ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2015 (IFC 2015)

Part I — Administrative

Part II — General Safety Provisions

Part III — Building and Equipment Design Features

Part IV — Special Occupancies and Operations

Part V — Hazardous Materials

Part VI — Referenced Standards

Part VII — Appendices

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.

901.1 Scope

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The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems.

901.2 Construction Documents

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901.2.1 Statement of Compliance

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901.3 Permits

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901.4 Installation

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Fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the original installation standards for that system. Before any fire alarm, detection or fire suppression system is installed, enlarged or extended, a permit shall be obtained from the construction official.

901.4.1 Required Fire Protection Systems

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All fire protection systems shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times. An owner or occupant shall not reduce the effectiveness of the protection so required. This requirement shall not prohibit the owner or occupant from temporarily reducing or discontinuing the protection where necessary to make tests, repairs, alterations or additions. The fire official shall be notified before disconnection or interruption of protection and when tests, repairs, alterations or additions are started and upon completion of such work. The fire official shall be advised of the extent of and reason for such work, and the restoration of the protection shall be diligently pursued.

901.4.2 Nonrequired Fire Protection Systems Removal

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Any fire protection system providing partial or redundant protection originally installed to protect a special hazard that no longer exists and that is not required in accordance with the current Uniform Construction Code, is allowed to be removed with the approval of the fire subcode official and fire official. All disconnected equipment and devices, such as pull stations, nozzles, detectors, sprinklers, sensors, panels and hose connections, shall be removed so as not to give a false indication that the structure, area or space is protected.

901.4.3 Fire Areas

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ILLUSTRATION
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with the building subcode of the Uniform Construction Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with the building subcode of the Uniform Construction Code, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with the building subcode of the Uniform Construction Code.

901.4.4 Additional Fire Protection Systems

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Any device that has the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protection function shall be prohibited.
Where provided, fire pump rooms and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working space around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and an unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.

901.5 Installation Acceptance Testing

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901.5.1 Occupancy

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901.6 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance, Any Installed

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Fire detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems, mechanical smoke exhaust systems, and smoke and heat vents whether in a permanent structure or a mobile enclosed unit shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective.

901.6.1 Standards

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1.

TABLE 901.6.1
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS
SYSTEM STANDARD
Portable fire extinguishers NFPA 10
Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system NFPA 12
Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems NFPA 12A
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems NFPA 17c
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems NFPA 17Ac
Water-based fire protection systems NFPA 25a
Fire alarm systems NFPA 72b
Smoke and heat vents NFPA 204
Water-mist systems NFPA 750
Clean-agent extinguishing systems NFPA 2001
Smoke control systems NFPA 92
Smoke and heat vents NFPA 204
Carbon monoxide warning equipment NFPA 720
  1. The reference to NFPA 25 includes the mandatory use of the forms complying with Annex B of NFPA 25.
  2. The reference to NFPA 72 specifically excludes Section 11.7.8.2.
  3. The reference to NFPA 17 and NFPA 17A requires that every permitted and certified contractor in the non-water-based kitchen fire suppression system industry utilize one standardized form for documenting inspections, testing and maintenance of non-water-based kitchen fire suppression systems. In addition, each permitted and certified contractor in the non-water-based kitchen fire suppression system industry is required to provide a copy of the completed form to both the owner or occupant and the local fire code enforcement official within five business days of inspection, testing and maintenance. The template of this form is set forth at Appendix N of this code.

901.6.2 Records

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years and forwarded to the fire official within five business days of the inspection. All inspection reports shall list deficiencies based on the edition of the referenced standard in effect at the time of installation, with nonrequired recommendations listed separately.

901.6.2.1 Records Information

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901.6.3 Carbon Monoxide Alarms

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Carbon monoxide alarms shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 720 and the manufacturer's instructions.

901.6.4 Testing of Backflow Preventers

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Backflow preventers that are designed to be field tested shall be tested annually in accordance with NFPA 25. The fire official shall accept a current certificate of compliance issued in accordance with the Uniform Construction Code. This compliance certificate shall satisfy the requirement for the backflow preventer backflow test only. This provision notwithstanding, the fire official shall require a forward flow test to determine that proper water supply is being maintained for system demand.

901.7 Systems Out of Service

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code official shall be notified immediately, and where the fire code official determines that an imminent hazard exists pursuant to N.J.A.C 5:70-2.16, the building shall be either evacuated in accordance with N.J.A.C. 5:70-2.17 or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service.

     Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with not less than one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.
The building owner shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator.
A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service.
The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. The fire code official shall specify where the tag is to be placed.

