Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
SCOPE

Part 3 applies to direct-acting hydraulic elevators and the roped-hydraulic types.

NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to hydraulic elevators.

Hoistways, hoistway enclosures, and related construction shall conform to 2.1.1 through 2.1.6 and 2.29.2, except 2.1.2.3 and 2.1.3.1.2.

The pit equipment, beams, floor, and their supports shall be designed and constructed to meet the applicable building code requirements and to withstand the following loads in the manner in which they occur:

(a) the impact load due to car buffer engagement (see 8.2.3 and 3.22.2)

(b) where a plunger gripper, or car, or counterweight safety is furnished, the part of the load transmitted by the application of such gripper(s) or safety(s)

(c) loads imposed by the hydraulic jack

(1) to the cylinder during normal operation

(2) to the buffer when resting on the buffer or during conditions described in 3.1.1(a)

(d) hoist rope up-pull, where applicable, for indirect roped-hydraulic elevators

The floor shall be located entirely above the horizontal plane required for hydraulic elevator top car clearance.

When a hydraulic pump unit and/or control equipment is located on a floor over the hoistway, access shall comply with 2.7.3.

Pits shall conform to Section 2.2, except 2.2.7.

The pit depth shall not be less than is required for the installation of the buffers, hydraulic jack, platform guard (apron), and all other elevator equipment located therein, and to provide the minimum bottom clearance and runby required by 3.4.1 and 3.4.2, respectively.

The location and guarding of counterweights, where provided, shall conform to Section 2.3.

When the car rests on its fully compressed buffers or bumpers, there shall be a vertical clearance of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between the pit floor and the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, including a plunger-follower guide, if provided, except as specified in 3.4.1.2.
The 600 mm (24 in.) clearance does not apply to the following:

(a) any equipment on the car within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from any side of the car platform

(b) any equipment located on or traveling with the car located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the guide rails

(c) any equipment mounted in or on the pit floor located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the guide rails

In no case shall the available refuge space be less than either of the following:

(a) a horizontal area 600 mm × 1 200 mm (24 in. × 47 in.), with a height of 600 mm (24 in.)

(b) a horizontal area 450 mm × 900 mm (18 in. × 35 in.), with a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.)

Trenches and depressions or foundation encroachments permitted by 2.2.2 shall not be considered in determining these clearances.
When the car is resting on its fully compressed buffers or bumpers, no equipment traveling with the car, including a plunger-follower guide, if provided, shall strike any part of the pit or any equipment mounted therein.
Where the vertical clearance outside the refuge space is less than 600 mm (24 in.), that area shall be clearly marked on the pit floor. Markings shall not be required in the area under the apron and guiding means. The marking shall consist of alternating 100 mm (4 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. In addition, a sign with the words "DANGER LOW CLEARANCE" in a minimum 50 mm (2 in.) high letters shall be prominently posted on the hoistway enclosure and shall be visible from within the pit and at the entrance to the pit. The sign shall conform to ANSI Z535.2 and ANSI Z535.4, or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). The sign shall be made of a durable material and shall be securely fastened. The letters and figures shall remain permanently and readily legible.
The bottom car runby shall be

(a) not less than 75 mm (3 in.) for operating speed(s) in the down direction up to 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min)

(b) increased from 75 mm (3 in.) to 150 mm (6 in.) in proportion to the increase in operating speed(s) in the down direction from 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min) to 1 m/s (200 ft/min)

(c) a minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) for operating speed(s) in the down direction exceeding 1 m/s (200 ft/min)

The top runby of the car shall be

(a) not less than 75 mm (3 in.) for rated speeds up to 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min)

(b) increased from 75 mm (3 in.) to 150 mm (6 in.) in proportion to the increase in rated speed from 0.50 m/s (100 ft/min) to 1 m/s (200 ft/min)

(c) a minimum of 150 mm (6 in.) for rated speeds exceeding 1 m/s (200 ft/min)

Neither the top nor the bottom runby of the car shall be more than 600 mm (24 in.).

The maximum upward movement shall be the distance the car sill is above the top landing when the plunger stop (3.18.4) is engaged.

The top-of-car clearances shall conform to 2.4.7 except as specified in 3.4.8.

NOTE (3.4.5): See Nonmandatory Appendix G.

Where a counterweight is provided, the top clearance and the bottom runby of the counterweight shall conform to 3.4.6.1 and 3.4.6.2.

The top clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following:

(a) the bottom car runby

(b) the stroke of the car buffers used

(c) 150 mm (6 in.)

The bottom runby shall be not less than the sum of the following:

(a) the distance the car can travel above its top terminal landing until the plunger strikes its mechanical stop

(b) 150 mm (6 in.)

The minimum runby specified shall not be reduced by rope stretch (see 3.22.2 prohibiting counterweight buffers).

Equipment on top of the car shall conform to the requirements in 2.4.9.

When the car has reached its maximum upward movement, a vertical clearance of 100 mm (4 in.) shall be provided from a hydraulic jack attached to the car and the jacks' attachment means to the horizontal plane described by the lowest part of the overhead structure or other obstruction adjacent to the car enclosure top within the vertical projection of the hydraulic jack and its attachment means. Additionally a horizontal clearance in the direction of the centerline of the car top of at least 300 mm (12 in.) shall be provided from the top of the hydraulic jack to any object creating a shearing hazard.

NOTE (3.4.8): See Nonmandatory Appendix G, Fig. G-5.

The horizontal car and counterweight clearances shall conform to Section 2.5.

Section 2.6 does not apply to hydraulic elevators.

Where there is space below the hoistway that is accessible to persons, requirements of 3.6.1 through 3.6.4 shall be conformed to.

The hydraulic jack shall be supported by a structure of sufficient strength to support the entire static load at rated capacity that is capable of being imposed upon it. The design factor of safety shall be not less than 5, based on ultimate strength for static loads transmitted.

Where the space referred to in Section 3.6 falls underneath the counterweight and/or its guides, the counterweight shall be provided with a safety device that functions as a result of the breaking or slackening of the counterweight suspension ropes.

The car shall be provided with buffers of one of the following types:

(a) oil buffers conforming to 3.22.1

(b) spring buffers of a design that will not be fully compressed when struck by a car with rated load at the operating speed in the down direction (see 3.22.1)

(c) elastomeric buffers of a design that will not be fully compressed when struck by a car with rated load at the operating speed in the down direction (see 3.22.1)

Car buffer supports shall be provided that will withstand, without permanent deformation, the impact resulting from buffer engagement by a car with rated load at the operating speed in the down direction. The design factor of safety shall conform to 2.22.4.3.

A machinery space outside the hoistway containing a hydraulic machine and a motor controller shall be a machine room.

Machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.1 through 2.7.7 and 2.7.9.

