.0625 in.) from the wall thickness in machining.
  2. Curves stop at 18 m (59 ft) for convenience only. For plunger sizes or lengths not shown on this chart, see the applicable formula in 8.2.8.1.1.

For plungers subject to bending, the stresses due to bending as determined by the following formulas shall be subtracted from the stresses W/A as determined by the applicable formula in 8.2.8.1.1.

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

where

e = eccentricity of Wb, mm (in.)
S = stress due to bending, MPa (psi)
Wb = maximum eccentric load, N (lbf). Where any or all of this load is caused by moving wheel loads imposed on the edge of the platform, the total of such loads shall be doubled for impact (see 8.2.2.6).
Z = section modulus of plunger section, mm3 (in.3)

For plungers subjected to external pressure, the working pressure shall be not more than that indicated by the following formulas:

(a) Where the ratio of t/D is less than 0.023

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

(b) Where the ratio of t/D is greater than 0.023

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

where

D = external finished diameter, mm (in.)
p = working pressure, kPa (psi)
t = finished wall thickness, mm (in.)
Telescoping plungers shall have each plunger section internally guided. If more than two movable sections are used, plunger follower guides shall be provided for each plunger section. In the formulas in 8.2.8.1.1(a) and 8.2.8.1.1(b), the values of A and R shall be for the smallest plunger section. When plunger follower guides are used, the value of L shall be the maximum free length of the smallest section in millimeters (inches). When plunger follower guides are not used, the value of L shall be taken as 1.4 times the maximum free length of the smallest plunger section.
Cylinders shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the following formula:

where

C = depth of the thread or groove, mm (in.)
d = internal diameter, mm (in.)
p = working pressure, kPa (psi)
S = allowable stress, kPa (psi) (see 8.2.8.5.2)
t = minimum thickness of wall, mm (in.)
Heads of cylinders and heads of plungers subject to fluid pressure shall be designed and constructed in accordance with one of the following applicable formulas:

(a) Flat unreinforced heads

(b) Dished seamless hemispherical heads, concave to pressure t p

(c) Dished seamless ellipsoidal heads, concave to pressure (ellipsoidal heads in which one-half of the minor axis equals one-quarter the inside diameter of skirt), t p

where

D = inside diameter of skirt, mm (in.)
d = diameter of head between supporting edges, mm (in.)
p = working pressure, kPa (psi)
r = radius to which head is dished, measured on concave side (not greater than d), mm (in.)
S = allowable stress, kPa (psi) (see 8.2.8.5.2)
t = minimum thickness of head, mm (in.)
The minimum wall thickness of pipe shall be 1.65 mm plus C or as determined by the following:

or

where

C = 1.3 mm (0.05 in.) for threaded pipe up to 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) pipe size, the depth of the thread in millimeters for threaded pipe over 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) pipe size, the depth of groove in millimeters for grooved pipe, or 0.000 for other pipe or unreduced thickness
D = the outside diameter of pipe, mm (in.)
e = the joint efficiency: 1 for seamless pipe; 0.85 for electric resistance welded pipe
p = the maximum working pressure, kPa (psi)
t = the minimum wall thickness, mm (in.)
S = the allowable stress, based on a factor of safety in accordance with 8.2.8.5.2, kPa (psi)

Steel pipes and fittings used for gauge ports need not comply with this formula, but shall be a minimum of Schedule 80 pipe and maximum length of 75 mm (3 in.), except as permitted by 3.19.2.4.

Except as required in 3.19.3.3.1(b), the minimum factor of safety for components subject to fluid pressure shall be as follows:

where

E = percent elongation in 50 mm (2 in.) gauge length as per ASTM E8 expressed as a whole number (e.g., 20% = 20 and 5% = 5). The minimum allowable E shall be 5.
F = minimum factor of safety based on 0.2% proof stress yield point. The minimum allowable F shall be 3.
The allowable stress to be used in 8.2.8.2 through 8.2.8.4 shall be determined as follows:

where

F = minimum factor of safety based on 0.2% proof stress yield point as determined in 8.2.8.5.1
S = allowable stress kPa (psi)
Y.P. = yield point, based on 0.2% proof stress yield point, kPa (psi)
The maximum pressure to be applied by the plunger gripper to avoid local buckling should be calculated as follows for steel:

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

where

D = outside diameter of plunger, mm (in.)
Pmax = maximum pressure, MPa (psi)
t = minimum wall thickness, mm (in.)
The stresses and deflections in side-post-type car frame and platform members shall be based on the data and formulas listed in 8.2.9.

All stresses and their resultant deflections, not only those based on the data and formulas in this Section, shall be considered when side-post-type car frames are located off the platform centerline by more than one-eighth of the distance from the front to the back of the platform.

For cars and corner-post, sub-post, or other special car frame and platform construction, the formulas and specified methods of calculation of loads and the resulting stresses and deflections do not generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific conditions and requirements in each case.

The maximum allowable stresses and deflections of members of all car frames and platforms shall be not more than those permitted by 3.15.2.

The maximum stresses in car frame uprights that are normally subject to compression shall be such that the quantity [(fa/Fa) + (fb/Fb)] does not exceed unity

where

Fa = allowable axial compressive unit stress [not exceeding 117 200 — 3.344 (L/R)2 in SI units and 17,000 — 0.485 (L/R)2 in Imperial units]
fa = actual axial compressive unit stress based on gross section
Fb = allowable bending unit stress [113 MPa (16,500 psi), if area basis is gross section or 138 MPa (20,000 psi) if area basis is net section]
fb = actual bending unit stress
L = free length of uprights (distance from lowest fastening in crosshead to top fastening in plank), mm (in.)
R = least radius of gyration of section, mm (in.)
The stresses in the car frame crosshead shall be based on the total load, if any, supported by the crosshead.

The crosshead member(s) and connection between the crosshead and upright (stile) shall be designed to resist the bending moment, shear and axial forces transferred between the upright and the crosshead.

The bending stresses in the car frame planks due to the normal loading shall be based on the following loads:

(a) concentrated load(s) located at their point of application equal to the total maximum static load on all the driving members lifting the car divided by the number of lifting members [see Fig. 8.2.9.1.3, sketch (a)]

(b) five-eighths of the platform weight uniformly distributed over the length of the planks when the platform members are supported directly by the plank members [see Fig. 8.2.9.1.3, sketch (b)]

(c) the duty load distribution is as follows:

(1) for passenger and Class A freight loading, five-eighths of the rated load uniformly distributed over the length of the planks when the platform members are supported directly by the plank members [see Fig. 8.2.9.1.3, sketch (c)]

(2) for Classes B and C freight loading, the loading in conformance with 8.2.2.6

(d) the balance of loads shall be taken as acting at their respective point(s) of application [see Fig. 8.2.9.1.3, sketch (d)]

(e) where the platform members are only supported directly by the planks at or adjacent to the ends of the planks, 8.2.9.1.3(b) and 8.2.9.1.3(c)(1) do not apply, and concentrated loads equal to one-half of the total maximum static load on all the driving members shall be applied at each end of the planks [see Fig. 8.2.9.1.3, sketch (e)]

Fig. 8.2.9.1.3 Load Distribution

D = distance between guide rails, m (in.)
P1, P2, P3, Pm = balance of loads acting on the plank members located at their respective points of application. Such loads typically include the weights of cab and doors, carframe members and guide shoes, traveling cables, electrical devices, door devices, and the balance of load distributions of the platform weight and rated load not distributed to the plank members.
Ps = total maximum static load on all the driving members, kg (lb)
W = rated load, kg (lb) (passenger or Class A freight)
WP = platform weight, kg (lb)

GENERAL NOTES:

  1. 1 mm = 1 in./25.4 (1 in. = 25.4 mm).
  2. 1 kg = 1 lb/0.454 (1 lb = 0.454 kg).
The stresses in each car frame upright due to compression and bending and the slenderness ratio of each upright and its moment of inertia shall be determined in accordance with the following formulas:

(a) Stresses Due to Bending

where

fb = the bending stress in each upright in the plane of the frame due to the live load W on the platform for the class of loading A, B, or C for which the elevator is to be used (see 2.16.2.2 and Section 3.16)
K = turning moment in N.m (lbf-in.) as determined by the class of loading (see Fig. 8.2.2.5.1) by the following formulas

(1) For Class A freight loading or passenger loading

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

(2) For Class B freight loading

(SI Units)

whichever is greater.

(Imperial Units)

whichever is greater.

(3) For Class C freight loading

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

NOTE [8.2.9.1.4(a)]: Symbols used in the above formulas are defined in 8.2.2.1.1.

(b) Stresses Due to Compression

fa = compressive stress in each upright

(c) Slenderness Ratio. The slenderness ratio L/R for uprights subject to compressions other than those resulting from buffer or safety action shall not exceed 120. Where the upper side-brace connections on passenger elevator car frame uprights are located at a point less than two-thirds of L from the bottom (top fastening in car frame plank), a slenderness ratio of L/R not exceeding 160 is permissible.

(d) Moment of Inertia. The moment of inertia of each upright shall be not less than determined by the following formula:

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

NOTE [8.2.9.1.4(d)]: Symbols used in the above formula are defined in 8.2.2.1.1.

The following formula shall be used to determine the minimum stroke of oil buffers used for inclined elevators (see 5.1.17.4):

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

where

Smin = minimum oil buffer stroke, mm (in.)
v = rated car speed, m/s (ft/min)
θ = angle of inclination from horizontal (degrees)

The following formulas shall be used to determine the maximum and minimum stopping distances for Type B car and counterweight safeties used on inclined elevators (see 5.1.14.2):

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

where

Smin = minimum stopping distance, mm (in.)
Smax = maximum stopping distance, mm (in.)
vg = governor tripping speed, m/s (ft/min)
θ = angle of inclination from horizontal (degrees)

The design data and formulas in Section 8.2 as they apply to freight elevators shall apply to material lifts with automatic transfer devices. Where vehicle loading is used, Class B loading shall apply.

Section 8.3 covers

  1. type of tests and certification of
    1. car and counterweight oil buffers, as required in 2.22.4.7 (see also 8.3.1 and 8.3.2)
    2. hoistway door interlocks, hoistway door combination mechanical locks, electric contacts, and hoistway-door electric contacts, as required in 2.12.4 (see also 8.3.1 and 8.3.3)
    3. car door or gate electric contacts, and car door interlocks as required in 2.14.4.2 (see 8.3.1 and 8.3.3)
    4. entrance fire tests as required by 2.11 (see 8.3.4)
    5. hydraulic control valves as required in 3.19.4.6 (see 8.3.1 and 8.3.5)
    6. escalator brakes, as required in 6.1.5.3 (see 8.3.1 and 8.3.6)
    7. elastomeric buffers (see 8.3.1 and 8.3.13)
  2. engineering tests of
    1. car enclosure wall materials, as required in 2.14.2.1.1(b) (see 8.3.1 and 8.3.7)
    2. test method for evaluating room, fire growth, contribution of textile wall covering, as required in 8.7.2.14 (see 8.3.7 and 8.3.8)
    3. hydraulic overspeed valves, as required in 3.19.4.7 (see 8.3.9)
    4. safety nut and speed-limiting device of screw column elevators, as required in 4.2.11.2 (see 8.3.1 and 8.3.10)
    5. escalator steps, as required in 6.1.3.5.7 and moving walk pallets, as required by 6.2.3.5.4 (see 8.3.1 and 8.3.11)
    6. suspension member, as required in 2.20.11 (see 8.3.12)

(a) Type tests (see Section 1.3) shall be carried out when required.