901.7.4 Preplanned Impairment Programs

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This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:
  1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.
  2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.
  3. Recommendations have been submitted to management or the building owner/manager.
  4. The fire official and the fire department have been notified.
  5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, the building owner/manager and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.
  6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.
  7. A tag impairment system has been implemented.
  8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.
Where unplanned impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Section 901.7.4.

901.7.6 Restoring Systems to Service

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
When impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented:
  1. Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.
  2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.
  3. The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.
  4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.
  5. The impairment tag has been removed.

901.8 Removal of or Tampering With Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
It shall be unlawful for any person to interfere with the effectiveness of, remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire suppression system or other fire appliance required by this code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training purposes, recharging or making necessary repairs or where approved by the fire code official.
Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals that have been installed by or at the direction of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any manner.
The fire code official is authorized to permit the removal of existing occupant-use hose lines where all of the following conditions exist:
  1. Installation is not required by this code or the International Building Code.
  2. The hose line would not be utilized by trained personnel or the fire department.
  3. The remaining outlets are compatible with local fire department fittings.
For fire alarm systems required to be monitored by this code, notice shall be made to the fire code official whenever alarm monitoring services are terminated. Notice shall be made in writing, to the fire code official by the monitoring service provider being terminated.
Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

ALARM SIGNAL.

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.

ANNUNCIATOR.

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

AUTOMATIC.

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.

AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM.

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

CLEAN AGENT.

COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE.

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.

DELUGE SYSTEM.

DETECTOR, HEAT.

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

ELEVATOR GROUP.

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.

FIRE AREA.

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO).

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR.

INITIATING DEVICE.

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

NOTIFICATION ZONE.

NUISANCE ALARM.

PRIVATE GARAGE.

RECORD DRAWINGS.

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

SLEEPING UNIT.

SMOKE ALARM.

SMOKE DETECTOR.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.

Class I system.

Class II system.

Class III system.

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.

Automatic dry.

Automatic wet.

Manual dry.

Manual wet.

Semiautomatic dry.

SUPERVISING STATION.

SUPERVISORY SERVICE.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT.

TROUBLE SIGNAL.

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.

ZONE.

ZONE, NOTIFICATION.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.

903.1.1 Alternative Protection

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903.2 Where Required

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903.2.1 Group A

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903.2.1.1 Group A-1

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903.2.1.2 Group A-2

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903.2.1.3 Group A-3

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903.2.1.4 Group A-4

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903.2.1.5 Group A-5

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903.2.1.6 Assembly Occupancies on Roofs

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903.2.1.7 Multiple Fire Areas

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903.2.2 Ambulatory Care Facilities

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903.2.3 Group E

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903.2.4 Group F-1

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903.2.4.1 Woodworking Operations

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903.2.5 Group H

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903.2.5.1 General

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903.2.5.2 Group H-5 Occupancies

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903.2.5.3 Pyroxylin Plastics

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903.2.6 Group I

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903.2.7 Group M

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903.2.7.1 High-Piled Storage

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903.2.8 Group R

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903.2.8.1 Group R-3

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903.2.8.2 Group R-4 Condition 1

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903.2.8.3 Group R-4 Condition 2

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903.2.8.3.1 Attics Used for Living Purposes, Storage or Fuel-Fired Equipment

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903.2.8.3.2 Attics Not Used for Living Purposes, Storage or Fuel-Fired Equipment

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903.2.8.4 Care Facilities

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903.2.9 Group S-1

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903.2.9.1 Repair Garages

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903.2.9.2 Bulk Storage of Tires

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903.2.10 Group S-2 Enclosed Parking Garages

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903.2.10.1 Commercial Parking Garages

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903.2.11 Specific Buildings Areas and Hazards

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903.2.11.1 Stories Without Openings

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903.2.11.1.1 Opening Dimensions and Access

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903.2.11.1.2 Openings on One Side Only

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903.2.11.1.3 Basements

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903.2.11.2 Rubbish and Linen Chutes

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903.2.11.3 Buildings 55 Feet or More in Height

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903.2.11.4 Ducts Conveying Hazardous Exhausts

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903.2.11.5 Commercial Cooking Operations

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903.2.11.6 Other Required Suppression Systems

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903.2.12 During Construction

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Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.8.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Sections 903.3.1.1.1 and 903.3.1.1.2.

