About this chapter: Chapter 17 provides a variety of procedures and criteria for testing materials and assemblies, and labeling materials and assemblies. Its key purposes are to establish where additional inspections/observations and testing must be provided, and the submittals and verifications that must be provided to the building official. This chapter expands on the inspections of Chapter 1 by requiring special inspection by a qualified individual where indicated and, in some cases, structural observation by a registered design professional. Quality assurance measures that verify proper assembly of structural components and the suitability of the installed materials are intended to provide a building that, once constructed, complies with the minimum structural and fire-resistance code requirements as well as the approved design. To determine this compliance often requires frequent inspections and testing at specific stages of construction.
Code development reminder: Code change proposals to sections preceded by the designation [BF] will be considered by the IBC—Fire Safety Code Development Committee during the 2018 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. Sections preceded by the designation [F] will be considered by the International Fire Code Development Committee during the 2018 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. All other code change proposals will be considered by the IBC—Structural Code Development Committee during the Group B cycle. See explanation on page iv.
- Special inspections and tests are not required for construction of a minor nature or as warranted by conditions in the jurisdiction as approved by the construction official.
- Unless otherwise required by the construction official, special inspections and tests are not required for Group U occupancies that are accessory to a residential occupancy including, but not limited to, those listed in Section 312.1.
- Special inspections and tests are not required for portions of structures designed and constructed in accordance with the cold-formed steel light-frame construction provisions of Section 2211.1.2 or the conventional light-frame construction provisions of Section 2308.
- The contractor is permitted to employ the approved agencies where the contractor is also the owner.
Prior to the start of the construction, the approved agencies shall provide written documentation to the building official demonstrating the competence and relevant experience or training of the special inspectors who will perform the special inspections and tests during construction. Experience or training shall be considered to be relevant where the documented experience or training is related in complexity to the same type of special inspection or testing activities for projects of similar complexity and material qualities. These qualifications are in addition to qualifications specified in other sections of this code.
The registered design professional in responsible charge and engineers of record involved in the design of the project are permitted to act as the approved agency and their personnel are permitted to act as special inspectors for the work designed by them, provided they qualify as special inspectors.
The statement of special inspections shall identify the following:
- The materials, systems, components and work required to have special inspections or tests by the building official or by the registered design professional responsible for each portion of the work.
- The type and extent of each special inspection.
- The type and extent of each test.
- Additional requirements for special inspections or tests for seismic or wind resistance as specified in Sections 1705.11, 1705.12 and 1705.13.
- For each type of special inspection, identification as to whether it will be continuous special inspection, periodic special inspection or performed in accordance with the notation used in the referenced standard where the inspections are defined.
- Certificates of compliance for the fabrication of structural, load-bearing or lateral load-resisting members or assemblies on the premises of an approved fabricator in accordance with Section 1704.2.5.1.
- Certificates of compliance for the seismic qualification of nonstructural components, supports and attachments in accordance with Section 1705.13.2.
- Certificates of compliance for designated seismic systems in accordance with Section 1705.13.3.
- Reports of preconstruction tests for shotcrete in accordance with Section 1908.5.
- Certificates of compliance for open web steel joists and joist girders in accordance with Section 2207.5.
- Reports of material properties verifying compliance with the requirements of AWS D1.4 for weldability as specified in Section 26.6.4 of ACI 318 for reinforcing bars in concrete complying with a standard other than ASTM A706 that are to be welded.
- Reports of mill tests in accordance with Section 220.127.116.11 of ACI 318 for reinforcing bars complying with ASTM A615 and used to resist earthquake-induced flexural or axial forces in the special moment frames, special structural walls or coupling beams connecting special structural walls of seismic force-resisting systems in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
- Construction materials and systems that are alternatives to materials and systems prescribed by this code.
- Unusual design applications of materials described in this code.
- Materials and systems required to be installed in accordance with additional manufacturer's instructions that prescribe requirements not contained in this code or in standards referenced by this code.
Special inspections and nondestructive testing of structural steel elements in buildings, structures and portions thereof shall be in accordance with the quality assurance inspection requirements of AISC 360.
|1.Installation of open-web steel joists and joist girders.|
|a. End connections — welding or bolted.||—||X||SJI specifications listed in Section 2207.1.|
|b. Bridging — horizontal or diagonal.||—||—||—|
|1.Standard bridging.||—||X||SJI specifications listed in Section 2207.1.|
|2.Bridging that differs from the SJI
specifications listed in Section 2207.1.
Exception: Special inspections and tests shall not be required for:
- Isolated spread concrete footings of buildings three stories or less above grade plane that are fully supported on earth or rock.
- 2.1. The footings support walls of light-frame construction.