(b) Engineering tests (see Section 1.3) shall be carried out when required.

(c) The tests shall be permitted to be made by laboratories other than the certifying organization or manufacturers, but the responsibility shall remain with the original certifying organization.

The application for engineering or type tests shall be made by the component manufacturer, equipment manufacturer, installer, or importer.
The application shall include

(a) the manufacturer's name and the equipment or component designation or model

(b) two sets of assembly and detail drawings showing details as specified in Section 8.3

(c) a description of the elevator component or equipment, and its field of application, along with calculated performance features

A certificate shall be issued for a component or equipment that has been successfully tested. The certificate shall include

(a) the name of applicant (see 8.3.1.2.1)

(b) the name of the manufacturer

(c) the manufacturer's designation of the type or model tested

(d) the certifying organization's label/mark and the method of affixing the label/mark to each component or each piece of equipment subsequently manufactured, where required

(e) the method of testing, the test report, and a list of the instruments used (Note: this may be attached to the certificate)

(f) the conditions for use of the certificate and label/mark

(g) a statement to the effect that the component or equipment tested has met the specified test requirements

(h) any other information required in ASME A17.1/CSA B44

(i) the edition of the Code under which the component was tested and certified

The certificate shall be valid until recalled by the certifying organization or until the applicable requirements in ASME A17.1/CSA B44 are changed unless otherwise stated (see 8.3.1.4).
The drawings and other documents submitted by the applicant (see 8.3.1.2), together with the original test records, data, performance curves, and certificate shall be filed, as a permanent record for future reference.
The applicant shall be permitted to examine and copy the test records upon request.
Where any change is made in the design of the component or equipment after certification, including changes resulting from the revisions in applicable code requirements, revised drawings showing such changes shall be filed with the original or other certifying organization. The certifying organization shall issue to the applicant a revised certificate, based upon the previous test results or any new tests that are needed, depending on the nature of the changes.
Changes in the design that do not affect the performance of the component or equipment shall be permitted to be made without the approval of the certifying organization. The certifying organization shall be apprised in writing of the change.
The precision of the instruments shall allow measurements to be made, unless otherwise specified, within the following tolerances:

(a) ±1% — masses, forces, distances, time, speeds, and hydraulic pressure

(b) ±2% — accelerations, retardations, and flow rating

(c) ±5% — voltages and currents

(d) ±10% — temperatures

The application required in 8.3.1.2 shall include information on the expected maximum impact speed, maximum and minimum total loads, and complete data for the oil porting in relation to the effective buffer stroke.
The drawings required in 8.3.1.2.2(b) shall show

(a) the exact construction of the buffer

(b) all dimensions of each part

(c) all pertinent information concerning materials, clearances, and tolerances

(d) the data as marked on the buffer marking plate required by 2.22.4.11

Tests shall be made on a buffer of each type or design to be installed. Each buffer shall conform to the documents submitted and have the following oil portings:

(a) the porting having the range of the maximum loads for which the buffer is designed

(b) the porting having the range of the minimum loads for which the buffer is designed

The testing equipment shall be of such design as to perform the tests specified herein and to determine that the buffer conforms to all the requirements of Section 2.22 for oil buffers and shall also conform to 8.3.2.3.1 through 8.3.2.3.3.
The required drop-test load shall be accurate to within ±1%.
The test weight shall be so guided as to ensure that when dropped onto the buffer, its travel shall be substantially vertical.
The instruments used to measure the test results shall conform to the following requirements:
  1. The instruments shall be of the recording type.
  2. The instruments shall provide data, for the plotting of the buffer performance curves showing time intervals, travel of test weight, velocity of test weight, and retardation of test weight during the buffer stroke, that shall be accurate to within the following tolerances:
    1. The timing device shall record time in increments of not more than 1/60 s during the entire buffer stroke.
    2. Time increments and total time shall be recorded with an error of less than ±0.5%.
    3. The position of the test weight at each time interval shall be recorded with an error of less than ±0.1%.
    4. Time, travel, velocity, and retardation shall be determined by means of a device that will provide the accuracy specified.
A buffer of the spring-return type shall be placed on a foundation designed to withstand without appreciable deformation the forces resulting from the buffer compression on the drop tests. The buffer shall be installed in a vertical position and located centrally with relation to the drop-test weight.
The buffer shall be secured by bolts in accordance with the manufacturer's drawings or by equivalent means to

(a) the foundation for buffers of the spring-return type

(b) the underside of the center of the test drop-weight for buffers of the gravity-return type

The centerline of the buffer, when secured in place, shall be vertical to within 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) in the stroke of the buffer.

The buffer test shall be on a production model or a buffer identical to the model to be produced. Modifications or special adjustments for the purpose of meeting the test requirements are prohibited.
The buffer, after being installed, shall be filled with oil to a level at or between the manufacturer's gauge line or lines. The oil shall conform to 2.22.4.9 and the data specified on the buffer marking plate.

After filling with oil, the procedure outlined below shall be followed to ensure that a constant oil level has been established.

(a) The buffer shall be fully compressed at slow speed, and shall then be allowed to return to its fully extended position and remain there for at least 10 min. The oil level shall then be checked.

(b) If the oil level as previously determined has changed, due to the elimination of entrapped air or due to the retention of air under pressure within the buffer, the change in level shall be noted and the procedure repeated until a constant oil level is obtained when the buffer is in its extended position.

(c) If the oil level tends to remain above the level to which it was filled, the air vents, if provided, should be checked for obstructions.

(d) When a constant oil level has been established, the level shall be adjusted to the manufacturer's lowest gauge line, and the exact level noted and recorded before making the drop tests hereinafter specified.

Each oil buffer with oil portings as submitted shall be subjected to tests for retardation, strength, oil leakage, plunger return, and lateral plunger movement, as hereinafter specified.
The following drop tests shall be made for each buffer porting specified in 8.3.2.2, from a height such that the striking velocity of the falling weight will be equal to 115% of the rated car speed for which the buffer is designed:

(a) three drop tests with a total test weight equal to the manufacturer's rated maximum load for which the porting is designed [see 8.3.2.2(a)]

(b) one drop test with a total test weight equal to the manufacturer's rated minimum load for which the porting is designed [see 2.7.2.2]

Following each drop test, the buffer shall be held its fully compressed position for a period of 5 min, and shall then be allowed to return free to its fully extended position and stand for 30 min to permit return of the oil to the reservoir and to permit escape of any air entrained in the oil.

On each of these tests, the average retardation of the test weight, during the stroke of the buffer, shall not exceed 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2), and any retardation peak having a duration of more than 0.04 s shall not exceed 24.5 m/s2 (80.5 ft/s2).

On completion of the drop tests, no part of the buffer shall show any permanent deformation or injury.

(a) Two drop tests shall be made as follows:

(1) One drop test shall be made with the porting as specified in 8.3.2.2(a), with a total test weight equal to 120% of the manufacturer's rated maximum load, from a height such that the maximum velocity attained by the falling weight during the buffer compression shall be equal to 125% of the rated car speed for which the buffer is rated. In this test, the retardation shall be noted and shall be permitted to exceed the values specified in 8.3.2.5.1.

Immediately following this test, the buffer shall be examined externally for visible deformation or injury. If no damage is apparent, the buffer shall then be fully compressed at low speed and then released to determine if it will return freely to its extended position.

(2) After the buffer has been examined externally and has returned freely to its extended position, a second drop test shall be made from the same height and with the same load as specified in 8.3.2.5.1(a). During this test, the retardation shall not exceed the corresponding retardation developed in the test specified in 8.3.2.5.1(a) by more than 5%.

(b) If for given stroke of buffer having more than one porting, the construction of the buffer varies for the different portings, then a strength test similar to that specified in 8.3.2.5.2(a)(1) shall also be made for the porting having the range at minimum loads for which the porting is designed as specified in 8.3.2.2(b).

Following each drop test, the buffer shall be held in its fully compressed position for a period of 5 min, and shall then be allowed to freely return to its fully extended position and stand for 30 min to permit return of the oil to the reservoir and to permit the escape of any air entrained in the oil.

Tests for oil leakage shall be made concurrently with the retardation tests specified in 8.3.2.5.1, and the drop test specified in 8.3.2.5.2(a)(2), to determine the loss of oil during these tests. The oil level shall be noted after the buffer has returned to its fully extended position following each drop test, and after the time interval specified in 8.3.2.5.1.

The drop in oil level, as indicated by these measurements, shall show no loss of oil exceeding 5 mm/m (0.06 in./ft) of buffer stroke, but in no case shall the loss be such as to lower the oil level below the bottom of the plunger or below the highest metering orifice, whichever is higher.

Where the volume of oil above the porting is small when the buffer is filled to its normal working level, the laboratory shall be permitted to make additional tests for oil leakage.

During the drop tests specified in 8.3.2.5.1 and 8.3.2.5.2, the time required for the buffer plunger to return to its fully extended position, measured from the instant the test weight is raised clear of the buffer until the plunger has returned to its fully extended position, shall be noted. This time shall be not more than 90 s.

Should the plunger fail to return to its fully extended position, or should the time required for it to return to its fully extended position exceed the time specified, the manufacturer shall either submit a duplicate buffer or install a new pressure cylinder and piston, following which the plunger-return test shall be repeated. Should the buffer again fail to meet the plunger-return test requirements, it shall be rejected.

Buffers of the spring-return type shall be tested for plunger return with a 20 kg (45 lb) test weight resting on top of the plunger during the test. The plunger shall be depressed 50 mm (2 in.) and when released, the plunger, while supporting the test weight, shall return to its fully extended position within 30 s.

The following tests shall be made for lateral movement.

(a) Spring-Return-Type Buffers. The lateral movement at the top of the fully extended plunger shall be accurately measured, the upper end of the plunger being manually moved from its extreme right to its extreme left position. One-half of the total movement measured shall be considered as being the true lateral movement at the top of the plunger and shall not exceed 5 mm/m (0.06 in./ft) of buffer stroke.

(b) Gravity-Return-Type Buffers. A similar test for lateral movement shall be made. The measurement shall be taken at the lower end of the buffer cylinder when the buffer plunger is fully extended and braced to prevent lateral movement. One-half of the total movement measured shall not exceed 5 mm/m (0.06 in./ft) of buffer stroke.

After the buffer has been subjected to all of the specified tests, and all test records and data indicate that it conforms to Section 2.22, and to the requirements of 8.3.2, the laboratory shall issue a test report and a certificate to the manufacturer.
The certificate shall conform to 8.3.1.3.1 and shall include the following:

(a) the maximum impact speed

(b) the maximum total load

(c) the minimum total load

(d) specification of the fluid

(e) a statement to the effect that the buffer having the particular stroke and portings tested has met the requirements of Section 2.22 and 8.3.2 for the maximum and minimum loads as stated in the certificate

When the test results are not satisfactory with the minimum and maximum total loads appearing in the application, the laboratory shall be permitted to, in agreement with the applicant, establish the acceptable limits.
Prior to testing, the certifying organization shall examine each device submitted to ascertain that it conforms to the applicable requirements in Part 2.
During the tests specified by 8.3.3.4.1, 8.3.3.4.3, and 8.3.3.4.4, the devices shall have their electrical parts connected in a noninductive electrical circuit having a constant resistance and in which a current of twice the rated current at rated voltage is flowing. The electric circuit shall be closed, but shall not be broken at the contact within the device on each cycle of operation during the tests.
If the electric contact of a device submitted for test has already been tested as part of another device, and has successfully met the test requirements (see 8.3.3), the electrical tests of the contact need not be repeated.
Tests of retiring cams or equivalent devices used to operate interlocks shall not be required.
The testing equipment shall actuate the mechanical locking members of hoistway door (runway door) combination mechanical locks and electric contacts to unlock at each cycle of operation during the tests specified by 8.3.3.4.1, 8.3.3.4.3, and 8.3.3.4.4.
Each device submitted shall be subjected to and shall successfully pass the following tests.
The device, lubricated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, shall complete 960 000 cycles of operation without failure of any kind, without excessive wearing or loosening of parts, or without undue burning or pitting of the contacts (see 8.3.3.3.1). For private residence elevators the number of cycles shall be reduced to 25 000.
After completion of the test specified by 8.3.3.4.1, the device used therein shall satisfactorily complete the following additional tests, to check that the ability to break a live circuit is adequate.