903.3.1.1.1 Exempt Locations

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903.3.1.1.2 Bathrooms

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903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R Sprinkler Systems

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903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and Decks

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903.3.1.2.2 Open-Ended Corridors

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903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D Sprinkler Systems

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903.3.2 Quick-Response and Residential Sprinklers

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903.3.3 Obstructed Locations

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Automatic sprinklers shall be maintained with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers required by the Uniform Construction Code in effect at the time of construction shall be maintained in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.

903.3.4 Actuation

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903.3.5 Water Supplies

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903.3.5.1 Domestic Services

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903.3.5.2 Residential Combination Services

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Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.

903.3.7 Fire Department Connections

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903.3.8 Limited Area Sprinkler Systems

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903.3.8.1 Number of Sprinklers

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903.3.8.2 Occupancy Hazard Classification

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903.3.8.3 Piping Arrangement

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Control valves shall not be installed between the water supply and sprinklers unless the valves are of an approved indicating type that are supervised or secured in the open position.
Hydraulic calculations in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided to demonstrate that the available water flow and pressure are adequate to supply all sprinklers installed in any single fire area with discharge densities corresponding to the hazard classification.

903.4 Sprinkler System Supervision and Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised in accordance with the code in effect at the time of construction or N.J.A.C. 5:70-4 by a listed fire alarm control unit.

Exceptions:
  1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with the code in effect at the time of construction or N.J.A.C. 5:70-4.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
  4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

903.4.1 Monitoring

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Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Exceptions:
  1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
  2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position.

903.4.2 Alarms

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An approved audible device shall be maintained, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location in accordance with the construction code in effect at time of construction or N.J.A.C. 5:70-4, and shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system.

903.4.3 Floor Control Valves

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Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.

903.6 Where Required in Existing Buildings and Structures

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903.6 Placarding

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Hydraulically calculated sprinkler systems shall be placarded in accordance with N.J.A.C. 5:23-3.5, 3.17 and 4.5 of the Uniform Construction Code for Form F380.

904.1 General

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Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.

904.1.1 Certification of Service Personnel for Fire-Extinguishing Equipment

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904.2 Where Permitted

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904.2.1 Restriction on Using Automatic Sprinkler System Exceptions or Reductions

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904.2.2 Commercial Hood and Duct Systems

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Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood including mobile enclosed cooking operations shall be maintained in accordance with this code.

904.3 Installation

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Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with the fire subcode of the Uniform Construction Code.

904.3.1 Electrical Wiring

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904.3.2 Actuation

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904.3.3 System Interlocking

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Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be maintained as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.

904.4 Inspection and Testing

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904.4.1 Inspection

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904.4.2 Alarm Testing

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904.4.2.1 Audible and Visible Signals

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904.4.3 Monitor Testing

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904.5 Wet-Chemical Systems

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Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.

904.6 Dry-Chemical Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.

904.7 Foam Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 25.

904.8 Carbon Dioxide Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall be verified at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced.
The liquid-level gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
Hoses shall be tested at not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in proper operating condition.

904.8.6 Total Flooding Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In any use of carbon dioxide systems where there is a possibility that personnel will be trapped in, or enter into, an atmosphere made hazardous by a discharge, warning signs, discharge alarms and breathing apparatus, when provided, shall be maintained to ensure prompt evacuation of and to prevent entry into such atmospheres and also to provide means for prompt rescue of any trapped personnel.

904.9 Halon Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating condition.

904.9.5 Total Flooding Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In any use of halon total flooding systems where there is a possibility that personnel will be trapped in, or enter into, an atmosphere made hazardous by a discharge, warning signs, discharge alarms and breathing apparatus, when provided, shall be maintained to ensure prompt evacuation of and to prevent entry into such atmospheres and also to provide means for prompt rescue of any trapped personnel.

904.10 Clean-Agent Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at five-year intervals.

904.11 Automatic Water Mist Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Automatic water mist systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.6 and NFPA 25.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 904.11.1.1 through 904.11.1.4.

904.11.1.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.11.1.2 Actuation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.11.1.3 Water Supply Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.11.1.4 Secondary Water Supply

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.11.2 Water Mist System Supervision and Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.11.2.1 Monitoring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.11.2.2 Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.11.2.3 Floor Control Valves

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.11.3 Testing and Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

904.12 Commercial Cooking Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
ILLUSTRATION
The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:
  1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.
  2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.
  3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.
  4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.
  5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.
Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with the mechanical subcode of the Uniform Construction Code.
A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) and not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.
The actuation of the fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.