In 2.7.5.1.1, 2.7.5.2, and 2.7.5.2.4, replace the words "elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake" with the words "hydraulic machine."
In 2.7.5.1 and 2.7.5.1.2(a), replace the words "elevator driving-machine brake, emergency brake" with the words "hydraulic machine."
In 2.7.5.1.2(b), replace the wording with the following: "for a roped-hydraulic elevator support not less than twice the unbalanced weight of the system with no load and up to rated load in the car and all suspension ropes in place; and for a direct-acting hydraulic elevator support not less than twice the weight of the car with rated load."
In 2.7.5.1.2(c), 2.7.5.3.1, and 2.7.5.5(a), replace the words "elevator driving-machine motor and brake" with the words "hydraulic machine."
In 2.7.5.1.2(e) and 2.7.5.2.1(b)(4), replace the words "before maintaining or inspecting brake, emergency brake" with the words "before maintaining or inspecting the hydraulic machine."
In 2.7.5.2.1(b)(1) and 2.7.5.5(d), replace the words "115% of rated speed" with the words "operating speed in the down direction."
In 2.7.6.3.1, replace the words "electric driving machine" with the words "hydraulic machine."
In 2.7.6.4, replace the wording with the following: "Where hydraulic machine, or an elevator motion controller or motor controller is located in the hoistway or pit, means necessary for tests that require movement of the car shall be provided and arranged so that they can be operated from outside the hoistway and shall conform to 2.7.6.4.1 through 2.7.6.4.2. These means are also permitted to be used by elevator personnel for passenger rescue."
In 2.7.6.4.1, replace the first paragraph with the following: "Where direct observation of the elevator or ropes in the case of a roped-hydraulic elevator is not possible from the location of the means necessary for tests that require movement of the car, display devices or the equivalent shall be provided. They shall be visible from the location of the means and shall convey the following information about the elevator simultaneously:".
Requirement 2.7.6.4.3 does not apply to hydraulic elevators.

Machinery and sheave beams, supports, and foundations shall conform to Section 2.9.

Guarding of exposed auxiliary equipment shall conform to Section 2.10.

Protection of hoistway landing openings shall conform to Section 2.11, except as excluded by 3.11.1.

Emergency doors, where required by 2.11.1, are required only when car safeties are provided.

The requirements of Section 2.12 shall apply.

Car enclosures, car doors and gates, and car illumination shall conform to Section 2.14 except 2.14.2.3.3(b) does not apply where the elevator conforms to the requirements of 3.26.10.

Direct-acting hydraulic elevators shall be provided with car frames and platforms conforming to Section 2.15, subject to the modification hereinafter specified. (See 3.18.2.3 for connection between plunger and platform or car frame.)

A car frame shall not be required, provided 3.15.1.1.1 through 3.15.1.1.6 are conformed to.

The platform frame shall be of such design and construction that all eccentric loads are carried through the structure and plunger attachment into the hydraulic jack (see 3.18.2.3).
The platform frame shall be guided on each guide rail by single-guiding members attached to the frame.
The platform frame shall be designed to withstand the forces resulting from the class of loading for which the elevator is designed without exceeding the stresses and deflections in 2.15.10 and 2.15.11 (see 8.2.2.6).
The hydraulic jack connection to the car shall be designed to transmit the full eccentric moment into the plunger with a factor of safety of not less than 4 (see 3.18.2.3).
The hydraulic jack shall be designed to withstand the stresses due to bending during the loading and unloading of the platform based on the type of loading for which the elevator is designed (see 8.2.8.1.2).
Car safeties shall not be provided.
Roped-hydraulic elevators shall be provided with car frames and platforms conforming to Section 2.15.
The stresses and deflections in car frame and platform members and their connections, based on the static load imposed upon them, shall be not more than those permitted by Section 2.15, provided that the maximum stresses in the car frame uprights that are normally subject to compression shall conform to 8.2.9.1.1.
The stresses and deflection in car frame and platform members and their connections, based on the static load imposed upon them, shall be not more than those permitted by Section 2.15, and shall conform to 8.2.2.
The calculations of the stresses and deflections in side-post car frame and platform members shall be based on the formulas and data in 8.2.9.

For cars with corner-post or sub-post car frames, the formulas and specified methods of calculations do not generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific conditions and requirements in each case.

The calculations of the stresses and deflections in side-post car frame and platform members shall be based on the formulas and data in 8.2.2.

For cars with corner-post or sub-post car frames, or where the rope hitches are not on the crosshead, the formulas and specified methods of calculations do not generally apply and shall be modified to suit the specific conditions and requirements in each case.

The requirements of 2.16.2 shall apply, except, in 2.16.2.2.4(c) the wording "hydraulic jack, hydraulic machine, pressure piping and fittings" shall be substituted for the wording "driving-machine motor, brake and traction relation."

The requirements of 2.16.3 shall apply, except

(a) requirement 2.16.3.2.1(a) shall not apply to hydraulic elevators.

(b) on data plates (see 2.16.3.2.2), the weight of the plunger is not to be included in the weight of the complete car, even though it is attached. The plunger weight is to be indicated independently. The operating speed in the down direction shall also be indicated.

(c) requirement 2.16.3.2.2(c) applies only for roped-hydraulic elevators.

(d) requirement 2.16.3.2.2(e) applies only where car safeties are provided.

The requirements of 2.16.4 shall apply, except 2.16.4.3 shall not apply to hydraulic elevators.

The requirements of 2.16.5 shall apply.

The requirements of 2.16.6 shall apply, except 2.16.6(b) shall not apply to hydraulic elevators.

Requirement 2.16.7 shall not apply. One-piece loads exceeding rated load shall not be carried on hydraulic elevators.

Requirement 2.16.8 shall not apply. Hydraulic passenger elevators shall be designed based on 100% of rated load.

The requirements of 2.16.9 shall apply.

Car safeties shall be provided for roped-hydraulic elevators and shall be permitted to be provided for directacting hydraulic elevators. When provided, car safeties shall conform to Section 2.17, and to 3.17.1.1 through 3.17.1.3.

The slack-rope device required by 3.18.1.2 shall be permitted to be an additional means of activating the car safety on roped-hydraulic elevators using hydraulic jacks equipped with plungers. The slack-rope device required by 3.18.1.2.5 shall be an additional means of activating the car safety on roped-hydraulic elevators using hydraulic jacks equipped with pistons.
The safety shall be of a type that can be released only by moving the car in the up direction. To return a car to normal operation after a safety set, the car shall be moved hydraulically in the up direction. For repairs of obvious or suspected malfunction, the car shall be permitted to be raised by other means capable of holding the entire car weight. Prior to releasing the other means, the car shall be run hydraulically in the up direction.

If an auxiliary pump is used to move the car in the up direction to release the safeties, it shall

(a) have a relief valve that limits the pressure to not more than 2.3 times the working pressure

(b) be connected between the check valve or control valve and the shutoff valve

The switches required by 2.17.7 shall, when operated, remove power from the hydraulic machine motor and control valves before or at the time of application of the safety.

Counterweight safeties, where provided in accordance with 3.6.2, shall conform to Section 2.17, provided that safeties shall be operated as a result of the breaking or slackening of the counterweight suspension ropes, irrespective of the rated speed of the elevator.

A plunger gripper shall be permitted to be provided for direct-acting hydraulic elevators using hydraulic jacks equipped with plungers. A plunger gripper shall be capable of stopping and holding the car with its rated load from the actual measured tripping speed per Table 2.18.2.1 and shall conform to 3.17.3.1 through 3.17.3.9. In Table 2.18.2.1 the words "rated speed" shall be replaced by "operating speed in the down direction."

A plunger gripper shall be permitted, provided that

(a) the external pressure applied to the plunger by the device is symmetrically distributed at locations around the circumference of the plunger. The resulting stress in the plunger shall not exceed 67% of the yield strength at any point of the plunger.