The tests shall be carried out with the locking device located in accordance with the manufacturer's drawings. If several positions are indicated, the test shall be made in the position that the laboratory judges to be the most unfavorable.

The sample tested shall be provided with covers and electrical wiring in accordance with the manufacturer's drawings.

(a) AC rated locking devices shall have their electrical parts connected to a test circuit comprised of a choke (inductor) and resistor in series having a power factor of 0.7 ± 0.05 in which a current of 11 times the rated current, at 110% of rated voltage, is flowing. The AC locking devices shall open and close 50 times, at normal speed, and at intervals of 5 s to 10 s, with the contact remaining closed for at least 0.5 s.

(b) DC rated locking devices shall have their electrical parts connected to a test circuit comprised of a choke (inductor) and resistor in series in which the current reaches 95% of the steady-state value of 110% of the rated current in 0.27 s ± 0.03 s, at 110% of rated voltage. The DC locking devices shall open and close 20 times, at normal speed, and at intervals of 5 s to 10 s, with the contact remaining closed for at least 0.5 s.

(c) The test results are considered satisfactory if no evidence of insulation breakdown due to arcing or tracking occurs and if no deterioration occurs that could adversely affect safety.

After completion of the test specified by 8.3.3.4.2, the device used therein shall be used for this test.

The device, except self-lubricating bearings and bearings of a type not requiring frequent replenishment of lubricant, shall then be taken apart and freed of lubricant by washing in nonflammable liquids having cleansing characteristics.

After reassembling, the device shall, without other than the usual initial adjustment (i.e., without adjustment especially made to meet the conditions of the particular test) and without further attention, complete 25 000 cycles or 20 000 cycles for private residence elevator of operation without failure of any kind, without excessive wearing or loosening of parts, and without undue burning or pitting of contacts.

After completion of the test specified by 8.3.3.4.3, the device used therein shall be used for this test.

The device shall be subjected continuously, in an unventilated enclosure, to an atmosphere saturated with a range of 3.5% to 5% solution of sodium chloride for 72 consecutive hours. During this period, it shall be operated for only 10 consecutive cycles at the end of each of the first two 24 h periods and shall be allowed to stand exposed to the air for 24 h, and shall not fail in a manner that creates an unsafe condition.

The device shall again be lubricated and shall, without adjustment and without further attention, complete 15 000 cycles or 10 000 cycles for private residence elevator of operation without failure of any kind.

(a) All Types of Doors. The device shall operate effectively when the car cam or other equivalent operating device used in making the test has been displaced horizontally from its normal position (the position in which it was when the device was installed) successively as follows:

(1) in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the door opening

(-a) backward 6 mm (0.25 in.)

(-b) forward 6 mm (0.25 in.)

(2) in a direction parallel to the plane of the door opening

(-a) to the right 6 mm (0.25 in.)

(-b) to the left 6 mm (0.25 in.)

(b) Horizontally Sliding Doors. The device shall operate effectively

(1) when the bottom of the door has been displaced horizontally from its normal position in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the door opening

(-a) backward 6 mm (0.25 in.)

(-b) forward 6 mm (0.25 in.)

(2) when the top of the door has been displaced horizontally from its normal position in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the door opening

(-a) backward 3 mm (0.125 in.)

(-b) forward 3 mm (0.125 in.)

(c) Swinging Doors. The device shall operate effectively when the strike edge of the door has been displaced

(1) perpendicular to the plane of the door opening

(-a) forward 3 mm (0.125 in.)

(-b) backward 3 mm (0.125 in.)

(2) parallel to the plane of the door opening

(-a) 3 mm (0.125 in.) to the right

(-b) 3 mm (0.125 in.) to the left

(-c) 3 mm (0.125 in.) up

(-d) 3 mm (0.125 in.) down

(d) Vertically Sliding Doors. The device shall operate effectively when the door has been displaced

(1) perpendicular to the plane of the door opening

(-a) forward 3 mm (0.125 in.)

(-b) backward 3 mm (0.125 in.)

(2) parallel to the plane of the door opening

(-a) 3 mm (0.125 in.) to the right

(-b) 3 mm (0.125 in.) to the left

The insulation of the electrical parts shall withstand a test with a root-mean square (effective) voltage of twice the rated voltage plus 1 000 V, 60 Hz, applied for 1 min.
When testing devices of a type that are released by retiring cam (see 2.12.2.5), measurements shall be made of the force required to release the device and of the movement of the element engaged by the cam, with the device mounted in its normal position as specified by the manufacturer, before and after the test specified by 8.3.3.4.1.

The force and movement recorded in each test shall be, respectively

(a) the maximum force, measured in a horizontal plane, that must be applied to that member of the device that is directly actuated by the cam to release the door-locking member of the device from locking engagement

(b) the distance, projected on a horizontal plane, that the member of the device directly actuated by the cam travels from its position when the lock is fully engaged to its position when the locking member is released from engagement

The force and movement markings required by 2.12.4.3(f) shall be not less than the average of these recorded values.

After completion of the endurance test in 8.3.3.4.1, a type test shall be made consisting of a static force applied over a period of 300 s with the force increasing incrementally. The force shall be applied in the opening direction of the door and at a location as near to the locking element as possible, but not to exceed 300 mm (12 in.). The force shall be 1 000 N (225 lbf) in the case of a locking device intended for use with sliding doors, and 3 000 N (675 lbf) or 670 N (150 lbf) for private residence elevator applied at right angles to the panel evenly distributed over an area 5 cm2 (0.78 in.2) in round or square section in the case of a locking device intended for use with swinging doors.
The electrical spacings shall comply with CSA B44.1/ASME A17.5, Section 16.
Verify that there is at least 7 mm (0.28 in.) engagement of the locking elements before the hoistway door interlock contact closes.
The electrical contact bridging means shall be tested to verify conformance to 2.12.2.4.1.
In jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC, the fire protection rating of entrances and doors shall be determined in accordance with the requirements specified in the NBCC. Requirement 8.3.4.1.2 does not apply.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, test of elevator horizontal slide-type and swing-type entrance assemblies and tests of elevator and dumbwaiter vertical slide-type entrance assemblies shall be conducted in accordance with UL 10B, or NFPA 252.

Test entrance assemblies shall be constructed in accordance with Section 2.11.

The application required in 8.3.1.2 shall include information regarding

(a) the component rated pressure

(b) the flow rating

(c) the fluid specification

(d) the operating temperature range of fluid

(e) the coil voltage and current

Tests shall be conducted on a representative sample in the sequence as stated in 8.3.5.3.
Test samples shall be subject to 100 000 operating cycles (100 000 up and 100 000 down) at the component rated pressure and within the fluid specifications and temperature range stipulated by the manufacturer. Each operating cycle shall be not less than 5 s nor more than 24 s.

(a) The hydraulic pressure shall be maintained at 1.5 times the component rated pressure for a period sufficient to establish the rate of leakage, but not less than 1 h nor more than 24 h. The test shall be started at the maximum stipulated fluid temperature for which the valve is designed. The fluid temperature shall be permitted to gradually decrease during the test to 20°C (68°F).

(b) The test shall be repeated using a pressure of 750 kPa (110 psi).

(c) Total leakage from output to input during either test shall not exceed the flow rate of the valve divided by one million.

The hydraulic pressure shall be maintained at twice the component rated pressure for a period of 10 min to establish the rate of leakage. The rate of leakage shall not exceed 10% of the rated flow of the valve.
For elongations greater than or equal to 10%, the pressure chambers of the valve shall be subjected to a hydraulic pressure five times the component rated pressure.

For elongations of less than 10%, the test value shall be 1.5 times the value indicated by 8.2.8.5 multiplied by the component rated pressure.

To test the strength, this hydraulic pressure shall be maintained for a period of 5 min. During the test, the valve body shall not rupture.

NOTES (8.3.5.3.4):

  1. In order to obtain and maintain the test pressure, it is permissible to substitute alternate sealing material and to tighten bolts during the test.
  2. It is not expected that the valve will be able to perform its function during or after the valve body strength test.
Valves shall be tested to the electrical requirements of CSA C22.2 No. 139, Clause 6.
Where required by 6.1.5.3.3, escalators shall be subjected to such tests as are necessary to certify that

(a) the escalator brakes can be adjusted to conform to 6.1.5.3

(b) the relationship that exists between the range of brake settings and stopping distances complies with 6.1.5.3.1

The stopping distance shall be measured by the movement of a step along its path of travel after a stop has been initiated.
The tests shall be permitted to be made in the manufacturer's plant or on an escalator installation.
Provided that design loads of the brake are not exceeded, it is permissible to simulate on the test escalator, by means of alternative loads, a number of heights and widths, for the purpose of certification of an escalator type (design), provided that those escalators for the additional widths and heights utilize the same motor and machine.

In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, napped, tufted, woven, looped, and similar materials [see 2.14.2.1.2(b)] shall be subjected to the engineering tests specified in 8.3.7.1 through 8.3.7.6.

Specimens shall be conditioned to 21°C ± 2°C (70°F ± 5°F) and at 50% ± 5% relative humidity until moisture equilibrium is reached, or for 24 h. Only one specimen at a time shall be removed from the conditioning environment immediately before subjecting it to the flame.
Materials shall be tested either as a section cut from a fabricated part as installed in the car or as a specimen simulating a cut section, such as a specimen cut from a flat sheet of the material or a model of the fabricated part. The specimen shall be cut from any location in a fabricated part; however, fabricated units, such as sandwich panels, shall not be separated for test. The specimen shall be no thicker than the minimum thickness to be qualified for use in the car. In the case of fabrics, both the warp and fill direction of the weave shall be tested to determine the most critical flammability conditions. The specimen shall be mounted in a metal frame so that the two long edges and the upper edge are held securely. The exposed area of the specimen shall be at least 51 mm (2 in.) wide and 305 mm (12 in.) long, unless the actual size used in the car is smaller. The edge to which the burner flame is applied must not consist of the finished or protected edge of the specimen but shall be representative of the actual cross section of the material or part installed in the car.
Except as provided in 8.3.7.4, tests shall be conducted in a draft-free cabinet in accordance with FED-STD 191A, Method 5903.1, or other approved equivalent methods. Specimens that are too large for the cabinet shall be tested under similar draft-free conditions.
A minimum of three specimens shall be tested and the results averaged. For fabric, the direction of weave corresponding to the most critical flammability conditions shall be parallel to the longest dimension. Each specimen shall be supported vertically. The specimen shall be exposed to a Bunsen or Tirrill burner with a nominal 9.5 mm (0.375 in.) I.D. tube adjusted to give a flame of 38 mm (1.5 in.) in height. The minimum flame temperature measured by a calibrated thermocouple pyrometer in the center of the flame shall be 840°C (1,545°F). The lower edge of the specimen must be 19 mm (0.75 in.) above the top edge of the burner.