904.12.3 Carbon Dioxide Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) distance of travel from commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment involving solid fuels or vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected by a Class K rated portable extinguisher in accordance with Section 904.12.5.1 or 904.12.5.2, as applicable.
Solid fuel cooking appliances, whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet (0.14 m3) or less in volume shall have a minimum 2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accordance with Section 904.12.5.
Where hazard areas include deep fat fryers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:
  1. For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon ( 6 L) capacity.
  2. For every additional group of four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one additional Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon (6 L) capacity shall be provided.
  3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 m2) in surface area: Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer's recommendations.

904.12.6 Operations and Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems including mobile enclosed cooking operations shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 904.12.6.1 through 904.12.6.3.
Where changes in the cooking media, positioning of cooking equipment or replacement of cooking equipment occur in existing commercial cooking systems, the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be required to comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 904.12 through 904.12.4.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least every six months and after activation of the system. Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certificate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code official upon completion.
Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, and other protection devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be replaced annually.

904.13 Domestic Cooking Systems in Group I-2 Condition 1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
In Group I-2 Condition 1 occupancies where cooking facilities are installed in accordance with the building subcode of the Uniform Construction Code, the domestic cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300A and listed and labeled for the intended application. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's instructions.
Manual actuation and system interconnection for the hood suppression system shall be in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2, respectively.
A portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 shall be installed within a 30-foot (9144 mm) distance of travel from domestic cooking appliances.

905.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25.

905.2 Installation Standard

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3 Required Installations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3.1 Height

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3.2 Group A

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3.3 Covered and Open Mall Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3.4 Stages

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3.4.1 Hose and Cabinet

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3.5 Underground Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3.6 Helistops and Heliports

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3.7 Marinas and Boatyards

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.3.8 Rooftop Gardens and Landscaped Roofs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.4 Location of Class I Standpipe Hose Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.4.1 Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.4.2 Interconnection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.5 Location of Class II Standpipe Hose Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.5.1 Groups A-1 and A-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.5.2 Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.5.3 Class II System 1-Inch Hose

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.6 Location of Class III Standpipe Hose Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.6.1 Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.6.2 Interconnection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.
Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:
  1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
  2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.
Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:
  1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.
  2. Approved locking arrangements.
  3. Group I-3 occupancies.

905.8 Dry Standpipes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.9 Valve Supervision

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.10 During Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

905.11 Existing Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

906.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in all of the following locations:
  1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.

    Exceptions:
    1. In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C.
    2. In Group A, B and E occupancies equipped throughout with quick response sprinklers, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6.
  2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
  3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
  4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1.
  5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.
  6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.
TABLE 906.1
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
SECTION SUBJECT
303.5 Asphalt kettles
307.5 Open burning
308.1.3 Open flames—torches
309.4 Powered industrial trucks
2005.2 Aircraft towing vehicles
2005.3 Aircraft welding apparatus
2005.4 Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
2005.5 Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
2005.6 Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
2007.7 Heliports and helistops
2108.4 Dry cleaning plants
2305.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2310.6.4 Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2311.6 Repair garages
2404.4.1 Spray-finishing operations
2405.4.2 Dip-tank operations
2406.4.2 Powder-coating areas
2804.3 Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
2808.8 Recycling facilities
2809.5 Exterior lumber storage
2903.5 Organic-coating areas
3006.3 Industrial ovens
3104.12 Tents and membrane structures
3206.10 High-piled storage
3315.1 Buildings under construction or demolition
3317.3 Roofing operations
3408.2 Tire rebuilding/storage
3504.2.6 Welding and other hot work
3604.4 Marinas
3703.6 Combustible fibers
5703.2.1 Flammable and combustible liquids, general
5704.3.3.1 Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
5704.3.7.5.2 Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible
liquids
5705.4.9 Solvent distillation units
5706.2.7 Farms and construction sites—flammable and com-
bustible liquids storage
5706.4.10.1 Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and com-
bustible liquids
5706.5.4.5 Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufac-
turing establishments—fuel dispensing
5706.6.4 Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
5906.5.7 Flammable solids
6108.2 LP-gas
Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.

Exceptions:
  1. The distance of travel to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
  2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every 3 years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:
    1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.
    2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.
    3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.
    4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every 3 years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.
    5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.
  3. In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.
Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on portable fire extinguishers shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental agency, or other approved organization for the type of work performed.
The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

TABLE 906.3(1)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS
  LIGHT
(Low)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
ORDINARY
(Moderate)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
EXTRA
(High)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
Minimum rated
single extinguisher
2-Ac 2-A 4-Aa
Maximum floor area
per unit of A
3,000
square feet
1,500
square feet
1,000
square feet
Maximum floor area
for extinguisherb
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
Maximum distance of
travel to extinguisher
75 feet 75 feet 75 feet

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
  1. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
  2. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
  3. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

TABLE 906.3(2)
FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCHa
TYPE OF HAZARD BASIC MINIMUM
EXTINGUISHER
RATING
MAXIMUM DISTANCE
OF TRAVEL TO
EXTINGUISHERS (feet)
Light (Low) 5-B 30
10-B 50
Ordinary (Moderate) 10-B 30
20-B 50
Extra (High) 40-B  30
80-B 50

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.12.5.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.