(b) the external pressure applied to the plunger by the device does not exceed 67% of the value that will cause local buckling. Where the external pressure is applied over substantially the full circumference of the plunger, the maximum value shall be permitted to be determined by 8.2.8.6.

(c) during the application, the plunger and the plunger gripper are capable of withstanding any vertical forces imposed upon them, and transfer such forces to the supporting structure. During the application of the device, any loading on the plunger shall not damage the cylinder.

(d) power is removed from the hydraulic machine before or at the time of application.

A plunger gripper shall mechanically grip the plunger when a loss of hydraulic pressure or fluid causes uncontrolled downward motion to occur. The plunger gripper shall be actuated by either a hydraulic means or an electrical means.
Where an electrical actuation means is provided, it shall comply with the following:

(a) The plunger gripper shall be fully operational during a primary electrical system power failure.

(b) The elevator shall not be permitted to restart after a normal stop in the event of the failure within the electrical means used to actuate the gripper of any of the following:

(1) a single mechanically operated switch

(2) a single magnetically operated switch, contactor, or relay

(3) a single solenoid

(4) a single solid-state device

(5) a software system failure

(6) the occurrence of a single ground

Hydraulic or electrical means other than those required in 3.17.3.2 are permitted to actuate the plunger gripper for inspection and test purposes. Electrical inspection and test means are not required to comply with 3.17.3.2.1.
The plunger gripper shall be released by establishing at least no-load static pressure on the hydraulic system, or by other means capable of holding the entire car weight.
The elevator shall not be permitted to be restarted without establishing at least no-load static pressure on the hydraulic system.
In the normally retracted position, the following shall apply.
In the normally retracted position of the plunger gripper, any contact between the gripping surface and the plunger shall not cause degradation of the plunger or premature degradation of the gripping surface.
Hydraulic means are permitted to maintain the plunger gripper in the normally retracted position.
The deceleration of the elevator upon actuation of the plunger gripper shall comply with the following criteria:

(a) The average deceleration rate at rated load shall be not less than 0.1 gravity nor more than 1.0 gravity. (See Nonmandatory Appendix P for minimum and maximum stopping distances.)

(b) Any peak deceleration rate in excess of 2.0 gravity shall have a duration of not greater than 0.04 s.

Compliance with 2.17.12.1 and 2.17.12.6 is required. Springs shall be permitted in the operation of the plunger gripper. The maximum fiber stress in the spring shall not exceed 85% of the elastic limit in the material at any time. The factor of safety of wire ropes, if provided in the construction of the plunger gripper, shall not be less than 5. Tiller-rope construction shall not be used.
Leaf and roller chains, if provided in the construction of the plunger gripper, shall conform to ASME B29.100 or ASME B29.8.
The factors of safety shall be based upon the maximum stresses developed in the parts during operation of the gripper when stopping rated load from the tripping speed (see 3.17.3) of the speed-measuring device.
Rope or tape used to drive an electrical encoder is not required to comply with the requirements for governor rope.
If a governor is used, it must comply with 2.18.5.1, except lang-lay construction is permitted and the diameter is permitted to be less than 9.5 mm (0.375 in.).
A permanent marking plate shall be securely attached to each plunger gripper. The plate shall be of such material and construction that it is permanent and readily legible. The letters and symbols shall be stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied with depressed or raised letters and symbols not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) in height, indicating

(a) that it is a plunger gripper.

(b) the maximum operating speed in the down direction in m/s (ft/min) for which the plunger gripper shall be permitted to be used.

(c) the maximum load in newtons (lbf) for which the gripper is designed and installed to stop and sustain.

(d) the manufacturer's name or trademark and identification number of the device.

(e) space for date of acceptance test. Date to be permanently marked following test.

(f) the diameter and minimum wall thickness of the plunger for which the device is applicable.

Flexible hoses used for the operation of a plunger gripper shall be permitted, provided that their failure does not cause an uncontrolled descent. These flexible hoses are not required to meet the requirements of 3.19.3.3.

Governors, when provided, shall comply with Section 2.18, except 2.18.4. In addition, governors shall conform to 3.17.4.1 and 3.17.4.2.

The term "operating speed in the down direction with rated load" shall be substituted for the words "rated speed" whenever these words appear.
For governors located inside the hoistway, see 2.7.6.3.4.

Where multiple hydraulic jacks are used, they shall be hydraulically connected to form a single hydraulic system.

The driving member of the hydraulic jack shall be attached to the car frame or car platform with fastenings of sufficient strength to support that member with a factor of safety of not less than 4 and shall be capable of withstanding, without damage, any forces resulting from a plunger stop as described in 3.18.4.2.

Any plunger or cylinder head mechanical connector or connection shall conform to 3.18.2.1, 3.18.2.4, 3.18.4, and 3.18.5.

The driving member of the hydraulic jack shall be vertical. Cars shall be suspended with not less than two suspension members per hydraulic jack in conformance with 2.15.13 and Section 2.20.
The roping ratio that relates the driving member of the hydraulic jack speed to the car speed shall not exceed 1:2.
Sheaves used to transfer load from the hydraulic jack to the car frame through wire ropes shall conform to 2.24.2, 2.24.3, and 2.24.5.
Means shall be provided to prevent the ropes, if slack, from leaving the sheave grooves.
A slack-rope device with an enclosed manually reset switch shall be provided that shall cause the electric power to be removed from the hydraulic machine pump motor and the control valves should any rope become slack.
The traveling sheave shall be attached with fastenings having a minimum factor of safety of 4, based upon the ultimate strength of the material used. The load to be used in determining the factor of safety shall be the resultant of the maximum tensions in the ropes leading from the sheave with the elevator at rest and with rated load in the car.
The plunger and connecting couplings for the plunger shall be of materials in accordance with 3.18.2.1.1 and 3.18.2.1.2.
Tensile, compressive, bending, and torsional loading shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5, based on ultimate strength.
Pressure loadings shall have a factor of safety not less than that calculated per 8.2.8.5.
Plungers made of steel shall be designed and constructed in compliance with the applicable formula in 8.2.8.1 for calculation of elastic stability, bending, and external pressure. For other materials, the appropriate modulus of elasticity must be utilized.

Plungers subject to internal pressure shall also be designed and constructed in accordance with cylinder design formula in 8.2.8.2.

When the hydraulic jack is not subjected to eccentric loading, it shall

(a) carry in tension the weight of the plunger with a factor of safety not less than 4

(b) restrict total vertical movement to less than 20% of the buffer stroke, where vibration damping means are provided

In addition, when the hydraulic jack is subjected to eccentric loading, the following shall also apply:

(a) The plunger connection to the car shall also be so designed and constructed as to transmit the full eccentric moment into the plunger with a factor of safety not less than 4.

(b) The plunger and the plunger connection to the car shall also be so designed and constructed that the total vertical deflection of the loading edge of the car platform due to eccentric loading of the car shall not exceed 19 mm (0.75 in.).

Plungers composed of more than one section shall have joints designed and constructed to

(a) carry in tension the weight of all plunger sections below the joint with a factor of safety of not less than 4

(b) transmit in compression the gross load on the plunger with a factor of safety of not less than 5, based on ultimate strength

(c) withstand without damage any forces resulting from a plunger stop as described in 3.18.4.2

(d) for eccentric loading, the joints shall conform to 3.18.2.2 and 3.18.2.3

For plungers subjected to external pressure, the working pressure shall be not greater than indicated by the formula in 8.2.8.1.3.