The flame shall be applied to the centerline of the lower edge of the specimen. The flame shall be applied for 12 s and then removed. Flame time, burn length, and flaming time of drippings, if any, shall be recorded. The burn length determined in accordance with 8.3.7.5 shall be measured to the nearest 2.5 mm (0.1 in.).

Burn length is the distance from the original edge to the farthest evidence of damage to the test specimen due to flame impingement, including areas of partial or complete consumption, charring, or embrittlement, but not including areas sooted, stained, warped, or discolored, and not areas where material has shrunk or melted away from the heat source.

(a) The average burn length shall not exceed 203 mm (8 in.).

(b) The average flame time after removal of the flame source shall not exceed 15 s.

(c) Drippings from the test specimen shall not continue to flame for more than 5 s.

Textile wall covering shall be tested and meet the acceptance criteria of the NFPA 265, Fire Test for Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution of Textile Wall Covering, when tested using the product mounting system, including adhesive, of actual use.

The overspeed valve test shall be based on the marking required by 3.19.4.7.2 and specifications provided by the valve manufacturer.
Tests shall be conducted on a representative sample of the overspeed valve.
The test sample shall be subjected to 1 000 closing cycles at the component rated pressure, maximum flow rate, and within the fluid specifications and temperature range stipulated by the manufacturer. Additionally, the sample shall be subjected to 100 operating cycles at the minimum flow rate and pressure, to ensure range coverage.
The hydraulic pressure shall be maintained at 1.5 times the component rated pressure for a period sufficient to establish the rate of leakage, but not less than 1 h and not more than 24 h. Total leakage of the valve from input to output during the test period shall not exceed the flow rate of the valve divided by one million.
For elongations greater than or equal to 10%, the valve shall be subjected to a hydraulic pressure 7.5 times the component rated pressure. For elongations of less than 10%, the test valve shall be 2.25 times the value indicated by 8.2.8.5 multiplied by the component rated pressure. The strength test for this hydraulic pressure shall be maintained for a period of 5 min. During the test, the valve body shall not rupture.

NOTES:

  1. In order to obtain and maintain the test pressure, it is permissible to substitute alternate sealing material and tighten bolts during the test.
  2. It is not expected that the valve will be able to perform its function during or after the valve body strength test.
This Section specifies the engineering tests of safety nuts and speed-limiting devices that are permitted as alternate safety devices on screw-column elevators driven by alternating current squirrel cage motors and having a down speed of not more than 0.38 m/s (75 ft/min).
The test shall be made in either the manufacturer's plant, in a testing laboratory, or in the field by suspending the elevator car with rated load a distance above the safety nut of at least 13 mm (0.5 in.) and allowing it to drop (free-fall) until the entire load rests on the safety nut. The test shall be witnessed by, and the test results certified by, a testing laboratory or registered professional engineer. After the test, the screw column, screw supports, safety nut, guide rails, and car frame shall be inspected to determine that there has been no damage. A test on a given capacity elevator shall be accepted for all similarly designed elevators by that manufacturer for the same or lesser capacity (rated load).
The test shall be made either in the manufacturer's plant, in a testing laboratory, or in the field by suspending the elevator car with rated load a distance of at least 4 572 mm (15 ft) above the lower limit of normal travel and allowing it to drop (free-fall) until the descent is controlled by the speed-limiting device. The elevator car shall be allowed to continue its descent until brought to rest by the car buffer or bumper. The test shall be instrumented so that a graph of velocity versus distance can be plotted. The test shall be witnessed by, and the test results certified by, a testing laboratory or a registered professional engineer. After the test, the screw column, screw-column supports, speed-limiting device, guide rails, car buffer or bumper, and car frame shall be inspected to determine that there has been no damage. A test on a given capacity elevator shall be accepted for all similarly designed elevators by that manufacturer for the same or lesser capacity (rated load).

Step fatigue tests required in 6.1.3.5.7 and pallet fatigue tests required by 6.2.3.5.4 shall be performed as indicated in 8.3.11.1 through 8.3.11.6.

The test shall be made at either the manufacturer's facility or at a testing laboratory.
Escalator steps shall be mounted in an arrangement that duplicates the conditions on the escalator incline and their attachment to the step chain. Moving walk pallets shall be mounted in an arrangement that duplicates the condition of a horizontal moving walk and their attachment to the pallet chain.
The steps or pallets shall be subjected to a load varying from 450 N (100 lbf) to 3 000 N (650 lbf) at a frequency of 10 Hz ± 5 Hz for 5 000 000 cycles. An undisturbed harmonic force flow shall be achieved.
The load shall be applied normal to the tread surface to a plate 25 mm (1 in.) thick, 200 mm (8 in.) wide, and 300 mm (12 in.) long, located at the center of the step or pallet, with the 300 mm (12 in.) dimension in the direction of step or pallet travel.
The step or pallet shall have no fractures or permanent tread surface deflection exceeding 4 mm (0.16 in.) following the completion of the test. The deflection of 4 mm (0.16 in.) does not include any set or wear in the supporting wheels.
This test is to be performed on each step or pallet width.

Suspension-member tests required in 2.20.11 shall be performed as required by 8.3.12.1 through 8.3.12.3. Test results shall be documented as required by 8.3.12.4.

A test shall be required on each combination of suspension member, driving sheave design, and materials of construction. The test shall be conducted with the contact-surface geometry of the test specimens that results in the highest surface-pressure condition between the suspension member and driving sheave. A test on a given suspension member at its maximum allowable load shall be accepted for all similarly designed combinations by that manufacturer for any lesser load carried per suspension member. The suspension members and driving sheave combination shall be tested under the conditions for which they were designed.
One or more suspension member(s), loaded in tension to the maximum capacity to be qualified, shall be applied to its (their) driving sheave. The suspension member(s) shall be prevented from moving. The driving sheave shall be rotated at a speed no less than that corresponding to the maximum inspection speed of the elevator to which the suspension means is to be applied.
As a result of the test required by 8.3.12.2, no suspension member shall part before a minimum of 4 min.

One or more suspension member(s), loaded in tension to the maximum capacity to be qualified, shall be applied to its (their) driving sheave. The suspension member(s) shall be run at a speed corresponding to the maximum speed for which the suspension means is to be applied with respect to its (their) drive sheave. The drive sheave shall be subjected to three successive emergency stops, each causing the suspension members to slip traction over the driving sheave [see 8.3.12.4(g)]. The tests shall be so arranged that slippage occurs over substantially the same portion of the suspension means during successive tests. The duration of the slip shall correspond to that attained by the elevator counterweight and car with rated load initially moving at rated speed, and decelerating, on their own, to a complete stop. It shall be permitted to conduct this test on an installed elevator or in a suitable testing facility.

As a result of the test required by 8.3.12.3, suspension member(s) shall not sustain damage that would require replacement according to the criteria of ASME A17.6, Sections 1.10, 2.9, and 3.7, as applicable.
For the tests required in 8.3.12.2 and 8.3.12.3, the testing facilities, test procedure, and test results shall be documented in engineering reports. The following information shall be provided in each engineering report:

(a) date(s) of the test

(b) name and address of location where tests were conducted

(c) name, position, and organization of the person(s) conducting, supervising, or witnessing the tests

(d) description of apparatus and equipment used to perform the tests

(e) description of instrumentation used to measure or record data

(f) definition and description of the suspension member(s) and the driving sheave to which it (they) is (are) being applied, including part number, type designation, or other identification

(g) the values of the loads and speeds for which the suspension members and their sheaves are to be qualified

(h) the sheave rotation speed for Test 8.3.12.2

(i) description of the test procedure and pass/fail criteria

(j) observations noted during the test

(k) test results and test data

(l) conclusions indicating compliance with the acceptance criteria

The application required in 8.3.1.2 shall include information on the expected maximum impact speed and maximum and minimum total loads.
The drawings required in 8.3.1.2.2(b) shall show

(a) the exact construction of the buffer

(b) all dimensions of each part

(c) all pertinent information concerning materials, clearances, and tolerances

(d) the data as marked on the buffer marking plate required by 2.22.5.5

Tests shall be made on a buffer of each type or design to be installed. Each buffer shall conform to the documents submitted. The buffer test shall be on a production model or a buffer identical to the model to be produced. Modifications or special adjustments for the purpose of meeting the test requirements are prohibited.
The testing equipment shall be of such design as to perform the tests specified herein and to determine that the buffer conforms to all the requirements of Section 2.22 for elastomeric buffers and also to 8.3.13.3.1 through 8.3.13.3.3.
The required drop-test load shall be accurate to within ±1%. See 8.3.1.5.
The test weight shall be so guided as to ensure that when dropped onto the buffer, its travel shall be substantially vertical. See also 8.3.13.5.2.
The instruments used to measure the test results shall conform to the following requirements:

(a) The instruments shall be of the recording type and be capable of detecting signals at intervals of 0.01 s.

(b) The measuring chain, including the recording device for the recording of measured values as a function of time, shall be designed with a system frequency of at least 1,000 Hz.

(c) The instruments shall provide data for the plotting of the buffer performance curves showing time intervals, travel of test weight, velocity of test weight, and retardation of test weight during the buffer stroke, and the data shall be accurate to within the following tolerances:

(1) Time increments and total time shall be recorded with an error of less than ±0.5%.

(2) The position of the test weight at each time interval shall be recorded with an error of less than ±0.1%.

(3) Time, travel, velocity, and retardation shall be determined by means of a device that provides the accuracy specified.

An elastomeric buffer shall be placed on a foundation designed to withstand without appreciable deformation the forces resulting from the buffer compression on the drop tests. The buffer shall be installed in a vertical position and located centrally in relation to the drop-test weight.
The buffer shall be installed on the foundation in the same manner as in normal service, or by equivalent means, in accordance with the manufacturer's drawings.
The buffer shall be tested as follows:

Test weights shall be dropped and allowed to fall freely from a height that ensures the test weights will have reached the required maximum speed by the moment of impact. The falling distance, speed, acceleration, and retardation of each test weight shall be recorded from the moment of release to the moment of complete standstill.

The test weights shall correspond to the maximum and minimum loads called for. They shall be guided vertically with the minimum friction possible, so that at the moment of impact at least 0.9 × gravity is reached.
The ambient temperature shall be between 15°C (59°F) and 25°C (77°F).
Three tests shall be made with the maximum load called for, and three tests with the minimum load called for.

The time delay between two consecutive tests shall be not less than 5 min and not more than 30 min. In each of the three tests with maximum load, the value of reference of the buffer force at a stroke equal to 50% of the real height of the buffer given by the applicant shall not vary by more than 5%. For the tests with minimum load, the same procedure shall be followed.

The retardation shall conform to the following requirements:

(a) The average retardation in case of free fall with rated load in the car from a speed equal to 115% of the rated speed shall not exceed 1 × gravity. The average retardation shall be evaluated taking into account the time between the first two absolute minima of the retardation.

(b) Peaks of retardation with more than 2.5 × gravity shall not be longer than 0.04 s.

After the tests with the maximum mass, no part of the buffer shall show any permanent deformation or be so damaged as to prevent the required operation of the buffer.
After the buffer has been subjected to all of the specified tests, and all test records and data indicate that it conforms to Section 2.22 and 8.3.13, the laboratory shall issue a test report and a certificate to the manufacturer.
The certificate shall conform to 8.3.1.3.1 and include the following:

(a) the maximum impact speed

(b) the maximum total load

(c) the minimum total load

(d) a statement to the effect that the buffer tested has met the requirements of Section 2.22 and 8.3.13 for the maximum and minimum loads as stated in the certificate

(e) a list of any environmental and life-cycle conditions (where applicable) for use of buffers with nonlinear characteristics (see 2.22.1.1.5)

When buffers fail to perform satisfactorily in tests using the minimum and maximum loads indicated on the application, the laboratory may, in agreement with the applicant, establish the acceptable limits.