Exceptions:
  1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.
  2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.
The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.

907.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
This section covers the performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components in new and existing buildings and structures.

907.1.1 Construction Documents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.1.2 Fire Alarm Shop Drawings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.1.3 Equipment

AMENDMENT
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907.2 Where Required—New Buildings and Structures

AMENDMENT
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907.2.1 Group A

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.1.1 System Initiation in Group A Occupancies With an Occupant Load of 1,000 or More

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.1.2 Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication System Captions

AMENDMENT
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907.2.2 Group B

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.2.1 Ambulatory Care Facilities

AMENDMENT
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907.2.3 Group E

AMENDMENT
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907.2.4 Group F

AMENDMENT
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907.2.5 Group H

AMENDMENT
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907.2.6 Group I

AMENDMENT
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907.2.6.1 Group I-1

AMENDMENT
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907.2.6.1.1 Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
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907.2.6.2 Group I-2

AMENDMENT
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907.2.6.3 Group I-3 Occupancies

AMENDMENT
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907.2.6.3.1 System Initiation

AMENDMENT
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907.2.6.3.2 Manual Fire Alarm Boxes

AMENDMENT
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907.2.6.3.2.1 Manual Fire Alarms Boxes in Detainee Areas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.6.3.3 Automatic Smoke Detection System

AMENDMENT
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907.2.7 Group M

AMENDMENT
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907.2.7.1 Occupant Notification

AMENDMENT
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907.2.8 Group R-1

AMENDMENT
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907.2.8.1 Manual Fire Alarm System

AMENDMENT
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907.2.8.2 Automatic Smoke Detection System

AMENDMENT
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907.2.8.3 Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
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907.2.9 Group R-2

AMENDMENT
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907.2.9.1 Manual Fire Alarm System

AMENDMENT
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907.2.9.2 Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
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907.2.9.3 Group R-2 College and University Buildings

AMENDMENT
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907.2.10 Group R-4

AMENDMENT
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907.2.10.1 Manual Fire Alarm System

AMENDMENT
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907.2.10.2 Automatic Smoke Detection System

AMENDMENT
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907.2.10.3 Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
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907.2.11 Single- And Multiple-Station Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
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907.2.11.1 Group R-1

AMENDMENT
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907.2.11.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1

AMENDMENT
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907.2.11.3 Installation Near Cooking Appliances

AMENDMENT
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907.2.11.4 Installation Near Bathrooms

AMENDMENT
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907.2.11.5 Interconnection

AMENDMENT
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907.2.11.6 Power Source

AMENDMENT
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907.2.11.7 Smoke Detection System

AMENDMENT
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907.2.12 Special Amusement Buildings

AMENDMENT
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907.2.12.1 Alarm

AMENDMENT
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907.2.12.2 System Response

AMENDMENT
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907.2.12.3 Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication System

AMENDMENT
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907.2.13 High-Rise Buildings

AMENDMENT
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907.2.13.1 Automatic Smoke Detection

AMENDMENT
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907.2.13.1.1 Area Smoke Detection

AMENDMENT
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907.2.13.1.2 Duct Smoke Detection

AMENDMENT
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907.2.13.2 Fire Department Communication System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.14 Atriums Connecting More Than Two Stories

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.15 High-Piled Combustible Storage Areas

AMENDMENT
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907.2.16 Aerosol Storage Uses

AMENDMENT
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907.2.17 Lumber, Wood Structural Panel and Veneer Mills

AMENDMENT
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907.2.18 Underground Buildings With Smoke Control Systems

AMENDMENT
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907.2.18.1 Smoke Detectors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.18.2 Alarm Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.19 Deep Underground Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.20 Covered and Open Mall Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.21 Residential Aircraft Hangars

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.22 Airport Traffic Control Towers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.22.1 Airport Traffic Control Towers With Multiple Exits and Automatic Sprinklers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.22.2 Other Airport Traffic Control Towers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.2.23 Battery Rooms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.3 Fire Safety Functions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.3.1 Duct Smoke Detectors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Smoke detectors installed in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance with this code and the mechanical subcode of the Uniform Construction Code. In facilities that are required to be monitored by a supervising station, duct smoke detectors shall report only as a supervisory signal and not as a fire alarm. They shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

Exceptions:
  1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building's alarm notification appliances.
  2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.

