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SCOPE
Part 2 applies to electric elevators installed at an angle greater than 70 deg from the horizontal. It applies to other equipment only as referenced in the applicable Part.
NOTE: See also Part 8 for additional requirements that apply to electric elevators.
Where fire-resistive construction is required, hoistways shall be enclosed in conformance with the requirements of the building code (see 1.3).
Partitions between hoistways and
(a) machinery spaces outside the hoistway
(b) machine rooms
(c) control spaces outside the hoistway
(d) control rooms
that have a fire-resistance rating, shall be of noncombustible solid or openwork construction that meets the requirements of 2.1.1.2.2(d)(l), (2), and (3). Partitions of solid construction shall be permitted to have openings essential for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator equipment.
Openwork construction shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter, except where there are openings essential for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator equipment.
Hoistway enclosure openings shall be protected with entrances or access doors having a fire protection rating conforming to the requirements of the building code.
Where fire-resistive construction is not required by the building code, hoistway construction shall conform to 2.1.1.2.2 or 2.1.1.3.
The hoistway shall be fully enclosed conforming to 2.1.1.2.2(a), (b), (c), and (d); or 2.1.1.2.2(a), (b), and (e).
(a) Enclosures and doors shall be unperforated to a height of 2 000 mm (79 in.) above each floor or landing and above the treads of adjacent stairways. The enclosure shall be unperforated, adjacent to, and for 150 mm (6 in.) on either side of any moving equipment that is within 100 mm (4 in.) of the enclosure.
(b) Partitions between hoistways and
(1) machinery spaces outside the hoistway
(2) machine rooms
(3) control spaces outside the hoistway
(4) control rooms
shall be of solid or openwork construction that meets the requirements of 2.1.1.2.2(d)(l), (2), and (3). Partitions of solid construction shall be permitted to have openings essential for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator equipment. Openwork construction shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter, except where there are openings for ropes, drums, sheaves, and other elevator equipment.
(c) Openwork enclosures, where used above the 2 000 mm (79 in.) level, shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter.
(d) Openwork enclosures shall be
(1) at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) thick wire, if of steel wire grille
(2) at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) thick, if of expanded metal
(3) so supported and braced as to deflect not over 15 mm (0.6 in.) when subjected to a force of 450 N (100 lbf) applied horizontally at any point
(e) Enclosures shall be permitted to be glass, provided it is laminated glass conforming to ANSl Z97.1, 16 CFR Part 1201, or CAN/CGSB-12.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). Markings as specified in the applicable standard shall be on each separate piece of glass and shall remain visible after installation.
Entrances shall be in conformance with 2.11, except 2.11.14, 2.11.15, 2.11.16, and 2.11.18.
For elevators that are not fully enclosed, protection at least 2 400 mm (94.5 in.) high shall be provided on the hoistway sides that are located 1 500 mm (59 in.) or less from elevator equipment to areas accessible to other than elevator personnel. Such protection shall comply with 2.1.1.2.
The number of elevators permissible in a hoistway shall be in conformance with the building code.
The hoistway enclosure adjacent to a landing opening shall be of sufficient strength to maintain, in true lateral alignment, the hoistway entrances. Operating mechanisms and locking devices shall be supported by the building wall, if load-bearing, or by other building structure. Adequate consideration shall be given to pressure exerted on hoistway enclosures as a result of windage and elevator operation.
The top of the hoistway shall be enclosed as required by the building code.
Pits extending to the ground shall have noncombustible floors, and shall be designed to prevent entry of ground water into the pit. The pit floor of any hoistway not extending to the ground shall be of construction having a fire-resistance rating at least equal to that required for the hoistway enclosure. (See also 2.2 and 2.6.)
The pit equipment, beams, floor, and their supports shall be designed and constructed to meet the applicable building code requirements and to withstand the following loads, without permanent deformation, in the manner in which they occur:
(a) the impact load due to car or counterweight buffer engagement at 125% of the rated speed or 125% of the striking speed where reduced stroke buffers are used (see 8.2.3)
(b) the part of the load transmitted due to the application of the car safety, or where applicable, the counterweight safety
(c) compensation up-pull load where compensation tie-down is applied (see 2.21.4.2)
(d) the loads imposed by a driving machine where applicable (see 2.9)
(e) any other elevator-related loads that are transmitted to the pit floor
A metal or concrete floor shall be provided at the top of the hoistway
(a) where a machine room or control room is located above the hoistway
(b) below overhead sheaves and other equipment that are located over the hoistway and means of access conforming to 2.7.6.3.3 are not provided
(c) below governors that are located over the hoistway and means of access conforming to 2.7.6.3.4 are not provided
Floors are not required below secondary and deflecting sheaves of traction-type machines located over the hoistway.
Overhead floors shall be capable of sustaining a concentrated load of 1 000 N (225 lbf) on any 2 000 mm2 (3 in.2) area, and in addition, where it constitutes the floor of the main or secondary level machinery space, it shall be designed for a live load of not less than 6 kPa (125 lbf/ft2)in all open areas.
Where the elevator driving machine is to be supported solely by the machine room floor slab, the floor slab shall be designed in accordance with 2.9.4 and 2.9.5.
Floors shall be of concrete or metal construction with or without perforations. Metal floors shall conform to the following:
(a) If of bar-type grating, the openings between bars shall reject a ball 20 mm (0.8 in.) in diameter.
(b) If of perforated sheet metal or of fabricated openwork construction, the openings shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter.
Where a floor over a hoistway is required by 2.1.3.1, the floor shall extend over the entire area of the hoistway where the cross-sectional area is 10 m2 (108 ft2) or less. Where the cross-sectional area is greater, the floor shall extend not less than 600 mm (24 in.) beyond the general contour of the machine or sheaves or other equipment, and to the entrance to the machinery space at or above the level of that floor. Where the floor does not cover the entire horizontal area of the hoistway, the open or exposed sides shall be provided with a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2.
When required by the building code, hoistways shall be provided with means to prevent the accumulation of smoke and hot gases.
Where hoistway pressurization is provided, it shall be designed, installed, and maintained so as not to impede elevator operation.
NOTE (2.1.4): Excessive pressurization could prevent doors, complying with 2.13.4, from closing. Air introduced into the hoistway could cause erratic operation by impingement of traveling cables, selector tapes, governor ropes, compensating ropes, and other components sensitive to excessive movement or deflection.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, windows in the walls of hoistway enclosures are prohibited.
Windows and skylights and their frames and sashes in machine rooms and control rooms shall conform to the requirements of the building code (see 1.3).
Hoistway enclosures shall have flush surfaces on the hoistway side, subject to the requirements of 2.1.6.1 and 2.1.6.2.
On sides for loading and unloading, landing sills, hoistway doors, door tracks, and hangers shall be permitted to project inside the hoistway enclosure. Sills shall be guarded as required by 2.11.10.1.
On sides not used for loading and unloading
(a) beams, floor slabs, or other building construction making an angle less than 75 deg with the horizontal shall not project more than 100 mm (4 in.) inside the hoistway enclosure unless the top surface of the projection is beveled at an angle not less than 75 deg with the horizontal
(b) separator beams between adjacent elevators are not required to have bevels
(c) where recesses or setbacks exceeding 100 mm (4 in.) occur in the enclosure wall, the top of the recess or setback shall be beveled at an angle of not less than 75 deg with the horizontal
(d) bevels are not required if the projections, recesses, and setbacks are covered with material conforming to the following:
(1) it shall be equal to or stronger than 1.110 mm (0.0437 in.) wire
(2) it shall have openings not exceeding 25 mm (1 in.)
(3) it shall be supported and braced such that it will not deflect more than 25 mm (1 in.) when subjected to a force of 4.79 kPa (100 lbf/ft 2) applied horizontally at any point
A pit shall be provided for every elevator.
The construction of the pit walls, the pit floor, and any pit access doors (see 2.2.4) shall conform to 2.1.1 and 2.1.2.
The floor of the pit shall be approximately level, except that
(a) trenches or depressions shall be permitted for the installation of buffers, compensating sheaves and frames, and vertically sliding biparting hoistway doors, where structural conditions make such trenches or depressions necessary
(b) in existing buildings, where new elevators are installed or existing elevators are altered, existing foundation footings extending above the general level of the pit floor shall be permitted to remain in place, provided that the maximum encroachment of such footings does not exceed 15% of the cubic content of the pit, and further provided that it is impracticable to remove the footing
Permanent provisions shall be made to prevent accumulation of ground water in the pit (see 2.1.2.2).
Drains and sump pumps, where provided, shall comply with the applicable plumbing code, and they shall be provided with a positive means to prevent water, gases, and odors from entering the hoistway.
In elevators provided with Firefighters' Emergency Operation, a drain or sump pump shall be provided. The sump pump/drain shall have the capacity to remove a minimum of 11.4 m3/h (3,000 gal/h) per elevator.
Sumps and sump pumps in pits, where provided, shall be covered. The cover shall be secured and level with the pit floor.
Where there is a difference in level between the floors of adjacent pits, a metal guard, unperforated, or perforated with openings that will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter, shall be installed for separating such pits. Guards shall extend not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.) above the level of the higher pit floor and a self-closing access door shall be permitted.
Where the difference in level is 600 mm (24 in.) or less, a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 shall be permitted to be installed in lieu of the guard.
Safe and convenient access shall be provided to all pits, and shall conform to 2.2.4.1 through 2.2.4.6.
Access shall be by means of the lowest hoistway door or by means of a separate pit access door.
There shall be installed in the pit of each elevator, where the pit extends more than 900 mm (35 in.) below the sill of the pit access door (lowest hoistway door or separate pit access door), a fixed vertical ladder of noncombustible material, located within reach of the access door. The ladder is permitted to be retractable or nonretractable. Nonretractable ladders, where provided, shall conform to 2.2.4.2.1 through 2.2.4.2.6. Retractable ladders, where provided, shall conform to 2.2.4.2.1 through 2.2.4.2.3 and 2.2.4.2.5 through 2.2.4.2.8. When in the extended position, retractable ladders shall conform to 2.2.4.2.4.
The ladder shall extend not less than 1 200 mm (48 in.) above the sill of the access door or handgrips shall be provided to the same height.
The ladder rungs, cleats, or steps shall be a minimum of 400 mm (16 in.) wide. When obstructions are encountered, the width shall be permitted to be decreased to less than 400 mm (16 in.). The reduced width shall be as wide as the available space permits, but not less than 225 mm (9 in.).
The ladder rungs, cleats, or steps shall be spaced 300 mm (12 in.) ± 13 mm(± 0.5 in.) on center, shall be provided to not less than the height of access door sill, and shall be designed to minimize slipping (e.g., knurling, dimpling, coating with skid-resistant material, etc.).
A clear distance of not less than 115 mm (4.5 in.) from the centerline of the rungs, cleats, or steps to the nearest permanent object in back of the ladder shall be provided.
Side rails, if provided, shall have a clear distance of not less than 115 mm (4.5 in.) from their centerline to the nearest permanent object.
The ladder and its attachments shall be capable of sustaining a load of 135 kg (300 lb).
Retractable ladders that are in the line of movement of the car or counterweight when not fully retracted, shall operate a retractable ladder electrical device (see 2.26.2.38) that shall cause the power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake unless the ladder is in its fully retracted position.
Retractable ladders shall be capable of being extended, mechanically secured and unsecured, and retracted from the access door, and
(a) the force(s) required to extend a retractable ladder from the fully retracted position to the extended and mechanically secured position shall not exceed 220 N (50 lbf)
(b) after being extended and mechanically secured, a retractable ladder shall remain secured in the extended position when subjected to a horizontal force not to exceed 2 220 N (500 lbf)
(c) the force(s) required to retract a retractable ladder from its extended position to its fully retracted position, after being unsecured, shall not exceed 220 N (50 lbf)
(d) the ladder shall be mechanically secured when in the retracted position
Pit access by a ladder shall not be permitted when the pit floor is more than 3 000 mm (120 in.) below the sill of the access door, except where there is no building floor below the bottom terminal landing, this height shall be permitted to be greater but not more than 4 200 mm (165 in.).
Pits shall be accessible only to elevator personnel.
Separate pit access door, when provided, shall be subject to the following requirements:
(a) If the door swings into the pit, it shall be located so that it does not interfere with moving equipment.
(b) If the door swings out, and the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, except guide shoes or rollers or safety jaw assemblies, projects below the top of the separate pit access door opening when the car is level with the bottom terminal landing
(1) an electric contact conforming to 2.26.2.26 shall be provided to prevent operation of the elevator when the door is open
(2) the door shall be provided with a vision panel(s) that is glazed with clear wired glass not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick, will reject a ball 150 mm (6 in.) in diameter, and have an area of not more than 0.03 m2 (47 in.2)
(c) The door shall provide a minimum opening of 750 mm (29.5 in.) in width and 1 825 mm (72 in.) in height.
(d) The door shall be equipped with a barrier conforming to 2.11.1.2(i), where the door sill is located more than 300 mm (12 in.) above the pit floor.
(e) The door shall be self-closing and provided with a spring-type lock arranged to permit the door to be opened from inside of the pit without a key. Such doors shall be kept closed and locked. A key shall be required to unlock the lock from outside the hoistway. The key shall be of Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
Means to unlock the access door from inside the pit shall be provided. The means shall be located
(a) when no pit ladder is provided, not more than 1 825 mm (72 in.) vertically above the pit floor, or
(b) when a pit ladder is provided, not more than 1 825 mm (72 in.) vertically above a rung, cleat, or step. The minimum distance from the top rung, cleat, or step to the top of the pit ladder or handhold shall not be less than 1 200 mm (48 in.) (see 2.2.4.2.1 and Nonmandatory Appendix J, Fig. J-1), and
(c) with the door in the closed position, in a plane not more than 1 000 mm (39 in.) horizontally from a rung, cleat, or step of the pit ladder (see Nonmandatory Appendix J, Fig. J-1).
A permanent lighting fixture shall be provided and shall conform to 2.2.5.1 through 2.2.5.3.
The lighting shall provide an illumination of not less than 100 lx (10 fc) at the pit floor and at a pit platform, when provided.
The light bulb(s) shall be externally guarded to prevent contact and accidental breakage.
The light switch shall be so located as to be accessible from the pit access door.
An enclosed stop switch(es), meeting the requirements of 2.26.2.7 and 2.2.6.1 through 2.2.6.3, shall be installed in the pit of each elevator.
The stop switch shall be so located as to be accessible from the pit access door. Where access to the pits of elevators in a multiple hoistway is by means of a single access door, the stop switch for each elevator shall be located adjacent to the nearest point of access to its pit from the access door.
In elevators where access to the pit is through the lowest landing hoistway door, a stop switch shall be located approximately 450 mm (18 in.) above the floor level of the landing, within reach from this access floor and adjacent to the pit ladder, if provided. When the pit exceeds 1 700 mm (67 in.) in depth, an additional stop switch is required adjacent to the pit ladder and approximately 1 200 mm (47 in.) above the pit floor. Where more than one switch is provided, they shall be wired in series.
The pit depth shall be not less than is required for the installation of the buffers, compensating sheaves, if any, and all other elevator equipment located therein and to provide the minimum bottom car clearance and runby required by 2.4.1.
Where the distance from the pit floor to the underside of the plank channels or slings exceeds 2 100 mm (83 in.), with the car at the lowest landing, a means shall be permanently installed or permanently stored in the pit to provide access to the equipment on the underside of the car. When access is provided by means of a working platform it shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.5.3.2 through 2.7.5.3.6.
Counterweights shall be located in the hoistway of the elevator that they serve, or in a remote hoistway subject to the limitations and requirements of 2.3.3.
Metal guards shall be installed in the pit and/or a machine room or control room located underneath the hoistway on all open sides of the counterweight runway, except that
(a) the guard, or portion thereof, is not required on the side facing the car where there is no space greater than 500 mm (20 in.) between any adjacent combination of compensation means, suspension means, counterweight rails, and guard(s) that blocks the access to the counterweight runway
(b) where pit-mounted buffers are used, the guard is not required where the bottom of the counterweight resting on its compressed buffer is 2 130 mm (84 in.) or more above the pit floor, or above the machine or control room floor if located underneath the hoistway
Guards shall
(a) extend from the lowest part of the counterweight assembly when the counterweight is resting on the fully compressed buffer to a point not less than 2 100 mm (83 in.) and not more than 2 450 mm (96 in.) above the pit floor
(b) be the full width of the area being guarded
(c) not prevent determination of the counterweight runby
(d) be fastened to a metal frame reinforced and braced to be at least equal in strength and stiffness to 2 mm (0.074 in.) thick sheet steel
(e) if perforated, reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter
Where a counterweight is located between elevators, the counterweight runway shall be guarded on the side next to the adjacent elevator. The guard shall be of noncombustible material. The guard, if of openwork material, shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter and be made from material equal to or stronger than 1.110 mm (0.0437 in.) diameter wire. The guard shall be so supported that when subjected to a force of 450 N (100 lbf) applied over an area of 100 mm × 100 mm (4 in. × 4 in.) at any location, the deflection shall not reduce the clearance between the guard and the counterweight below 25 mm (1 in.).
Where elevators are not provided with either compensating means or counterweight safeties, the counterweights shall be permitted to be located in a remote hoistway conforming to 2.3.3.1 through 2.3.3.6.
The hoistway shall be fully enclosed and shall have a fire-resistance rating, conforming to 2.1.1.1 if it penetrates a fire barrier.
Construction at the top and bottom of the hoistway shall conform to 2.1.2.
Permanent means shall be provided for inspection, repair, and maintenance of the counterweight, deflecting and secondary sheaves, hoistway, ropes, counterweight guide rails, and counterweight buffers or bumpers. Entry doors into the separate counterweight hoistway shall be provided at top, bottom, and center of counterweight hoistway, but in no case shall the entry doors be more than 11 m (36 ft) from sill to sill. Doors shall be located and of such width to provide unobstructed access to the space between the counterweight guides. The height of the door shall be at least 1 975 mm (78 in.). Doors shall conform to 2.11.1.2(b) through (e), inclusive. An enclosed stop switch, meeting the requirements of 2.26.2.S(a), (b), and (c), a permanent electric light switch, duplex receptacle, and light shall be provided in the hoistway immediately inside the entry door.
Ropes and sheaves leading to the separate counterweight hoistways shall be protected against unauthorized access.
Not more than four counterweights shall be located in a single separate counterweight hoistway. Multiple counterweights located in a single hoistway shall be separated by means of an unperforated metal guard at the top, bottom, and center of the hoistway. Guards shall extend a minimum of 2 450 mm (96 in.) in length opposite the entry door. Doors and all other means described in 2.3.3.3 shall be provided for each counterweight.
There shall be a clearance of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between the weight in the counterweight frame and the wall containing the entry door.
Where a counterweight is located in the same hoistway as the car, the runway for the counterweight shall be permitted to be separated from the runway for the car, provided it conforms to 2.3.4.1 and 2.3.4.2.
The partition shall be noncombustible. Unperforated metal partitions shall be equal to or stronger than 1.2 mm (0.047 in.) thick sheet steel. Openwork partitions shall be either wire grille at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) in diameter or expanded metal at least 2.2 mm (0.087 in.) in thickness.
The counterweight runway shall be permitted to be fully enclosed for the full height, provided that the partitions are removable in sections weighing not more than 25 kg (55 lb), that permit inspection and maintenance of the entire counterweight assembly and the inspection of the counterweight guide rails and guide-rail brackets.
When the car rests on its fully compressed buffers or bumpers, there shall be a vertical clearance of not less than 600 mm (24 in.) between the pit floor and the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, except as specified in 2.4.1.2.
The 600 mm (24 in.) clearance does not apply to
(a) any equipment on the car within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from any side of the car platform
(b) any equipment located on or traveling with the car located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the plane of the guide rails
(c) any equipment mounted in or on the pit floor located within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from either side of the car frame centerline parallel to the guide rail
In no case shall the available refuge space be less than either of the following:
(a) a horizontal area of 600 mm × 1 200 mm (24 in. × 48 in.) with a height of 600 mm (24 in.)
(b) a horizontal area of 450 mm × 900 mm (18 in. × 35 in.) with a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.)
Trenches and depressions or foundation encroachments permitted by 2.2.2.2 shall not be considered in determining these clearances.
When the car is resting on its fully compressed buffers or bumpers, no part of the car, or any equipment attached thereto or equipment traveling with the car, shall strike any part of the pit or any equipment mounted therein.
In any area in the pit, outside the refuge space, where the vertical clearance is less than 600 mm (24 in.), that area shall be clearly marked on the pit floor. Markings shall not be required in the area under the platform guard and guiding means if that is the only area in the pit where the vertical clearance is less than 600 mm (24 in.). The marking shall consist of alternating 100 mm (4 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. In addition, a sign with the words "DANGER LOW CLEARANCE" shall be prominently posted on the hoistway enclosure and be visible from within the pit and the entrance to the pit. The sign shall
(a) conform to the requirements of ANSI Z535.4 or CAN/CSA-Z321 (see Part 9)
(b) be made of durable material and shall be securely fastened
The bottom runby of cars and counterweights shall be not less than the requirements stated in 2.4.2.1 and 2.4.2.2.
Where oil buffers are used, the bottom runby shall be not less than 150 mm (6 in.), except that
(a) where practical difficulties prevent a sufficient pit depth or where a top clearance cannot be provided to obtain the runby specified, it shall be permitted to be reduced
(b) where spring-return-type oil buffers are used, the runby shall be permitted to be eliminated so that the buffers are compressed by amounts not exceeding those permitted by 2.22.4.8, when the car floor is level with the terminal landings
Where spring buffers or solid bumpers are used, the bottom runby shall be not less than 150 mm (6 in.), except for rheostatic and single-speed AC control, not less than shown in Table 2.4.2.2.
Table 2.4.2.2 Minimum Bottom Runby for Counterweight Elevators With Spring Buffers or Solid Bumpers and Rheostatic Control or Single-Speed AC Control
Rated Speed, m/s (ft/min) Runby, mm (in.)
Not over 0.13 (not over 25) 75 (3)
Over 0.13 to 0.25 (over 25 to 50) 150 (6)
Over 0.25 to 0.50 (over 50 to 100) 225 (9)
Over 0.50 to 1.0 (over 100 to 200) 300 (12)
The bottom runby of uncounterweighted elevators shall be not less than
(a) 75 mm (3 in.) where the rated speed does not exceed 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min)
(b) 150 mm (6 in.) where the rated speed exceeds 0.15 m/s (30 ft/min)
In no case shall the maximum bottom runby exceed
(a) 600 mm (24 in.) for cars
(b) 900 mm (35 in.) for counterweights
A data plate permanently and securely attached shall be provided in the pit, in the vicinity of the counterweight buffer, indicating the maximum designed counterweight runby. The data plate shall conform to 2.16.3.3, except that the letters shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.) in height.