Heads of plungers subject to fluid pressure shall conform to 3.18.3.6.

A plunger-follower guide shall be permitted to be used, provided it is arranged so that the elevator is always in a position where the unsupported length of the plunger conforms to the "maximum free length" as defined in 8.2.8.1. If this length is exceeded, upward movement of the car shall immediately stop, and it shall be permitted to allow the car to return nonstop to the lowest landing; power-operated doors shall open, and electric power shall be removed from the motor and the control valve. After not less than 15 s nor more than 60 s, the doors shall close in compliance with 2.11.3. A manual reset of the means shall be required before the elevator is returned to service. The in-car door open button shall remain operative.

Plunger-follower guides shall be designed and constructed to comply with all applicable requirements of Section 2.15.

Telescopic plungers shall have each plunger section internally guided. If more than two movable sections are used, external guides shall be provided for each plunger section. External guides shall be designed and constructed to comply with all applicable requirements of Section 2.15.
The cylinder and connecting couplings for the cylinder shall be made of materials in compliance with 3.18.3.1.1 and 3.18.3.1.2.
For tensile, compressive, bending, and torsional loading, the cylinder and connecting couplings shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5, based on ultimate strength.
For pressure calculations, the cylinder and connecting coupling shall have a factor of safety not less than that calculated as specified in 8.2.8.5.
Cylinders shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the formula in 8.2.8.2.
Clearance shall be provided at the bottom of the cylinder so that the bottom of the plunger will not strike the safety bulkhead of the cylinder when the car is resting on its fully compressed buffer (see 3.22.1).
Cylinders buried in the ground shall be provided with a safety bulkhead having an orifice of a size that would permit the car to descend at a speed not greater than 0.075 m/s (15 ft/min), nor less than 0.025 m/s (5 ft/min). A space of not less than 25 mm (1 in.) shall be left between the welds of the safety bulkhead and the cylinder head. Safety bulkheads shall conform to 3.18.3.6.

A safety bulkhead shall not be required where a double cylinder is used and where both inner and outer cylinders conform to 3.18.3.

Cylinder packing heads shall conform to appropriate requirements of 3.18.4 and 8.2.8.3.
Closed heads of cylinders, and heads of plungers subject to fluid pressure, shall conform to 3.18.3.6.1 through 3.18.3.6.3.
Closed heads of cylinders shall be only of dished seamless construction, concave to pressure, except if the bottom of the cylinder is supported, and if the cylinder is not buried.
They shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the applicable formulas in 8.2.8.3, provided that steel heads shall in no case have a thickness less than that required for the adjoining shell.
Dished seamless heads, convex to pressure, if used on plungers, shall have a maximum allowable working pressure of not more than 60% of that for heads of the same dimensions with pressure on the concave side.
Means shall be provided to collect for removal any oil leakage from the cylinder head seals or packing gland. The amount collected before removal shall not exceed 19 L (5 gal).
Cylinders buried in the ground shall be protected from corrosion due to galvanic or electrolytic action, salt water, or other underground conditions.
The methods specified in 3.18.3.8.3 shall be considered as acceptable, provided that they

(a) are designed and installed with means for monitoring and maintaining them in accordance with accepted industry practices applicable to the methods

(b) are effective for specific conditions where the cylinder is installed

(c) provide means for checking ongoing compliance with 3.18.3.8.1

Cylinders buried in the ground shall be provided with protection from corrosion by one or more of the following methods:

(a) The cylinder shall be constructed of a material that is immune to the stated conditions.

(b) The cylinder shall be completely covered or encased in a material that completely surrounds the exterior surface and is immune to the stated conditions. If the space between the protective casing and the cylinder is empty, the casing must be designed to withstand a static head of water from ground level to the bottom of the cylinder, based on the manufacturer's rating of the material used.

(c) The cylinder shall be protected by a monitored cathodic protection system.

(d) The cylinder shall be protected by a means that will provide an immunity level not less than that provided by the above methods for the stated conditions.

Cylinders shall be provided with a means to release air or other gas.
Metal stops and/or other means shall be provided at one end of the plunger and at the packing head end of the cylinder to prevent the plunger from traveling beyond the limits of the cylinder.

The metal stops and/or other means shall be so designed and constructed as to stop the plunger traveling in the up direction at maximum speed under full load pressure, should the normal terminal stopping device (see 3.25.1) fail to operate, or at a reduced speed when a terminal speed-reducing device is provided as required by 3.25.2. No running test onto the stop ring is required [see 8.10.3.2.2(s)].

The connections to the hydraulic machine, plunger, plunger connection, couplings, plunger joints, cylinder, cylinder connecting couplings, or any other parts of the hydraulic system shall be designed and constructed to withstand, without damage, a plunger stop in accordance with 3.18.4.1.

All welding of hydraulic jack components shall conform to Section 8.8.

The hydraulic jack shall be permanently and legibly marked. The marking shall be visible after installation. The letters and symbols shall be stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied with depressed or raised letters and symbols not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.) in height with the following information:

(a) the name or trademark by which the organization that manufactured the hydraulic jack can be identified

(b) the manufacturer's designation of the type or model

(c) year of manufacture

Pressure piping, valves, fittings, and mufflers shall be designed and made of materials having properties such that a factor of safety not less than that calculated per 8.2.8.5 is achieved.

Piping and fittings of a grade not subjected to listed/certified testing (ASTM or equivalent) shall not be used for hydraulic pressure piping and fittings.

NOTE (3.19.1.1): Examples of two acceptable pipe standards are ASTM A106 and ASTM A53, Type E or S.

The working pressure (see Section 1.3) shall not exceed the component rated pressure (see Section 1.3) of the pipes, valves, mufflers, and fittings used on the pressure side of the hydraulic system.
For elongations greater than or equal to 10%, the component design shall be substantiated either in accordance with 8.2.8.5 or by an unrestrained proof-test of 5 times the component rated pressure without resulting in fracture. For elongations of less than 10%, the test value shall be 1.5 times the value indicated by 8.2.8.5 multiplied by the component rated pressure.
Valves, fittings, and mufflers shall be pressure rated, and shall bear the manufacturer's name or trademark by which the organization that manufactured the product can be identified, and identification symbols to indicate the materials and service designations for which the manufacturer's rating applies.

NOTE: Valves and fittings rated for a different system may be used in hydraulic elevator systems when substantiated in accordance with the elevator code.