907.3.2 Delayed Egress Locks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.3.3 Elevator Emergency Operation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.3.4 Wiring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.4 Initiating Devices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.4.1 Protection of Fire Alarm Control Unit

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.4.2 Manual Fire Alarm Boxes

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.4.2.1 Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.4.2.2 Height

AMENDMENT
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907.4.2.3 Color

AMENDMENT
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907.4.2.4 Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.4.2.5 Protective Covers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, unobscured and visible at all times.

907.4.3 Automatic Smoke Detection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.4.3.1 Automatic Sprinkler System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5 Occupant Notification Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.1 Presignal Feature

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2 Alarm Notification Appliances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.1 Audible Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.1.1 Average Sound Pressure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.1.2 Maximum Sound Pressure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.2 Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.2.1 Manual Override

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.2.2 Live Voice Messages

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.2.3 Alternate Uses

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.2.4 Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication Captions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.2.5 Emergency Power

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.3 Visible Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.3.1 Public Use Areas and Common Use Areas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.5.2.3.2 Groups I-1 and R-1

AMENDMENT
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907.5.2.3.3 Group R-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.6 Installation and Monitoring

AMENDMENT
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907.6.1 Wiring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.6.2 Power Supply

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.6.3 Initiating Device Identification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.6.3.1 Annunciation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.6.4 Zones

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.6.4.1 Zoning Indicator Panel

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.6.4.2 High-Rise Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Access shall be provided to each fire alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.

907.6.6 Monitoring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire alarm systems shall be maintained as required by the construction code in effect at the time of the fire alarm system installation.

Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not required for:
  1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms.
  2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.
Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number unless approved by the fire chief.
Termination of fire alarm monitoring services shall be in accordance with Section 901.9.

907.7 Acceptance Tests and Completion

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.7.1 Single- And Multiple-Station Alarm Devices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.7.2 Record of Completion

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.7.3 Instructions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings ("as builts") and equipment specifications shall be maintained at an approved location.
The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Sections 907.8.1 through 907.8.5 and NFPA 72. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.
Where required for compliance with the provisions of this code, devices, equipment, systems, conditions, arrangements, levels of protection or other features shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as directed by the fire code official.
Testing shall be performed in accordance with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where required by the fire code official. Records of testing shall be maintained.

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but not less than every 18 months.
Smoke detector sensitivity shall be checked within one year after installation and every alternate year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4-percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the length of time between calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to not more than 5 years. Where the frequency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed.
To verify that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using one of the following methods:
  1. A calibrated test method.
  2. The manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument.
  3. Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose.
  4. A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where the detector's sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range.
  5. Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the fire code official.
Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced.

Exceptions:
  1. Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced.
  2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.
Smoke detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured using a device that administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the detector.

907.8.5 Inspection, Testing and Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The building owner shall be responsible to maintain the fire and life safety systems in an operable condition at all times. Service personnel shall meet the requirements of N.J.A.C. 5:74 shall be inserted. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.

907.9 Where Required in Existing Buildings and Structures

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

907.10 Engine-Driven Generator

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where an engine-driven generator requires a secondary power source, such generator shall be inspected weekly and exercised at least monthly under load by disconnecting the normal supply to the system for a minimum of 1/2 hour in a continuous period.

907.11 Periodic Testing and Inspections of Single- And Multiple-Station Smoke Detectors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All single- and multiple- station smoke detectors shall be maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 72 and Sections 907.11.1 and 907.11.2.

907.11.1 Single-Station Smoke Detectors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Tests or inspections in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions shall be conducted at 1-month intervals for other than battery-powered smoke detectors and at 1-week intervals for battery-powered smoke detectors.

Exception: The written log of tests as specified in Section 901.6.2 shall not be required in R-3 occupancies.

907.11.2 Battery-Operated Smoke Detectors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Battery-operated smoke detectors in Group R-1 and R-2 buildings and in bed and breakfast homestays shall be maintained, tested and inspected as follows:
  1. The owner of the building or the owner's representative shall inspect each detector whenever a change of occupancy occurs;
  2. The owner of the building or the owner's representative shall clean the detectors and or replace the batteries as necessary, but, at least once and year, to ensure proper operation.
Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 50.
Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 2703.12. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 2703.13.
Where required by Section 6004.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed gases.
A gas detection system shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance with Section 6005.3.2.
A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 2311.7.2.
Refrigeration system machinery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in accordance with Section 606.8.
Emergency alarm systems in accordance with Section 5307.5.2 shall be provided where required for compliance with Section 5307.5.