The maximum upward movement of a counterweighted elevator above the top landing shall be no more than the sum of either of the following:
(a) for elevators without tie-down compensation, dimensions specified in 2.4.6.1.1(a) through (c)
(b) for elevators with tie-down compensation, dimensions specified in 2.4.6.1.1(a), (b), and (d)
The following shall be used when calculating the maximum upward movement of a counterweighted elevator:
(a) the designed maximum bottom counterweight runby [see 2.4.4(b)]
(b) the stroke of the counterweight buffer, determined as follows:
(1) for full-stroke buffers, the stroke of the buffer used, or the remaining stroke when the buffer is compressed with the car at the top terminal landing (see 2.4.2 and 2.22.4.8); or
(2) for reduced-stroke oil buffers (see 2.22.4.1.2), the stroke of the buffer used.
(c) one-half of the gravity stopping distance, based on
(1) 115% of the rated speed where oil buffers are used, or 115% of the reduced striking speed when emergency terminal speed-limiting devices meeting the requirements of 2.25.4 are used and no compensating rope tie-down device in conformance with 2.21.4.2 is provided (see 8.2.4 for gravity stopping distances); or
(2) the governor tripping speed where spring buffers are used.
(d) the distance to which the compensating rope tie-down device, if provided (see 2.21.4.2), limits the jump of the car when the counterweight strikes the buffers at speeds specified in 2.4.6.1.1(c) plus the distance to account for the amount of compensation rope stretch.
The maximum upward movement of an uncounterweighted elevator above the top landing shall be no more than the distance from the top landing to the point
(a) where the driving machine operates the final terminal stopping switch (2.25.3.3.2) for a winding drum machine; or
(b) where the car operates the upper final terminal stopping device (2.25.3.3.1) plus gravity stopping distance based on 115% of the rated speed for a traction machine.
When the car has reached its maximum upward movement, the clearance above the car top, measured vertically up to the horizontal plane described by the lowest part of the overhead structure or other obstruction and measured within the projection of the car enclosure top exclusive of the area outside the standard railing (2.10.2) where provided, shall be not less than 1 100 mm (43 in.). In no case shall the following additional clearances be less than:
(a) 600 mm (24 in.) above the car crosshead assembly except as permitted in 2.4.7.1(b) when the crosshead is located over the car enclosure top or the distance which any sheave assembly mounted in or on the crosshead projects above the top of the car crosshead, whichever is greater, but in no case shall there be less than 150 mm (6 in.) clearance above the sheave assembly.
(b) 300 mm (12 in.) above the car crosshead assembly where the crosshead is adjacent to the car enclosure top. The crosshead shall not overlap the car enclosure top by more than 100 mm (4 in.) horizontally.
(c) 600 mm (24 in.) above equipment attached to and projecting above the car enclosure top, exclusive of
(1) standard railings (see also 2.14.1.7.2)
(2) areas outside of the standard railing, the vertical clearance shall be not less than 100 mm (4 in.)
(3) roller and sliding guide assemblies (see also 2.4.9)
(4) gatepost(s) for vertically sliding gates (see also 2.4.9). Spreader bars between gateposts with horizontal and vertical clearances not in compliance with 2.14.1.7.2 shall have yellow and black diagonal stripes of not less than 25 mm (1 in.) wide along the length of the spreader bar, mounted at a location visible from the car top
Any horizontal area above the car enclosure top and within the railing if supplied which could contain a circle with a diameter of equal to or greater than 350 mm (14 in.) that does not have a vertical clearance of 1 100 mm (43 in.) when the car has reached its maximum upward movement shall be clearly marked. The marking shall consist of alternating 50 mm (2 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. In addition, when markings are provided, sign(s) with the words "DANGER LOW CLEARANCE" shall be prominently posted on the crosshead and be visible from the hoistway entrance(s). The sign(s) shall
(a) conform to the requirements of ANSI Z535.4 or CAN/CSA-Z321 (see Part 9)
(b) be made of durable material and shall be securely fastened
NOTE (2.4.7): See Nonmandatory Appendix G.
The top of counterweight clearance shall be not less than the sum of the following items:
(a) the bottom car runby (see 2.4.2)
(b) the stroke of the car buffer used, or the remaining stroke when the buffer is compressed with the car at the bottom terminal landing (see 2.4.2 and 2.22.4.8)
(c) 150 mm (6 in.)
(d) one-half of the gravity stopping distance based on
(1) 115% of the rated speed where oil buffers are used, or 115% of the reduced striking speed when emergency terminal speed-limiting devices meeting the requirements of 2.25.4 are used and no provision is made to prevent the jump of the car at counterweight buffer engagement; or
(2) the governor tripping speed where spring buffers are used (see 8.2.5 for gravity stopping distances)
(e) the distance to which the compensating rope tie-down device, if provided (see 2.21.4.2), limits the jump of the counterweight when the car strikes the buffers at speeds specified in 2.4.8(d) plus the distance to account for the amount of compensation rope stretch
When the car has reached its maximum upward movement (2.4.6), roller and sliding guide assemblies and gateposts for vertically sliding gates shall not strike any part of the overhead structure or the equipment located in the hoistway.
The clearance between the car and the hoistway enclosure shall be not less than 20 mm (0.8 in.), except on the sides used for loading and unloading.
The clearance between the car and the counterweight shall be not less than 25 mm (1 in.). The clearance between the car and the counterweight guard, counterweight and the counterweight guard, and between the counterweight and the hoistway enclosure shall be not less than 20 mm (0.8 in.).
The running clearance between the cars and any equipment attached thereto, of elevators operating in a multiple hoistway, shall be not less than 50 mm (2 in.).
The clearance between the car platform sill and the hoistway edge of any landing sill, or the hoistway side of any vertically sliding counterweighted or counterbalanced hoistway door, or of any vertically sliding counterbalanced biparting hoistway door, shall be not less than
(a) where car side guides are used
(1) 13 mm (0.5 in.) for all elevators except freight elevators
(2) 20 mm (0.8 in.) for freight elevators
(b) where car corner guides are used, 20 mm (0.8 in.) The maximum clearance shall be not more than 32 mm (1.25 in.).
The clearance between the edge of the car platform sill and the hoistway enclosure or fascia plate for the full width of the clear hoistway door opening shall be not more than
(a) 190 mm (7.5 in.) for vertically sliding doors
(b) 125 mm (5 in.) for other doors
This clearance shall be maintained until the car is resting on its fully compressed buffer.
The clearance is not limited on passenger elevators, provided that
(a) a car door interlock conforming to 2.14.4.2 is provided to prevent a door from being opened unless the car is within the unlocking zone
(b) the strength of the door complies with 2.11.11.2, 2.11.11.4, 2.11.11.6, 2.11.11.7, and 2.11.11.8
Where the lowest landing sill projects into the hoistway, the clearance between the car platform apron and the pit enclosure or fascia plate shall be not more than 32 mm (1.25 in.). This clearance shall be maintained until the car is resting on its fully compressed buffer.
The clearances specified in 2.5.1 shall be measured with no load on the car platform.
Where a hoistway does not extend to the lowest floor of the building and there is space below the hoistway that is accessible, requirements of 2.6.1 and 2.6.2 shall be complied with.
Where the space is underneath the counterweight and/or its guides
(a) the counterweight shall be provided with a counterweight safety conforming to 2.17.4
(b) spring buffers, if used, shall conform to 2.22, except that they shall not be fully compressed when struck by the counterweight at the following speeds (see 2.1.2.3):
(1) at governor tripping speed where the counterweight safety is governor operated, or
(2) 125% of the rated speed where the counterweight safety is not governor operated
Where the space is underneath the car and/or its guides and if spring buffers are used, they shall be so designed and installed that they will not be fully compressed solid or to a fixed stop when struck by the car with its rated load at the governor tripping speed (see 2.1.2.3).
A machinery space outside the hoistway containing an electric driving machine and a motor controller shall be a machine room.
Machinery space and control space enclosures located outside the hoistway and machine room and control room enclosures shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.1.1 or 2.7.1.2, and shall also conform to 2.7.1.3, as applicable.
Where the building code requires fire-resistive construction, the construction shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.1.1.1 and 2.7.1.1.2.
Spaces containing machines, motor controllers, sheaves, and other machinery shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a fire-resistive enclosure conforming to the requirements of the building code.
Openings in room and space enclosures shall be protected with access doors having a fire-protection rating conforming to the requirements of the building code.
NOTES (2.7.1.1):
  1. See 2.1.3 for floors of machine rooms and control rooms over the hoistway.
  2. See 2.8.1 for separating elevator machinery from building machinery.
  3. See 2.1.1.1.2 for partitions between machine rooms and hoistways.
Where the building code does not require fire-resistive construction, the construction shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.1.2.1 and 2.7.1.2.2.
Enclosure of the rooms or spaces shall comply with the following:
(a) Machine rooms and control rooms shall be enclosed with noncombustible material to a height of not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.).
(b) Machinery spaces shall be enclosed with noncombustible material to a height of not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.), or to the height of the machinery space if it is less than 2 000 mm (79 in.).
(c) Control spaces shall be enclosed with noncombustible material to a height of not less than 2 000 mm (79 in.).
The room and space enclosure, if of openwork material, shall reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.
Where there is a difference in level exceeding 400 mm (16 in.), a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided (see also 2.7.3.3.1 and 2.7.3.3.2).
NOTE: Differences in levels of floors should be avoided where practicable.
Where machine beams are provided, the floor shall be located above or level with the top of the machine beams.
A clear path of not less than 450 mm (18 in.) shall be provided to all components that require maintenance.
All components requiring maintenance in machinery spaces and control spaces shall have safe and convenient access.
A clearance of not less than 450 mm (18 in.) shall be provided in the direction required for maintenance access.
Where a space is intended to be accessed with full bodily entry, then the requirements of 2.7.2.3 shall apply.
Where a space is not intended to be accessed with full bodily entry, then all components requiring maintenance shall have safe and convenient access.
NOTE (2.7.2): For electrical clearance requirements, see NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).
A permanent and unobstructed means of access shall be provided to
(a) machine rooms and control rooms
(b) machinery spaces and control spaces outside the hoistway
(c) machinery spaces and control spaces inside the hoistway that do not have a means of access to the space as specified in 2.7.3.1.2.
Access to machinery spaces and control spaces inside the hoistway
(a) from the pit shall comply with 2.2.4 and 2.7.5.2.4
(b) from the car top shall comply with 2.12.6 and 2.12.7
(c) from a platform shall comply with 2.7.5.3.5
(d) from inside the car shall comply with 2.7.5.1.4
Access to other locations within the building or access to machinery and equipment not related to elevators through the machinery space, machine room, control spaces, or control rooms shall not be permitted.
The requirements of 2.7.3.2.1 and 2.7.3.2.2 shall be conformed to where passage over roofs is necessary to reach the means of access to machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms.
A stairway with a swinging door and platform at the top level, conforming to 2.7.3.3, shall be provided from the top floor of the building to the roof level. Hatch covers, as a means of access to roofs, shall not be permitted.
Where the passage is over a roof having a slope exceeding 15 deg from the horizontal, or over a roof where there is no parapet or guardrail at least 1 070 mm (42 in.) high around the roof or passageway, a permanent, unobstructed and substantial walkway not less than 600 mm (24 in.) wide, equipped on each side with a railing conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided from the building exit door at the roof level to the means of access.
The means of access to the following shall conform to 2.7.3.3.1 through 2.7.3.3.6:
(a) machine rooms, control rooms, and machinery spaces and control spaces outside the hoistway, and machinery spaces and control spaces inside the hoistway that do not have a means of access to the space as specified in 2.7.3.1.2
(b) between different floor levels in machine rooms, in control rooms, and in machinery spaces or control spaces outside the hoistway
(c) from within machine rooms or control rooms to machinery spaces and control spaces
A permanent, fixed, noncombustible ladder or stair shall be provided where the floor of the room or the space above or below the floor or roof from which the means of access leads, or where the distance between floor levels in the room or space, is more than 200 mm (8 in.).
A permanent, noncombustible stair shall be provided where the floor of the room or the space above or below the floor or roof from which the means of access leads, or where the distance between floor levels in the room or space, is 900 mm (35 in.) or more. Vertical ladders with handgrips shall be permitted to be used in lieu of stairs for access to overhead machinery spaces, except those containing controllers and motor generators.
Permanent, fixed, noncombustible ladders shall conform to ANSI A14.3.
Permanent, noncombustible stairs shall have a maximum angle of 60 deg from the horizontal, and shall be equipped with a noncombustible railing conforming to 2.10.2.1, 2.10.2.2, and 2.10.2.3.
A permanent, noncombustible platform or floor shall be provided at the top of the stairs conforming with the following:
(a) Railings conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided on each open side.
(b) The floor of the platform shall be at the level of not more than 200 mm (8 in.) below the level of the access-door sill.
(c) The depth of the platform shall be not less than 750 mm (29.5 in.), and the width not less than the width of the door.
(d) The size of the platform shall be sufficient to permit the full swing of the door plus 600 mm (24 in.) from the top riser to the swing line of the door.
Where a ladder is provided, a permanent, noncombustible platform or floor shall be provided at the top of the ladder, conforming with the following:
(a) Railings conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided on each open side.
(b) The floor of the platform shall be located below the level of the access-door sill by a vertical distance of not more than 200 mm (8 in.) where full bodily entry is required, and by a vertical distance of not more than 900 mm (35 in.) where full bodily entry is not required.
(c) The depth of the platform shall be not less than 915 mm (36 in.) and the width not less than the width of the door or a minimum of 915 mm (36 in.), whichever is greater.
(d) The size of the platform shall be sufficient to permit the full swing of the door plus 600 mm (24 in.) from the standard railing to the swing line of the door.
(e) The ladder or handgrips shall extend a minimum of 1 220 mm (48 in.) above the platform floor level and shall be located on the access door/panel strike jamb side of the platform.
(f) The railing on the access side shall be provided with a hinged section not less than 600 mm (24 in.) wide with a latchable end adjacent to the ladder.
Access doors shall be
(a) self-closing and self-locking
(b) provided with a spring-type lock arranged to permit the doors to be opened from the inside without a key
(c) kept closed and locked
Access doors to machine rooms and control rooms shall be provided. They shall be of a minimum width of 750 mm (29.5 in.) and a minimum height of 2 030 mm (80 in.). Keys to unlock the access doors shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1).
Access doors for spaces specified in 2.7.4.2, 2.7.4.3, and 2.7.4.4 other than those for machine rooms or control rooms shall be a minimum width and height of 750 mm (29.5 in.). Keys to unlock the access doors shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1).
Access doors for control spaces outside the hoistway shall be a minimum width and height of 750 mm (29.5 in.). Keys to unlock the access doors shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1).
Doors are not required at openings in machine room or control room floors for access to machinery spaces outside the hoistway, provided the access opening is provided on all four sides with a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2, one side of which is arranged to slide or swing to provide access to the ladder or stairs leading to the space. Trap doors, where provided, shall have a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 or guard wings on all open nonaccess sides.
Access openings located in the machinery space floor, secondary level floor, machine room floor, control space floor, or control room floor for access into the hoistway shall be provided with doors that shall be kept closed and locked. Keys to unlock the access doors shall be of Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
Access openings in elevator hoistway enclosures where full bodily entry is not necessary for maintenance and inspection of components shall be
(a) located to permit the required maintenance and inspection
(b) of maximum width of 600 mm (24 in.) and a maximum height of 600 mm (24 in.). These dimensions shall be permitted to be increased, provided that any resultant opening through the access opening into the hoistway shall reject a 300 mm (12 in.) diameter ball.
(c) provided with doors that shall be kept closed and locked. Keys to unlock the access doors to the elevator hoistways shall be of Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
A stop switch conforming to 2.26.2.24, or a disconnecting means where required by NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), accessible and visible from the point of access to machinery spaces or control spaces shall be provided for each elevator. Where access to machinery spaces is from the pit, from the top of the car, or from inside the car, the stop switch in the pit, the stop switch on top of the car, or, where provided, the emergency stop switch in the car, respectively, meet these requirements.
Elevator machine rooms, control rooms, and machinery spaces containing an elevator driving machine not located in the hoistway shall have a clear headroom of not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.). (See also 2.7.4.5.)
Where a floor or platform is provided at the top of the hoistway (see 2.1.3), machinery spaces above such a floor or platform shall have a clear headroom of not less than the following:
(a) spaces containing motor-generators, 2 130 mm (84 in.)
(b) spaces containing only overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves, 1 070 mm (42 in.)
(c) spaces containing overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves, and governors, signal machines, or other equipment, 1 350 mm (53 in.)
Where floors are provided under overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves [see 2.7.4.2(b) and (c)], the machine and supporting beams shall be permitted to encroach on the required headroom, provided there is a clearance of not less than 900 mm (35 in.) high and minimum width of 750 mm (29.5 in.) in the path of access to sheaves, governors, signal machines, or other equipment.
Where a machinery space is located outside but not above the hoistway, the headroom of the area from which any work is performed on the equipment located inside such space shall be not less than 2 000 mm (78 in.), except
(a) spaces containing motor-generators, the headroom shall be not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.)
(b) spaces containing only overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves, the headroom shall be not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.)
(c) spaces containing overhead, secondary, or deflecting sheaves, and governors, signal machines, or other equipment, the headroom shall be not less than 1 350 mm (53 in.)
(d) as permitted in 2.7.4.3
When working from inside the car, or from the top of the car in accordance with 2.7.5.1, or from the pit in accordance with 2.7.5.2, the headroom when the means required by 2.7.5.1 or 2.7.5.2 are engaged shall
(a) comply with the height of working space requirements of NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9)
(b) in no case be less than 1 350 mm (53 in.)
Control spaces outside the hoistway intended for full bodily entry shall have a clear headroom of not less than 2 000 mm (78 in.) or the height of the equipment, whichever is the greater.
NOTE: For control spaces outside the hoistway not intended for full bodily entry, see NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).
The requirements of 2.7.5.1.1 through 2.7.5.1.4 shall be complied with if maintenance or inspections of the elevator driving-machine brake, emergency brake, elevator motion controller, or motor controller are to be carried out from inside the car or from the car top.
If maintenance or inspection of the elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake, or of elevator motion controllers or motor controllers from inside the car or from the car top could result in unexpected vertical car movement, a means to prevent this movement shall be provided.
The means shall
(b) support not less than the unbalanced weight of the system with no load and up to rated load (see also 2.16.8) in the car and all suspension ropes in place. The minimum factor of safety shall be not less than 3.5, and the materials used shall not have an elongation of less than 15% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) when tested in accordance with ASTM E8.
(c) when in the engaged position, actuate an electrical device conforming to 2.26.2.34, that shall cause the power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake
(d) not cause stresses and deflections that exceed the applicable requirements for the structure(s) to which the means transmits load based on 100% of the static unbalanced weight of the system (see also 2.16.8)
(e) have a sign in conformance with the requirements of ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable, that shall be prominently posted in the work area stating: "WARNING! Engage '_______' before maintaining or inspecting brake, emergency brake, or controller. Follow manufacturers instructions for use of '_______'" (see 8.6.11.6). Unless the means has been designed to support not less than the unsuspended car with rated load (see also 2.16.8), it shall also contain the following wording: "Elevator suspension means must be in place during use."
NOTE: Substitute name of actual means for "_______" in the above signage.
(f) be so designed as to prevent accidental disengagement
(g) when engaged, not require electrical power or the completion or maintenance of an electrical circuit to remain engaged.
When the means required in 2.7.5.1.1 is engaged, egress from the working area shall be provided (see also 2.7.3.4.3 and 8.6.11.7).
The use of the car top emergency exit for egress and re-entry is permitted subject to the following:
(a) all edges of the exit opening are smooth and free of burrs
(b) means shall be provided to descend safely to the floor of the car, and subsequently ascend safely to the car top
(c) the means required in 2.7.5.1.1 shall not be arranged to be engaged at a position that would permit a vertical gap between the bottom of the vertical face of the platform guard and the elevator landing sill.
If provided, equipment access panels in the car for access to equipment outside the car shall comply with 2.14.2.2(g)(l), (2), and (5) and shall be provided with
(a) a key-operated lock capable of being locked without a key
(b) an electrical switch that shall cause the power to be removed from the driving machine motor and brake when the access panel is open (see 2.26.2.35)
(c) a key that shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1)
The access panels shall be kept closed and locked, shall not be self-closing, and shall be self-locking.
The requirements of 2.7.5.2.1 through 2.7.5.2.4 shall be complied with if maintenance or inspections of the elevator driving machine brake or an emergency brake or of elevator motion controllers or motor controllers is to be carried out from the pit.
The following shall be provided:
(a) a means in compliance with 2.7.5.1.1, 2.7.5.1.2, and 2.7.4.5 shall be provided; or
(b) a mechanical device shall be provided to stop vertical car movement to create a vertical clearance as required by 2.7.4.5 between the floor of the working area and the lowest part of the car, and between the floor of the working area and the counterweight where a counterweight guard in conformance with 2.3.2 is not provided.
(1) The mechanical device shall be able to stop vertical car movement at up to and including 115% of rated speed with rated load. The retardation shall not exceed that required by 2.22.3 or 2.22.4, as applicable.
(2) The mechanical device shall be permitted to be moved into the active position manually or automatically.
(3) When the mechanical device is in the active position, it shall operate an electrical contact, which when in the open position, shall permit the car to move only on inspection operation [see 2.26.1.4.1 and 2.26.9.3(d)]. The electrical contact shall be positively opened mechanically and its opening shall not depend solely on springs.
(4) A sign in conformance with the requirements of ANSI 2535.2 or CAN/CSA-2321, whichever is applicable, shall be prominently posted in the work area stating: "WARNING! Position '_______' before maintaining or inspecting brake, emergency brake, or controller. Follow manufacturers instructions for use of '_______'" (see 8.6.11.6).
NOTE: Substitute name of actual device for "_______" in the above signage.
(5) The mechanical device shall be designed to prevent accidental movement from the active position.
(6) The mechanical device shall not require electrical power or the completion or maintenance of an electrical circuit to be maintained in the active position.
Pit inspection operation, in compliance with 2.26.1.4, shall be permitted to be provided in the pit (see 2.26.1.4.4).
When the means required in 2.7.5.2.1 is in the active position, safe and convenient egress from the working area shall be provided (see also 2.7.3.4.3 and 8.6.11.7).
(a) Where the egress is through the landing door
(1) the landing door shall be openable from the hoistway side
(2) the means shall be arranged to provide vertical clearance of not less than 1 220 mm (48 in.) between the bottom edge of the platform guard and the elevator landing
(b) Where the egress is through a separate pit access door, the door opening shall not be blocked by the car.