(a) Section 8.4 applies to all electric elevators with counterweights, and direct-acting or roped-hydraulic elevators where applicable, where such elevators are installed in buildings assigned to one of the following:

(1) Seismic Design Category C with Component Importance Factor, Ip, equal to 1.5 as defined by IBC (see Section 1.3, building code)

(2) Seismic Design Category D or greater as defined by IBC (see Section 1.3, building code)

(3) Design Spectral Response Acceleration for a 0.2 s time period [Sa(0.2)] greater than 0.12 and building designated as post-disaster building or IEFaSa(0.2) is equal to or greater than 0.35 as defined by NBCC-2005 or later (see Section 1.3, building code)

(4) Seismic Performance Category C with Seismic Hazard Exposure Group II or higher as defined by earlier model building codes (see Note)

(5) Seismic Risk Zone 2 or greater as defined by earlier building codes (see Note)

NOTE [8.4(a)(4) and (a)(5)]: For example, SBC 1982, SBC 1994, etc.

(b) The appropriate Component Seismic Force Level is determined by the applicable building code (see Guide for Elevator Seismic Design Part 1 and Part 2, Sample Calculations 1a—g).

(1) Where the applicable building code references Seismic Design Categories or Design Spectral Response Acceleration [Sa(0.2)], force levels as referenced by 8.4.14 shall be used (see Section 1.3, building code).

(2) Where the applicable building code makes reference to ground motion parameters (such as Av or Zv), 8.4.13 shall be used.

(3) Where the applicable building code makes reference to Seismic Risk Zones, or Seismic Risk Zones and component force level equations, force levels for the appropriate zone, as listed throughout Section 8.4, or the calculated component force level shall be used, whichever is greater.

(c) The elevator seismic requirements contained in Section 8.4 shall be in addition to the requirements in the other parts of the Code unless otherwise specified.

(d) Section 8.4 shall not apply to the elevators required to conform to Sections 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4.

The following clearances shall supersede those specified in 2.5.1.2.
The clearance between the car and the counterweight assembly shall be not less than 50 mm (2 in.), except that where the counterweight is enclosed by double U-brackets or where single U-brackets are provided and are located within the space between the car and its counterweight, the clearance shall be not less than 100 mm (4 in.).
The clearance between the counterweight assembly and the hoistway enclosure or separator beams shall be not less than 50 mm (2 in.).
The running clearance between the counterweight assembly and the nearest obstruction, including counterweight screens, shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.).
Overhead beams and supports including hitch-plate blocking beams shall be anchored to prevent overturning and displacement as a result of seismic forces acting simultaneously, as specified in 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or equal to

(a) Wp horizontally and 0.5Wp vertically (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.5Wp horizontally and 0.25Wp vertically (zone 2)

where

Wp = component operating weight as defined by 8.4.15
Fastening devices including bolts used to secure machines, control panels, motor-generator units, machine beams, support beams, and sheaves, including compensating sheave assemblies, to the building structure shall conform to 8.4.2.3. Requirement 2.9.3.1.2 shall not apply (see Guide for Elevator Seismic Design, Part 2, Sample Calculation 2).
Connections (for guide-rail brackets, see 8.4.8.4) used to attach equipment to the supporting structure, that are not subject to impact loads, shall be designed to withstand seismic component force levels acting simultaneously, as defined in 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or equal to either of the following:

(a) Wp horizontally and 0.5Wp vertically (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.5Wp horizontally and 0.25Wp vertically (zone 2)

Connections subject to impact loads shall be designed to withstand forces double those required for connections not subject to impact loads.
Maximum combined stresses in connections due to the specified seismic forces shall conform to the following applicable standards (see also Part 9):

(a) ANSI/AISC 360-05 or CAN/CSA-S16.1-09 for threaded fasteners

(b) Section 8.8 for welded connections

(c) ACI 318-08 or CSA A23.3-04 for fastening to concrete

(d) ANSI/AF&PA National Design Specification for Wood Construction (2005) or CSA Standard O86-01 Wood Design Manual

NOTE: Connections includes all the mechanical and/or structural components used to transmit shear forces, bending moments, and axial developed in the structure at the connection point.

For areas not utilizing seismic zones, the Nonstructural Component Anchorage, as defined by IBC, shall be in conformance with the requirements of the governing building code.
Retainers for suspension members shall be provided on deflecting and secondary sheaves, driving-machine sheaves and drums, compensating sheaves, governor sheaves, governor tension sheaves, and suspension sheaves on cars and counterweights to inhibit the displacement of suspension members, except as specified in 8.4.3.1.4.
The retainer shall be continuous over not less than two-thirds of the arc of contact between the suspension members and its sheave or drum and shall be so located that not more than one-sixth of the arc of contact is exposed at each end of the retainer.
For double-wrap traction applications, the arc of contact for drums and secondary sheaves shall be that length of arc that is uninterrupted by the entry/exit of the suspension members leading to/from the car or counterweight (see Fig. 8.4.3.1.3).

Fig. 8.4.3.1.3 Arc of Contact

Restraints for suspension members shall be permitted to be used in lieu of continuous guards, provided they conform to the following:

(a) Where the arc of contact is 30 deg or less and one suspension member restraint, located at the midpoint of the arc of contact, is provided.

(b) Where the arc of contact exceeds 30 deg and restraints are provided at intervals not exceeding 30 deg of arc along the arc of contact and a restraint is located at each end of the arc of contact.

Where earthquake mode slow-speed automatic operation is provided [see 8.4.10.1.3(d)], a means of detecting either displacement of suspension members from their normal operating position or the suspension members' retainer shall be provided at the machine. The detection means shall be of the manually reset type and shall conform to 2.26.4.3. Subsequent to the first stop of the car following the actuation of the detection means, the car shall remain inoperative until the detection means is manually reset.
Snag points created by rail brackets, rail clip bolts, fishplates, vanes, and similar devices shall be provided with guards to prevent snagging of the following:

(a) the counterweight end of compensating means where located 760 mm (30 in.) or less from a counterweight rail bracket

(b) compensating chains where any portion of their loop below the midpoint of the elevator travel is located 915 mm (36 in.) or less horizontally from a snag point

(c) governor ropes where located 500 mm (20 in.) or less from a snag point

(d) suspension members where located 300 mm (12 in.) or less from a snag point

(e) traveling cables where any portion of their loop below the midpoint of the elevator travel is located 915 mm (36 in.) or less horizontally from a snag point

The requirements specified in 2.14.1.5 shall apply except that the emergency exit shall be so arranged that it can be opened from within the car by means of a keyed spring-return cylinder-type lock having not less than a five-pin or five-disk combination and opened from the top of the car without the use of a key.

The key required to open the emergency exit lock shall be kept on the premises in a location readily accessible to authorized persons, but not where it is available to the public. No other key to the building shall unlock the emergency exit lock except that where hoistway access switches conforming to 2.12.7 are provided, the key used to operate the access switches shall be permitted to also unlock the top emergency exit. This key shall be Group 1 Security (see Section 8.1).

Upper and lower position restraints attached to the car frame shall be provided. The distance between the upper and lower position restraints shall be not less than the height of the car frame. Separate position restraints are not required where such restraints are an integral part of the guiding member.
Position restraints and their attachments to car frames shall be designed to withstand a seismic force acting horizontally on the weight of the car plus 40% of its rated capacity as defined in 8.4.13 or 8.4.14 (with Wp = car weight + 40% capacity), or equal to

(a) 0.5Wp (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.25Wp (zone 2)

When the car is centrally located between its guide rails and the platform is level, the clearance between each running face of the guide rail and the position restraint shall not exceed 5 mm (0.187 in.) and the depth of engagement with the rail shall be not less than the dimension of the side running face of the rail.

Where compensating ropes are used with a tension sheave assembly, means shall be provided to prevent the tension sheave assembly from being dislocated from its normal operating position when subjected to seismic forces acting simultaneously as specified in 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or equal to either of the following:

(a) Wp horizontally and 0.5Wp vertically (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.5Wp horizontally and 0.25Wp vertically (zone 2)

Compensating-rope sheaves shall be provided with a compensating-rope sheaves switch or switches conforming to 2.26.2.3.

The counterweight frame and its weight sections shall be so designed and arranged as to limit the guide-rail force at the lower position restraint to not more than two-thirds of the total seismic force due to the weight or effective weight of the counterweight assembly when it is subjected to a component seismic force level as defined by 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or a horizontal seismic force equal to

(a) 0.5Wp (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.25Wp (zone 2)

For counterweight assemblies with weight sections that occupy two-thirds or more of the frame height, 8.4.8.9 applies and Figs. 8.4.8.2-1 through 8.4.8.2-7 shall be permitted to be used in sizing the guide-rail system.
The clearance between the counterweight frame and the face of the counterweight guide rail measured at a point one-half the vertical distance between the upper and lower guiding members shall not exceed 13 mm (0.5 in.).
Upper and lower position restraints attached to the counterweight frame shall be provided. The distance between the upper and lower position restraints shall be not less than the height of the counterweight frame. Separate position restraints are not required where such restraints are an integral part of guiding member.
Position restraints and their attachments to counterweight frames shall be designed to withstand a seismic component force level as defined by 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or a seismic force acting horizontally upon the counterweight assembly equal to

(a) 0.5Wp (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.25Wp (zone 2)

When the counterweight is centrally located between its guide rails, the clearance between each running face of the guide rail and the position restraint shall not exceed 5 mm (0.187 in.) and the depth of engagement with the rail shall be not less than the dimension of the side running face of the rail.
The car and counterweight guide-rail systems shall meet the requirements of 8.4.8 or the applicable requirements of Section 2.23 (excluding 2.23.4.3 and Table 2.23.4.3.3), whichever are more stringent.
The load distribution to the guide rails due to the inertial effects of the car and counterweight on their respective guide rails shall be determined as follows:

(a) Conventional Standard Designs. The seismic forces shall be assumed to be distributed one-third to the top guiding members and two-thirds to the bottom guiding members of cars and counterweights.

(b) Nonstandard Designs. Where the design of the car, or counterweight, employs either special construction or location and quantity of guiding members, the formulas and methods of calculation of the load distribution, and resulting stresses and deflections, do not generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific conditions and requirements in each case.

Fig. 8.4.8.2-1 12 kg/m (8 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing

Fig. 8.4.8.2-2 16.5 kg/m (11 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing

Fig. 8.4.8.2-3 18 kg/m (12 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing

Fig. 8.4.8.2-4 22.5 kg/m (15 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing

Fig. 8.4.8.2-5 27.5 kg/m (18.5 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing

Fig. 8.4.8.2-6 33.5 kg/m (22.5 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing

Fig. 8.4.8.2-7 44.5 kg/m (30 lb/ft) Guide-Rail Bracket Spacing

Fig. 8.4.8.2-8 Car and Counterweight Load Factor

(a) For jurisdictions enforcing seismic zones or an equivalent ground motion parameter (see 8.4.13), Wp shall not exceed the maximums specified in Figs. 8.4.8.2-1 through 8.4.8.2-7 for the size of rail and the bracket spacing used.