The minimum wall thickness shall conform to 8.2.8.4.
Pipe lighter than Schedule 40 shall not be threaded.
Piping shall be so supported as to eliminate undue stresses at joints and fittings, particularly at any section of the line subject to vibration.
Pipe, tubing, or fittings shall be permitted to be used for instrument or control purposes and shall conform to ASME B31.1, para. 122.3.
A pressure gauge fitting shall be provided on jack side of the check valve or immediately adjacent to the hydraulic control valve. When a pressure gauge is permanently installed, a shutoff means shall be provided to protect the gauge. Where the hydraulic machine is located in the hoistway, the pressure gauge fittings shall only be accessible to elevator personnel from outside the hoistway (see Section 8.1).
A marking shall be applied, to accessible piping that is located outside the elevator machine room or hoistway, stating "Elevator Hydraulic Line" in letters that are at least 19 mm (0.75 in.) high in a contrasting color. The marking shall be visible after installation and applied at intervals not greater than 3 000 mm (120 in.).
Where the hydraulic machine is located in the hoistway and any piping, tubing, or fitting permitted by 3.19.2.4 is located outside the hoistway, means shall be provided to

(a) protect the specified piping, tubing, or fittings from damage, which would cause unsafe elevator operation; or

(b) prevent uncontrolled movement of the elevator in the event of failure of the specified piping, tubing, or fittings

Where the pressure piping is outside the machine room, machinery space, or hoistway, the pressure piping shall be protected from external damage. Where the pressure piping is buried underground or extends beyond the building containing the hydraulic machine or machine room, the elevator shall be fitted with at least one of the following:

(a) a car safety conforming to 3.17.2

(b) an overspeed valve(s) conforming to 3.19.4.7

(c) a plunger gripper(s) conforming to 3.17.3

All piping connections shall be of the welded, grooved, threaded, or bolted flange type. Threads of valves, piping, and fittings shall conform to the requirements of ASME B1.20.1 or ASME B1.20.3. Hydraulic tube fittings shall conform to SAE J514.
Grooved pipe fitting assemblies shall be permitted to be used for hydraulic connections. They shall be installed in conformance with the manufacturer's specifications. They shall be installed in locations that will permit disassembly and inspection of all of their component parts.
Grooved pipe fittings shall be so designed and constructed that failure of a sealing element will not permit separation of the parts connected. The devices or means used for preventing the separation of the parts connected shall be removable only with the use of tools. Devices or means removable with hand-operated quick-release levers or toggles are prohibited.
Flexible hose and fitting assemblies, and flexible couplings, shall be permitted to be used for hydraulic connections. Where installed between the check valve or control valve and the cylinder, they shall conform to 3.19.3.3.1 and 3.19.3.3.2.
Flexible hose and fitting assemblies shall

(a) not be installed within the hoistway, nor project into or through any wall. Installation shall be accomplished without introducing any twist in the hose, and shall conform with the minimum bending radius of SAE 100, R2 type, high pressure, steel wire reinforced, rubber-covered hydraulic hose specified in SAE J517.

(b) have a bursting strength sufficient to withstand not less than 10 times working pressure (see Section 1.3). They shall be tested in the factory or in the field prior to installation at a pressure of not less than 5 times working pressure and shall be marked with date and pressure of test.

(c) conform to the requirements of SAE 100, R2 type hose specified in SAE J517 and be compatible with the fluid used.

(d) be of nonreusable-type fittings.

(e) be permanently labeled/marked, indicating

(1) the name or trademark by which the manufacturer of the hose and fittings can be identified

(2) the type of hose and fitting

(3) the minimum factory test pressure

(4) the minimum bending radius of hose

(5) the date of installation

(6) the inspection procedure

(7) the name of elevator contractor

(f) have a line overspeed valve conforming to 3.19.4.7.

Flexible couplings are permitted for hydraulic connections. Such couplings shall be so designed and constructed that failure of the sealing element will not permit separation of the connected parts. The devices or means used to prevent the separation of the connected parts shall be removable only with the use of tools. Any devices or means that are removable with hand-operated quick-released levers are prohibited.
A manually operated shutoff valve shall be provided between the hydraulic machines and the hydraulic jack and shall be located outside the hoistway and adjacent to the hydraulic machine.

Where the hydraulic machine is located in the hoistway, the manually operated shutoff valve shall be permitted to be located inside the hoistway, provided that it is accessible from outside the hoistway to elevator personnel only (see Section 8.1).

Each pump or group of pumps shall be equipped with one or more relief valve(s) conforming to the following requirements:

(a) Type and Location. The relief valve shall be located between the pump and the check valve and shall be of such a type and so installed in the bypass connection that the valve cannot be shut off from the hydraulic system.

(b) Size. The size of the relief valve and bypass shall be sufficient to pass the maximum rated capacity of the pump without raising the pressure more than 50% above the working pressure. Two or more relief valves shall be permitted to be used to obtain the required capacity.

(c) Sealing. Relief valves shall be sealed after being set to the correct pressure.

No relief valve is required for centrifugal pumps driven by induction motors, provided the shut-off, or maximum pressure that the pump can develop, is not greater than 135% of the working pressure at the pump.
A check valve shall be provided and shall be so installed that it will hold the elevator car with rated load at any point when the pump stops and the down valves are closed or the maintained pressure drops below the minimum operating pressure.
A manually operated valve, located on or adjacent to the control valves, shall be provided and identified, which permits lowering the car at a speed not exceeding 0.10 m/s (20 ft/min). This valve shall be so marked to indicate the lowering position. Where the hydraulic machine is located in the hoistway, the manual lowering valve shall only be accessible to elevator personnel from outside the hoistway (see Section 8.1).
Each type or model and make of hydraulic control valve shall be subjected to the engineering tests and to the certification process as specified in 8.3.5.
Hydraulic control valves shall be plainly marked in a permanent manner with the following information:

(a) certifying organization's name or identifying symbol

(b) the name, trademark, or file number by which the organization that manufactured the product can be identified

(c) statement of compliance with ASME A17.1/CSA B44

(d) type designation

(e) component rated pressure

The electrical coil data shall be marked on each individual coil
When provided, overspeed valves and their connections and attachments shall conform to 3.19.4.7.1 through 3.19.4.7.6.
Each type or model of overspeed valve shall be subjected to the engineering tests specified in 8.3.9.
The overspeed valves shall be plainly marked in a permanent manner with the following:

(a) the name or trademark by which the organization that manufactured the product can be identified

(b) type designation

(c) component rated pressure

(d) maximum and minimum rated flow

Overspeed valves shall be installed and mounted as follows:

(a) Single-Jack Arrangements. Where a single valve is used, it shall be located in the pressure piping within 300 mm (12 in.) of the hydraulic jack. Multiple parallel valves are permitted in lieu of a single valve. These shall be located so as to minimize the distance from the valves to the hydraulic jack.

(b) Multiple-Jack Arrangements. Multiple-jack arrangements shall conform with one of the following:

(1) A single overspeed valve shall be located in the pressure piping within 300 mm (12 in.) of each hydraulic jack. Multiple parallel valves are permitted in lieu of single valves at each hydraulic jack. These shall be located so as to minimize the distance from the valves to each hydraulic jack.

(2) A single overspeed valve shall be located in the pressure piping on the hydraulic machine side of, and immediately before, the tee junction, wye junction, or branch junction that connects the branch pressure pipes to the jacks. Multiple parallel valves are permitted in lieu of a single valve at the junction. For dual hydraulic jack systems, the total length of branch pressure pipe between the tee or wye junction and the jacks shall not exceed the distance between the jacks, measured horizontally, plus 1 m (39 in.). For multiple-jack systems, the length of branch pressure piping shall be minimized.

The factor of safety of the overspeed valve pressure piping and fittings shall be not less than 1.5 times the value obtained using 8.2.8.5, provided that the minimum factor of safety is not less than 4.5, and the minimum percentage elongation is not less than 5 for the overspeed valve and fittings and not less than 20 for the pressure piping.
The overspeed valve shall be constructed, installed, and adjusted to ensure that the elevator obtains the following performance:

(a) The overspeed valve tripping speed shall be not less than 110% nor greater than 140% of the elevator operating speed in the down direction, but in no case shall exceed 0.3 m/s (60 ft/min) above the rated elevator speed.