Where maintenance or inspections of the elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake or of elevator motion controllers or motor controllers is to be carried out from the pit, and the distance from the pit floor to this equipment is more than 2 100 mm (83 in.), a means shall be permanently installed or permanently stored in the pit to provide access to the equipment.
A platform located in the car, on the car, or in the hoistway shall be permitted for access to and maintenance and inspection of equipment in machinery spaces or control spaces in the hoistway and shall comply with 2.7.5.3.1 through 2.7.5.3.6 (see also 8.6.11.8).
A working platform shall be permanently installed, and it shall be permitted to be retractable. Retractable platforms, that are in the line of movement of the car or counterweight when in the operating position, shall operate a working platform electrical device(s) (see 2.26.2.36) that shall cause the power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake unless the platform is in its fully retracted position (see 8.6.11.8).
A working platform shall be able to support in any position at least 2 000 N (450 lbf), with a load concentration of at least 1 000 N (225 lbf) over an area of 40 000 mm2 (64 in.2) with a factor of safety of not less than 5. If the platform is to be used for handling heavy equipment, the dimensions and the strength of the platform shall be considered accordingly.
A working platform shall be provided with a standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 on the open or exposed sides where the perpendicular distance between the edges of the platform and the adjacent hoistway enclosure exceeds 300 mm (12 in.) horizontal clearance, and the difference in level between the platform and the surrounding surface exceeds 400 mm (16 in.).
Where a car or counterweight passes within 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally from a working platform, a means of protection against shearing hazards shall be provided to a height as measured from the platform standing surface of not less than 2 130 mm (84 in.), or not less than the maximum upward movement of the car or counterweight. The means shall be at least equal in strength and stiffness to 2 mm (0.074 in.) thick sheet steel. If perforated, it shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter.
Where the access to a working platform that is in the line of movement of the car or counterweight is not through the elevator landing doors, but through an access panel or door in the hoistway, the access panel or door shall meet the requirements of 2.11.1.2(b), (d), and (e) through (i).
Working platform inspection operation, in compliance with 2.26.1.4, shall be permitted to be provided at the location of a working platform. [See 2.7.5.5(b) for additional requirements when the working platform is in the line of movement of the car.]
Working platforms in the line of movement of the car or counterweight shall be permitted
(a) where retractable stops are provided and the car is
(1) below the platform, the travel of the elevator shall be limited by a retractable stop(s) in such a manner that the car shall be stopped below the platform at least the distance required for car top refuge space (see 2.4.12.1)
(2) above the platform, the travel of the elevator shall be limited by a retractable stop(s) in such a manner that the car shall be stopped above the platform at least the distance required in 2.7.4.5; or
(b) where the elevator is provided with a device conforming to 2.7.5.1.1 and 2.7.5.1.2.
Retractable stops, where provided, shall
(a) be equipped with a retractable stop electrical device(s) (see 2.26.2.37), that shall cause the power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake, unless the stops are completely in the retracted position.
(b) be permitted to be equipped with an electrical device(s) that permits operation of the car only on inspection operation when the platform is in the operating position and the stops are in the fully extended position. When provided with such an electrical device and the stop(s) is in the extended position, an additional stopping device conforming to 2.25.3.1 and 2.25.3.3 through 2.25.3.5 shall cause the car to stop before it strikes the movable stop(s). This additional stopping device shall be rendered ineffective when the stop(s) is in the retracted position. Any electrical device(s) used to render the additional stopping device ineffective shall be in conformance with 2.26.4.3, 2.26.9.3.1(a), 2.26.9.3.2, and 2.26.9.4.
(c) be operable from outside the hoistway or from the platform.
(d) be able to stop the car traveling at 115% of rated speed with rated load. The retardation shall not exceed that required by 2.22.3 or 2.22.4, as applicable.
(e) be so designed as to prevent accidental disengagement.
Elevator machine rooms and control rooms, where provided, shall not be located in the hoistway.
Machinery spaces and control spaces shall be permitted to be located inside or outside the hoistway.
NOTE: Inside the hoistway includes, but is not limited to, on or in the car, on the counterweight, or in the pit.
The location of equipment used directly in connection with the elevator shall conform to the requirements of 2.7.6.3.1 through 2.7.6.3.4.
The electric driving machine shall be located in a machinery space or machine room.
The motor controller shall be located in a machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.
A motor controller shall be permitted to be located outside the specified spaces, provided it is enclosed in a locked cabinet. The locked cabinet shall be
(a) readily accessible for maintenance and inspection at all times.
(b) provided with cabinet door(s) or panel(s) that are not self-closing, that are self-locking, and that shall be kept closed and locked. Keys shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
(c) lit by permanently installed electric lighting with a lighting intensity of at least 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level.
(d) located in a space that is provided with natural or mechanical means to keep the ambient air temperature and humidity in the range specified by the elevator equipment manufacturer to ensure safe and normal operation of the elevator. The temperature and humidity range shall be permanently posted on the cabinet.
NOTE (2.7.6.3.2): For electrical clearance requirements, see NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).
Where sheaves and other equipment (except governors) are located overhead inside the hoistway, they shall be provided with a means of access from outside the hoistway conforming to the requirements of 2.7.3.3, unless they can be inspected and serviced from the top of the car.
Where a governor is located inside the hoistway, means of access conforming to the requirements of 2.7.3.3 and 2.7.3.4 for inspection and servicing the governor shall be provided from outside the hoistway. The access opening shall not be required where
(a) the governor can be inspected and serviced from the top of the car or adjacent car, and the governor can be tripped for testing from the adjacent car or outside the hoistway; and means are furnished to prevent movement of the car when servicing the governor. A sign with the words "SECURE CAR AGAINST MOVEMENT BEFORE SERVICING THE GOVERNOR" shall be prominently posted and be visible from the governor. The sign shall conform to ANSI Z535.2 or CAN/CSA-Z321, whichever is applicable. The sign shall be of such material and construction that the letters and figures stamped, etched, cast, or otherwise applied to the face shall remain permanently and readily legible; and
(b) for elevators in a single hoistway, the governor can be reset automatically when the car is moved in the up direction or the governor can be reset from outside the hoistway.
Where an elevator driving-machine brake or an emergency brake, or an elevator motion controller or motor controller is located in the hoistway or pit, means necessary for tests that require movement of the car or release of the driving-machine brake or emergency brake, shall be provided and arranged so that they can be operated from outside the hoistway and shall conform to 2.7.6.4.1 through 2.7.6.4.3. These means are also permitted to be used by elevator personnel for passenger rescue.
Where direct observation of the elevator drive sheave or ropes is not possible from the location of the means necessary for tests that require movement of the car or release of the driving-machine brake or emergency brake, display devices or the equivalent shall be provided. They shall be visible from the location of the means and shall convey the following information about the elevator simultaneously:
(a) the direction of movement
(b) the reaching of a position within the door unlocking zone
(c) an indication of the speed
The display devices or the equivalent shall remain operable during a failure of the normal building power supply. The power source shall be capable of providing for the operation of the display devices or the equivalent for at least 4 h. Where batteries are used, a monitoring system shall be provided. In the event that during normal operation of the car, the monitoring indicates insufficient power to operate the display devices or the equivalent, the car shall not be permitted to restart after a normal stop at a landing.
The means necessary for tests shall be permitted to be located within an inspection and test panel conforming to the requirements of 2.7.6.5.2.
A means to move the car from outside the hoistway shall be provided and it shall conform to the following:
(a) it shall not be dependent on the availability of normal power.
(b) it shall be accessible for operation by elevator personnel only with a key that is Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
(c) it shall allow the car to move only with continuous effort.
(d) if the car is moved manually, the effort required to move the car in the direction of load imbalance shall not exceed 400 N (90 lbf). If the means used is removable, it shall be stored outside the hoistway and access to the means shall be with a key that is Group 1 Security. It shall be suitably marked to indicate the machine for which it is intended.
(e) Where the manual effort required to move the car exceeds 400 N (90 lbf), a means of electrical operation shall be provided to allow the car to be moved. This means of electrical operation shall require constant pressure operating devices to move the car, and when activated, operation of the car by all other operating means shall be prevented. A failure of a single constant pressure operating device shall not permit the elevator to move or continue to move. Where batteries are used for this electrical operation, a monitoring system shall be provided. In the event that during normal operation of the car the monitoring system indicates insufficient power to move the car, the car shall not be permitted to restart after a normal stop at a landing.
The inspection and test panel shall be required where any of the following are not accessible from outside the hoistway:
(a) the devices necessary for the manual reset of the detection means for ascending car overspeed protection [see 2.19.1.2(a)(4)], and protection against unintended car movement [see 2.19.2.2(a)(4)], or
(b) the circuits of the following devices:
(1) the car-safety mechanism switch (see 2.26.2.9)
(2) the car buffer switch, where provided (see 2.26.2.22)
(3) the top and bottom final terminal stopping devices (see 2.26.2.11)
(4) the car and counterweight governor switches, where provided (see 2.26.2.10)
The inspection and test panel, where provided, shall be accessible from outside the hoistway and shall
(a) be readily accessible for maintenance and inspection at all times.
(b) have the required devices located behind a locked door or panel that does not open into the hoistway, that is not self-closing, that is self-locking, and that shall be kept closed and locked. Keys shall be of Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
(c) be provided with a stop switch, conforming to 2.26.2.24.
(d) be lit by permanently installed electric lighting with a lighting intensity of at least 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level. A switch placed inside or close to the enclosure shall control lighting of the enclosure.
(e) include the display devices as required by 2.7.6.4.1.
(f) include the "CAR DOOR BYPASS" and "HOISTWAY DOOR BYPASS" switches where required by 2.26.1.5.
(g) include the devices necessary for the manual reset of the detection means for ascending car overspeed protection [see 2.19.1.2(a)(4)], and protection against Unintended Car Movement [see 2.19.2.2(a)(4)] where these devices are not accessible from outside the hoistway.
(h) where the circuits of the devices in 2.7.6.5.1(b)(l) through (4) are not accessible from outside the hoistway, include landing inspection operation in conformance with 2.26.1.4.4, and that shall be permitted to render ineffective the following electrical protective devices, individually or as a group or groups, in conformance with the requirements of 2.26.9.3.1(a), 2.26.9.3.2, and 2.26.9.4:
(1) the car-safety mechanism switch (see 2.26.2.9)
(2) the car buffer switch, where provided (see 2.26.2.22)
(3) the top and bottom final terminal stopping devices (see 2.26.2.11)
(4) the car and counterweight governor switches, where provided (see 2.26.2.10)
NOTE (2.7.6.5): For electrical clearance requirements, see NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). See also 2.8.3.3.2.
Machines, control equipment, sheaves, and other machinery shall not be exposed to the weather unless they are suitable for the application.
When a machine room or control room is located underneath the hoistway, it shall conform to 2.7.7.1 through 2.7.7.5.
The machine or control room shall have a solid ceiling (pit floor, at the normal pit depth) of concrete or steel above the machine room or control room, with a minimum 2 130 mm (84 in.) clearance above the machine room or control room floor.
The ceiling of the machine or control room shall be capable of sustaining a concentrated load of 1 000 N (225 lbf) on any 2 000 mm2 (3 in.2) area, and it shall be designed for a live load of 6 kPa (125 lbf/ft2) and loads imposed by rails and/or buffers, if applicable.
The car and counterweight guide rails and buffer supports shall be permitted to extend into the machine room and be supported by the machine room floor. If the counterweight buffer or buffer support extends to the machine room or control room floor, a counterweight safety is not required unless the space below the machine room is not permanently secured against access. If a counterweight buffer is supported at the machine room ceiling (pit floor), a counterweight safety is required. (See 2.6.1 for additional requirements.)
The solid ceiling (pit floor at normal pit depth) shall be permitted to be slotted for the penetration of equipment (suspension ropes, selector drives, electrical conduit, rails, buffers, etc.). Passage and guards shall be provided in conformance with 2.3.2 and 2.10.1 for both the machine or control room and pit. A counterweight guard shall be installed at the pit floor as well as the machine or control room floor if the counterweight extends into the machine or control room and 2.3.2.1(a) does not apply. The guard in the machine or control room shall extend to the ceiling.
Compensating ropes or chains and traveling cables shall not extend into the machine room located underneath the hoistway.
Elevators that are provided with remote machine rooms and/or control rooms shall conform to 2.7.8.1 through 2.7.8.4.
Ropes and sheaves leading to the remote machine room that penetrate fire barriers shall be fully enclosed, and the enclosures shall conform to 2.1.1.1.
Rope and sheave enclosures leading to the remote machine room shall be protected against unauthorized access.
Permanent means of access shall be provided to the enclosures for inspection, repair, and maintenance of hoist ropes passing over sheaves that are not located in the hoistway or remote machine rooms. Access doors to these enclosures shall be provided at each sheave location, conforming to 2.7.3.4. Access openings shall be provided for inspection and maintenance of hoist ropes passing over sheaves and shall conform to 2.7.3.4. A stop switch meeting the requirements of 2.26.2.23, a permanent electric duplex receptacle, a light switch, and light shall be provided in the enclosures immediately inside the access doors and openings.
A permanent means of communication between the elevator car and remote machine room and or control room shall be provided.
Permanently installed electric lighting shall be provided in all machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms. The illumination shall be not less than 200 lx (19 fc) at the floor level, at the standing surface of a working platform (see 2.7.5.3), or at the level of the standing surface when the car is in the blocked position (see 2.7.5.1). The light switch shall be located at the point of entry
(a) for machinery spaces and control spaces, and
(b) for machine rooms and control rooms, inside the room and where practicable on the lock-jamb side of the access door
Machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms shall be provided with natural or mechanical means to keep the ambient air temperature and humidity in the range specified by the elevator equipment manufacturer to ensure safe and normal operation of the elevator. The temperature and humidity range shall be permanently posted in the machine room, control room, control space, or where specified by the equipment manufacturer, in the machinery space.
Only machinery and equipment used directly in connection with the elevator shall be permitted in elevator hoistways, machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms.
Installation of electrical equipment and wiring shall conform to NFPA 70 or CSA-C22.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).
Only such electrical wiring, raceways, cables, coaxial wiring, and antennas used directly in connection with the elevator, including wiring for signals, for communication with the car, for lighting, heating, air conditioning, and ventilating the car, for fire detecting systems, for pit sump pumps, and for heating and lighting the hoistway and/or the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room shall be permitted to be installed inside the hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.
Bonding conductors from the lightning protection system grounding down conductor to long vertical metal bodies in the hoistway such as elevator rails and vertical wireways shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway as required by NFPA 780, or CAN/CSA-B72, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). The lightning protection system grounding down conductor shall not be permitted in the hoistway, and the elevator rails shall not be used as the lightning protection system grounding down conductor. Bonding conductors installed in the hoistway shall not interfere with the operation of the elevator.
Steam and hot-water pipes shall be permitted to be installed in hoistways, machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms for the purpose of heating these areas only, subject to 2.8.3.1.1 through 2.8.3.1.3.
Heating pipes shall convey only low-pressure steam [100 kPa (15 psi) or less] or hot water [100°C (212°F) or less].
All risers and return pipes shall be located outside the hoistway. When the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room is located above the roof of the building, heating pipes for the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room shall be permitted to be located in the hoistway between the top floor and the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.
Traps and shutoff valves shall be provided in accessible locations outside the hoistway.
Ducts shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room for the purpose of heating, cooling, ventilating, and venting these areas only and shall not encroach upon the required clearances.
Sprinkler systems conforming to NFPA 13 or the NBCC, whichever is applicable (see Part 9), shall be permitted to be installed in the hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room subject to 2.8.3.3.1 through 2.8.3.3.4.
All risers shall be located outside these spaces. Branch lines in the hoistway shall supply sprinklers at not more than one floor level. When the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room is located above the roof of the building, risers and branch lines for these sprinklers shall be permitted to be located in the hoistway between the top floor and the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, where elevator equipment is located or its enclosure is configured such that application of water from sprinklers could cause unsafe elevator operation, means shall be provided to automatically disconnect the main line power supply to the affected elevator and any other power supplies used to move the elevator upon or prior to the application of water.
(a) This means shall be independent of the elevator control and shall not be self-resetting.
(b) Heat detectors and sprinkler flow switches used to initiate main line elevator power shutdown shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 72.
(c) The activation of sprinklers outside of such locations shall not disconnect the main line elevator power supply. See also 2.27.3.3.6.
Smoke detectors shall not be used to activate sprinklers in these spaces or to disconnect the main line power supply.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, when sprinklers are installed not more than 600 mm (24 in.) above the pit floor, 2.8.3.3.4(a) and (b) apply to elevator electrical equipment and wiring in the hoistway located less than 1 200 mm (48 in.) above the pit floor, except earthquake protective devices conforming to 8.4.10.1.2(d); and on the exterior of the car at the point where the car platform sill and the lowest landing hoistway door sill are in vertical alignment.
(a) Elevator electrical equipment shall be weatherproof (Type 4 as specified in NEMA 250).
(b) Elevator wiring, except traveling cables, shall be identified for use in wet locations in accordance with the requirements in NFPA 70.
Other pipes or ducts conveying gases, vapors, or liquid and not used in connection with the operation of the elevator shall not be installed in any hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room. Where a machinery space, machine room, control space, control room, or hoistway extend above the roof of a building, pipes shall be permitted from roof drains to the closest point where they can be diverted out of this space. Pipes shall be covered to prevent leakage or condensate from entering the machinery space, machine room, control space, control room, or hoistway.
Where permitted and provided, pipes, drains, and tanks, or similar equipment that contains liquids, shall not be located directly above the elevator equipment and shall not encroach upon the required clearances in the hoistway, machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room.
Listed/certified electrical heaters shall be permitted.
Air conditioning equipment is permitted to be installed in machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, or control rooms for the purpose of cooling these areas only, subject to 2.8.5.1 through 2.8.5.5.
Air conditioning equipment shall not be located directly above elevator equipment.
The clear headroom below suspended air conditioning equipment shall conform to 2.7.4.
Means shall be provided to collect and drain condensation water from these spaces. Condensation drains shall not be located directly above elevator equipment. Drains connected directly to sewers shall not be installed.
Safe and convenient access within the elevator machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room shall be provided to the air-conditioning equipment for servicing and maintaining.
NOTE: See also 2.7.3.1.
There shall be no exposed gears, sprockets, belts, pulleys, or chains.
NOTES (2.8.5):
  1. See 2.8.3.2 for requirements for duct work.
  2. These requirements do not pertain to air-conditioning equipment used to cool selective elevator equipment.
Enclosed moving, rotating, hanging machinery, equipment, stationary decorative lighting, stationary signage or other stationary special effects devices, securely attached to either one or more of the car, counterweight, or hoistway shall be permitted, provided that the elevator, including the equipment and devices, conforms to 2.4, 2.5, 2.8.1, 2.14.2.1.1, 2.15.7, 8.2.2.1, and 8.2.9.1. Any unenclosed moving, rotating, or hanging machinery or equipment, attached to the exterior of the car or counterweight, interior of the hoistway, exterior of the car, or any other elevator equipment in the hoistway is prohibited unless it is used in conjunction with the designed use of the elevator.
Machines, machinery, sheaves, and hitches shall be supported by overhead beams, structural floors, structural walls, or guide rails.
Machines, machinery, and sheaves shall be so supported and maintained in place as to prevent any part from becoming loose or displaced under the conditions imposed in service.
Supporting beams, if used, shall be of steel or reinforced concrete.
Beams are not required under machine(s), sheave(s), and machinery or control equipment that is supported on floors, provided such floors are designed and installed to support the load imposed thereon, or where supported by guide rails or structural walls designed to meet the requirements of 2.9.3.3.
Overhead beams, floors, and their supports shall be designed for not less than the sum of the following loads:
(a) the load resting on the beams and supports, that shall include the complete weight of the machine, sheaves, controller, governor, and any other equipment, together with that portion, if any, of the machinery space, machine room, control space, or control room floor supported thereon
(b) two times the sum of the tensions in all wire ropes supported by the beams, floors, and their supports with rated load in the car
NOTE [2.9.2.1(b)]: These tensions are doubled to take care of accelerations and decelerations.
The supports for machines and sheaves located below or at the sides of the hoistway shall meet the requirements of 2.9.2.2.1 through 2.9.2.2.4.
The foundation shall support the total weight of the machine, sheaves, and other equipment, and the floor, if any.
The sheave beams and the foundation bolts shall withstand two times the vertical force component acting thereon as a result of the tension in all the suspension ropes, less the weight of the machine or sheaves.
The sheave beams and the foundation bolts shall withstand two times the horizontal force component, if any, acting thereon as a result of the tension in all the suspension ropes.
The foundation shall withstand two times the overturning moment, if any, acting thereon as a result of the tension in all the suspension ropes.
Where overhead beams and floors are used to support machinery or equipment, the machinery or equipment shall be secured to and supported on or from the top of overhead beams or floors, except for the following equipment:
(a) secondary or deflecting sheaves of traction elevators
(b) devices and their accessories for limiting or retarding car speed
Securing bolts or fastenings are not required where sound isolation in compression is used between bases of machinery or equipment and supporting beams or floors.
Machines and sheaves located below or at one side of a hoistway shall be anchored to beams, foundations, or floors with bolts, conforming to ASTM A307, of sufficient size and number to withstand the applicable load conditions specified in 2.9.2.2. Based on these initial loads, total tension in anchor bolts shall not exceed 85 MPa (12,000 psi) of net section, and the total shear shall not exceed 60 MPa (9,000 psi) of actual area in the shear plane. (See also 2.9.3.5.)
Where bolts are used through greater than 5 deg sloping flanges of structural shapes, the bolt heads shall be of the tipped or beveled head type or shall be fitted with beveled steel washers, and nuts on greater than 5 deg sloping flanges shall seat on beveled steel washers.
Machines, sheaves, equipment, and hitches shall be permitted to be secured to and supported by the guide rails or structural walls, provided that the tension in the hoisting ropes and the weight of the equipment will not develop direct tensions in the bolts or rivets.
Securing bolts or fastenings are not required where sound isolation in compression is used between bases of machinery or equipment and their supports.
Bolts used to secure equipment to the guide rails or structural walls shall conform to ASTM A307, and be of sufficient size and number to withstand the applicable load conditions specified in 2.9.2.2. Based on these initial loads, total tension in support bolts shall not exceed 85 MPa (12,000 psi) of net section, and the total shear in bolts and rivets shall not exceed 60 MPa (9,000 psi) of actual area in the shear plane. The requirements of 2.9.3.2.2 for bolts and 2.9.3.4.3 and 2.9.3.4.4 for hitch plates shall also apply. The stresses in welds due to tensions in the hoisting ropes shall not exceed 55 MPa (8,000 psi) on the throat area of the welds. (See also 2.9.3.5.)
Guide rails used to support machines, equipment, sheaves, and hitches shall meet the requirements of 2.23.4.