(b) For jurisdictions enforcing IBC/NBCC, the permissible horizontal seismic force, Fp, based on Wp, per pair of guide rails shall not exceed the maximums specified in Figs. 8.4.8.2-1 through 8.4.8.2-7 for the size of rail and the bracket spacing used (see 8.4.12.1 and Guide for Elevator Seismic Design Part 2, Sample Calculation 3).

Where the ratio of the distance between the upper and lower car or counterweight position restraints to the distance between adjacent brackets is 0.65 or less, an adjusted weight shall be used to determine the required rail size for the bracket spacing used. The adjusted weight shall be determined by multiplying the actual weight by a load factor Q obtained from Fig. 8.4.8.2-8 as follows:

Wa = QW

where

Q = load factor (see Fig. 8.4.8.2-8)
W = actual weight of the counterweight or of the car plus 40% of its rated capacity, N (lb)
Wa = adjusted weight, N (lb)
Where the guide rail is reinforced or a rail of larger size is used, the bracket spacing shall be permitted to exceed the values specified in Figs. 8.4.8.2-1 through 8.4.8.2-7 for a given car weight plus 40% of its rated capacity, or counterweight, provided the variation conforms to 8.4.12.

EXAMPLES:

  1. SI Units. 5 543 kg counterweight, or car weight plus 40% rated capacity, at a bracket spacing of 4.88 m requires for zone 3 or greater:

    (a) a 27.5 kg/m rail without reinforcement; or

    (b) a 22.5 kg/m rail with reinforcement having a combined moment of inertia of 3.33 E + 06 mm4 and a combined section modulus of 5.26 E + 04 mm3 about an axis parallel to the base (axis x-x).

  2. Imperial Units. 12,000 lb counterweight, or car weight plus 40% rated capacity, at a bracket spacing of 16 ft requires for zone 3 or greater:

    (a) an 18.5 lb rail without reinforcement; or

    (b) a 15 lb rail with reinforcement having a combined moment of inertia of 8 in.4 and a combined section modulus of 3.21 in.3 about an axis parallel to the base (axis x-x).

For counterweight systems, intermediate tie brackets conforming to 8.4.8.7 and approximately equally spaced between main brackets shall be provided between guide rails as required by Figs. 8.4.8.2-1 through 8.4.8.2-7. Intermediate tie brackets are not required to be fastened to the building structure.
The total weight of the counterweight assembly shall not exceed the maximum specified in Table 2.23.4.3.1 for a given rail size.

(a) The horizontal seismic forces used to determine guide-rail stresses and deflections are as follows:

(1) For jurisdictions enforcing seismic zones

(-a) 0.5Wp (zone 3 or greater); or

(-b) 0.25Wp (zone 2)

(2) For jurisdictions enforcing IBC/NBCC

(-a) Fp when calculating deflection

(-b) 0.7Fp when calculating stress

(b) For installations where the guide rails bear the vertical loads imposed by machines, sheaves, or hitches, the following vertical loads will be considered acting simultaneously in addition to those above:

(1) For jurisdictions enforcing seismic zones

(-a) 0.25Wp (zone 3 or greater); or

(-b) 0.125Wp (zone 2)

(2) For jurisdictions enforcing IBC/NBCC

(-a) Fv when calculating deflection

(-b) 0.7Fv when calculating stress

where Wp is defined in 8.4.15(b), Fp and Fv are defined in 8.4.14.

NOTE: The forces above are the result of both any equipment attached to the rail and the tensions developed in the suspension ropes by the car and counterweight.

For jurisdictions enforcing seismic zones, stresses in a guide rail, or in a rail and its reinforcement, due to seismic loads specified in 8.4.8.2.6, shall not exceed 88% of the minimum yield stress of the material or materials used.
For jurisdictions enforcing IBC/NBCC, stresses in the guide rail, or in a rail and its reinforcements, due to seismic loads specified in 8.4.8.2.6, shall not exceed 60% of the minimum yield stress of the material or materials used.
Guide-rail brackets and their fastenings and supports, such as building beams and walls, shall be capable of withstanding the forces imposed by the seismic loads specified in 8.4.8.2.6, with a total deflection at the point of support not to exceed 6 mm (0.25 in.).
L = distance between upper and lower counterweight position restraints, mm (in.)
𝓁 = distance between guide brackets, mm (in.)
W = actual weight of counterweight, kg (lb)
Wa = adjusted weight of counterweight, kg (lb)

For ratios of L/𝓁 < 0.65, the adjusted counterweight Wa = QW is to be used in determining bracket spacing and the number of intermediate tie brackets required.

EXAMPLE (Per 15 lb Guide Rail):

(SI Units)

For ratio L/𝓁 = 0.15, and actual weight of counterweight = 3 630 kg

Q = 1.35

Wa = 1.35 (3,630) = 4 900 kg

From Fig. 8.4.8.2-4 zone 3 or greater

Required bracket spacing = 3 200 mm (no tie bracket)
or = up to 4 215 mm (one tie bracket)
or = up to 4 675 mm (two tie brackets)

(Imperial Units)

For ratio L/𝓁 = 0.15, and actual weight of counterweight = 8,000 lb

Q = 1.35

Wa 1= 1.35 (8,000)  = 10,800 lb

From Fig. 8.4.8.2-4 zone 3 or greater

Required bracket spacing = 10 ft 6 in. (no tie bracket)
or = up to 13 ft 10 in. (one tie bracket)
or = up to 15 ft 4 in. (two tie brackets)
In jurisdictions enforcing IBC/NBCC, the Nonstructural Component Anchorage shall be in conformance with the requirements of the governing building code.
Metal guide rails shall be joined together by fishplates as specified in 8.4.8.6 and shall be designed to withstand the forces specified in 2.23.5.1 and 8.4.8.3 without exceeding the stress and deflection limitations.
The joints of metal guide rails shall conform to the following requirements:

(a) The ends of the rails shall be accurately machined with a tongue and matching groove centrally located in the web.

(b) The backs of the rail flanges shall be accurately machined, in relation to the rail guiding surfaces, to a uniform distance front to back of the rails to form a flat surface for the fishplates.

(c) The ends of each rail shall be bolted to the fishplates with not less than four bolts.

(d) The width of the fishplate shall be not less than the width of the back of the rail.

(e) The section modulus and the moment of inertia of the fishplate shall be not less than that of the rail.

(f) The diameter of the bolts for each size of guide rails shall be not less than specified in Table 2.23.7.2.1.

(g) The diameter of bolt holes shall not exceed the diameter of the bolts by more than 2 mm (0.08 in.) for guide rails nor 3 mm (0.125 in.) for fishplates.

Joints of different design and construction to those specified shall be permitted to be used, provided they are equivalent in strength and will adequately maintain the accuracy of the rail alignment.
Guide-rail brackets including intermediate tie brackets, where provided, shall be designed to withstand the forces imposed by the seismic loads specified in 8.4.8.2.6. The stresses and deflections shall not exceed those specified in Table 8.4.8.7.

NOTE(8.4.8.7): Since the specific designs of the rail brackets, their reinforcements where provided, and the method of attachment to the building structure will vary between designs, the maximum stresses and deflections shall be analyzed to suit the specific design.

Table 8.4.8.7 Stresses and Deflections of Guide-Rail Brackets and Supports

Guide-Rail Bracket L Bracket Type Vertical Location Typical Figure Bracket Moment of Inertia, mm4 (in.4) Bracket Design Load, P, N (lb) Allowable
[Notes (1) and (2)]
Stress,
MPa (psi)
Deflection,
mm (in.)
[Note (3)]
Main
(car and counterweight)
Rail span 𝓁 Any Building supports
[Notes (4) and (5)]
Guide-Rail Brackets:
No
permanent deformation

Fastenings: 8.4.2.3.3.

Supports:
N/A
[Note (7)]
6
(0.25)

[Note (6)]
< Rail span 𝓁
[Notes (4) and (5)]

[Notes (4) and (6)]
Intermediate tie (counterweight) Double
"U"
bracket
Mid-span Id
[Notes (4) and (5)]


[Notes (4) and (6)]
1/3 span
Single
"U"
bracket
Mid-span 2Id
1/3 span
CB = building code reduction allowance factor
Fp = seismic component force, N (lb)
L = vertical distance between the upper and lower position restraints required by 8.4.5.1 and 8.4.7.2, mm (in.)
𝓁 = distance (rail span) between adjacent main guide-rail brackets, mm (in.)
ld = moment of inertia of single "U" intermediate, tie bracket, mm4 (in.4), in a double "U" bracket arrangement
P = horizontal seismic load, N (lb)
W = maximum weight of car with 40% rated capacity or counterweight, kg (lb)

NOTES:

  1. The maximum combined stresses in any structural component due to all causes shall be based on sound engineering practice, and shall not exceed the allowable values specified in ANSI/AISC 360, Chapter H (Design of Members for Combined Forces and Torsion), for individual components.
  2. For jurisdictions enforcing seismic zones, allowable stresses may be increased by 1/3. For jurisdictions enforcing the IBC or NBCC 2005 or later editions, no 1/3 increase is allowed.
  3. This limitation includes the combined deflections of the guide-rail bracket, fastenings, and building supports.
  4. For hydraulic elevator main bracket design load (car), add 1/4 the weight of the plunger (zone 3 or greater).
  5. For zone 2, multiply design load, P, by 0.5.
  6. CB = 0.7 for purposes of stress calculations.
    CB = 1.0 for purposes of deflection calculations.
  7. The design of supports beyond deflection is the responsibility of the Structural Engineer of Record.
Guide rails shall be secured to their brackets by clips, welds, or bolts. Bolts used for fastening shall be of such strength as to withstand the forces specified in 2.23.5.2 and 2.23.9.1, plus 8.4.8.4 and 8.4.8.7.

Welding, where used, shall conform to Section 8.8.

The following information regarding horizontal seismic forces imposed on the guide-rail brackets by the position restraints of the car or counterweight is required on elevator layout drawings. The forces are to be determined as specified in 8.4.8.9.1 and 8.4.8.9.2 (see Fig. 8.4.8.9).

Fig. 8.4.8.9 Guide-Rail Axes

Force normal to the x-x axis of the guide rail:

(a) Where L ≥ 𝓁 (see Table 8.4.8.7):

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(b) Where L < 𝓁 (see Table 8.4.8.7):

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)
Where normal to the y-y axis:

(a) Where L ≥ 𝓁 (see Table 8.4.8.7):

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(b) Where L < 𝓁 (see Table 8.4.8.7):

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

where

Fp = seismic component force as defined in 8.4.14
Fx-x, Fy-y = seismic force, N (lbf)
Wp = total weight of car plus 40% of its rated load, or the total weight of the counterweight, N (lb)

NOTE: For SI units — N = kg × 9.807

Where an expansion joint is located within the elevator installation, the location and maximum design displacement shall be indicated on the layout drawings.
All integral parts of driving machines together with their supports shall be capable of withstanding the inertia effect of their masses without permanent deformation when subjected to seismic forces acting simultaneously as defined in 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or equal to

(a) Wp horizontally and 0.5Wp vertically (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.5Wp horizontally and 0.25Wp vertically (zone 2)

Earthquake emergency operation shall be provided and conform to 8.4.10. Earthquake emergency operation is not required for

(a) risk zone 2, or Fp ≤ 0.5Wp with z/h = 1 (for IBC) or hx/hn = 1 (for NBCC) [see 8.4.14.1(b)], provided the car and counterweight guide-rail systems, guiding members, and position restraints conform to the requirements and force levels for zone 3 or greater, or Fp ≥ 0.5Wp in 8.4.5, 8.4.7, and 8.4.8 where

Wp = component operating weight as defined by 8.4.15

(b) elevators without counterweights

Fig. 8.4.10.1.1 Earthquake Elevator Equipment Requirements Diagrammatic Representation

Table 8.4.10.1.1 Visual Indication Matrix

Earthquake Phase of Operation Earthquake Mode Indication Slow-Speed Operation Indication Earthquake Status Indication
Normal operation Off Off Off
Seismic switch actuation Flashing Off On
Seismic detection device reset; waiting for slow-scan initiation Flashing Flashing On
Scan initiated or in progress Flashing On On
Scan complete; waiting to initiate slow-speed operation On Flashing On
Slow-speed operation active On On On
Counterweight displacement detection device actuation On Off Flashing

(a) All elevators with counterweights except those complying with 8.4.10.1(a) shall conform with the requirements in 8.4.10.1.1.