(b) The average deceleration rate shall be not less than 1.96 m/s2 (6.44 ft/s2) nor more than 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2).

(c) Any peak deceleration rate in excess of 24.53 m/s2 (80.5 ft/s2) shall have a duration of not greater than 0.04 s.

Fieldadjustable overspeed valves shall be sealed after field setting.
Piping buried in the ground shall be provided with protection from corrosion by one or more of the following methods:

(a) monitored cathodic protection

(b) a coating to protect the piping from corrosion that will withstand the installation process

(c) a protective casing, immune to galvanic or electrolytic action, salt water, and other known underground conditions, completely surrounding the exterior surfaces of the piping

Piping buried in the ground shall not include seals or other elements potentially requiring service or replacement.
All welding of valves, pressure piping, and fittings shall conform to Section 8.8.
Field welding of pressure piping and fittings shall also be permitted to be performed by welders certified to the requirements pertaining to pressure systems.

Hydraulic control valves shall conform to the electrical requirements in Clause 4 of CSA C22.2 No. 139.

Where a counterweight is provided, the counterweight shall be connected to the car by not less than two steel wire ropes.

The wire ropes and their connections shall conform to Section 2.20, except that the factor of safety of the wire ropes shall be not less than 7.

Counterweights, where provided, shall conform to Section 2.21. In the event of the separation of the counterweight from the car, the static pressure shall be not more than 140% of the working pressure.

Car buffers or bumpers shall be provided and shall conform to Section 2.22, provided that in applying the requirements of Section 2.22 to hydraulic elevators 3.22.1.1 through 3.22.1.5 are complied with.

The term "operating speed in the down direction with rated load" shall be substituted for the words "rated speed" wherever these words appear.
In place of 2.22.3.2, the requirements specified in 3.22.1.2.1 and 3.22.1.2.2 shall be substituted.
Spring buffers shall be capable of withstanding the loading per 8.2.3.2 without being compressed solid. Elastomeric buffers shall be capable of withstanding the loading per 8.2.3.1 without being compressed 90% of the installed buffer height (see 2.22.5.4).
Spring buffers shall be compressed solid with a loading of 2 times that described in 8.2.3.2.
Requirement 2.22.4.1.2 shall not apply. Reduced stroke buffers shall not be provided on hydraulic elevators. Car buffers or bumpers shall be so located that the car will come to rest on the bumper or fully compressed buffer, or to a fixed stop, before the plunger reaches its down limit of travel.
When multiple buffers are used, each shall be identical and designed for an equal proportion of the loading described in 3.22.1.2.
Plunger weight, less buoyant effects of the plungers at the buffer strike point, shall be added, if applicable, and used in buffer calculations.
Solid bumpers are permitted on hydraulic elevators having an operating speed in the down direction of 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min) or less. See 2.22.2 for solid bumper material.

Where counterweights are provided, counterweight buffers shall not be provided. (See 3.4.6 for required counterweight runby.)

Guide rails, guide-rail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to Section 2.23, with the exceptions specified in 3.23.1.1 through 3.23.1.4.

Requirement 2.23.4.1 shall apply only where car safeties are used and the maximum load on the car side for direct-acting hydraulic elevators is the maximum weight of the car and its rated load plus the weight of the plunger or cylinder as applicable.
Requirement 2.23.4.2 shall apply only where safeties are used.
Requirement 2.23.9.1.1(a) shall apply only where safeties are used.
Section 2.28 shall not apply.
Car and counterweight guide rails, guiderail supports, and their fastenings shall conform to Section 2.23.
The traveling sheave, if provided, shall be guided by means of suitable guide shoes and guide rails adequately mounted and supported.
The working pressure that is developed in the system shall be measured at the acceptance inspection and test. This pressure shall be labeled/marked on a marking plate. The marking plate shall be mounted permanently on the hydraulic machine. The marking plate shall be of such material and construction that it is permanent and readily legible. The letters and symbols shall be stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied with a height not less than 3 mm (0.125 in.).
Tanks shall be of sufficient capacity to provide for an adequate liquid reserve in order to prevent the entrance of air or other gas into the system.
The permissible minimum liquid level shall be clearly indicated.
Tanks shall be covered and suitably vented to the atmosphere. Where tanks are located in the hoistway, they shall be vented to prevent accumulation of fumes in the hoistway and their covers shall be of sufficient strength to resist falling objects.
Tanks shall be so designed and constructed that when completely filled, the factor of safety shall be not less than 4, based on the ultimate strength of the material.
Tanks shall be provided with means for checking the liquid level. Such means shall be accessible without the removal of any cover or other part.

All welding of hydraulic machine components shall conform to Section 8.8.

Upper and lower normal terminal stopping devices shall be provided and arranged to detect the position of the car and cause the car to slow down and stop automatically, at or near the top and bottom terminal landings, with any load up to and including rated load in the car from any speed attained in normal operation. The normal terminal stopping device shall function independently of the operation of the normal stopping means and the terminal speed-reducing device, where provided, such that the failure of the normal stopping means and/or the failure of the terminal speed-reducing device, where provided, shall not prevent the normal terminal stopping device from functioning as specified except

(a) a common actuating means (e.g., a cam, etc.) that is not physically part of the position sensing devices shall be permitted for the actuation of the position sensing device of the normal terminal stopping device and the position sensing device of

(1) the normal stopping means, and/or

(2) the terminal speed-reducing device

(b) a common mounting means shall be permitted for the position sensing device of the normal terminal stopping device and the position sensing device of

(1) the normal stopping means, and/or

(2) the terminal speed-reducing device

The device shall be so designed and installed that it will continue to function until the car reaches its extreme limits of travel.

The device shall be permitted to be rendered inoperative during recycling operation (see 3.26.7).

Stopping devices shall be located on the car, in the hoistway, in the machine room or control room, or in overhead spaces, and shall be operated by movement of the car.
Stopping devices located on the car or in the hoistway and operated by cams on the car or in the hoistway shall conform to 2.25.1.
Stopping devices located in a machine room, control room, or in an overhead space shall conform to 2.25.2.3, except that the device required by 2.25.2.3.2 shall cause the electric power to be removed from the main control valve or from its control switch operating magnets and, in the case of electrohydraulic elevators, where stopping the car is effected by stopping the pump motor, from the pump motor and associated valves.
Terminal speed-reducing devices shall be installed for the up direction where the car speed exceeds 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min), to ensure that the plunger does not strike its solid limit of travel at a speed in excess of 0.25 m/s (50 ft/min) (see 3.18.4.1).
Terminal speed-reducing devices shall conform to 3.25.2.2.1 through 3.25.2.2.3.
They shall operate by mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical means independently of the normal terminal stopping device and function to reduce the speed of the car if the normal terminal stopping device fails to cause the car to slow down at the top terminal as intended such that the failure of the normal terminal stopping device shall not prevent the terminal speed-reducing device from functioning as specified except

(a) a common actuating means (e.g., a cam, etc.) that is not physically part of the position sensing devices shall be permitted for the actuation of both the position sensing device of the terminal speed-reducing device and the position sensing device of the normal terminal stopping device