Where hoisting ropes are secured to the structure above a hoistway, the hitch plates and hitch-plate blocking beams, where used, shall be secured to and mounted on top of overhead beams, machine beams, or on top of auxiliary beams connected to the webs of overhead beams.
Hitch plates, blocking, or auxiliary beams shall be secured by bolts conforming to ASTM A307, rivets conforming to ASTM A502, or welding conforming to 8.8, and shall be so located that the tension in the hoisting ropes will not develop direct tensions in the bolts or rivets. Where bolts and rivets are subjected to shearing stresses due to tension in the hoisting ropes, the total shear shall not exceed 60 MPa (9,000 psi) of actual area in the shear plane. The stresses in welds due to tensions in the hoisting ropes shall not exceed 55 MPa (8,000 psi) on the throat area of the welds. (See also 2.9.3.5.)
The hitch plate supporting structure shall be designed to withstand two times the sum of the tensions in all hoisting ropes attached to the hitch plates. (See also 2.15.13.)
Total stresses in hitch plates and hitchplate shapes shall not exceed 85 MPa (12,000 psi).
Bolts made of steel used to comply with the requirements of 2.9.3.2.1, 2.9.3.3.3, and 2.9.3.4.2 having a greater strength than specified by ASTM A307 shall be permitted, provided that the maximum allowable stresses increased proportionally based on the ratio of the ultimate strengths. Elongation shall conform to the requirements of the corresponding ASTM specification.
Cast metals having an elongation of less than 20% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.), when measured in accordance with ASTM E8, that are subject to tension or bending, shall not be used to support machinery or equipment from the underside of overhead beams or floors.
The unit stresses for all machinery and sheave beams and floors and their supports, based on the loads computed as specified in 2.9.2 or 2.9.6, whichever is greater, shall not exceed 80% of those permitted for static loads by the following standards:
(a) Structural Steel. AISC Book No. S326 or CAN/CSA-S16.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).
(b) Reinforced Concrete. ANSI/ACI 318 or CAN3-A23.3, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).
Where stresses due to loads, other than elevator loads supported on the beams or floor, exceed those due to the elevator loads, 100% of the permitted stresses are permitted.
Cast metals having an elongation of less than 20% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.), when measured in accordance with ASTM E8, that are subject to tension or bending, shall not be used to support machinery or equipment from guide rails or structural walls.
The allowable deflections of machinery and sheave beams, their immediate supports, and any support members loaded in bending that transmit load to guide rails or structural walls under static load shall not exceed 1/1666 of the span.
Machinery and sheave beams, supports, any support members that transmit load to guide rails or structural walls and any fastenings subject to forces due to the application of the emergency brake (see 2.19.4) shall be designed to withstand the maximum forces developed during the retardation phase of the emergency braking so that the resulting stresses due to the emergency braking and all other loading acting simultaneously, if applicable, shall not exceed those specified in 2.9.4.
In machinery spaces, machine rooms, control spaces, and control rooms, the following shall be guarded to protect against accidental contact:
(a) driving-machine sheaves and ropes whose vertical projection upon a horizontal plane extends beyond the base of the machine, unless the driving-machine sheave is so located as to minimize the possibility of contact
(b) sheaves
(c) exposed gears, sprockets, tape or rope sheaves, or drums of selectors, floor controllers, or signal machines, and their driving ropes, chains, or tapes
(d) keys, keyways, and screws in projecting shafts Handwinding wheels and flywheels that are not guarded shall have yellow markings.
A standard railing shall be substantially constructed of metal and shall consist of a top rail, intermediate rail or equivalent structural member or solid panel, and toe-board.
The top rail shall have a smooth surface, and the upper surface shall be located at a vertical height of not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.) and not more than 1 095 mm (43 in.) from the working surface.
The intermediate rail or equivalent structural member or solid panel shall be located approximately centered between the top rail and the working surface.
The toe-board shall be securely fastened and have a height not less than 100 mm (4 in.) above the working surface.
A standard railing shall be capable of resisting anywhere along its length the following forces when applied separately, without deflecting more than 75 mm (3 in.) and without permanent deformation:
(a) a force of at least 890 N (200 lbf) applied in any lateral or downward vertical direction, at any point along the top rail.
(b) a force of at least 666 N (150 lbf) applied in any lateral or downward vertical direction at any point along the center of the intermediate rail, member, or panel. If the standard railing is a solid panel extending from the top rail to the toe-board, the application of the force specified in 2.10.2.4(a) shall be considered to meet the requirements of 2.10.2.4(b).
(c) a force of 225 N (50 lbf) applied in a lateral direction to the toe-board.
All elevator hoistway landing openings shall be provided with entrances that shall guard the full height and width of the openings. Entrances shall be at least 2 030 mm (80 in.) in height and 800 mm (31.5 in.) in width.
Where an elevator is installed in a single blind hoistway, there shall be installed in the blind portion of the hoistway an emergency door at every third floor, but not more than 11 m (36 ft) from sill to sill, conforming to the following:
(a) The clear opening shall be at least 700 mm (28 in.) wide and 2 030 mm (80 in.) high.
(b) It shall be easily accessible and free from fixed obstructions.
(c) It shall be either of the horizontally sliding or swinging single-section type, irrespective of the type of door installed at other landings.
(d) It shall be self-closing and self-locking and shall be marked, in letters not less than 50 mm (2 in.) high, "DANGER, ELEVATOR HOISTWAY."
(e) It shall be provided with an electric contact that will prevent the operation of the driving machine unless the door is closed (see 2.26.2.25).
(f) It shall be unlocked from the landing side only through the use of a cylinder-type lock, having not less than five pins or five discs. The cylinder lock shall
(1) not be unlocked by any key that will open any other lock or device used for any purpose in the building
(2) be so designed that the key shall be removable only in the locked position
(g) It shall be openable from the hoistway side without the use of a key.
(h) The key shall be of Group 1 Security (see 8.1). This key shall also be made available to emergency personnel during an emergency.
(i) A hinged self-closing barrier independent of the door shall be installed horizontally across the entrance on the hoistway side at a height of 1 070 mm (42 in.). The barrier shall not open into the hoistway.
Where an elevator is installed in a single blind hoistway, and there are no landings from which to gain access through an emergency door, a means of two-way conversation conforming to 2.27.1.1.4 shall be provided.
NOTE: Examples are pulp mills, grain elevators, dams, or similar locations.
Nonremovable sliding or swing panels or doors in the hoistway conforming to 2.11.1.2(d), (f), (g), and (i) shall be permitted for access to car or hoistway transparent enclosures for cleaning purposes. An electromechanical device shall be provided that will prevent the operation of the driving machine unless the access panels or doors are closed and locked (see 2.26.2.32). Keys used to unlock the access panels or doors shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1).
For passenger elevators, entrances shall be one of the following types:
(a) horizontally sliding
(b) horizontally swinging, single-section
(c) combination horizontally sliding and swinging
(d) hand- or power-operated vertically sliding that slide up to open
For freight elevators, entrances shall be one of the following types:
(a) horizontally sliding
(b) swinging, single-section
(c) combination horizontally sliding and swinging
(d) center-opening, two-section horizontally swinging, subject to restrictions of 2.11.2.3
(e) vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced (see 2.16.4)
(f) vertically sliding counterweighted, single- or multisection
Center-opening swinging entrances shall be permitted only
(a) for freight elevators that can be operated only from the car; or
(b) for freight elevators not accessible to the general public that can be operated from outside the hoistway, and that are located in factories, warehouses, garages, and similar industrial buildings.
Horizontally sliding or single-section swinging doors of automatic-operation elevators shall be provided with door closers arranged to close an open door automatically if the car, for any reason, leaves the landing zone.
On center-opening doors, if there is an interlock on only one panel, the door closer required by 2.11.3.1 shall be provided on the leading panel that operates in the opposite direction (see 2.11.11.7).
Horizontally sliding or swinging doors shall be so located that the distance from the hoistway face of the doors to the edge of the hoistway landing sill, measured from the face of the door section nearest to the car, shall be not more than the requirements specified in 2.11.4.1 and 2.11.4.2.
For elevators that can be operated only from the car, 100 mm (4 in.), except that where new elevators are installed in existing multiple hoistways or where alterations involving replacement of the doors are made to existing elevators in multiple hoistways, and the location of the door openings is such that the 100 mm (4 in.) dimension specified cannot be maintained, the distance specified is permitted to be increased to not more than 125 mm (5 in.) where horizontally sliding doors are used.
For elevators with automatic or continuous-pressure operation, 19 mm (0.75 in.) for swinging doors and 57 mm (2.25 in.) for sliding doors, except that
(a) freight elevators not accessible to the general public, and that are located in factories, warehouses, garages, and similar industrial buildings are permitted to have single-section or center-opening two-section horizontally swinging doors conforming to 2.11.4.1; or
(b) for swinging doors used on elevators with automatic and continuous-pressure operation, the distance shall be permitted to be increased from 19 mm to 57 mm (0.75 in. to 2.25 in.) if such doors are emergency doors conforming to 2.11.1. (See also 2.14.4.5.)
Entrances and equipment shall not project into an elevator hoistway beyond the line of the landing sill, except for
(a) equipment required for interlocking, indicator and signal devices, door operating devices, door guiding devices, and door retaining devices
(b) vertical slide entrances
When the car is within the unlocking zone, the hoistway doors shall be openable by hand from within the car without the use of tools.
Means shall not be provided for locking out of service the doors at
(c) the designated and alternate landings for elevators equipped with Phase I Emergency Recall Operation, when Phase I is effective
(d) no landing for elevators equipped with Phase II Emergency In-Car Operation when Phase II is effective
Egress from the interior of the car to any elevator landing by means of the car and hoistway doors shall be unrestricted once the car and hoistway doors are open. Additional doors or devices, that are not part of nor function with the elevator but are provided in lieu of an enclosed elevator lobby in order to guard against the migration of smoke in or out of the hoistway, shall comply with the following:
(a) The building code.
(b) The additional door or device, in any position, shall not interfere with the function and operation of the elevator.
(c) The additional door or device shall not interfere with the fire-resistance rating and operation of the hoistway entrance. Direct or mechanical attachment (i.e., welding, holes, bolts, or rivets) shall not be made to hoistway doors or frames, unless the additional door or device and the hoistway elevator entrance are listed as a complete assembly by a certifying organization.
(d) Additional doors or devices when in the closed position shall not prevent firefighters from visually observing the elevator landing (lobby) when the elevator hoistway door is no more than one-quarter open.
(e) Additional doors or devices shall be permitted to be deployed only at those hoistway openings of elevators where fire alarm initiating devices used to initiate Phase I Emergency Recall Operation associated with that elevator have been activated.
NOTE: It is recommended that all additional doors or devices deployed in front of hoistway doors shall be cleared (returned to open/standby position) by authorized or emergency personnel prior to removing the elevator from Phase I Emergency Recall Operation and returning to normal operation. It is recommended in the case of an unintended deployment, authorized personnel should return doors to the open or standby position.
Handles or other means provided for operation of manually operated doors shall be so located that it is not necessary to reach the back of any panel, jamb, or sash to operate them.
Manually operated or self-closing hoistway doors of the vertically or horizontally sliding type, for elevators with automatic or continuous-pressure operation, shall be provided with a vision panel. Vision panels shall not be required at landings of automatic operation elevators where a hall position indicator is provided. In multisection doors, the vision panel is required in one section only, but is permitted to be placed in all sections. All horizontally swinging elevator doors shall be provided with vision panels. Vision panels are permitted for any type of hoistway door.
Where required or used, vision panels shall conform to 2.11.7.1.1 through 2.11.7.1.7.
The area of any single vision panel shall be not less than 0.015m2 (24 in.2), and the total area of one or more vision panels in any hoistway door shall be not more than 0.055 m2 (85 in.2).
Each clear panel opening shall reject a ball 150 mm (6 in.) in diameter.
Muntins used between panel sections shall be of noncombustible material and of substantial construction.
Panel opening shall be glazed with either of the following:
(a) clear wire glass not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.)
(b) other transparent glazing material not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick that meets the impact safety standard 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, or CAN/CGSB-12.12, whichever is applicable (see Part 9)
The center of the panel shall be located not less than 1 300 mm (51 in.) and not more than 1 700 mm (67 in.) above the landing, except that for vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors, it shall be located to conform to the dimensions specified insofar as the door design will permit.
Vision panels in power-operated doors shall be substantially flush with the surface of the landing side of the door.
Vision panels shall be protected by protective grilles made of steel not less than 1.4 mm (0.055 in.) thick, in accordance with the following specifications:
(a) Grilles shall be sized to fit within or over the vision panel frame and completely cover the vision panel opening in the hoistway door.
(b) Grilles shall be secured by means that deter removal by common tools.
(c) Grilles shall contain openings that shall be not larger than 19 mm × 19 mm (0.75 in. × 0.75 in.) in diameter. Such openings shall be spaced at 25 mm (1 in.) center-to-center.
(d) Grille edges shall be free of burrs and beveled.
(e) Grilles shall be installed on the hoistway side of the door.
Where provided, glass hoistway doors shall conform to 2.11.7.2.1 through 2.11.7.2.5.
The glass shall be laminated glass conforming to 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/CGSB-12.1. Markings as specified in the applicable standard shall be on each separate piece of glass and shall remain visible after installation.
The glass shall be not less than 60% of the total visible door panel surface area as seen from the landing side of the doors. Door lap shall not be used in calculating glass size.
In power-operated doors, the glass panel shall be substantially flush with the surface of the landing side of the door.
A nonglass edge shall be provided on the leading edge of the door panel.
The glass door shall conform to 2.11.11.5.7 for horizontally sliding type entrances, 2.11.12.4 for vertically sliding type entrances, or 2.11.13.3 for swinging entrances.
Hoistway door weights, where used for closing or balancing doors, shall be guided or restrained to prevent them from coming out of their runway. The bottom of the guides or other restraining means shall be so constructed as to retain the weights if the weight suspension means breaks.
Doors shall be provided with door locking devices conforming to 2.12.
Where hoistway doors are power operated or are opened or closed by power, their operation shall conform to 2.13.
Landing sills shall be guarded on the underside with guard plates of smooth metal not less than 1.4 mm (0.055 in.) thick, extending the full width of the car sill exposed to the landing entrance, and securely fastened in place. Landing-sill guards are not required for
(a) vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors
(b) vertically sliding counterweighted doors that slide down to open
(c) elevators where the landing sills do not project into the hoistway
Where a car leveling device is provided and the hoistway edge of the sill is either flush with or projects into the hoistway, the guard shall have a straight vertical face extending below the sill not less than the depth of the leveling zone plus 75 mm (3 in.). Where the sill projects inward from the hoistway enclosure, the bottom of the guard shall also be beveled at an angle of not less than 60 deg and not more than 75 deg from the horizontal, or the guard shall be extended from the hoistway edge of the landing sill to the top of door hanger pocket of the entrance next below.
Where no car leveling device is provided and the sill projects inward from the general line of the hoistway, the guard shall be either beveled at an angle of not less than 60 deg and not more than 75 deg from the horizontal, or have a straight vertical face extending from the hoistway edge of the landing sill to the top of door hanger pocket of the entrance below.
A horizontal door guiding groove with a maximum width of 10 mm (0.375 in.) shall be permitted at the transition of the landing-sill guard and the landing sill, provided the following requirements are met:
(a) door power pre-opening in accordance with 2.13.2.2.2 shall not be permitted
(b) leveling/re-leveling shall be initiated before vertical exposure of the groove is revealed
(c) where exposure to the groove is revealed, the car shall not re-level with open doors
(d) edges forming the groove shall be configured to prevent hazards
The building corridors shall be so lighted that the illumination at the landing sills, when an elevator is in service, shall be not less than 100 lx (10 fc).
Hinged hoistway landing sills provided in connection with vertically sliding, biparting, counterbalanced doors of freight elevators shall be hinged on the landing side so that they can be lowered only when the landing doors are in the fully opened position.
Landing sills shall
(a) be of metal and of sufficient strength to support the loads to be carried by the sills when loading and unloading the car, and be secured in place
(b) be substantially flush with the floor surface of the elevator landings
(c) be so designed and maintained as to provide a secure foothold over the entire width of the door opening
(d) be permitted to include the corresponding member of a bottom guiding means (see 2.11.11.5.7 and 2.11.11.6)
Upcodes Diagrams
Hangers, tracks, and their supports and fastenings for doors shall be constructed to withstand, without damage or appreciable deflection, an imposed static load equal to four times the weight of each panel as applied successively downward and upward at the vertical centerline of the panel. (See 2.11.11.5.7 and 2.11.11.5.8.)
Where used, entrance frames shall be anchored to the sills and to the building structure or the track supports. The head of the entrance frame shall not be used to support the weight of the wall over the frame.
Where decorative material is applied to listed/certified frames, it shall conform to the requirements of the certifying organization.
Hangers shall conform to 2.11.11.4.1 and 2.11.11.4.2.
Means shall be provided to prevent the hangers from jumping the track.
Stops shall be provided in the entrance assembly to prevent hangers from over-running the end of the track.
Panels shall conform to 2.11.11.5.1 through 2.11.11.5.8.
The panels shall overlap the top and sides of the opening, and each other, in the case of multispeed entrances, by not less than 13 mm (0.5 in.). Where entrances without frames are used, the overlap shall extend the thickness of the facing used to finish the opening plus 13 mm (0.5 in.) or more.
The clearance shall not exceed 10 mm (0.375 in.) between
(a) the panel and the frame
(b) the panel and the wall, where entrances without frames are used in masonry or concrete
(c) related panels of multispeed entrances
(d) the panel and the sill measured vertically
The leading panel edge of side-opening entrances shall not close into pockets in the strike jamb and shall be smooth and free of sharp projections.
The meeting panel edges of center-opening entrances shall be smooth and free of sharp projection.
The meeting panel edges of center-opening entrances shall be protected with not less than one resilient male member extending the full height of the panel. The resilient members shall be permitted to interlock by not more than 10 mm (0.375 in.).
When in the closed position, the distance between the metal parts of the meeting panels shall not exceed 13 mm (0.5 in.).
No areas shall be depressed or raised more than 3 mm (0.125 in.) from the adjacent area and edges shall be beveled at not more than 30 deg to the panel surface.
Where decorative material is applied to listed/certified panels, it shall conform to the requirements of the certifying organization.
The entrance assembly shall be capable of withstanding a force of 2 500 N (560 lbf) applied on the landing side at right angles to and approximately at the center of a panel. This force shall be distributed over an area of approximately 100 mm × 100 mm (4 in. × 4 in.). There shall be no appreciable permanent displacement or deformation of any parts of the entrance assembly resulting from this test.
Means shall be provided to prevent opening of locked doors more than 20 mm (0.8 in.) per panel at the farthest point from the interlock when a force of 135 N (30 lbf) is applied in the opening direction at the leading edge of the door at the farthest point from the interlock.
Bottom guides shall conform to the following:
(a) The bottom of each panel shall be guided by one or more members.
(b) Guide members shall be securely fastened.
(c) The guide members and any reinforcements or guards shall engage the corresponding member by not less than 6 mm (0.25 in.). (See 2.11.11.5.7.)
Panels of multipanel doors shall conform to either 2.11.11.7.1 or 2.11.11.7.2. Multiple-speed and center-opening multiple-speed doors shall also conform to 2.11.11.7.3.
Panels shall be interconnected directly or through their hangers so as to assure simultaneous movement of all panels. The factor of safety of the interconnecting means shall not be less than 10 for cast iron or 5 for other materials.
Panels shall be equipped with hoistway door interlocks on each driven panel and provided with a door closer(s) installed to comply with 2.11.3.1. All panels shall move simultaneously when the car is at the landing.
Multiple-speed and center-opening multiple-speed panels shall be provided with secondary mechanical interconnecting means to ensure that individual panels of multiple panel doors moving in the same direction cannot become separated from the panel that is locked by the interlock in the event that the normal interconnecting means fails.
Where cable and pulleys are used to connect panels of multisection sliding doors, each pulley shall be equipped with a guard to prevent the cable from leaving the pulley.
The top and bottom of horizontally sliding doors shall be provided with a means of retaining the closed door panel in position if the primary guiding means fail, and preventing displacement of the door panel top and bottom by more than 20 mm (0.8 in.) when the door panel is subjected to a force of 5 000 N (1,125 lbf) in the direction of the hoistway applied at right angles to the panel over an area of 300 mm × 300 mm (12 in. × 12 in.) at the approximate center of the panel.
The retaining means shall also withstand, without detachment or permanent deformation, a force of 1 000 N (225 lbf) applied upward at any point along the width of the door panel and, while this force is maintained, an additional force of 1 100 N (250 lbf) applied at right angles to the door at the center of the panel. This force shall be distributed over an area of 300 mm × 300 mm (12 in. × 12 in.).
The retaining means shall not be subjected to wear or stress during normal door operation or maintenance.
The building structural supports of the entrance, such as building beams, walls, and floors, shall be designed to withstand the horizontal forces stipulated in 2.11.11.8.
The horizontal distance from the hoistway side of the leading edge of the hoistway door, or sight guard, if provided, to the edge of the landing sill, shall not exceed 13 mm (0.5 in.). The vertical clearance between the sight guard, if provided, and the landing sill shall not exceed 13 mm (0.5 in.).
Landing sills shall be of metal and of sufficient strength to support the loads to be carried by the sills when loading and unloading the car, and be secured in place (see 2.16.2.2 for classes of loading); the load on the sill during loading and unloading shall be considered to be the same as that on the platform members specified in 8.2.2.6.
Landing sills shall be secured to the building structure in substantially the same plane as the elevator landing floor.
Where used, frames shall conform to 2.11.12.2.1 through 2.11.12.2.4.
Entrance frames shall be anchored to the sills and to the building structure or track supports.
The weight of the wall above the frame shall be supported by either of the following:
(a) lintel
(b) the head of the frames when designed to support the load
In gypsum board (dry wall) construction, the frame side jambs shall be extended and securely fastened to the building structure above the frame.
Where decorative material is applied to listed/certified frames, it shall conform to the requirements of the certifying organization.
The panel guide rails shall be securely fastened to the building structure and the entrance frame, at intervals, throughout their entire length.
Rails and their supports shall withstand the forces specified in 2.11.12.4.6. Where truckable sills are provided as specified in 2.11.12.4.2, the rails shall withstand any reactions that could be transmitted to the rails as a result of loading and unloading operations.
Panels shall conform to 2.11.12.4.1 through 2.11.12.4.8.
The panels shall be constructed of noncombustible material, or of a structural core made of combustible material if covered with not less than 0.45 mm (0.0175 in.) sheet metal.
The lower panel of biparting entrances and the top of the panel of vertical slide entrances that slide down to open shall be provided with a truckable sill designed for the loads specified in 2.11.12.1.1. Provisions shall be made to transmit the panel sill load to the building structure.