(b) There shall be at least one seismic detection device per elevator group. Where a group contains a mix of elevators, some with nonvolatile memory and some with only volatile memory, at least one seismic detection device shall be provided for each type of elevator. Elevators in risk zone 2, or Fp < 0.5Wp with z/h = 1 (for IBC) or hx/hn = 1 (for NBCC) (see 8.4.14.2), are exempt from this requirement.

(c) A counterweight displacement detection device shall be provided for each elevator.

(d) An identified momentary reset button or switch shall be provided for each elevator. Actuation of the momentary switch shall terminate earthquake mode [see 8.4.10.1.5(f)]. The switch shall be located outside the hoistway in the inspection and test panel or in the controller enclosure in a control room, a control space, the machine room, a machinery space, or a motor controller complying with 2.7.6.3.2 for the elevator. The lock shall be Group 1 Security.

(e) Where earthquake mode slow-speed automatic operation is provided [see 8.4.10.1.3(d)], the following shall be provided in the elevator car operating panel:

(1) a Group 3 Security spring-loaded key switch labeled "EARTHQUAKE HOISTWAY SCAN" with positions marked "INITIATE" and "OFF." Lettering shall be a minimum 5 mm (0.25 in.) in height.

(2) a visual indicator labeled or displaying "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED."

In elevators with more than one car operating panel, only one car operating panel is required to have the switch and indication.

NOTE: For display/labeling purposes, "EQ" may be substituted for the word "EARTHQUAKE."

(f) A visual indication labeled or displaying "EARTHQUAKE MODE" shall be provided in the car operating panel.

(g) An alphanumeric variable message display panel may be provided in the elevator car operating panel, instead of the indicators required in 8.4.10.1.1(e) and (f), to provide the functions specified for the visual indications in 8.4.10.1.3 and 8.4.10.1.4. In elevators with more than one car operating panel, only one car operating panel is required to have the variable message display.

(h) A visual indication labeled "SEISMIC STATUS" (see Table 8.4.10.1.1) shall be provided on or adjacent to each inspection station (see 2.26.1.4.1).

(i) An audible signaling device shall be provided. It shall be actuated from a momentary switch identified as "ALARM," which shall be provided in each car operating panel. The audible signaling device shall be permitted to be used for a group of elevators. The audible signaling device shall

(1) have a rated sound pressure rating of not less than 80 dBA and not more than 90 dBA at 3 m (10 ft)

(2) respond without delay after the switch has been actuated

(3) be labeled in accordance with 2.26.12.1

(4) be located inside the building and audible inside the car and outside the hoistway

(5) for elevators with a travel greater than 30 m (100 ft), be duplicated as follows: one device shall be mounted on the car and a second device shall be placed at the designated level

(6) remain operable during a failure of the normal building power supply. The power source shall be capable of providing for the continuous operation of the audible signaling device(s) for at least 1 h.

(j) The two-way voice communication means required by 2.27.1.1.4 shall be provided regardless of rise.

(a) Earthquake protective devices shall be of the fail-safe type.

(b) The seismic detection device shall be set to actuate upon excitation in a vertical direction of 0.15 gravity acceleration, 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2) maximum. The frequency response of the device shall be 1 Hz to 10 Hz.

(c) The seismic detection device shall be mounted in an elevator machine room, control room, machine space, control space, or hoistway adjacent to a vertical load-bearing building structural member when installed at an elevation above ground level, or any structural member if mounted at or below ground level, or any other location approved by the structural engineer of record.

(d) A counterweight displacement detection device shall be activated by the derailment of either side of the counterweight at any point in the hoistway, to provide information to the control system that the counterweight has left its guides.

(e) Earthquake protective devices with exposed live electrical parts in the hoistway shall operate at not more than 24 VAC or 24 VDC above or below ground potential and shall not be capable of supplying more than 0.5 A.

(f) Counterweight displacement detection device components shall be permitted to be installed in the running clearance between the car and the counterweight required by 8.4.1.

(g) The use of fuses to detect counterweight displacement shall not be permitted.

(h) A counterweight displacement detection device signal that is actuated for less than 100 ms shall be disregarded. A counterweight displacement detection device signal that is actuated for between 100 ms and 1 s shall be permitted to be disregarded. A counterweight displacement detection device signal that is actuated for more than 1 s shall be latched.

Fig. 8.4.10.1.3 Earthquake Emergency Operation Diagrammatic Representation

(a) Upon actuation of a seismic detection device, the "SEISMIC STATUS" visual indication(s) provided at each operating station(s) (see 2.26.1.4.1) shall be set to illuminate continuously and the "EARTHQUAKE MODE" indication in the car operating panel shall illuminate intermittently on all elevators served by the seismic detection device. Where a variable message display is provided in the car operating panel, the words "EARTHQUAKE MODE" shall be displayed. If the elevator is equipped for slow-speed earthquake operation, the "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED" visual indication shall remain extinguished.

(b) Upon actuation of a seismic detection device, all elevators that are in inspection operation referred to in 2.26.1.4, inspection operation with open door circuits (see 2.26.1.5), or hoistway access operation (see 2.12.7) shall remain in that particular operation.

If the inspection or access operation is exited while the seismic detection device is actuated, the car shall not move unless another of the inspection or access operations is initiated, or the car is returned to normal operation in accordance with 8.4.10.1.1(d). Releveling conforming to 2.26.1.6.7 in either direction is permitted.

(c) Upon actuation of a seismic detection device, all elevators in modes of operation other than earthquake mode and operations referenced by 8.10.1.3(b) that are in motion shall proceed to the nearest available floor. Elevators at a floor upon actuation of a seismic detection device shall remain at the floor. When the car is at a floor, the car shall open its doors and shut down, except that where Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation is in effect, door operation shall conform to 2.27.3.3. Releveling conforming to 2.26.1.6.7 in either direction shall be permitted.

(d) Elevators that are shut down in accordance with 8.4.10.1.3(c) and are equipped with a means of nonvolatile memory shall be permitted to be put back into automatic operation at a speed not to exceed 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min) maximum, subject to the requirements of 8.4.10.1.3(d)(1) through (d)(7).

(1) The "EARTHQUAKE MODE" visual indication in the car shall illuminate continuously.

(2) Emergency personnel shall reset the seismic detection device, the elevator shall remain in earthquake operation mode, and the "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED" and "EARTHQUAKE MODE" visual indications shall illuminate intermittently.

(3) Emergency personnel shall make sure the car is empty and actuate a momentary Group 2 key switch in the car labeled "EARTHQUAKE HOISTWAY SCAN." The "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED" visual indication in the car shall stay on continuously.

(4) Upon "EARTHQUAKE HOISTWAY SCAN" key-switch actuation, the car shall wait 15 s, then close the doors.

(5) The car shall travel from terminal to terminal back to the starting floor at a speed of 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min) maximum, and open the car door.

(6) The "EARTHQUAKE MODE" visual indication shall remain illuminated continuously; the "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED" visual indication shall flash intermittently.

(-a) If the emergency personnel actuates the "EARTHQUAKE HOISTWAY SCAN" key switch again within 60 s, the car shall enter earthquake mode slow-speed automatic operation at 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min). The "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED" visual indication shall turn on and stay on continuously.

(-b) If the emergency personnel does not actuate the "EARTHQUAKE HOISTWAY SCAN" key switch within 60 s, the car shall remain shut down, and the "EARTHQUAKE MODE" and "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED" visual indications shall illuminate intermittently. The sequence shall be capable of being re-initiated by repeating 8.4.10.1.3(d)(1) through (d)(7).

(7) The car in earthquake mode automatic slow-speed operation shall perform identically to the car when it was in normal automatic operation, except that the speed shall be limited in all modes to 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min) maximum and the "EARTHQUAKE MODE" visual indication shall remain on continuously.

(8) If the elevator is performing a slow-speed hoistway scan or is running in slow-speed earthquake mode and the seismic detection switch is actuated, the elevator operation shall comply with 8.4.10.1.3.

(9) The elevator shall exit the earthquake hoistway scan and extinguish the "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED" visual indication when any mode referenced in 8.4.10.1.3(b) is initiated.

(10) Once the seismic detection device is reset and the reset switch referenced in 8.4.10.1.1(d) is actuated, the system shall return to normal operation. The "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED," "EARTHQUAKE MODE," and "SEISMIC STATUS" visual indications shall extinguish.

NOTE: Since the seismic detection device is required to be reset before entering slow-scan operation, it may be actuated again by aftershocks. In this manner, the slow-speed operation can be initiated multiple times.

(a) Upon actuation of a counterweight displacement detection device, the "SEISMIC STATUS" visual indication(s) at the operating station(s) (see 2.26.1.4.1) for that elevator shall be set to illuminate intermittently no matter the state of the seismic detection device servicing that elevator. The "EARTHQUAKE MODE" visual indication in the car operating panel shall illuminate intermittently on the elevator served by the counterweight displacement detection device.

(b) When the counterweight displacement detection device is actuated, the elevator, if in motion, shall initiate an emergency stop by the immediate removal of power from the driving-machine motor and brake. Then the elevator shall proceed away from the counterweight at a speed of not more than 0.375 m/s (75 ft/min) and stop at the nearest available floor, unless performing any of the following operations, in which case it shall remain with that operation:

(1) inspection operation referred to in 2.26.1.4

(2) inspection operation with door open circuits (see 2.26.1.5)

(3) hoistway access operation (see 2.12.7)

(c) If the inspection or access operation is exited while the seismic detection device is actuated, the car shall not move unless another of the inspection or access operations is initiated or the car is returned to normal operation [see 8.4.10.1.1(d)].

(d) If the elevator was operating in slow-speed earthquake operation, the "EARTHQUAKE SLOW SPEED" visual indication shall extinguish.

(e) If after the emergency stop the car and counterweight are adjacent to each other (any overlap), the car is permitted to remain stopped and shut down. Once at the floor, the car shall open the doors and shut down, except that where Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation is in effect, door operation shall conform to 2.27.3.3. Releveling conforming to 2.26.1.6.7 in either direction is permitted.

(f) Once the counterweight displacement detection device and the seismic detection device are reset, and the reset switch referenced in 8.4.10.1.1(d) is actuated, the system shall return to normal operation. The "EARTHQUAKE MODE" and "SEISMIC STATUS" visual indications shall extinguish.

(a) When the counterweight displacement detection device is actuated, operation of the car by means of the key described in 2.27.3.1 and 2.27.3.3, hospital emergency service key, and other similar types of operation is prohibited.

(b) Elevators with power-operated doors, upon reaching a landing, shall cause their doors to open and remain open, except that where Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation is in effect, door operation shall conform to 2.27.3.3.