(b) a common mounting means shall be permitted for the position sensing devices of the terminal speed-reducing device and the normal terminal stopping device

They shall provide retardation not in excess of 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2).
They shall be so designed and installed that a single short circuit caused by a combination of grounds or by other conditions shall not render the device ineffective.
Where the terminal speed-reducing devices are implemented by mechanical or hydraulic means, a means shall be provided to prevent overheating of the drive system (pump and motor). The mechanical or hydraulic means shall not cause permanent deformation to any part upon which the means act.
Where the terminal speed-reducing devices are implemented by electrical means, they shall conform to 3.25.2.4.1 through 3.25.2.4.5.
They shall be so designed and installed that a single short circuit caused by a combination of grounds or by other conditions shall not render the device ineffective.
Where magnetically operated, optical, or solid-state devices are used for position sensing, a single short circuit caused by a combination of grounds or by other conditions, or the failure of any single magnetically operated, optical, or solid-state device, shall not

(a) render the terminal speed-reducing device inoperative

(b) permit the car to restart after a normal stop

Mechanically operated switches, where located on the car or in the hoistway, shall conform to the following:

(a) be operated by the movement of the car

(b) have metal operating cams

(c) have contacts that are positively opened mechanically

(d) be of the enclosed type

(e) be securely mounted in such a manner that horizontal movement of the car shall not affect operation of the device

Electrohydraulic elevators with two means to control upward movement (e.g., pump motor and valve) shall conform to the following:

(a) One or both means to control upward movement of the elevator shall be controlled by the terminal speed-reducing device, either directly or through an intermediate device.

(1) Where an intermediate device is implemented with a solid-state device or software system to satisfy 3.25.2.4.4(a), the failure of any single solid-state device or a software system failure in the intermediate device shall not render the terminal speed-reducing device ineffective.

(2) Redundant devices used to satisfy 3.25.2.4.4(a)(1) shall be checked prior to each start of the elevator from a landing, when on automatic operation. When a failure as specified occurs the car shall not be permitted to restart.

(b) The other means or both means to control upward movement of the elevator are to be controlled by the normal terminal stopping device, either directly or through an intermediate device.

Electrohydraulic elevators with one means to control upward movement (e.g., pump motor only). One or both of the devices required in 3.26.6.4(a) shall be controlled by the terminal speed-reducing device and the other device or both devices by the normal terminal stopping device.

Operating devices and control equipment shall conform to Section 2.26, except as modified by the following:

(a) Requirement 2.26.1.3 does not apply.

(b) Requirement 2.26.1.4 applies as specified by 3.26.2.

(c) Requirement 2.26.1.6 applies as specified by 3.26.3.

(d) Requirement 2.26.2 applies as specified by 3.26.4.

(e) Requirement 2.26.6 does not apply.

(f) Requirement 2.26.8 does not apply.

(g) Requirements 2.26.9.1, 2.26.9.2, 2.26.9.5, 2.26.9.6, and 2.26.9.7 do not apply.

(h) Requirement 2.26.10 does not apply.

Top-of-car operating devices shall be provided and shall conform to 2.26.1.4. In-car and those inspection operations conforming to 2.26.1.4.4 shall be permitted.

The bottom normal terminal stopping device shall be permitted to be made ineffective while the elevator is under the control of the inspection operation device.

Each elevator shall be provided with an anticreep operation to correct automatically a change in car level. It shall conform to 2.26.1.6.2 and 2.26.1.6.3, and 3.26.3.1.1 through 3.26.3.1.5.
The anticreep device shall operate the car at a speed not exceeding 0.125 m/s (25 ft/min).
The anticreep device shall maintain the car within 25 mm (1 in.) of the landing, irrespective of the position of the hoistway door.
For electrohydraulic elevators, the anticreep device shall be required to operate the car only in the up direction.
Operation dependent on the availability of the electric power supply is permitted, provided that

(a) the mainline power disconnecting means is kept in the closed position at all times except during maintenance, repairs, and inspection

(b) a sign is placed on the switch stating, "KEEP SWITCH CLOSED EXCEPT DURING MAINTENANCE, REPAIRS, AND INSPECTIONS"

(c) the sign shall be made of durable material and securely fastened and have letters with a height of not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.)

Only the following, when activated, shall prevent operation of the anticreep device:

(a) the electrical protective devices listed in 3.26.4.1

(b) recycling operation (see 3.26.7)

(c) inspection transfer switch

(d) hoistway access switch

(e) low oil protection means (see 3.26.9)

(f) oil tank temperature shutdown (see 3.26.5 and 3.26.6.5)

Operation of an elevator in a leveling or truck zone at any landing by a car-leveling or truck-zoning device, when the hoistway doors, or the car doors or gates, or any combination thereof, are not in the closed position, is permissible, subject to the requirements of 2.26.1.6.1 through 2.26.1.6.5. A leveling or truck-zoning device shall operate the car at a speed not exceeding 0.125 m/s (25 ft/min).

Electrical protective devices shall be provided in conformance with 2.26.2, and the following requirements, except the words "driving-machine motor and brake" in 2.26.2 shall be replaced with "hydraulic machine," and shall conform to 3.26.4.1 and 3.26.4.2.

When in the open position, the electrical protective devices shall prevent operation by all operating means, except as specified in 3.26.4.2.
When in the open position, the following devices shall initiate removal of power from the hydraulic machine in such a manner as to produce an average deceleration rate not greater than 9.8 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2) and shall prevent operation by all operating means except the anticreep device:

(a) emergency stop switches, where required by 2.26.2.5

(b) broken rope, tape, or chain switches provided in connection with normal stopping devices, when such devices are located in the machine room, control room, or overhead space

(c) hoistway door interlocks or hoistway door contacts

(d) car door or gate electric contacts; or car door interlocks

(e) hinged car platform sill electric contacts

(f) in-car stop switch, where required by 2.26.2.21

Hydraulic elevators powered by a polyphase AC motor shall be provided with the means to prevent overheating of the drive system (pump and motor) due to phase rotation reversals or failure.

The design and installation of the control and operating circuits shall conform to 3.26.6.1 and 3.26.6.2.

Springs, where used to actuate switches, contactors, or relays to stop an elevator at the terminals or to actuate electrically operated valves, shall be of the compression type.
The completion or maintenance of an electric circuit shall not be used to interrupt the power to the control valve, or to the pump driving motor of electrohydraulic elevators, or both under the following conditions:

(a) to stop the car at the terminals

(b) to stop the car when any of the electrical protective devices operate

For electrohydraulic elevators where there are two means of controlling upward movement of the elevator (e.g., a pump motor and a valve), at least one means shall be directly controlled by an electromechanical contactor or relay unless the terminal speed-reducing device (see 3.25.2) directly removes power from one of the control means.
For electrohydraulic elevators where the only means of controlling upward movement of the elevator is the pump motor, the pump motor control shall conform to the following:

(a) Two devices shall be provided to remove power independently from the pump motor. At least one device shall be an electromechanical contactor.

(b) The contactor shall be arranged to open each time the car stops.

(c) The electrical protective devices shall control both devices [see 3.26.6.4(a)] in accordance with 3.26.4.