908.8 High-Level Alarms Testing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
All high-level alarm systems installed in accordance with N.J.A.C. 5:72 shall be periodically tested in accordance with N.J.A.C. 5:72-3.2(a)4.

909.1 Scope and Purpose

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.2 General Design Requirements

AMENDMENT
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909.3 Special Inspection and Test Requirements

AMENDMENT
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909.4 Analysis

AMENDMENT
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909.4.1 Stack Effect

AMENDMENT
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909.4.2 Temperature Effect of Fire

AMENDMENT
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909.4.3 Wind Effect

AMENDMENT
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909.4.4 Systems

AMENDMENT
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909.4.5 Climate

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.4.6 Duration of Operation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The design shall consider the interaction effects of the operation of multiple smoke control systems for all design scenarios.

909.5 Smoke Barrier Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.5.1 Total Leakage Area

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.5.2 Testing of Leakage Area

AMENDMENT
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909.5.3 Opening Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.5.3.1 Group I-1 Condition 2, Group I-2 and Ambulatory Care Facilities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.5.3.2 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.6 Pressurization Method

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.6.1 Minimum Pressure Difference

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.6.2 Maximum Pressure Difference

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.6.3 Pressurized Stairways and Elevator Hoistways

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.7 Airflow Design Method

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.7.1 Prohibited Conditions

AMENDMENT
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909.8 Exhaust Method

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.8.1 Smoke Layer

AMENDMENT
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909.9 Design Fire

AMENDMENT
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909.9.1 Factors Considered

AMENDMENT
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909.9.2 Design Fire Fuel

AMENDMENT
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909.9.3 Heat-Release Assumptions

AMENDMENT
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909.9.4 Sprinkler Effectiveness Assumptions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.10 Equipment

AMENDMENT
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909.10.1 Exhaust Fans

AMENDMENT
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909.10.2 Ducts

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.10.3 Equipment, Inlets and Outlets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.10.4 Automatic Dampers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.10.5 Fans

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.11 Standby Power

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.11.1 Equipment Room

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.11.2 Power Sources and Power Surges

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.12 Detection and Control Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.12.1 Verification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.12.2 Wiring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.12.3 Activation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.12.3.1 Pressurization, Airflow or Exhaust Method

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.12.3.2 Passive Method

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.12.4 Automatic Control

AMENDMENT
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909.13 Control Air Tubing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.13.1 Materials

AMENDMENT
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909.13.2 Isolation From Other Functions

AMENDMENT
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909.13.3 Testing

AMENDMENT
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909.14 Marking and Identification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.15 Control Diagrams

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.16 Fire Fighter's Smoke Control Panel

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.16.1 Smoke Control Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.16.2 Smoke Control Panel

AMENDMENT
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909.16.3 Control Action and Priorities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.17 System Response Time

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.18 Acceptance Testing

AMENDMENT
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909.18.1 Detection Devices

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.18.2 Ducts

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.18.3 Dampers

AMENDMENT
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909.18.4 Inlets and Outlets

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.18.5 Fans

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.18.6 Smoke Barriers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.18.7 Controls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.18.8 Testing for Smoke Control

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.18.8.1 Scope of Testing

AMENDMENT
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909.18.8.2 Qualifications

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.18.8.3 Reports

AMENDMENT
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909.18.8.3.1 Report Filing

AMENDMENT
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909.18.9 Identification and Documentation

AMENDMENT
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909.19 System Acceptance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Smoke control systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.6.

909.20.1 Schedule

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established. Dedicated smoke control systems shall be inspected and operated at 6-month intervals.
Records of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained. The record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.
Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows.
Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
Nondedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.
Where components of the smoke control system are bypassed by the preprogrammed weekly test required by Section 909.12.1, such components shall be tested semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.