(c) Upon activation of an earthquake protective device, an elevator standing at a floor with its doors open shall remain at the floor with its doors open. If its doors are closed, it shall open its doors. Where Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation is in effect, door operation shall conform to 2.27.3.3.

(d) An elevator not in operation when an earthquake protective device is activated shall remain at the landing.

(e) Elevators stopped by an earthquake protective device with a volatile-type memory shall remain idle in the event of a power failure. Subsequent restoration of power shall not cancel the status of the earthquake protective devices nor the slow-speed status of the elevator system if such existed prior to the loss of power.

(f) An elevator shall be permitted to be returned to normal service by means of the momentary reset button or switch [see 8.4.10.1.1(d)], provided the counterweight displacement detection device and the seismic detection device are not actuated.

(g) Electrical protective devices required by 2.26.2 shall not be rendered inoperative nor bypassed by earthquake protective devices.

(h) Actuation of the earthquake protective devices shall render the governor tension carriage switch (see 2.18.7.2) ineffective until the car is stopped at a floor.

Earthquake protective devices shall be arranged to be checked for satisfactory operation and shall be calibrated at intervals specified by the manufacturer.

Requirement 8.4.11 applies to all direct-acting hydraulic elevators and roped-hydraulic elevators.

For roped-hydraulic elevators other than those defined by Section 1.3 (Definitions), the requirements, formulas, and specified methods of calculation of loads and the resulting stresses and deflections do not generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific conditions and requirements in each case.

Where hydraulic elevators are provided with counterweights, clearances shall conform to 8.4.1.
Overhead beams for attaching hitch plates shall be anchored to prevent overturning and displacement as a result of seismic forces acting simultaneously as specified in 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or equal to

(a) Wp horizontally and 0.5Wp vertically (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.5Wp horizontally and 0.25Wp vertically (zone 2)

Fastening means in compliance with 8.4.2.3 shall be provided to prevent hydraulic machines, control panels, and storage tanks from being overturned or displaced.
Rope retainers provided on traveling sheaves and deflecting sheaves, in accordance with 3.18.1.2.4, shall comply with 8.4.3.1.2 through 8.4.3.1.4.

Guiding members and position restraints shall conform to 8.4.5 and 8.4.11.5.2.

Position restraints attached to the traveling sheave shall be provided for roped-hydraulic elevators. Separate position restraints are not required where such restraints are an integral part of the guiding means.
Position restraints and their attachments to the traveling sheave shall be designed to withstand a seismic force acting in a horizontal direction as defined in 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or equal to

(a) Wp (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.25Wp (zone 2)

on 1/2 the weight of the driving member of the hydraulic jack plus the weight of the traveling sheave and its attachments.

Where counterweights are provided, they shall conform to 8.4.7.
Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to the following, whichever is more restrictive:

(a) Where car safeties are provided, 3.17.2 shall apply.

(b) Seismic Load Application

(1) Requirement 8.4.8 shall apply.

(2) The load on the car side of direct-plunger hydraulic elevators shall be as determined by 8.4.8.3(a) and (b).

(3) Requirement 8.4.8.9 shall not apply.

The attachment of above ground hydraulic jacks to the building structure shall be capable of withstanding the inertia effect of their masses without permanent deformation when subjected to seismic forces as defined in 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or separate acting forces equal to

(a) Wp horizontally and 0.5Wp vertically (zone 3 or greater)

(b) 0.5Wp horizontally and 0.25Wp vertically (zone 2)

Where buildings are designed with expansion joints, the machine room and the hoistway shall be located on the same side of an expansion joint.

Hydraulic elevators not provided with car safeties complying with 3.17.2 shall be provided with

(a) an overspeed valve(s) conforming to 3.19.4.7, or

(b) a plunger gripper(s) conforming to 3.17.3, except as modified by 8.4.11.2(b)(1) and (b)(2)

(1) Requirement 3.17.3.2 applies as modified. The primary actuation means shall be mechanical or hydraulic. Electrical means are permitted as a secondary actuation means.

(2) The plunger gripper shall be capable of withstanding inertia effects of the elevator masses without operational failure when subjected to seismic forces acting separately, an defined in 8.4.13 or 8.4.14, or equal to

(-a) for zone 3 or greater, or Fp > 0.25Wp with z/h = 1 (or hx/hn = 1)

(-1) Wplgr horizontally

(-2) 1/2 (Wplgr + Wp) vertically

(-b) for zone 2 or Fp ≤ 0.25Wp with z/h = 1 (or hx/hn = 1)

(-1) 1/2Wplgr horizontally

(-2) 1/4 (Wplgr + Wp) vertically

where Wplgr = weight of plunger

Piping supports to restrain transverse motion shall be provided near changes in direction and particularly near valves and joints and shall comply with 8.4.2.3

Horizontal spans shall be supported at intervals not to exceed those specified in Table 8.4.11.13.

Table 8.4.11.13 Pipe Support Spacing

Nominal
Pipe Size,
in.
Maximum Spacing
Between Supports,
mm (in.)
1.0 1 525 (60)  
1.5 2 300 (90)  
2.0 2 600 (102)
2.5 2 750 (108)
3.0 3 000 (120)
4.0 3 500 (138)

(a) Spacing is based on a natural frequency limit of 20 Hz. The pipe is presumed to have oil in it and, for an added margin of safety, the oil is assumed to weigh 900 kg/m3 (56 lb/ft3) at 15.6°C (60°F).

(b) Maximum combined bending and shear stress is limited to 71.8 kPa (1,500 psi).

(c) Maximum sag at the center of the span is limited to 2.5 mm (0.1 in.).

(d) For pipe sizes other than shown, the maximum spacing between supports shall be determined by the following formula:

(SI Units)

(Imperial Units)

where

E = modulus of elasticity for steel [2 068 × 106 MPa (30 × 106 psi)]
I = moment of inertia or pipe, mm4 (in.4)
𝓁 = maximum spacing between supports, m (ft)
W = weight per foot of pipe with oil at 15.6°C (60°F), kg/m (lb/ft)

Means shall be provided to prevent the tank from being overturned or displaced. Such means shall comply with 8.4.2.3.
The following information is required on elevator layout drawings. The horizontal seismic forces imposed on the guide-rail brackets by the position restraints of the traveling sheave and the position restraints of the car or the counterweight (where provided) shall be determined as shown in 8.4.11.15.1 and 8.4.11.15.2.
Force normal to (x-x) axis of the guide rail (see 8.4.8.9)

(a) Where L ≥ 𝓁 (see Table 8.4.8.7)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(b) Where L < 𝓁 (see Table 8.4.8.7)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)
Force normal to (y-y) axis of the guide rail (see 8.4.8.9)

(a) Where L ≥ 𝓁 (see Table 8.4.8.7)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(b) Where L < 𝓁 (see Table 8.4.8.7)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

where

Fp = seismic component force as defined by 8.4.14
Fplgr = seismic component force as defined by 8.4.14 substituting Wplgr for Wp
Fx-x, Fy-y = seismic force, N (lbf)

(1) For car and counterweight lower position restraints:

Wp = total weight of car plus 40% of rated capacity, or the total weight of the counterweight, N (lb)
Wplgr = plunger weight, N (lb) (for direct-acting hydraulic elevators), or
= 0 (for elevators provided with counterweights and roped-hydraulic elevators), based on the in-ground hydraulics. For other designs, the load distribution might be different.

(2) For traveling sheave position restraints where guided on rails separate from car:

Wp = 1.5 × (weight of traveling sheave plus guide attachments), N (lb)
Wplgr = plunger weight, N (lb) (for roped-hydraulic elevators)

The following formulas shall be used to determine the maximum allowable weight per pair of guide rails.

(a) No intermediate tie brackets (car and counterweight rails)

(1) Traction elevators, roped-hydraulic elevators, or hydraulic elevator counterweight rails (where provided)

(SI Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(Imperial Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(2) Direct-acting hydraulic elevators (car guide rails only) or separately guided traveling sheaves

(SI Units)

(Seismic Zone Jurisdictions)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(Imperial Units)

(Seismic Zone Jurisdictions)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

where

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(b) One intermediate tie bracket located midway between main counterweighted guide-rail brackets

(SI Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(Imperial Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(c) Two intermediate tie brackets approximately equally spaced between main counterweighted guide-rail brackets

(SI Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(Imperial Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(a) No intermediate tie brackets (car and counterweight rails)

(1) Traction elevators, roped-hydraulic elevators, or hydraulic elevator counterweight rails (where provided)

(SI Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(Imperial Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(2) Direct-acting hydraulic elevators (car guide rails only) or separately guided traveling sheaves

(SI Units)

(Seismic Zone Jurisdictions)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(Imperial Units)

(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

where

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(b) One intermediate tie bracket located midway between main counterweighted guide-rail brackets

(SI Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(Imperial Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(c) Two intermediate tie brackets approximately equally spaced between main counterweighted guide-rail brackets

(SI Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(Imperial Units)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

where

𝓁 = distance between main car or counterweight guide-rail brackets, mm (in.)
Wp = component operating weight as defined by 8.4.15
Wp´ = maximum weight per pair of guide rails (hydraulic direct-acting elevators and separately guided traveling sheaves), N (lb)
Wplgr = weight of hydraulic plunger, N (lb)
Zx = elastic section modulus of rail about (x-x) axis, mm3 (in.3)
Zy = elastic section modulus of rail about (y-y) axis, mm3 (in.3)

The following formulas shall be used to determine the minimum allowable moment of inertia of guide rails.

(a) Traction elevators, roped-hydraulic elevators, or hydraulic elevator counterweight rails (where provided)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(b) Direct-acting hydraulic elevators (car guide rails only) or separately guided traveling sheaves

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

Table 8.4.12.2.2 Maximum Allowable Deflection

Rail Size,
kg (lb)
Δ, Max.,
mm (in.)
12.0 (8.0) 20 (0.75)
16.5 (11.0) 25 (1.00)
18.0 (12.0) 32 (1.25)
22.5 (15.0) 38 (1.50)
27.5 (18.5) 38 (1.50)
33.5 (22.5) 38 (1.50)
45.0 (30.0) 45 (1.75)

(a) Traction elevators, roped-hydraulic elevators, or hydraulic elevator counterweight rails (where provided)

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

(b) Direct-acting hydraulic elevators (car guide rails only) or separately guided traveling sheaves

(Zone ≥ 3)
(Zone 2)
(IBC/NBCC Jurisdictions)

where

E = modulus of elasticity for steel = 2.068 × 105 MPa (30 × 106 psi)
Ix = moment of inertia of rail about (x-x) axis, mm4 (in.4)
Iy = moment of inertia of rail about (y-y) axis, mm4 (in.4)
𝓁 = distance between main car and counterweight guide-rail brackets, mm (in.)
Wp = component operating weight as defined by 8.4.15
Wplgr = weight of hydraulic plunger, kg (lb)
Δ = maximum allowable deflection at center of rail span, mm (in.), based on Table 8.4.12.2.2.

For 8.4(b)(2), the component force level shall be the greater of that dictated by either of the following:

(a) the applicable building code's nonstructural component requirements

(b) the appropriate seismic zone as determined in 8.4.13.1 or 8.4.13.2

When the applicable building code does not reference component vertical force levels, the appropriate seismic zone vertical force level shall be used when a vertical force level is specified.

In United States jurisdictions with building codes not referencing seismic zones and prior to IBC

In Canadian jurisdictions enforcing building codes prior to NBCC-2005, the following values of Zv (velocity-related seismic zone) will determine the applicable seismic zone:

NOTE: For Zv values, see "Design Data for Selected Locations in Canada," in NBCC-1995, Appendix C.