Panels of biparting counterbalanced entrances shall conform to the following:
(a) They shall be provided with means to stop the closing panels when the distance between the closing rigid members of the panel is not less than 20 mm (0.8 in.) and not more than 50 mm (2 in.).
(b) A fire-resistive, nonshearing, and noncrushing member of either the meeting or overlapping type shall be provided on the upper panel to close the distance between the rigid door sections when in contact with the stops. This member shall allow a minimum compressible clearance of 20 mm (0.8 in.).
(c) Rigid members that overlap the meeting edge, and center-latching devices, are prohibited.
The panels, with their attachments for doors that slide up to open, shall overlap the sides and top of the entrance opening by at least 50 mm (2 in.) when in the closed position. Other vertically sliding panels and their attachments shall overlap their entrance openings and sills by at least 50 mm (2 in.) when in the closed position. The overlap shall extend at least 50 mm (2 in.) beyond the thickness of any facing used to finish the opening.
The clearance between a panel and the frame lintel, between a panel and the sill, and between related panels of multispeed entrances, shall not exceed 25 mm (1 in.).
Panels, rails, and door guides shall conform to the strength requirements of 2.11.11.5.7. Hangers, guides, and guide shoes shall not be permanently displaced or deformed by more than 20 mm (0.8 in.) when their panel is subjected to a force of 5 000 N (1,125 lbf) in the direction of the hoistway applied at right angles to the panel over an area of 300 mm × 300 mm (12 in. × 12 in.) at the approximate center of the panel.
Means shall be provided to close the opening between the upper panel of pass-type entrances and the entrance frame lintel. The sum of the clearance between the panel, the device used to close the opening, and the entrance lintel shall not exceed 25 mm (1 in.).
Means shall be provided to prevent the opening of locked doors more than 25 mm (1 in.) per panel at the farthest point from the interlock when a force of 135 N (30 lbf) is applied in the opening direction at the leading edge of the door at the farthest point from the interlock.
Panel guides shall conform to 2.11.12.5.1 through 2.11.12.5.3.
Each panel shall be equipped with not less than four guide members or with continuous guides.
Guide members shall be securely fastened to the panels.
Guide members shall be designed to withstand the forces specified in 2.11.12.4.6.
Single or multisection vertically sliding panels shall be so counterweighted, and vertically sliding biparting panels shall be so counterbalanced, that they will not open or close by gravity.
Fastenings shall be provided to prevent the fall of a counterweight, and the detachment or dislodgment of counterweight parts or of balancing weights. Suspension means and their connections, for vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors and for the counterweights of vertically sliding counterweighted doors, shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5.
Where the panel sill or other structural member projects more than 13 mm (0.5 in.) into the hoistway or beyond the panel surface below it, the projection shall be provided with a metal guard not less than 1.4 mm (0.055 in.) thick and beveled at an angle of not less than 50 deg and not more than 75 deg from the horizontal.
Manually operated vertically sliding biparting entrances shall be provided with pull straps on the inside and outside of the door. The length of the pull straps shall conform to 2.11.12.8.1 and 2.11.12.8.2.
The bottom of the strap shall be not more than 2 000 mm (79 in.) above the landing when the panel is in the fully opened position.
The length of the strap shall not be extended by means of ropes or other materials.
Landing sills shall
(a) be of metal and of sufficient strength to support the loads to be carried by the sills when loading and unloading the car, and be secured in place
(b) be substantially flush with the floor surface of the elevator landings
(c) be so designed and maintained as to provide a secure foothold over the entire width of the door opening
They shall be designed to support in place the panels with their hinges or pivots, closer if attached to the frame and interlock. They shall withstand the forces referred to in 2.11.13.3.5, and the forces resulting from the normal opening of the door or normal attempts to open it when locked in the closed position.
Where decorative material is applied to listed/certified panels, it shall conform to the requirements of the certifying organization.
Panels shall conform to 2.11.13.3.1 through 2.11.13.3.7.
The panels shall overlap the part of the frame against which they close by not less than 13 mm (0.5 in.).
The clearance between a panel and its sill shall not exceed 10 mm (0.375 in.).
Handles or knobs on the hoistway side of door panels are not permitted. Unlatching devices that do not project beyond the face of the door panel on the hoistway side shall be permitted.
Where decorative material is applied to listed/certified panels, it shall conform to the requirements of the certifying organization.
Panels and their assembled accessories shall
(a) be capable of withstanding a force on the handle of not less than 450 N (100 lbf) in the opening direction of a closed and locked door. There shall be no permanent displacement or deformation of the handle or the door panel resulting from this force.
(b) conform to 2.11.11.5.7.
(c) not be permanently displaced or deformed by more than 20 mm (0.75 in.) when the panel is subjected to a force of 5 000 N (1,125 lbf) in the direction of the hoistway, applied at right angles to the panel over an area of 300 mm × 300 mm (12 in. × 12 in.) at the approximate center of the panel.
Center-opening horizontally swinging doors shall have one door section provided with an overlapping astragal on its vertical edge, except where each door section is provided with a landing door interlock [see 2.12.2.4.4(c)].
Center-opening horizontally swinging doors shall have door stops provided at the top entrances that will stop each door panel when closed and that will meet the requirements specified in 2.11.13.3.5.
Hinges of the mortise and surface type shall conform to the requirements of NFPA 80, Table 2-4.3.1.
Where both the sliding and swinging panels are not equipped with hoistway door interlocks or locks and contacts conforming to 2.12, the horizontally sliding and swinging panels forming a part of the entrance shall be so interconnected that
(a) the swinging panel can be opened only when the sliding panel is in the open position
(b) both panels swing as a unit
In jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC
(a) the fire-protection rating of entrances and doors shall be determined in accordance with the requirements specified in the NBCC (CAN4-S104)
(b) where required, the hoistway door interlock mechanism and associated wiring shall remain operational for a period of 1 h when subjected to the standard fire exposure test described in CAN4-S104
NOTE (2.11.14.1): Requirements 2.11.14.2 through 2.11.18 do not apply in jurisdictions enforcing the NBCC.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, 2.11.15 through 2.11.18, and 2.11.14.2.1 through 2.11.14.2.3 apply where fire-resistive construction is required by 2.1.1.1.3.
Entrances shall be subjected to the type tests specified in 8.3.4.
The following basic types of entrances shall be tested:
(a) Horizontally Sliding Type. Test a side-sliding and a center-opening assembly.
(b) Swinging Type. Test a single swinging assembly.
(c) Vertically Sliding Type. Test a biparting assembly.
When an entrance assembly has been tested for one type of wall construction, i.e., masonry or drywall, only the frame-to-wall interface shall be acceptable to the certifying organization for other types of construction.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, a single label listing covered components included per 2.11.15.1.1, or separate labels on all individual components per 2.11.15.1.2 shall be provided.
Each entrance shall be labeled. Each label shall be permanently attached to the equipment and shall be readily visible after installation. The following data shall be on the label:
(a) certifying organization's name or identifying symbol
(b) the name, trademark, or file number by which the organization that manufactured the product can be identified
(c) statement of compliance with 8.3.4
(d) a list of the component items found in the definition of Entrance Assembly that are covered by the label
Labels, conforming to 2.11.15.1.1(a) and (b), shall be provided for each entrance as follows:
(a) One label shall be provided for each door panel.
(b) Each frame shall be labeled, except where frames are installed in masonry or concrete and the panel over-laps the wall in conformance with 2.11.11.5.1 and 2.11.11.5.2, or 2.11.12.4.4.
(1) One label shall be provided for each section of a frame, or for each piece of a knockdown frame; or
(2) A single label shall be provided for the entire frame where the label states that it includes both the fixed side panels and the transom
(c) One label shall be provided for the frame, except that no label is required where frames are installed in masonry or concrete and the panel overlaps the wall in conformance with 2.11.11.5.1 and 2.11.11.5.2, or 2.11.12.4.4.
(d) A single label may be provided for the entire entrance assembly where components are equivalent to those tested as a complete assembly.
Where the entrance hardware assembly has been tested in a complete entrance assembly, a single label, conforming to 2.11.15.1.1, shall be provided for the entrance hardware assembly.
Where a component of the entrance hardware assembly has not been tested as part of the complete assembly, a label conforming to 2.11.15.1.1 shall be applied to the component.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the following shall apply. Other entrance assemblies of the three basic types (see 2.11.14) shall qualify for labeling or listing/certification:
(a) when composed of panel(s), frame, and hardware of the same type as tested and not exceeding the overall height and width of any panel and frame of the largest size tested; or
(b) when such panel(s), frame, and hardware are modified, and test or technical data demonstrates that the modifications will meet the performance requirements of the test procedure in 8.3.3.
All other elements of the assembly shall conform to all other applicable requirements of this Code.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the following shall apply. When the entrance is too large for the regularly available test facilities, the certifying organization shall be permitted to issue oversize certificates or oversize labels, or such entrances shall be permitted to be used subject to approval by the authority having jurisdiction.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the following shall apply. The manufacturing facilities for the production of entrances or components thereof shall be inspected by the certifying organization at random at least quarterly, or if they are not manufactured on a continuous basis, at the time they are being produced, to assure that production methods are such that entrances or components thereof similar to those tested are being produced.
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the following shall apply. Transoms and fixed side panels shall be permitted to close openings above and beside the horizontally sliding or horizontally swinging type entrances, provided that
(a) the opening closed by the transom and fixed side panel does not exceed in width or height the dimensions of the entrance in which it is installed
(b) the transom panels and fixed side panels are
(1) constructed in a manner equivalent to the construction of the entrance panels
(2) secured
In jurisdictions not enforcing the NBCC, the following shall apply:
(a) Instructions detailing the application and installation of door listed/certified panels and entrance hardware shall be provided.
(b) Where frames are used, instructions detailing the listed/certified frame-to-wall interface shall be provided.
Where gasketing material is applied to entrances with a fire-protection rating, it shall conform to 2.11.19.1 through 2.11.19.4.
The gasketing material shall be subjected to the tests specified in UL 10B, NFPA 252, or CAN4-S104, whichever is applicable (see Part 9).
The gasketing material shall withstand the maximum elevated temperature tests as defined by ANSI/UL 1784 standard without deterioration.
Each section of the gasketing material shall be labeled. Each label shall bear the name of the manufacturer certifying agency, and a statement indicating conformance with 2.11.19.1 and 2.11.19.2. The label shall be visible after installation.
Labeled gasketing material shall conform to 2.11.16 or the NBCC, whichever is applicable.
NOTES (2.11.19):
  1. See also 2.1.1.5, 2.11.3, and 2.13.4 for additional requirements to be considered when gasketing material is applied to a hoistway entrance.
  2. These requirements do not evaluate the air and/or smoke leakage performance of the gasketing material.
When the car is stopped within the unlocking zone, the hoistway doors shall be unlocked, or locked but openable from the landing side either manually or by power.
When the car is outside the unlocking zone, the hoistway doors shall be openable from the landing side only by a hoistway door unlocking device (see 2.12.6, 2.12.7, and Nonmandatory Appendix B).
For security purposes, hoistway doors shall be permitted to be locked out of service, subject to the requirements of 2.11.6.
Passenger elevator hoistway doors shall be equipped with interlocks conforming to 2.12.2.
Freight elevator hoistway doors shall be equipped with interlocks conforming to 2.12.2 or combination mechanical locks and electric contacts conforming to, and where permitted by, 2.12.3.
Each entrance at a landing to an elevator used for passengers or freight and not conforming to 2.12.3.1 shall be equipped with one or more interlocks meeting the design requirements of 2.12.2.4.
Hoistway doors shall be considered to be in the closed position under the following conditions. These dimensions apply to the doors in their normal operating condition (see 2.14.4.11):
(a) for horizontally sliding or swinging doors, when the leading edge of the door is within 10 mm (0.375 in.) of the nearest face of the jamb or when the panels of center-opening doors are within 10 mm (0.375 in.) of contact with each other
(b) for vertically sliding counterweighted doors, when the leading edge of the door is within 10 mm (0.375 in.) of the sill for doors that slide up to open, or 10 mm (0.375 in.) of the lintel for doors that slide down to open
(c) for vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors, when the astragal on the upper panel is within 19 mm (0.75 in.) of the lower panel
Operation of the driving machine when a hoistway door is unlocked or not in the closed position (see 2.12.2.2) shall be permitted under one of the following conditions:
(a) by a car leveling or truck zoning device (see 2.26.1.6)
(b) when a hoistway access switch is operated (see 2.12.7)
(c) when a bypass switch is activated (see 2.26.1.5)
Interlocks shall conform to 2.12.2.4.1 through 2.12.2.4.7.
Interlock contacts shall be positively opened by the locking member or by a member connected to and mechanically operated by the locking member, and the contacts shall be maintained in the open position by the action of gravity, or by a restrained compression spring, or by both, or by means of the opening member (see 2.26.2.14). Contacts shall be open when the hoistway door interlock is unlocked. If the contacts are maintained in the open position by other than the locking member, the interlock shall be located such that the contacts cannot be manually closed from the car or landing when the doors are open.
The electrical contact bridging means shall withstand a separating force of 200 N (45 lbf) in any direction from the locking member.
The locking member of the interlock shall hold the door in the locked position by means of gravity, or by a restrained compression spring, or by both, or by means of a positive linkage.
The interlock shall lock the door in the closed position with a minimum engagement of 7 mm (0.28 in.) of the locking members before the interlock contacts are closed and before the driving machine can be operated, except as permitted in 2.12.2.3.
Devices that permit operation of the driving machine by the normal operating device when the door is closed but before it is locked are not interlocks and are not permitted where interlocks are required by this Code.
Interlocks, used with multisection doors, shall conform to the following requirements:
(a) They shall lock all sections of the door, but shall be permitted to be applied to only one section of the door, provided the device used to interconnect the door sections is so arranged that locking one section will prevent the opening of all sections.
(b) Where used with vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors, they shall be so arranged that the interlock contacts are mechanically held in the open position by the door or devices attached thereto, unless the door is in the closed position.
(c) Where used with center-opening horizontally swinging doors, either
(1) both door panels shall be equipped with interlocks; or
(2) where the door panels are so arranged that one panel can be opened only after the other panel has been opened, the interlock is not required on the section that opens last, if that door panel is provided with a door electric contact conforming to 2.14.4.2.3, 2.14.4.2.5, and 2.26.2.15, except that terms "door or gate" and "car door or gate" shall be replaced with the term "hoistway door" or "hoistway door section" and the term "accessible from inside the car panel" with the term "accessible from the landing side when the hoistway doors are closed."
(d) Where used with combination horizontally sliding and swinging doors, either
(1) the sliding and swinging panels shall both be equipped with interlocks; or
(2) where the sliding and swinging panels are interconnected in conformity with the requirements of 2.11.13.5, the interlock is not required on the swinging panel, provided that the interlock on the sliding panel is so designed and installed that the car cannot be operated unless the sliding and swinging panels are both locked in the closed position, as defined in 2.12.2.2.
(e) Where a door closer, used with a combination sliding and swinging door, is arranged to be disconnected to allow the sliding panel to swing, it shall be so designed and installed that it shall not make the interlock contact when disconnected and released.
Interlock systems employing a single master switch for more than one door are prohibited.
Mercury tube switches shall not be used.
Retiring cams used to actuate an interlock shall exert a force at least double the average force required to operate the interlock and shall have a movement at least 13 mm (0.5 in.) more than the average movement required to operate the interlock.
An interlock retiring cam device shall be permanently marked by the manufacturer with its rated horizontal force and rated horizontal movement.
The rated horizontal force shall be the static force exerted by a retiring cam device in the horizontal direction when extended a distance equal to 75% of its rated horizontal movement. The rated horizontal movement shall be the horizontal distance traveled by the retiring cam device from the fully retired position to the fully extended position.
Interlocks shall be so located that they are not accessible from the landing side when the hoistway doors are closed.
Hoistway door combination mechanical locks and electric contacts shall be permitted only on freight elevators equipped with manually operated vertically sliding doors and only at the following landings:
(a) the top terminal landing and the landing whose sill is located not more than 1 225 mm (48 in.) below the top terminal landing sill, provided that the elevator rise does not exceed 4 570 mm (15 ft)
(b) any landing whose sill is within 1 525 mm (60 in.) of the pit floor, regardless of the elevator rise
Hoistway doors shall be considered to be in the closed position under the following conditions. These dimensions apply to the doors in their normal operating condition (see also 2.14.4.11):
(a) for vertically sliding counterweighted doors, when the leading edge of the door is within 10 mm (0.375 in.) of the sill for doors that slide up to open, or 10 mm (0.375 in.) of the lintel for doors that slide down to open
(b) for vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors, when the astragal on the upper panel is within 19 mm (0.75 in.) of the lower panel
Operation of the driving machine when a hoistway door is not in the closed position shall be permitted under one of the following conditions:
(a) by a car leveling or truck zoning device (see 2.12.2.2 and 2.26.1.6)
(b) when a hoistway access switch is operated (see 2.12.7)
(c) when bypass switch is activated (see 2.26.1.5)
Combination mechanical locks and electric contacts shall conform to 2.12.3.4.1 through 2.12.3.4.6.
They shall be so designed that the locking member and the electric contact are mounted on and attached to a common base, in such a manner that there is a fixed relation between the location of the contact and the location of the locking member.
They shall be so installed and adjusted that the electric contact cannot close until the door is in the closed position as specified in 2.12.3.2, and so that the locking member is in a position to lock the door when or before the contact closes. In order to prevent motion of the door from opening the electric contact while the door is locked 49 in the closed position, multiple-locking points shall, where necessary, be provided on the locking mechanism.
The electric contact shall be positively opened by the locking bar of the mechanical lock or by a lever or other device attached to and operated by the door, and the electric contact shall be maintained in the open position by the action of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or by both, or by positive mechanical means. (See 2.26.2.14.)
The mechanical lock shall hold the door in the locked position by means of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or by both.
Combination mechanical locks and electric contacts used with vertical-slide multiple-panel doors shall conform to the following requirements:
(a) They shall lock all panels of the door, but shall be permitted to be applied to only one section of the door, provided the device used to interconnect the door sections is so arranged that locking one panel will prevent the opening of all panels.
(b) Where used with vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors, the electric contact shall be so arranged that it is mechanically held in the open position by the door or a device attached thereto, unless the door is in the closed position.
Mercury tube switches shall not be used.
Combination mechanical locks and electric contacts shall be so located that they are not accessible from the landing side when the hoistway doors are closed.
Each type and make of hoistway door interlock, hoistway door combination mechanical lock and electric contact, and door or gate electric contact, shall conform to the type tests specified in 8.3.3, unless tested prior to
(a) August 1, 1996, and shall have been subjected to the tests specified in A17.1a—1994, Section 1101; or
(b) March 23, 2002 in jurisdictions enforcing CSA B44 and shall have been subjected to the tests specified in CSA B44Sl-97, Clause 11.4.
The tests shall be done by or under the supervision of a certifying organization.
Each type and make of hoistway door interlock, hoistway door combination mechanical lock and electric contact, and door or gate electric contact shall conform to the general requirements for tests and certification specified in 8.3.1.
Each listed/certified device shall be labeled. It shall be permanently attached to the device, and shall be so located as to be readily visible when the device is installed in its operating position.
The labels shall include the following data:
(a) the name, trademark, or certifying organization file number by which the organization that manufactured the product can be identified
(b) the certifying organization name or identifying symbol
(c) statement of compliance with ASME A17.1/CSA B44
(d) a distinctive type, model, or style letter or number
(e) rated voltage and current, and whether AC or DC
(f) rated test force and rated test movement when the device is of a type released by an interlock retiring cam (see 8.3.3.4.7)
(g) date (month and year) devices subjected to type test specified in 2.12.4.1
(h) if the device has only been type tested and listed/certified for use on a private residence elevator, the label shall indicate the restricted use
Except in jurisdictions that limit the use of hoistway door unlocking devices, they shall be provided for use by elevator and emergency personnel for each elevator at every landing where there is an entrance.
The device shall unlock and permit the opening of a hoistway door from a landing irrespective of the position of the car.
The device shall be designed to prevent unlocking the door with common tools.
Where a hoistway unlocking device consists of an arrangement whereby a releasing chain, permanently attached to a door locking mechanism, is kept under a locked panel adjacent to the landing door, such a panel shall be self-closing and self-locking and shall not have identifying markings on its face.
The hoistway door unlocking device shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1). The operating means shall also be made available to emergency personnel during an emergency.
The unlocking device keyway and locked panel (see 2.12.6.2.3), if provided, shall be located at a height not greater than 2 100 mm (83 in.) above the landing.
Hoistway access switches shall be provided when the rated speed is greater than 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min) at
(a) the lowest landing when a separate pit access door is not provided
(b) the top landing
For elevators with a rated speed of 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min) or less, a hoistway access switch shall be provided at the top landing when the distance from the top of the car to the landing sill exceeds 900 mm (35 in.) when the car platform is level with the landing immediately below the top landing.
When one or more hoistway access switches are provided but not required, the switch(es) shall be provided at the landing(s) specified in 2.12.7.1.1. Additional hoistway access switches shall be permitted at other landings only when switches specified in 2.12.7.1.1 have been provided.
The switch shall be installed adjacent to the hoistway entrance at the landing with which it is associated. The switch shall be labeled "ACCESS" and shall be a three-position switch, labeled "UP," "OFF," and "DOWN" (in that order), with the "OFF" position as the center position. The switch shall be rotated clockwise to go from the "UP" to "OFF" to "DOWN" positions.
The switch shall be of the continuous pressure spring-return type, and shall be operated by a cylinder-type lock having not less than a five-pin or five-disk combination, with the key removable only when the switch is in the "OFF" position. The key shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
The switch shall
(a) use contacts that are positively opened mechanically; their openings shall not be solely dependent on springs, or
(b) be SIL rated with an SIL equal to or greater than the SIL indicated for the applicable device shown in Table 2.26.4.3.2
Hoistway access operation shall conform to 2.12.7.3.1 through 2.12.7.3.4.
Except as permitted in 2.26.1.4.3(d), a separate switch labeled "ACCESS" with two positions labeled "OFF" and "ENABLE" shall be provided in the car and shall be key operated or behind a locked cover. The key shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
When in the "ENABLE" position the elevator shall be on hoistway access operation and shall conform to the following:
(a) operation by car and landing operating devices shall be disabled
(b) automatic power operation of the hoistway door and/or car door or gate shall be disabled
(c) automatic operation by a car-leveling device shall be disabled
(d) stopping the car at the access landing by a car-leveling device while operating a hoistway access switch at the landing shall be permitted
(e) enable the hoistway access switches at the landing and their operation in accordance with 2.12.7.3.3 except where either top-of-car inspection operation (see 2.26.1.4.2) or in-car inspection operation (see 2.26.1.4.3) is in effect
The operation of a hoistway access switch at the landing shall permit movement of the car with the hoistway door located adjacent to the switch at the landing unlocked or not in the closed position, and with only the car door or gate associated with this hoistway door unlocked or not in the closed position, subject to the following requirements:
(a) The operation of the hoistway access switch at the landing shall not render ineffective the hoistway door interlock or electric contact at any other landing, nor shall the car move if any other hoistway door is unlocked.