909.21 Elevator Hoistway Pressurization Alternative

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.1 Pressurization Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.1.1 Use of Ventilation Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.2 Rational Analysis

AMENDMENT
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909.21.3 Ducts for System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.4 Fan System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.4.1 Fire Resistance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.4.2 Smoke Detection

AMENDMENT
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909.21.4.3 Separate Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.4.4 Fan Capacity

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.5 Standby Power

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.6 Activation of Pressurization System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.7 Testing

AMENDMENT
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909.21.8 Marking and Identification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

909.21.9 Control Diagrams

AMENDMENT
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909.21.10 Control Panel

AMENDMENT
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909.21.11 System Response Time

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

Section 910 Smoke and Heat Removal

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.1 General

AMENDMENT
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910.2 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.2.1 Group F-1 or S-1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.2.2 High-Piled Combustible Storage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.3 Smoke and Heat Vents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.3.1 Listing and Labeling

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.3.2 Smoke and Heat Vent Locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.3.3 Smoke and Heat Vents Area

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.4 Mechanical Smoke Removal Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.4.1 Automatic Sprinklers Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.4.2 Exhaust Fan Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.4.3 System Design Criteria

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.4.3.1 Makeup Air

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.4.4 Activation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.4.5 Manual Control Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.4.6 Control Wiring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.4.7 Controls

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.5 Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.5.1 Smoke and Heat Vents

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.5.1.1 Fusible Links

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.5.2 Mechanical Smoke Removal Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.5.2.1 Frequency

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.5.2.2 Testing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

910.5.2.3 Schedule

AMENDMENT
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910.5.2.4 Written Record

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

911.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Explosion control shall be provided in the following locations:
  1. Where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 911.1.
  2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 5003.1.1(1).
     Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems or barricades in accordance with this section, NFPA 68, NFPA 69, or NFPA 495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards.

TABLE 911.1
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTSf
MATERIAL CLASS EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS
Barricade construction Explosion (deflagration) venting or
explosion (deflagration) prevention systems
Hazard Category
Combustible dustsa Not required Required
Cryogenic fluids Flammable Not required Required
Explosives Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Flammable gas Gaseous
Liquefied
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Flammable liquids IAb
IBc
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Organic peroxides Unclassified detonable
I
Required
Required
Not permitted
Not permitted
Oxidizer liquids and solids 4 Required Not permitted
Pyrophoric Gases Not required Required
Unstable (reactive) 4
3 detonable
3 nondetonable
Required
Required
Not required
Not permitted
Not permitted
Required
Water-reactive liquids and solids 3
2e
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Special Uses
Acetylene generator rooms Not required Required
Grain processing Not required Required
Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities Not required Required
Where explosion hazards existd Detonation
Deflagration
Required
Not required
Not permitted
Required

a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of "Combustible dust" in Chapter 2.
b. Storage or use.
c. In open use or dispensing.
d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials where an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
e. A method of explosion control shall be provided where Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.
f. Explosion venting is not required for Group H-5 Fabrication Areas complying with Chapter 27 and the International Building Code.

911.2 Required Deflagration Venting

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Areas that are required to be provided with deflagration venting shall comply with the following:
  1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The minimum internal design pressure shall be not less than five times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in Item 5 of this section.
  2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior walls and roofs.

    Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof venting cannot be provided because of inadequate exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the exterior of the building.
  3. Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unacceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagration, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property or adjacent public ways.
  4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the construction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section and the maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of this section.
  5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance with the building subcode of the Uniform Construction Code. Vents shall consist of any one or any combination of the following to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads required by the building subcode of the Uniform Construction Code:
    1. Exterior walls designed to release outward.
    2. Hatch covers.
    3. Outward swinging doors.
    4. Roofs designed to uplift.
    5. Venting devices listed for the purpose.
  6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs of the building when venting a deflagration shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building where an unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in width is provided between the exterior walls of the building and the lot line.

    Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 of this section.
  7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when venting a deflagration shall be so located that the discharge opening shall be not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) vertically from window openings and exits in the building and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the building, from window openings and exits in adjacent buildings on the same lot and from the lot line.
  8. Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of the building.
Explosion prevention systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69.
Barricades shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 495.

912.1 Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire department connections shall be maintained in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 through 912.7.

912.2 Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

912.2.1 Visible Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
On existing buildings, wherever the fire department connection is not visible to approaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the letters "FDC" not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high and words in letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high or an arrow to indicate the location. Such signs shall be subject to the approval of the fire code official.
Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads.
Immediate access to fire department connections shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable object. Access to fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.

Exception: Fences, where provided with an access gate equipped with a sign complying with the legend requirements of Section 912.5 and a means of emergency operation. The gate and the means of emergency operation shall be approved by the fire chief and maintained operational at all times.
The fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on fire department connections for water-based fire protection systems where the responding fire department carries appropriate key wrenches for removal.
A working space of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to the sides of wall-mounted fire department connections and around the circumference of free-standing fire department connections, except as otherwise required or approved by the fire chief.
Where fire department connections are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.
A metal sign with raised letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department connections serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or