In the pump motor controller for electrohydraulic elevators, when the occurrence of a single ground or the failure of any single magnetically operated switch, contactor, or relay; or any single solid-state device; or a software-system failure causes the liquid in the hydraulic driving machine to rise in temperature above its maximum operating temperature, the following shall occur:

(a) Power shall be removed from the hydraulic driving-machine motor.

(b) The hydraulic driving-machine motor shall not be permitted to restart.

(c) When the doors are closed, the car shall automatically be brought to the lowest landing and then operate in conformance to 3.26.9.2 and 3.26.9.3.

Recycling operation shall permit the car to be lowered more than 25 mm (1 in.) below the bottom landing, but not require lowering in order to restore the relative vertical position of the multiple plunger sections, provided that

(a) the car is at rest at bottom landing

(b) the doors and gates are closed and locked

(c) no car calls are registered

(d) the speed during recycling does not exceed normal down leveling speed but in no case shall be more than 0.10 m/s (20 ft/min)

(e) normal operation cannot be resumed until car is returned to bottom landing and normal terminal stopping devices are restored to normal operation

When cylinders are installed with the top of the cylinder above the top of the storage tank, a pressure switch shall be provided in the line between the cylinder and the valve, which shall be activated by the loss of positive pressure at the top of the cylinder. The switch shall prevent automatic door opening and the operation of the lowering valve or valves. The door(s) shall be permitted to open by operation of the in-car open button(s), when the car is within the unlocking zone (see 2.12.1).

A means shall be provided to render the elevator on normal operation inoperative if for any reason the liquid level in the tank falls below the permissible minimum. Suitable means include, but are not limited to, the following:

(a) direct sensing of liquid level

(b) a pump-run timer

Actuation of the means shall automatically bring the car down to the lowest landing, when the doors are closed.

When at the lowest landing, the doors shall comply with the following:

(a) For elevators with power-operated doors that automatically close, the door(s) shall open and shall initiate automatic closing within 15 s.

(b) For elevators with manual doors or with doors that do not automatically close, they shall be provided with a signal system to alert an operator to close the doors.

The car shall then shut down. The means shall require manual reset before returning the car to service. For elevators with power-operated doors, the in-car door open button(s) shall remain operative, but the doors shall not be able to be power-opened from the landing.

Where the auxiliary power supply is provided solely for the purpose of lowering the car, in the case of main power supply failure, the auxiliary lowering operation shall conform to 3.26.10.1 through 3.26.10.3.

Auxiliary lowering shall be permitted to be initiated, provided that all operating and control devices, including door open and close buttons, function as with normal power supply, except that the following devices shall be permitted to be bypassed or made inoperative:

(a) landing and car floor registration devices (or call buttons)

(b) devices enabling operation by designated attendant (hospital service, attendant operation)

(c) devices initiating emergency recall operation to the recall level, unless otherwise specified in Section 3.27

(d) "FIRE OPERATION" switch, unless otherwise specified in Section 3.27

When the auxiliary lowering operation has been initiated, the car shall descend directly to the lowest landing, except that the operating system shall be permitted to allow one or more intermediate stops, and then, after a predetermined interval, the car shall proceed to the lowest landing, provided the auxiliary power supply is of sufficient capacity to open and close doors at each intermediate stop.
If the car and landing doors are power operated, and if the auxiliary power supply is of adequate capacity, the doors shall open when the car stops at the lowest landing and shall close after a predetermined interval.

NOTE (3.26.10): For the main disconnect switch auxiliary contact, see ANSI/NFPA 70 and CSA C22.1 requirements, where applicable (see Part 9).

Emergency operation and signaling devices shall conform to Section 2.27, except as modified by the following: The requirements of 3.26.9 and 3.18.2.7 shall be modified when Phase I Emergency Recall Operation and Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation are in effect, as specified in 3.27.1 through 3.27.4. The requirements of 2.27.3.2.1(b) and 2.27.3.2.2(b) shall be modified to include a machinery space containing a hydraulic machine.

If Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is activated while the elevator is responding to any of the following devices, the car shall return to the recall level:

(a) low oil protection (see 3.26.9)

(b) plunger-follower guide protection, provided the car is capable of being moved (see 3.18.2.7)

(c) auxiliary power lowering (see 3.26.10)

(d) oil tank temperature shutdown (see 3.26.6.5)

If the elevator is incapable of returning to the recall level, the car shall descend to an available floor. Upon arrival, automatic power-operated doors shall open, and then reclose within 15 s. The door open button(s) shall remain operative. The visual signal [2.27.3.1.6(h)] shall extinguish.

(a) If any of the devices specified in 3.27.1(a), (b), (c), or (d) is activated, while Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is in effect but before the car reaches the recall level, the car shall do one of the following:

(1) If the car is above the recall level, it shall complete Phase I Emergency Recall Operation.

(2) If the car is below the recall level, it shall descend to an available floor.

(b) Upon arrival, automatic power-operated doors shall open, and then reclose within 15 s. The door open button(s) shall remain operative. The visual signal [see Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h)] shall extinguish.

If any of the devices specified in 3.27.1(a), (c), or (d) is activated while the car is stationary at the recall level and Phase I Emergency Recall Operation is in effect, the following shall apply:

(a) Automatic power-operated doors shall close within 15 s.

(b) The door open button(s) shall remain operational.

(c) The visual signal [see Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h)] shall illuminate intermittently.

If any of the devices specified in 3.27.1(a), (b), (c), or (d) activate while the elevator is on Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation, an upward-traveling car shall stop and a downward-traveling car shall stop at or before the next available floor. All calls shall be canceled. The visual signal [see Fig. 2.27.3.1.6(h)] shall illuminate intermittently. The elevator shall accept calls only to landings below its location and respond in compliance with the requirements for Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation.

Elevator layout drawings shall, in addition to other data, indicate the following:

(a) required clearances and basic dimensions

(b) the bracket spacing (see Section 3.23)

(c) the estimated maximum vertical forces on the guide rails on application of the safety, where provided (see Section 3.23)

(d) in the case of freight elevators for Class B or Class C loading (see 2.16.2.2), the horizontal forces on the guide-rail faces during loading and unloading, and the estimated maximum horizontal forces in a post-wise direction on the guide-rail faces on the application of the safety device, where provided (see Section 3.23)

(e) the size and weight per meter (foot) of any rail reinforcement, where provided (see Section 3.23)

(f) the impact loads imposed on machinery and sheave beams, supports, and floors or foundations (see Section 2.9)

(g) the impact load on buffer supports due to buffer engagement at the maximum permissible load and operating speed in the down direction (see 8.2.3)

(h) the net vertical load from the elevator system, which includes the total car weight and rated load; plunger, cylinder, and oil; and any structural supports

(i) the outside diameter and wall thickness of the cylinder, plunger, and piping, and the working pressure

(j) the total static and dynamic loads from the governor, ropes, and tension system

(k) rated speed and operating speed in the down direction

(l) the minimum "grade" of pipe (ASTM or recognized standard) required to fulfill the installation requirements for pressure piping, or in lieu of a specific "grade" of pipe, the minimum tensile strength of pipe to be used for the installation (see Section 3.19)

(m) the horizontal forces on the building structure stipulated by 2.11.11.8

(n) the length of the plunger and cylinder

(o) the clearance between the bottom of the plunger and the bottom head of the cylinder as required by 3.18.3.3

Identification of equipment and floors shall conform to Section 2.29, as applicable.

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