(b) The car shall not be operated at a speed greater than 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min). For elevators with static control, a means independent from the normal means to control the speed shall be provided to limit the speed of the car on hoistway access operation to a maximum of 0.75 m/s (150 ft/min), should the normal means to control this speed (mechanical, electrical, or solid-state devices) fail to do so.
The car speed-sensing device used for the means to limit the speed of the car while operating in response to an access switch shall be permitted to be either a separate car speed-sensing device from that of the normal speed control system or the same car speed-sensing device, provided that a separate means is used to continuously verify the proper operation of this speed-sensing device. Where the same car speed-sensing device is used, the detection of a failure of this car speed-sensing device while operating in response to an access switch shall cause the power to be removed from the driving-machine motor and brake.
The car speed-sensing device(s) and, where required, the verification means described above, shall conform to the following:
(1) a common actuating means (e.g., a driving-machine shaft, brake drum, etc.) shall be permitted provided that it is not dependent on the following connection types, unless the connection is continuously monitored:
(a) traction (excluding the traction between the drive sheave and suspension means and the traction between the governor and governor rope)
(b) friction (except for interference fits), or
(c) a flexible coupling where positive engagement is not assured between coupling halves.
Where monitoring is required, the monitoring shall detect a failure that prevents conformance with this requirement while operating in response to an access switch and shall cause the electric power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake.
(2) a common member (e.g., tape, target, wire, etc.) that is sensed by both speed-sensing devices shall be permitted, provided that
(a) the member is monitored such that when its presence is not detected while operating in response to an access switch, this shall cause the electric power to be removed from the elevator driving-machine motor and brake
(b) the common member is securely mounted in such a manner that horizontal movement of the car shall not affect the operation of the sensors
(3) a common mounting means shall be permitted
(c) The movement of the car initiated and maintained by the hoistway access switch at the lowest landing, if this landing is the normal means of access to the pit, shall be limited in the up direction to the point where the bottom of the platform guard is even with hoistway entrance header.
(d) The movement of the car initiated and maintained by the access switch at a landing other than the lowest landing shall be limited in the down direction to a travel not greater than the height of the car crosshead above the car platform, and limited in the up direction to the distance the platform guard extends below the car platform.
(e) the hoistway access switch at the landing shall only control the movement of the car within the zone specified in 2.12.7.3.3(c) or 2.12.7.3.3(d). Control circuits related to, or operated by, the hoistway access switches shall comply with 2.26.9.3(c), (d), and (e) and 2.26.9.4.
When in the "OFF" position, the "ACCESS" switch in the car shall disable hoistway access operation by means of the hoistway access switches at the landings.
Where both a hoistway door and a car door or gate are opened and/or closed by power, the hoistway door and the car door or gate shall both be either of the horizontally sliding type or vertically sliding type.
Power opening of a car door or gate shall be subject to the requirements of 2.13.2.1.1 and 2.13.2.1.2.
Power opening shall occur only at the landing where the car is stopping, or is leveling, or at rest, and shall start only when the car is within the unlocking zone where an automatic car-leveling device is provided, except that on freight elevators with vertically sliding doors and static control, power shall not be applied to open car doors until the car is within 300 mm (12 in.) of the landing.
Collapsible car gates shall not be power opened to a distance exceeding one-third of the clear gate opening, and in no case more than 250 mm (10 in.).
Power opening shall occur only at the landing where the car is stopping, leveling, or at rest, and shall start only when the car is within the unlocking zone where an automatic car-leveling device is provided, except that on freight elevators with vertically sliding doors and static control, opening shall not start until the car is within 300 mm (12 in.) of the landing.
Power opening shall be permitted to be initiated automatically through control circuits, provided that the car is being automatically stopped or leveled, and that, when stopping under normal operating conditions, the car shall be at rest or substantially level with the landing before the hoistway door is fully opened.
Sequence opening of vertically sliding hoistway doors and adjacent car doors or gates shall comply with 2.13.6.
Where a car door or gate of an automatic or continuous-pressure operation passenger elevator is closed by power, or is of the automatically released self-closing type, and faces a manually operated or self-closing hoistway door, the closing of the car door or gate shall not be initiated unless the hoistway door is in the closed position, and the closing mechanism shall be so designed that the force necessary to prevent closing of a horizontally sliding car door or gate from rest is not more than 135 N (30 lbf).
Requirement 2.13.3.1.1 does not apply where a car door or gate is closed by power through continuous pressure of a door closing switch, or of the car operating device, and where the release of the closing switch or operating device will cause the car door or gate to stop or to stop and reopen.
Horizontally sliding hoistway doors with manually closed, or power-operated, or power-closed horizontally sliding car doors or gates shall be permitted to be closed by continuous-pressure means, subject to the requirements of 2.13.3.2.1 through 2.13.3.2.4.
The release of the closing means shall cause the hoistway door, and a power-operated or power-closed car door or gate, to stop or to stop and reopen.
The operation of the closing means at any landing shall not close the hoistway door at any other landing, nor the car door or gate when the elevator car is at any other landing.
Any closing means at a landing shall close only that hoistway door and the car door or gate at the side where such means is located.
For elevators having more than one hoistway opening at any landing level, a separate closing means shall be provided in the car for each car door or gate and its adjacent hoistway door, except that a separate closing means need not be furnished for a horizontally sliding hoistway door and adjacent car door or gate that conform to 2.13.4.
Power closing by momentary pressure or by automatic means shall be permitted only for automatic or continuous-pressure operation elevators. The closing of the doors shall be subject to the requirements of 2.13.3.3.1 and 2.13.3.3.2.
The closing of the doors shall conform to 2.13.4.
A momentary pressure switch or button shall be provided in the car, the operation of which shall cause the doors to stop or to stop and reopen. The switch or button shall be identified as required by 2.26.12.
Vertically sliding hoistway doors with manually closed, or power-operated, or power-closed vertically sliding car doors or gates, where closed by continuous-pressure means, shall conform to 2.13.3.4.1(a) through (e).
(a) The release of the continuous-pressure closing means shall cause the hoistway door, and a power-operated or power-closed car door or gate to immediately initiate a reversal, and to fully reopen. Reopening by release of the continuous-pressure closing means shall be permitted to be disabled when the hoistway door is within 250 mm (10 in.) of full close.
(b) The continuous-pressure closing means shall not close the hoistway door, car door, or gate at any other landing.
(c) Any continuous-pressure closing means at a landing shall close only that hoistway door and the car door or gate at the entrance where such means is located. The continuous-pressure closing means shall be located where the full opening of the door that it controls is visible.
(d) For elevators having more than one hoistway opening at any landing level, a separate continuous-pressure closing means shall be provided in the car for each car door or gate and its adjacent hoistway door. The continuous-pressure closing means shall be located adjacent to the door(s) or gate(s) that it controls.
(e) Where a door close button or switch is provided, it shall be labeled "CLOSE."
Vertically sliding hoistway doors with power-operated vertically sliding car doors or gates shall be permitted to be closed by momentary pressure or automatic means only for automatic or continuous-pressure operation elevators.
Power-operated vertically sliding doors shall have a door open means conforming to the following:
(a) A momentary-pressure door open switch or button labeled "OPEN" shall be provided at each landing and in the car which when operated shall cause the car door or gate and hoistway door at the landing to immediately initiate a reversal, and to fully reopen or reopen by a distance of not less than 300 mm (12 in.). The markings shown in Table 2.26.12.1 do not apply.
(b) The door open switch or button shall not open the hoistway door, car door, or gate at any other landing.
(c) Any door open switch or button at a landing shall open only that hoistway door and the car door or gate at the entrance where such means is located. The opening switch or button shall be located adjacent to the door(s) or gate(s) that it controls.
(d) For elevators having more than one hoistway opening at any landing level, a separate door open switch or button shall be provided in the car for each car door or gate and its adjacent hoistway door.
The average closing speed shall not exceed 0.3 m/s (1 ft/s) for a vertical slide-up to open hoistway door or for each panel of a vertically sliding biparting hoistway door, and shall not exceed 0.6 m/s (2 ft/s) for a vertically sliding car door or gate.
Vertical slide-up to open hoistway doors with power-operated vertical slide-up to open car doors or gates without sequence operation (see 2.13.6) shall conform to 2.13.3.4.5(a) through (c), 2.13.3.4.8, and 2.13.3.4.9.
(a) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 170 mm (6.75 in.) high, with a base 140 mm (5.5 in.) wide and 140 mm (5.5 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door, in the following locations:
(1) anywhere within the opening width of the hoistway door and car door or gate when located immediately adjacent to the vertical plane established by the landing side of the hoistway door and where the object is located wholly within a vertical zone extending from the landing floor to a horizontal plane at
(a) 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor; or
(b) the leading edge of the door if the leading edge is less than 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor
(2) anywhere within the opening width of the hoistway door and car door or gate when located immediately adjacent to the vertical plane established by the car side of the car door or gate and where the object is located wholly within a vertical zone extending from the car floor to a horizontal plane at
(a) 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor; or
(b) the leading edge of the door if the leading edge is less than 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor.
NOTE [2.13.3.4.5(a)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Figs. S-1 and S-2.
(b) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 400 mm (16 in.) high, with a base 210 mm (8.25 in.) wide and 210 mm (8.25 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door in the following location:
(1) anywhere within the opening width of the hoistway door and car door or gate when wholly or partially located between the vertical planes established by the landing side of the hoistway door and the car side of the car door or gate, and wholly located between horizontal planes at 480 mm (19 in.) above the car floor or landing floor and at
(a) 1 500 mm (59 in.) above the associated car or landing floor; or
(b) the leading edge of the door if the leading edge is less than 1 500 mm (59 in.) above the floor
NOTE [2.13.3.4.5(b)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-3.
(c) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 50 mm (2 in.) high, with a base 95 mm (3.75 in.) wide and 125 mm (5 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door anywhere within the opening width of the car door or gate that is located on the car floor immediately adjacent to the vertical plane established by the car side of the lower panel of the car door or gate.
Detection device(s) shall not be required when the car door or gate is provided with
(1) a means to stop the closing panel when the distance between rigid members of the panel and the car platform is not less than 50 mm (2 in.) when fully closed, and
(2) a nonshearing, noncrushing member on the leading edge of the panel that shall provide a minimum clearance at full compression of 50 mm (2 in.) when fully closed
NOTE [2.13.3.4.5(c)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-4.
Vertical slide-up to open hoistway doors with power-operated vertical slide-up to open car doors or gates with sequence operation (see 2.13.6) shall conform to 2.13.3.4.6(a) through (g), 2.13.3.4.8, and 2.13.3.4.9.
(a) Closing in compliance with 2.13.6.1.2 shall be provided.
(b) A yellow and black diagonally striped hazard-warning of not less than 38 mm (1.5 in.) wide shall be provided along the landing side leading edge of the lowermost hoistway door panel.
(c) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 170 mm (6.75 in.) high, with a base 140 mm (5.5 in.) wide and 140 mm (5.5 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door, in the following locations:
(1) anywhere within the opening width of the car door or gate when located immediately adjacent to the vertical plane established by the landing side of the car door or gate and where the object is located wholly within a vertical zone extending from the car floor to a horizontal plane at
(a) 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor; or
(b) the leading edge of the door if the leading edge is less than 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor.
NOTE [2.13.3.4.6(c)(1)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-5.
(2) anywhere within the opening width of the hoistway door and car door or gate when located immediately adjacent to the vertical plane established by the car side of the car door or gate and where the object is located wholly within a vertical zone extending from the car floor to a horizontal plane at
(a) 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor; or
(b) the leading edge of the door if the leading edge is less than 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor
NOTE [2.13.3.4.6(c)(2)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-2.
(d) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 400 mm (16 in.) high, with a base 210 mm (8.25 in.) wide and 210 mm (8.25 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door in the following location:
(1) anywhere within the opening width of the hoistway door and car door or gate when wholly or partially located between the vertical planes established by the landing side of the car door or gate and the car side of the car door or gate, and wholly located between horizontal planes at 480 mm (19 in.) above the car floor and at
(a) 1 500 mm (59 in.) above the car floor; or
(b) the leading edge of the door if the leading edge is less than 1 500 mm (59 in.) above the floor
NOTE [2.13.3.4.6(d)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-6.
(e) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 50 mm (2 in.) high, with a base 95 mm (3.75 in.) wide and 125 mm (5 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door anywhere within the opening width of the car door or gate that is located on the car floor immediately adjacent to the vertical planes established by the car side and the landing side of the lower panel of the car door or gate.
Detection device(s) shall not be required when the car door or gate is provided with
(1) a means to stop the closing panel when the distance between rigid members of the panel and the car platform is not less than 50 mm (2 in.), and
(2) a nonshearing, noncrushing member that shall provide a minimum clearance at full compression of 50 mm (2 in.) when in contact with the stops
NOTE [2.13.3.4.6(e)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Figs. S-4 and S-7.
(f) A continuously sounding audible signal shall be provided with a sound level of 10 dBA minimum above ambient but shall not exceed 90 dBA when measured at the landing with car door or gate closed, which shall sound 5 s prior to car door or gate closing and continue to sound until the hoistway door is fully closed.
(g) A flashing visual signal shall be provided that is visible from the landing with the car door or gate closed and shall light 5 s prior to car door or gate closing and continue to light until the hoistway door is fully closed.
Vertical biparting hoistway doors with power-operated car doors or gates shall conform to 2.13.3.4.7(a) through (g), 2.13.3.4.8, and 2.13.3.4.9.
(a) Closing in compliance with 2.13.6.1.2 shall be provided.
(b) The closing speed of each biparting hoistway panel shall be limited to a maximum of 0.15 m/s (0.5 ft/s) when the closing panels are 250 mm (10 in.) or less from full close.
(c) A yellow and black diagonally striped hazard-warning of not less than 38 mm (1.5 in.) wide shall be provided along the landing side leading edge of the lowermost hoistway door panel.
(d) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 170 mm (6.75 in.) high, with a base 140 mm (5.5 in.) wide and 140 mm (5.5 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door, in the following locations:
(1) anywhere within the opening width of the car door or gate when located immediately adjacent to the vertical plane established by the landing side of the car door or gate and where the object is located wholly within a vertical zone extending from the car floor to a horizontal plane at
(a) 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor; or
(b) the leading edge of the door if the leading edge is less than 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor
NOTE [2.13.3.4.7(d)(1)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-8.
(2) anywhere within the opening width of the car door or gate when located immediately adjacent to the vertical plane established by the car side of the car door or gate and where the object is located wholly within a vertical zone extending from the car floor to a horizontal plane at
(a) 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor; or
(b) the leading edge of the door if the leading edge is less than 1 880 mm (74 in.) above the floor
NOTE [2.13.3.4.7(d)(2)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-9.
(e) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 400 mm (16 in.) high, with a base 210 mm (8.25 in.) wide and 210 mm (8.25 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door in the following location:
(1) anywhere within the opening width of the car door or gate when wholly or partially located between the vertical planes established by the landing side of the car door or gate and the car side of the car door or gate, and wholly located between horizontal planes at 480 mm (19 in.) above the car floor and at
(a) 1 500 mm (59 in.) above the car floor; or
(b) the leading edge of the door if the leading edge is less than 1 500 mm (59 in.) above the floor
NOTE [2.13.3.4.7(e)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-10.
(f) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 50 mm (2 in.) high, with a base 95 mm (3.75 in.) wide and 125 mm (5 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door anywhere within the opening width of the car door or gate that is located on the car floor immediately adjacent to the vertical planes established by the car side and the landing side of the lower panel of the car door or gate.
Detection device(s) shall not be required when the car door or gate is provided with
(1) a means to stop the closing panel when the distance between rigid members of the panel and the car platform is not less than 50 mm (2 in.), and
(2) a nonshearing, noncrushing member that shall provide a minimum clearance at full compression of 50 mm (2 in.) when in contact with the stops
NOTE [2.13.3.4.7(f)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-11.
(g) Device(s) shall be provided that detect an object in the shape of a rectangular prism measuring 50 mm (2 in.) high, with a base of 250 mm (10 in.) wide and 95 mm (3.75 in.) deep, oriented with the base parallel to the floor and the width parallel to the face of the door, that is located on the car floor anywhere within the horizontal distance between the car side of the hoistway door to the vertical plane of the landing side of the car door or gate, measured at 50 mm (2 in.) above the car floor.
Detection device(s) shall not be required when the horizontal distance from the car side of the fully open hoistway door measured at the hoistway door sill to the vertical plane of the landing side of the fully closed car door or gate measured at 50 mm (2 in.) above the car floor, is less than 95 mm (3.75 in.).
NOTE [2.13.3.4.7(g)]: See Nonmandatory Appendix S, Fig. S-12.
If an object has been detected in accordance with 2.13.3.4.5(a), (b), or (c), 2.13.3.4.6(c), (d), or (e), or 2.13.3.4.7(d), (e), (f), or (g), where applicable, the hoistway door and car door or gate shall not close, or if closing, shall cause the car door or gate and the hoistway door at the landing to immediately initiate a reversal, and to fully reopen or reopen by a distance of not less than 300 mm (12 in.).
After the door has reached its fully opened position and before door closing is initiated, the device(s) used to comply with 2.13.3.4.5(a), (b) or (c); 2.13.3.4.6(c), (d), or (e); or 2.13.3.4.7(d), (e), (f), or (g), where applicable, shall be checked to assure that it is capable of sensing the defined objects and sending the appropriate signal to the control that initiates the starting, stopping, and direction of motion of the door(s). If the device(s) is incapable of sensing the defined object or sending the appropriate signal, power closing of the door(s) or gate(s) shall be rendered inoperative.
When building conditions would render ineffective or nonoperational the detection means required by 2.13.3.4.5(a), (b), or (c), 2.13.3.4.6(c), (d), or (e), or 2.13.3.4.7(d), (e), (f), or (g), the following shall be provided in lieu of compliance with 2.13.3.4.5(a), (b), or (c), 2.13.3.4.6(c), (d), or (e), or 2.13.3.4.7(d), (e), (f), or (g):
(a) continuous-pressure closing of the car door or gate and hoistway door in compliance with 2.13.3.4.1
(b) usage shall be limited to authorized personnel only. A sign in compliance with 2.16.5.2 shall be provided but shall read: "THIS IS A FREIGHT ELEVATOR, NOT A PASSENGER ELEVATOR, AND NOT FOR PUBLIC USE. NO PERSONS OTHER THAN AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ARE PERMITTED TO OPERATE THIS ELEVATOR."
(c) sequence operation in compliance with 2.13.6.1
(d) the average closing speed of the car door or gate shall be limited to 0.20 m/s (0.67 ft/s)
NOTE (2.13.3.4.10): Such building conditions include but are not limited to environments with high levels of particulates, environments impacted by detector emissions, large opening widths, excessive cold, wash down environments, etc.
Where a power-operated horizontally sliding hoistway door or car door/gate or both is closed by momentary pressure or by automatic means (see 2.13.3.3), or is closed simultaneously with another door or car door/gate or both from one continuous-pressure means (see 2.13.3.2.3 and 2.13.3.2.4), the closing mechanism shall be designed and installed to conform to 2.13.4.2 and the reopening device shall be designed and installed to conform to 2.13.5.
(a) Where the hoistway door and the car door/gate are closed in such a manner that stopping either one manually will stop both, the kinetic energy of the closing door system shall be based upon the sum of the hoistway and the car door weights, as well as all parts rigidly connected thereto, including the rotational inertia effects of the door operator and the connecting transmission to the door panels.
(b) Where a reopening device conforming to 2.13.5 is used, the closing door system shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) The kinetic energy computed for the actual closing speed at any point in the Code zone distance defined by 2.13.4.2.2 shall not exceed 23 J (17 ft-lbf).
(2) The kinetic energy computed for the average closing speed as determined in accordance with 2.13.4.2.2 shall not exceed 10 J (7.37 ft-lbf).
(c) Where a reopening device is not used, or has been rendered inoperative (see 2.13.5), the closing door system shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) The kinetic energy computed for the actual closing speed at any point in the Code zone distance defined by 2.13.4.2.2 shall not exceed 8 J (6 ft-lbf).
(2) The kinetic energy computed for the average closing speed within the Code zone distance (see 2.13.4.2.2), or in any exposed opening width, including the last increment of door travel, shall not exceed 3.5 J (2.5 ft-lbf).
(a) For all side sliding doors using single or multiple-speed panels, the Code zone distance shall be taken as the horizontal distance from a point 50 mm (2 in.) away from the open jamb to a point 50 mm (2 in.) away from the opposite jamb.
(b) For all center-opening sliding doors using single or multiple-speed panels, the Code zone distance shall be taken as the horizontal distance from a point 25 mm (1 in.) away from the open jamb to a point 25 mm (1 in.) from the center meeting point of the doors.
(c) The average closing speed shall be determined by measuring the time required for the leading edge of the door to travel the Code zone distance.
The force necessary to prevent closing of the hoistway door (or the car door or gate if power operated) from rest shall not exceed 135 N (30 lbf) (see 2.13.3.1). This force shall be measured on the leading edge of the door with the door at any point between one-third and two-thirds of its travel.
A data plate conforming to 2.16.3.3 shall be attached to the power door operator or to the car crosshead and shall contain the following information:
(a) minimum door closing time in seconds for the doors to travel the Code zone distance as specified in 2.13.4.2.2 corresponding to the kinetic energy limits specified in 2.13.4.2.1(b)(2)
(b) minimum door closing time in seconds for the doors to travel the Code zone distance as specified in 2.13.4.2.2 corresponding to the kinetic energy limits specified in 2.13.4.2.1(c)(2), if applicable [see 2.27.3.1.6(e)]
(c) where heavier hoistway doors are used at certain floors, the minimum door closing time in seconds corresponding to the kinetic energy limits specified in 2.13.4.2.1(b)(2) and 2.13.4.2.1(c)(2), if applicable, for the corresponding floors shall be included on the data plate
Where required by 2.13.4, a power-operated car door shall be provided with a reopening device that will function to stop and reopen a car door and the adjacent landing door sufficiently to permit passenger transfer in the event that the car door or gate is obstructed while closing. If the closing kinetic energy is reduced to 3.5 J (2.5 ft-lbf) or less, the reopening device shall be permitted to be rendered inoperative. The reopening device used shall be effective for substantially the full vertical opening of the door (see 2.13.4.2).
For center-opening doors, the reopening device shall be so designed and installed that the obstruction of either door panel when closing will cause the reopening device to function.
Where Phase I Emergency Recall Operation by a fire alarm initiating device (see 2.27.3.2.3) is not provided, door reopening devices that can be affected by smoke or flame shall be rendered inoperative after the doors have been held open for 20 s. Door closing for power-operated doors shall conform to 2.13.5.
The sequence operation of a hoistway door and adjacent power-operated vertically sliding car door or gate shall conform to 2.13.6.1.1 and 2.13.6.1.2.
In opening, the hoistway door shall be opened at least two-thirds of its travel before the car door or gate can start to open.
In closing, the car door or gate shall be closed at least two-thirds of its travel before the hoistway door can start to close.
The enclosure shall be securely fastened to the car platform and so supported that it cannot loosen or become displaced in ordinary service, on the application of the car safety, on buffer engagement, or the application of the emergency brake (see 2.19).
The car enclosure shall be so constructed that removable portions cannot be dismantled from within the car.
Enclosure linings, decorative panels, light fixtures, suspended ceilings, and other apparatus or equipment attached within the car enclosure shall be securely fastened and so supported that they will not loosen or become displaced in ordinary service, on car safety application, or on buffer engagement.
Panels attached to the car enclosure for decorative or other purposes shall either
(a) not be unfastened from inside the car by the use of common tools; or
(b) be permitted to be removed from inside the car when perforations, exceeding that which would reject a ball 13 mm (0.5 in.) in diameter, in the enclosure used for panel hanging or support have permanent means to prevent straight through passage beyond the running clearance.
The enclosure walls shall be designed and installed to withstand a force of 330 N (75 lbf) applied horizontally at any point on the walls of the enclosure without permanent deformation and so that the deflection will not reduce the running clearance below the minimum specified in 2.5.1, nor cause the deflection to exceed 25 mm (1 in.).
Cars shall not have more than two compartments. Where elevators have two compartments, one shall be located above the other, and the elevator shall conform to 2.14.1.4.1 through 2.14.1.4.6.
The elevator shall be used exclusively for passengers or exclusively for freight at any one time. If freight is to be carried in only one compartment, means shall be provided to lock the other compartment out of service.
Each compartment shall conform to the requirements of this Section, except that a trap door in the floor of the upper compartment shall provide access to the top emergency exit for the lower compartment.
Where either or both compartments are intended for passenger service, the minimum rated load for each compartment shall conform to 2.16.1.
Where one compartment is intended for freight use, its minimum rated load shall conform to 2.16.1 or shall be based on the freight loads to be handled, if greater than the minimum rated load required by 2.16.1.
Where both compartments are used exclusively for freight, the minimum rated load of each compartment shall conform to 2.16.2.
The rated load of the elevator shall be the sum of the rated loads of the individual compartments.
An emergency stop switch, where required by 2.26.2.5, shall be provided in each compartment, and these emergency stop switches shall be so connected that the car cannot run unless both are in the run position.
An in-car stop switch, where required by 2.26.2.21, shall be provided in each compartment, and these switches shall be so connected that the car cannot run unless both are in the run position.
All hoistway doors shall be closed and locked and the car doors for each compartment closed before the car can be operated.
An emergency exit with a cover shall be provided in the top of all elevator cars, except cars in partially enclosed hoistways (see 2.14.1.5.2).
Top emergency exits shall conform to the following requirements:
(a) The top emergency exit opening shall have an area of not less than 0.26 m2 (400 in.2) and shall measure not less than 400 mm (16 in.) on any side.
(b) The top emergency exit and suspended ceiling opening, if any, shall be so located as to provide a clear passageway, unobstructed by fixed equipment located in or on top of the car. Equipment is permitted directly above the exit opening, provided that
(1) it is not less than 1 070 mm (42 in.) above the top of the car; or
(2) the exit is located to allow unobstructed passage of a parallelepiped volume measuring 300 mm × 500 mm by 1 500 mm (12 in. × 20 in. by 59 in.) at an angle not less than 60 deg from the horizontal (see Nonmandatory Appendix C).
(c) The top emergency exit cover shall open outward. It shall be hinged or securely attached with a chain when in both the open and closed positions. If a chain is used, it shall be not more than 300 mm (12 in.) in length and have a factor of safety of not less than 5. The exit cover shall only be openable from the top of the car, where it shall be openable without the use of special tools. The exit cover of the lower compartment of a multideck elevator shall be openable from both compartments. On elevators with two compartments, if the emergency exit of the lower compartment does not open directly into the upper compartment, a guarded passageway shall be provided between the lower compartment roof and the upper compartment floor.
(d) The movable portion (exit panel) of the suspended ceiling that is below the top exit opening shall be restrained from falling. It shall be permitted to be hinged upward or downward, provided that the exit permits a clear opening with the top exit opening.
(1) A minimum clear headroom of 2 030 mm (80 in.) above the car floor shall be maintained when downward-swinging suspended ceiling exit panels are used.
(2) Upward-opening suspended ceiling exit panels shall be restrained from closing when in use and shall not diminish the clear opening area of the corresponding top exit opening.
(3) The movable portion and the fixed portion of a suspended ceiling shall not contain lamps that could be shattered by the rescue operation using the top emergency exit. The movable portion of the suspended ceiling shall be permitted to contain light fixtures connected to the stationary portion of the suspended ceiling wiring by means of a plug and socket or by flexible armored wiring. Flexible wiring shall not be used to support or restrain the exit opening in the suspended ceiling in the open position.
(e) Where elevators installed in enclosed hoistways are provided with special car top treatments such as domed or shrouded canopies, the exit shall be made accessible, including the car top refuge space as specified in 2.4.12.
(f) Immediately adjacent to the top emergency exit there shall be a space available for standing when the emergency exit cover is open. This space shall be permitted to include a portion of the refuge area (see 2.4.12). All exit covers shall be provided with a car top emergency exit electrical device (see 2.26.2.18) that will prevent operation of the elevator car if the exit cover is open more than 50 mm (2 in.), and the device shall be so designed that it
(1) is positively opened
(2) cannot be closed accidentally when the cover is removed
(3) must be manually reset from the top of the car and only after the cover is within 50 mm (2 in.) of the fully closed position
(4) shall be protected against mechanical damage
On elevators in partially enclosed hoistways, means shall be provided to facilitate emergency evacuation of passengers. Such means shall not require a top emergency exit. A top emergency exit shall be permitted.
The car enclosure top shall be so designed and installed as to be capable of sustaining a load of 135 kg (300 lb) on any area 600 mm × 600 mm (24 in. × 24 in.), or 45 kg (100 lb) applied to any point, without permanent deformation. The resulting deflection under these loads shall be limited to prevent damage to any equipment, devices, or lighting assemblies fastened to or adjacent to the car enclosure top.
Two unobstructed horizontal areas, each one not less than 350 mm (14 in.) by 350 mm (14 in.), shall be provided on the car enclosure top. The two unobstructed areas shall be no closer to one another than 600 mm (24 in.), centerline to centerline, apart. The areas shall be within the projection of the car enclosure top exclusive of the area outside of a standard railing (2.10.2), where provided.
A standard railing conforming to 2.10.2 shall be provided on the outside perimeter of the car enclosure top on all sides where the perpendicular distance between the edges of the car enclosure top and the adjacent hoistway enclosure exceeds 300 mm (12 in.) horizontal clearance and on sides where there is no hoistway enclosure. If clearances require (see 2.14.1.7.2) the standard railing to be located more than 100 mm (4 in.) from the edge of the outside perimeter of the car enclosure top, the top of the car enclosure outside of the railing shall be clearly marked. The marking shall consist of alternating 100 mm (4 in.) diagonal red and white stripes. The forces specified in 2.10.2.4 shall not deflect the railing beyond the perimeter of the car top.
The top-of-car enclosure, or other surface specified by the elevator installer, shall be the working surface referred to in 2.10.2.
When the car has reached its maximum upward movement (2.4.6.1), the following minimum clearances shall be provided from the top rail of the standard railing to building structure or equipment not attached to the car:
(a) 100 mm (4 in.) vertically
(b) 100 mm (4 in.) horizontally in the direction towards the hoistway enclosure
(c) 300 mm (12 in.) horizontally towards the centerline of the car enclosure top
NOTE (2.14.1.7.2): See Nonmandatory Appendix G.
A working platform or equipment that is not required for the operation of the elevator or its appliances, except where specifically provided herein, shall not be located above the top of an elevator car.
Devices that detect unauthorized access to the top of the car shall be permitted. These devices shall only be permitted to initiate an alarm. Audible alarms shall not exceed 90 dBA measured 1 m (40 in.) from the source.
Where enclosures include panels of glass, or transparent or translucent plastic, the panels shall
(a) be constructed of laminated glass that complies with the requirements of 16 CFR Part 1201, Sections 1201.1 and 1201.2; or be constructed of laminated glass, safety glass, or safety plastic that comply with CAN/CGSB-12.1, CAN/CGSB-12.11, or CAN/CGSB-12.12, whichever is applicable (see Part 9)
(b) be provided with a handrail or framing designed to guard the opening should the panel become detached, where wall panels are wider than 300 mm (12 in.)
(c) be mounted in the structure so that the assembly shall withstand the required elevator tests without damage (see 2.14.1.2)
Glass used for lining walls or ceilings shall conform to 2.14.1.8.1(a) and (c), except that tempered glass shall be permitted, provided that
(a) it conforms to ANSI Z97.1, 16 CFR Part 1201, Sections 1201.1 and 1201.2, or CAN/CGSB-12.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9)
(b) the glass is not subjected to further treatment such as sandblasting, etching, heat treatment, painting, etc., that could alter the original properties of the glass
(c) the glass is bonded to a nonpolymeric coating, sheeting, or film backing having a physical integrity to hold the fragments when the glass breaks
(d) the glass is tested and conforms to the acceptance criteria for laminated glass as specified in ANSI Z97.1, or 16 CFR Part 1201, Section 1201.4, or CAN/CGSB-12.11, whichever is applicable (see Part 9)
Markings as specified in the applicable glazing standard shall be on each separate piece, and shall remain visible after installation.
Apparatus or equipment not used in connection with the function or use of the elevator shall not be installed inside of any elevator car, except as follows:
(a) Support rails (handrails) are permitted.
(b) Fastening devices for padded protective linings are permitted.
(c) Lift hooks, conveyor tracks, and support beams for freight handling, mounted in the ceiling of passenger elevator, shall clear the car floor to a height of 2 450 mm (96 in.) (see 2.16.9).
(d) Picture frames, graphic display boards, plaques, and other similar visual displays shall be mounted to withstand the required elevator tests without damage. All edges shall be beveled or rounded. The material shall conform to 2.14.1.2 and 2.14.2.1. When attached to the car wall less than 2 130 mm (84 in.) above the floor, projections from the car wall, excluding support rails, shall not be greater than 38 mm (1.5 in.).
(e) Conveyor tracks shall be permitted in freight elevators cars.
(f) Heating equipment, ventilating fans, and air-conditioning equipment, if used, shall be securely fastened in place and located above the car ceiling or outside the enclosure.
Passenger car floors shall have no projections or depressions greater than 6 mm (0.25 in.).
Side emergency exits are prohibited.
All materials exposed to the car interior and the hoistway shall be metal, glass, or shall conform to 2.14.2.1.1 through 2.14.2.1.4.
In jurisdictions not enforcing NBCC
(a) materials in their end-use configuration, other than those covered by 2.14.2.1.1(b) and (c), 2.14.2.1.3, and 2.14.2.1.4, shall conform to the following requirements, based on the tests conducted in accordance with the requirements of ASTM E84, ANSI/UL 723, or CAN/ULC-S102:
(1) flame spread rating of 0 to 75
(2) smoke development of 0 to 450
(b) napped, tufted, woven, looped, and similar materials in their end-use configuration on car enclosure walls shall conform to 8.3.7. The enclosure walls to which this material is attached shall conform to 2.14.2.1.1(a).
(c) floor covering, underlayment, and its adhesive shall have a critical radiant flux of not less than 0.45 W/cm2, as measured by ASTM E648.
In jursidictions enforcing the NBCC
(a) materials in their end-use configuration, other than those covered by 2.14.2.1.2(b), 2.14.2.1.3, and 2.14.2.1.4, shall conform to the following requirements, based on the tests conducted in accordance with the requirements of ASTM E84, ANSI/UL 723, or CAN/ULC-S102:
(1) flame spread rating of 0 to 75
(2) smoke development classification of 0 to 450
(b) floor surfaces shall have a flame spread rating of 0 to 300, with a smoke development classification of 0 to 450, based on the test conducted in accordance with the requirements of CAN/ULC-S102.2
Padded protective linings, for temporary use in passenger cars during the handling of freight, shall be of materials conforming to either 2.14.2.1.1(a) or (b) or 2.14.2.1.2(a), whichever is applicable. The protective lining shall clear the floor by not less than 100 mm (4 in.).
Handrails, operating devices, ventilating devices, signal fixtures, audio and visual communication devices, and their housings are not required to conform to 2.14.2.1.
Openings or hinged or removable panels in an enclosure are prohibited, other than as required for the following:
(a) signal, operating, and communication equipment
(b) entrances
(c) vision panels
(d) top emergency exit
(e) ventilation
(f) access panels for cleaning of glass on observation elevators (see 2.14.2.6)
(g) equipment access panels for maintenance and inspection of equipment shall conform to the following requirements (see also 2.7.5.1.4):
(1) be of hinged type.
(2) open only into the car.
(3) be provided with a lock so arranged that the door shall be openable from inside the car only by a specially shaped removable key. Locks shall be so designed that they cannot be opened from the inside by the use of ordinary tools or instruments. Keys shall be Group 1 Security (see 8.1).
(4) be provided with electric contacts that conform to 2.14.4.2.3(b) through (e) and 2.26.2.35, and are located so as to be inaccessible from the inside of the car. When opened, the contact shall cause power to be removed from the driving-machine motor and brake.
(5) be of the same material and construction as required for the enclosure.
Natural ventilation openings conforming to the following shall be provided in car enclosures:
(a) Openings exposed to the inside of the car shall not be located in the portion of the enclosure walls extending from a point 300 mm (12 in.) above the floor to a point 1 825 mm (72 in.) above the floor.
(b) Openings less than 300 mm (12 in.) above the floor shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter and be guarded to prevent straight-through passage.
(c) Openings above the 1 825 mm (72 in.) level shall reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter and be guarded to prevent straight-through passage.
(d) Openings in the car ceiling shall be protected and shall conform to 2.14.1.6.
(e) The total area of natural ventilation openings shall be not less than 3.5% of the inside car floor area divided equally between the bottom and top of the car enclosure.
(f) The total unrestricted opening in or around the car doors or gates shall be permitted to be included as part of the total natural ventilation required.
(g) The unrestricted opening provided by forced ventilation systems shall be permitted to be part of the natural ventilation area on the part of the car in which it is located.
Ventilating fans or blowers, if used, shall be located above the car ceiling or outside the enclosure and shall be securely fastened in place.
Forced ventilation conforming to the following shall be provided on observation elevators with glass walls exposed to direct sunlight:
(a) There shall be a minimum air handling capacity to provide one air change per minute based on net inside car volume.
(b) An auxiliary power source capable of providing the minimum air handling capacity for a continuous period of at least 1 h shall be provided on each elevator car.
NOTE (2.14.2.3.3): Special consideration should be given to elevators such as observation and parking garage elevators, when they are exposed to the elements. In extreme cases, emergency power may be required for this purpose.
A minimum clear headroom of 2 025 mm (80 in.) above the car floor shall be provided.
Vision panels are not required, but where used, shall
(a) be of a total area of not more than 0.1 m2 (155 in.2) and contain no single glass panel having a width exceeding 150 mm (6 in.)
(b) be provided with wire-glass panels or laminated-glass panels conforming to 16 CFR Part 1201 or CAN/CGSB-12.11, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). Markings as specified in the applicable standard shall be on each separate piece of laminated glass, and shall remain visible after installation.
(c) be located in the car door or in the front return panel of the car enclosure
(d) have the inside face of a car door vision panel, grille, or cover located substantially flush with the inside surface of the car door
(e) have fasteners that are located on the hoistway side. It shall not be possible to remove the fasteners with common tools.
Nonremovable sliding or swing panels shall be permitted for access to the car or hoistway transparent enclosures for cleaning purposes. Such panels or doors shall
(a) if hinged, open only into the car
(b) be provided with cylinder-type locks, having not less than a five-pin or a five-disc combination, or a lock that provides equivalent security, arranged so that they can be unlocked with a key from the car side, and the key shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1)
(c) be manually openable from the hoistway side
(d) be self-locking
(e) be provided with a device arranged so that the panel must be in the closed and locked position (see 2.26.2.31) before the elevator can operate
(f) have a bottom edge a minimum of 1 070 mm (42 in.) from the floor in cases where the adjacent hoistway wall is more than 140 mm (5.5 in.) from the car enclosure or where there is no adjacent hoistway wall
Enclosures shall be of metal without perforations to a height of not less than 1 825 mm (72 in.) above the floor.
Above the 1 825 mm (72 in.) level, the walls and top of the enclosure shall be metal with or without perforations, except that portion of the enclosure wall in front of and extending 150 mm (6 in.) on each side of the counterweight, that shall be without perforations.
Perforated portions of enclosures shall reject a ball 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter.
Freight elevators that are permitted to carry passengers (see 2.16.4) shall conform to 2.14.2.2.
Hinged or removable panels shall not be provided in car tops, except those required for emergency exit, and for equipment access (see 2.7.5.1.4).
If ventilating grilles or louvers are provided in the enclosure below the 1 825 mm (72 in.) level, they shall be located not more than 300 mm (12 in.) above the floor and shall reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter.
A door shall be provided at each entrance to a passenger car and a door or gate shall be provided at each entrance to a freight car.
Each car door or gate shall be provided with a door or gate electric contact conforming to 2.26.2.15, 2.14.4.2.3, and 2.14.4.2.5, or a car door interlock conforming to 2.26.2.28, 2.14.4.2.4, and 2.14.4.2.5.
A car door interlock shall be required for
(a) car doors of elevators where the clearance between the loading side of the car platform and hoistway enclosure exceeds the maximum specified in 2.5.1.5
(b) car doors of elevators that face an unenclosed portion of the hoistway during the travel of the car
Car door and gate electric contacts shall
(a) prevent operation of the driving machine when the car door or gate is not in the closed position, except under one of the following conditions:
(1) when a hoistway access switch is operated (see 2.12.7)
(2) when a car-leveling or truck-zoning device is operated (see 2.26.1.6)
(3) when a bypass switch is activated (see 2.26.1.5)
(b) be positively opened by a lever or other device attached to and operated by the door or gate
(c) be maintained in the open position by the action of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or by both, or by positive mechanical means
(d) be so designed or located that they shall not be accessible from within the car
(e) not utilize mercury tube switches
Car door interlocks shall
(a) prevent operation of the driving machine when the car door is not in the closed and locked position, except
(1) when the car is within the unlocking zone for that entrance
(2) under the conditions specified in 2.14.4.2.3(a)
(b) prevent opening of the car door from within the car, except when the car is in the unlocking zone for that entrance
(c) hold the car door in the locked position by means of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or by both, or by means of a positive linkage
(d) be so located that they are not accessible from within the car when the car doors are closed
(e) be designed in accordance with 2.12.2.4
Each type and make of car door electric contact, car gate electric contact, and car door interlock shall
(a) be type tested in conformance with 2.12.4.1
(b) be listed/certified in conformance with 2.12.4.2
(c) be marked in conformance with 2.12.4.3
A hoistway door interlock meeting the requirements of 2.12.2 and 2.12.4 shall be permitted to be used as a car door interlock.
Doors shall be of the horizontally or vertically sliding type and of material conforming to 2.14.2.1.
Gates, where permitted, shall be of the horizontally sliding or vertically sliding type, conforming to 2.14.4.7, 2.14.5, and 2.14.6.
Doors or gates for automatic or continuous-pressure operation elevators, except freight elevators equipped with horizontally swinging doors and not accessible to the general public, located in factories, warehouses, garages, and similar buildings, shall be so located that the distance from the face of the car door or gate to the face of the hoistway door shall be not more than the following:
(a) where a swinging-type hoistway door and car gate or folding car door are used, 100 mm (4 in.)
(b) where a swinging-type hoistway door and a car door are used, 140 mm (5.5 in.)
(c) where a sliding-type hoistway door and a car door or gate are used, 140 mm (5.5 in.)
(d) on freight elevators that are equipped with horizontally swinging doors and that are not accessible to the general public (i.e., located in factories, warehouses, garages, and similar buildings), the distance specified in 2.14.4.5.1(a), (b), and (c) shall be not more than 165 mm (6.5 in.)
The distances specified shall be measured as follows:
(a) where a multisection car door and multisection hoistway door are used, or where one of these doors is multisection and the other is single section, between the sections of the car door and the hoistway door nearest to each other
(b) where a multisection car door and a swinging-type hoistway door are used, between the hoistway door and the section of the car door farthest from it
(c) where a car gate is used, between the car gate and that section of the hoistway door nearest to the car gate
(d) where a folding car door is used, between the hoistway door and the car door panel furthest from the hoistway door, when closed (see 2.12.2.2 and 2.14.4.11)
Doors and gates and their guides, guide shoes, tracks, and hangers shall be so designed, constructed, and installed that when the fully closed door or gate is subjected to a force of 335 N (75 lbf), applied on an area 300 mm (12 in.) square at right angles to and approximately at the center of the door or gate, it will not deflect more than 13 mm (0.5 in.) toward the hoistway door.
Where a swing-type hoistway door and car gate or folding door are used, the gate or folding door shall not deflect more than 13 mm (0.5 in.) when subjected to a force of 335 N (75 lbf) when applied to the hoistway side of the car gate or folding door at the following locations:
(a) an area 100 mm (4 in.) square at right angles at the approximate center of the gate or folding door opening
(b) an area 100 mm (4 in.) square at right angles at 25% and 75% of the door width at a height of 450 mm (18 in.) from the floor level
For individual panels of folding doors of a width less than 100 mm (4 in.), the specified forces in (a) and (b) shall be applied over an area 100 mm (4 in.) tall by the width of the individual panel.
When subjected to a force of 1 100 N (250 lbf) similarly applied, doors and vertically sliding gates shall not break or be permanently deformed and shall not be displaced from their guides or tracks.
Where multisection doors, gates, or folding doors are used, each panel shall withstand the forces specified.
They shall be of the balanced counterweighted type or the biparting counterbalanced type.
Gates shall be constructed of wood or metal, and shall be of a design that will reject a ball 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter, except that if multisection vertical lift gates are used, the panel shall be designed to reject a ball 10 mm (0.375 in.) in diameter.
Doors shall be constructed of material conforming to 2.14.2.1.
Doors or gates shall guard the full width of the car entrance openings, and their height shall conform to 2.14.5.4 or 2.14.6.2.3.
Balanced counterweighted doors or gates shall be either single or multiple section, and shall slide either up or down to open, conforming to 2.14.5.3 and 2.14.6.2.
Weights used to close or balance doors or gates shall be located outside the car enclosure and shall be guided or restrained to prevent them from coming out of their runway.
The bottom of the guides or other restraining means shall be so constructed as to retain the weights if the weight suspension means breaks.
Weights that extend beyond the hoistway side of the car door or gate guide rail shall be guarded to prevent accidental contact.
Suspension members of vertically sliding car doors or gates, and of weights used with car doors or gates, shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5. At least two independent suspension means shall be provided so that the failure of one suspension means shall not permit the car doors or gates to fall; or a safety device shall be provided to prevent the doors or gates from falling, if the suspension means fails.
The operation of power-operated and power-opened or power-closed doors or gates shall conform to 2.13.
Car doors or gates shall be considered to be in the closed position under the following conditions:
(a) for horizontally sliding doors or gates, when the clear open space between the leading edge of the door or gate and the nearest face of the jamb does not exceed 50 mm (2 in.) except where car doors are provided with a car door interlock(s), 10 mm (0.375 in.)
(b) for vertically sliding counterweighted doors or gates, when the clear open space between the leading edge of the door or gate and the car platform sill does not exceed 50 mm (2 in.)
(c) for horizontally sliding center-opening doors, or vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced doors, when the door panels are within 50 mm (2 in.) of contact with each other, except where horizontally sliding center-opening car doors are provided with a car door interlock(s), 10 mm (0.375 in.)
There shall be not more than two entrances to the car, except in existing buildings where structural conditions make additional entrances necessary.
Horizontally or vertically sliding doors subject to the restrictions of 2.14.5.3 shall be provided at each car entrance. Folding car doors are not permitted.
Vertically sliding doors shall be
(a) of the balanced counterweighted type that slide in the up direction to open
(b) power operated where facing a power-operated vertically sliding counterbalanced or a vertically sliding-down-to-open hoistway door
Doors, when in the fully closed position, shall protect the full width and height of the car entrance opening.
There shall be no openings in doors, except where vision panels are used.
Door panels shall have a flush surface on the side exposed to the car interior. The panels shall have no area or molding depressed or raised more than 3 mm (0.125 in.) and areas raised or depressed shall be beveled at not more than 30 deg to the panel surface.
Panels shall overlap the top and sides of the car entrance opening by not less than 13 mm (0.5 in.) when in the closed position.
The vertical clearance between a panel and the sill, or in the case of a vertically sliding door the vertical clearance between the leading edge and the sill, shall not exceed 10 mm (0.375 in.) when in the fully closed position.
The horizontal clearance shall not exceed 13 mm (0.5 in.) for horizontally sliding panels and 25 mm (1 in.) for vertically sliding panels between
(a) the car side of a panel and the related car entrance jamb
(b) related panels of multispeed entrances
(c) the car side of the panel and the related car head jamb
The leading edges of doors shall be free of sharp projections.
The meeting panel edges of center-opening entrances shall be protected with not less than one resilient male member extending the full height of the panel. The meeting edges shall be permitted to interlock by not more than 10 mm (0.375 in.). When in the closed position, the distance between the metal parts of the meeting panels shall not exceed 13 mm (0.5 in.).
The clearance between the leading edge of the trailing panel of multiple-speed panels and the jamb shall not exceed
(a) 13 mm (0.5 in.) for horizontal slide
(b) 25 mm (1 in.) for vertical slide
When a car is outside the unlocking zone, the car doors shall be so arranged that when in the closed position they shall be restricted from opening more than 100 mm (4 in.) from inside the car.
Car doors shall be openable from outside the car without the use of a special tool(s).
The doors shall be openable from within the car (see 2.14.5.8) when the car is within the unlocking zone, except as specified in 2.14.5.7.4(b)(1).
NOTE (2.14.5.7): See also 2.12.1 and Nonmandatory Appendix B, Unlocking Zone.
If the means used to restrict car door opening requires electrical power for its functioning, it shall comply with 2.14.5.7.4(a) through 2.14.5.7.4(d).
(a) The means shall not use electrical power to maintain restricted opening of the car door in accordance with 2.14.5.7.1.
(b) The means shall operate in accordance with 2.14.5.7.1 and 2.14.5.7.3 and the following:
(1) an alternate power source shall be provided that shall permit the means to operate for not less than one (1) hr upon loss of normal power
(2) the alternate power source shall be
(a) monitored and when it is detected that there is sufficient capacity to operate the means for not less than one (1) hr, an audible signal conforming to 2.14.5.7.4(d) shall operate
(b) provided with readily visible information that indicates the expiration date of the alternate power source in lettering not less than 5 mm (0.25 in.) high
(c) On automatic operation, the portion of the means dependent on power shall be monitored and when it is detected that it has failed to operate in accordance with 2.14.5.7.1, an audible signal conforming to 2.14.5.7.4(d) shall operate.
(d) The audible signal required by 2.14.5.7.4(b)(2)(a) or 2.14.5.7.4(c) shall be at least 10 dBA above ambient, not exceeding 80 dBA, measured inside the car.
The means to restrict door opening shall comply with 2.14.5.7.1 when subjected to a force of 1 000 N (225 lbf) applied in the opening direction of the door and at a location anywhere along the leading edge of the door.
Car doors shall be so arranged that when the car is stopped within the unlocking zone (see 2.14.5.7.3) and power to the door operator is cut off, they and the mechanically related hoistway door, if any, shall be movable by hand from inside the car except as specified in 2.14.5.7.4(b)(1). The force required at the edge of sliding doors to move them shall not exceed 330 N (75 lbf).
Vision panels, where provided, shall conform to 2.14.2.5.
Glass doors, where provided, shall conform to the following requirements:
(a) The glass shall be laminated glass conforming to the requirements of 16 CFR Part 1201, or be laminated glass, safety glass, or safety plastic conforming to the requirements of CAN/CGSB-12.1, whichever is applicable (see Part 9). Markings as specified shall be on each separate piece, and shall remain visible after installation.
(b) The glass shall be not less than 60% of the total visible door panel surface area as seen from the car side of the doors. Door lap shall not be used in calculating glass size.
(c) In power-operated doors, the glass panel shall be substantially flush with the surface of the car side of the door.
(d) The glass shall conform to the applicable strength requirements of 2.14.4.6.
(e) The glass shall be so mounted that it, and its mounting structure, will withstand the required elevator tests without becoming damaged or dislodged.
(f) A nonglass edge shall be provided on the leading edge of the door panel.
Folding car doors shall conform to 2.14.4 except paras. 2.14.4.4, 2.14.4.7, and 2.14.4.9. They shall also conform to all of 2.14.5 except paras. 2.14.5.3, 2.14.5.6.2, 2.14.5.7, and 2.14.5.9.
The effort needed to prevent a folding car door from closing shall conform to 2.13.4.2.3.
Folding car doors shall not be power opened to a distance exceeding one-third of the clear opening, and in no case more than 250 mm (10 in.).
Handles of manually operated folding car doors nearest the car operating device on elevators operated from the car only shall be so located that the nearest handle is not more than 1 220 mm (48 in.) from the car operating device when the folding door is closed, and between 1 220 mm (48 in.) and 380 mm (15 in.) above the car floor.
For elevators designed for Class A loading (see 2.16.2.2), car gates shall be the vertically sliding type (see 2.14.6.2), the horizontally sliding collapsible type (see 2.14.6.3), or a car door of the folding type (see 2.14.5.9).
For elevators designed for Class B or Class C loading (see 2.16.2.2), car gates shall be of the vertically sliding type (see 2.14.6.2).
On elevators used exclusively for freight, car doors and gates shall be either of the balanced counterweighted type that slide up or down to open, or of the biparting counterbalanced type. They shall be manually operated or power operated. Where power-operated vertically sliding biparting counterbalanced or power-operated vertically sliding counterweighted hoistway doors are provided, facing car doors and gates shall be of the power-operated balanced counterweighted type that slide up to open.
Where used on freight elevators permitted to carry passengers (see 2.16.4), car doors shall conform to 2.14.5.
Car doors and gates shall protect the full width of the car entrance opening, and their height shall be determined as follows:
(a) car doors and gates shall extend from a point not more than 25 mm (1 in.) above the car floor to a point not less than 1 825 mm (72 in.) above the car floor
(b) where a vertically sliding car gate with a door reopening device is provided, the 25 mm (1 in.) maximum dimension specified shall be measured from the car floor to the bottom of the leading member
The horizontal clearance between the car side of a panel and the related car entrance jamb or between related panels of multispeed doors or gates shall not exceed 25 mm (1 in.).
Collapsible-type gates shall protect the full width of the car entrance opening, and they shall extend from the car floor to a height of not less than 1 825 mm (72 in.) when fully closed.
When in the fully closed (extended) position, the opening between vertical members shall not be more than 115 mm (4.5 in.).
Every vertical member shall be restricted from moving perpendicular to the direction of travel more than 13 mm (0.5 in.).
They shall not be power opened, except as permitted by 2.13.2.1.2.
When in the fully opened (collapsed) position, collapsible gates shall be permitted to be arranged to swing inward.
Handles of manually operated collapsible gates nearest the car operating device on elevators operated from the car only shall be so located that the nearest handle is not more than 1 225 mm (48 in.) from the car operating device when the gate is closed (extended position), and not more than 1 225 mm (48 in.) above the car floor. Gate handles shall be provided with finger guards.
Cars shall be provided with electric lighting conforming to 2.14.7.1.1 through 2.14.7.1.4.
Not less than two lamps or sets of lamps of approximately equal illumination shall be provided. Systems using only one of the two required lamps or sets of lamps to provide the required illumination shall be permitted and shall comply with the following:
(a) Each lamp or set of lamps shall provide the minimum illumination in conformance with 2.14.7.1.2.
(b) Systems shall be arranged to automatically illuminate the unlit lamp or set of lamps immediately following a failure of the first lamp or set of lamps.
(c) Systems shall be designed so that an audible or visual signal notifies authorized personnel when one lamp or set of lamps is not functional.
The minimum illumination at the car threshold, with the door closed, shall be not less than
(a) 50 lx (5 fc) for passenger elevators
(b) 25 lx (2.5 fc) for freight elevators
Each elevator shall be provided with auxiliary lighting and shall conform to the following:
(a) The intensity of auxiliary lighting illumination shall be not less than 2 lx (0.2 fc), measured at any point between 1 225 mm (48 in.) and 890 mm (35 in.) above the car floor and approximately 300 mm (12 in.) centered horizontally in front of a car operating panel containing any of the following:
(1) car operating device(s)
(2) door open button
(3) rear or side door open button
(4) door close button
(5) rear or side door close button
(6) "PHONE" button and operating instructions, or
(7) "ALARM" switch
(b) Illumination is not required in front of additional car operating panels where the devices listed in 2.14.7.1.3(a) are duplicated.
(c) Auxiliary lights shall be automatically turned on in all elevators in service after normal car lighting power fails.
(d) The power source shall be located on the car.
(e) The power system shall be capable of maintaining the light intensity specified in 2.14.7.1.3(a) for a period of at least 4 h.
(f) Not less than two lamps or sets of lamps of approximately equal illumination shall be provided. Systems using only one of the two required lamps or sets of lamps to provide the required illumination shall be permitted and shall comply with the following:
(1) Each lamp or set of lamps shall provide the minimum illumination in conformance with 2.14.7.1.3(a).
(2) Systems shall be arranged to automatically illuminate the unlit lamp or set of lamps immediately following a failure of the first lamp or set of lamps.
(3) Systems shall be designed so that an audible or visual signal notifies authorized personnel when one lamp or set of lamps is not functional.
(g) Battery-operated units, where provided, shall
(1) comply with CSA C22.2 No. 141 or UL 924 (see Section 9)
(2) have a 4 h rating minimum
(3) be permanently connected to the car light branch circuit
(4) have an output rating that includes the auxiliary lights and if connected, the emergency signaling device (see 2.27.1.1.3)
(h) The lamps used for auxiliary lighting are permitted to be the same lamps used for normal illumination in conformance with 2.14.7.1.1.
Each elevator shall be provided with lighting and a duplex receptacle fixture on the car top. The lighting shall be permanently connected, fixed, or portable, or a combination thereof, to provide an illumination level of not less than 100 lx (10 fc) measured at the point of any elevator part or equipment, where maintenance or inspection is to be performed from the car top. All lighting shall be equipped with guards. The light switch shall be accessible from the landing when accessing the car top.
Light control switches for in-car lighting shall be permitted. When provided, they shall
(a) be located in or adjacent to the operating device in the car.
(b) in elevators having automatic operation, be of the key-operated type or located in a fixture with a locked cover. The key shall be Group 2 Security (see 8.1).
Automatic operation of the car lights shall be permitted. When provided, the operating circuit shall be arranged to turn off the lights only when the following conditions exist for not less than 5 min:
(a) the car is at a floor
(b) the doors are closed
(c) there is no demand for service
(d) the car is on automatic operation
Momentary interruption of any of the above conditions shall cause the car lights to turn on.
Glass used for lighting fixtures shall conform to 2.14.1.8.
Suspended glass used in lighting fixtures shall be supported by a metal frame secured at not less than three points.
Fastening devices shall not be removable from the fixture.
Glass shall not be drilled for attachment.
Light troughs supporting wiring raceways and other auxiliary lighting equipment, where used, shall be of metal, except where lined with noncombustible materials.
Materials for light diffusion or transmission shall be of metal, glass, or materials conforming to 2.14.2.1.1 and shall not come in contact with light bulbs and tubes.
Light bulbs and tubes within the car shall
(a) be equipped with guards, be recessed, or be mounted above a drop ceiling to prevent accidental breakage. Cars that operate with the drop ceiling removed shall have a permanent separate guard for the light bulb or tube.
(b) be so mounted in the structure that the structure and the bulb or tube will withstand the required elevator tests without being damaged or becoming dislodged.
Every elevator shall have a car frame (see 1.3).
Car frames shall be guided on each guide rail by upper and lower guiding members attached to the frame. Guiding means shall be designed to withstand the forces imposed during normal operation of the elevator, loading and unloading, emergency stopping, and the application of safeties.
Means shall be provided to prevent the car from being displaced by more than 13 mm (0.5 in.) from its normal running position.
This protection shall be provided by either of the following:
(a) a guiding means wherein no failure or wear of the guiding member shall allow the car to be displaced more than 13 mm (0.5 in.) from its normal running position
(b) a retention means that shall be permitted to be integral with the guiding means
All components of the means required to limit displacement in accordance with 2.15.2.2 shall have minimum factor of safety of 5.
The frame and its guiding members shall be designed to withstand the forces resulting under the loading conditions for which the elevator is designed and installed (see 2.16).
The vertical distance between the centerlines of the top and bottom guide shoes of an elevator car having a sub-post car frame or having an underslung car frame located entirely below the car platform shall be not less than 40% of the distance between guide rails.
Every elevator car shall have a platform consisting of a nonperforated floor attached to a platform frame supported by the car frame, and extending over the entire area within the car enclosure.
The platform frame members and the floor shall be designed to withstand the forces developed under the loading conditions for which the elevator is designed and installed.
Platform frames are not required where laminated platforms are provided.
Laminated platforms shall be permitted to be used for passenger elevators having a rated load of 2 300 kg (5,000 lb) or less.
The deflection at any point of a laminated platform, when uniformly loaded to rated capacity, shall not exceed 1/960 of the span. The stresses in the steel facing shall not exceed one-fifth of its ultimate strength, and the stresses in the plywood core shall not exceed 60% of the allowable stresses in Section 3.14 of the American Plywood Association Plywood Design Specification or CSA 086.1, as applicable (see Part 9).
Materials used in the construction of car frames and platforms shall conform to 2.15.6.1.1 through 2.15.6.1.4.
Car frames and outside members of platform frames shall be made of steel or other metals.
Platform stringers of freight elevators designed for Class B or Class C loading shall be of steel or other metals.
Platform stringers of passenger elevators and of freight elevators designed for Class A loading shall be made of steel or other metals, or of wood.
Cast iron shall not be used for any part subject to tension, torsion, or bending, except for guiding supports and guide shoes.
Steel used in the construction of car frames and platforms shall conform to 2.15.6.2.1 through 2.15.6.2.3.
Steel shall be rolled, formed, forged, or cast, conforming to the requirements of the following specifications:
(a) Rolled and Formed Steel. ASTM A36 or ASTM A283 Grade D or CAN/CSA-G40.21.
(b) Forged Steel. ASTM A668 Class B.
(c) Cast Steel. ASTM A27 Grade 60/30.
Steel used for rivets, bolts, and rods shall conform to the following specifications:
(a) ASTM A502, Rivets
(b) ASTM A307, Bolts and Rods
Steels of greater or lesser strength than those specified by 2.15.6.2.1 shall be permitted to be used, provided they have an elongation of not less than 20% in a length of 50 mm (2 in.) when tested in accordance with ASTM E8, and provided that the stresses and deflections conform to 2.15.10 and 2.15.11, respectively.
Rivets, bolts, and rods made of steel having greater strength than specified by ASTM A307 and ASTM A502 shall be permitted to be used and the maximum allowable stresses increased proportionally, based on the ratio of the ultimate strengths. Elongation shall conform to the requirements of the corresponding ASTM specifications.
Metals other than steel shall be permitted to be used in the construction of car frames and platforms, provided the metal used has the essential properties to meet all the requirements for the purpose in accordance with good engineering practice, and provided the stresses and deflections conform to 2.15.10 and 2.15.11, respectively.
Wood used for platform stringers and platform floors and sub-floors shall be of structural quality lumber or exterior-type plywood conforming to the requirements of the following:
(a) ASTM D245, Structural Grades of Lumber
(b) ASTM D198, Static Tests of Structural Timbers
(c) ANSI Voluntary Product Standard PS 1-74 or CSA 0151, Softwood Plywood, Construction and Industrial
Connections between members of car frames and platforms shall be riveted, bolted, or welded, and shall conform to 2.15.7.3.
The attachment of the platform to the car frame shall be done in accordance with good engineering practice and shall develop the required strength to transmit the forces safely from the platform to the car frame in accordance with 2.15.10. Bolts, nuts, and welding, where used, shall conform to 2.15.7.3.
Bolts, where used through greater than 5 deg sloping flanges of structural members, shall have bolt heads of the tipped-head type or shall be fitted with bevelled washers.
Nuts used on greater than 5 deg sloping flanges of structural members shall sit on beveled washers.
All welding shall conform to 8.8.
All platform materials exposed to the hoistway shall be either of the following:
(a) metal
(b) other materials that, in their end-use configuration, conform to the following requirements, based on the tests conducted in accordance with the requirements of ASTM E84, UL 723, NFPA 255, or CAN/ULC-S102.2, whichever is applicable (see Part 9):
(1) flame spread rating of 0 to 75
(2) smoke development of 0 to 450
The entrance side of the platform of passenger and freight elevators shall be provided with smooth metal guard plates of not less than 1.5 mm (0.059 in.) thick steel, or material of equivalent strength and stiffness, adequately reinforced and braced to the car platform and conforming to 2.15.9.1 through 2.15.9.4.
The guard plate shall extend not less than the full width of the widest hoistway-door opening.
The guard plate shall have a straight vertical face, extending below the floor surface of the platform. A horizontal door guiding groove is permitted below the floor surface for door operating devices, door guiding devices, and door retaining devices in accordance with 2.15.9.5. The guard plate shall conform to one of the following:
(a) where the elevator is required to conform to 2.19.2.2(b) the depth of the truck zone, where provided, plus 75 mm (3 in.), but in no case less than 1 220 mm (48 in.)
(b) where the elevator is not required to conform to 2.19.2.2(b) the depth of the leveling zone or truck zone, where provided, plus 75 mm (3 in.), but in no case less than 525 mm (21 in.) from the floor surface
The lower portion of the guard shall be bent back at an angle of not less than 60 deg nor more than 75 deg from the horizontal.
The guard plate shall be securely braced and fastened in place to withstand a constant force of not less than 650 N (145 lbf) applied at right angles to and at any position on its face without deflecting more than 6 mm (0.25 in.), and without permanent deformation.
Where the car entrance on the truck loading side is provided with a collapsible-type gate and the height of the hoistway door opening is greater than the distance from the car floor to the car top, a head guard extending the full width of the door opening shall be provided on the car to close the space between the car top and the soffit of the hoistway-door opening when the car platform is level with the floor at the truck loading landing entrance.
A horizontal door guiding groove with a maximum width of 10 mm (0.375 in.) shall be permitted at the transition of the car sill guard and the car sill, in accordance with the following requirements:
(a) door power pre-opening in accordance with 2.13.2.2.2 shall not be permitted
(b) leveling/re-leveling shall be initiated before vertical exposure of the groove is revealed
(c) where exposure to the gap is revealed the car shall not re-level with open doors
(d) edges forming the gap shall be configured to prevent hazards
The stresses in car frame and platform members and their connections, based on the static load imposed upon them, shall not exceed the following:
(a) for steels meeting the requirements of 2.15.6.2.1 and 2.15.6.2.2, as listed in Table 2.15.10.1
(b) for steels of greater or lesser strength, as permitted by 2.15.6.2.3, the allowable stresses listed in Table 2.15.10.1 are to be adjusted proportionally, based on the ratio of the ultimate strengths
Table 2.15.10.1 Maximum Allowable Stresses in Car Frame and Platform Members and Connections, for Steels Specified in 2.15.6.2.1 and 2.15.6.2.2
Member Type Stress Type Maximum Stress, MPa (psi) Area Basis
Car crosshead Bending 95 (14,000) Gross section
Car frame plank (normal loading) Bending 95 (14,000) Gross section
Car frame plank (buffer reaction) Bending 190 (27,500) Gross section
Car frame uprights (stiles) Bending plus tension 115 (17,000) Gross section
140 (20,200) Net section
Hoisting rope hitch plate and shapes Bending plus tension 75 (11,000) Net section
Platform framing Bending 95 (14,000) Gross section
Platform stringers Bending 115 (17,000) Gross section
Threaded brace rods and other tension members except bolts Tension 60 (9,000) Net section
Bolts Tension 55 (8,000) Net section
Bolts in clearance holes Shear 55 (8,000) Actual area in shear plane
Bearing 120 (17,500) Gross section
Rivets or tight body-fit bolts Shear 75 (11,000) Actual area in shear plane
Bearing 140 (20,000) Gross section
Any framing member normal loading Compression Note (1) Gross section
NOTE:
  1. The maximum allowable compressive stress in any member at normal loading shall not exceed 80% of those permitted for static loads by the AISC #S326 or CSA S16.1.
(c) for metals other than steel, as permitted by 2.15.6.3, the allowable stresses listed in Table 2.15.10.1 are to be adjusted proportionally, based on the ratio of the ultimate strengths