- 2.2. The footings are designed in accordance with Table 1809.7.
- 2.3. The structural design of the footing is based on a specified compressive strength, f 'c, not more than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17.2 MPa), regardless of the compressive strength specified in the approved construction documents or used in the footing construction.
- Nonstructural concrete slabs supported directly on the ground, including prestressed slabs on grade, where the effective prestress in the concrete is less than 150 psi (1.03 MPa).
- Concrete foundation walls constructed in accordance with Table 1807.1.6.2.
- Concrete patios, driveways and sidewalks, on grade.
|PERIODIC SPECIAL INSPECTION||REFERENCED STANDARDa||IBC REFERENCE|
|1. Inspect reinforcement, including prestressing tendons, and
|—||X||ACI 318: Ch. 20, 25.2, 25.3, 26.6.1-26.6.3||1908.4|
|2. Reinforcing bar welding:|
||X||ACI 318: 26.6.4||—|
|3. Inspect anchors cast in concrete.||—||X||ACI 318: 17.8.2||—|
|4. Inspect anchors post-installed in hardened concrete members.b|
||X||X||ACI 318: 18.104.22.168||—|
||ACI 318: 17.8.2|
|5. Verify use of required design mix.||—||X||ACI 318: Ch. 19, 26.4.3, 26.4.4||1904.1, 1904.2,
|6. Prior to concrete placement, fabricate specimens for strength tests, perform slump and air content tests, and determine the temperature of the concrete.||X||—||ASTM C172
ACI 318: 26.5, 26.12
|7. Inspect concrete and shotcrete placement for proper application techniques.||X||—||ACI 318: 26.5||1908.6, 1908.7, 1908.8|
|8. Verify maintenance of specified curing temperature and techniques.||—||X||ACI 318: 26.5.3-26.5.5||1908.9|
|9. Inspect prestressed concrete for:|
||X||—||ACI 318: 26.10||—|
|10. Inspect erection of precast concrete members.||—||X||ACI 318: 26.9||—|
|11. Verify in-situ concrete strength, prior to stressing of tendons in post-tensioned concrete and prior to removal of shores and forms from beams and structural slabs.||—||X||ACI 318: 26.11.2||—|
|12. Inspect formwork for shape, location and dimensions of the concrete member being formed.||—||X||ACI 318: 22.214.171.124(b)||—|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
- Where applicable, see Section 1705.12, Special inspections for seismic resistance.
- Specific requirements for special inspection shall be included in the research report for the anchor issued by an approved source in accordance with 17.8.2 in ACI 318, or other qualification procedures. Where specific requirements are not provided, special inspection requirements shall be specified by the registered design professional and shall be approved by the building official prior to the commencement of the work.
- Empirically designed masonry, glass unit masonry or masonry veneer designed in accordance with Section 2109, 2110 or Chapter 14, respectively, where they are part of a structure classified as Risk Category I, II or III.
- Masonry foundation walls constructed in accordance with 1807.1.6.3(2), 1807.1.6.3(3) or 1807.1.6.3(4).
- Masonry fireplaces, masonry heaters or masonry chimneys installed or constructed in accordance with Section 2111, 2112 or 2113, respectively.
Special inspections and tests of existing site soil conditions, fill placement and load-bearing requirements shall be performed in accordance with this section and Table 1705.6. The approved geotechnical report and the construction documents prepared by the registered design professionals shall be used to determine compliance. During fill placement, the special inspector shall verify that proper materials and procedures are used in accordance with the provisions of the approved geotechnical report.
Exception: Where Section 1803 does not require reporting of materials and procedures for fill placement, the special inspector shall verify that the in-place dry density of the compacted fill is not less than 90 percent of the maximum dry density at optimum moisture content determined in accordance with ASTM D1557.
REQUIRED SPECIAL INSPECTIONS AND TESTS OF SOILS
|1. Verify materials below shallow foundations are adequate to achieve the design bearing
|2. Verify excavations are extended to proper depth and have reached proper material.||—||X|
|3. Perform classification and testing of compacted fill materials.||—||X|
|4. Verify use of proper materials, densities and lift thicknesses during placement and compaction of compacted fill.||X||—|
|5. Prior to placement of compacted fill, inspect subgrade and verify that site has been prepared properly.||—||X|
Special inspections and tests shall be performed during installation of driven deep foundation elements as specified in Table 1705.7. The approved geotechnical report and the construction documents prepared by the registered design professionals shall be used to determine compliance.
|TYPE||CONTINUOUS SPECIAL INSPECTION||PERIODIC SPECIAL INSPECTION|
|1. Verify element materials, sizes and lengths comply with the requirements.||X||—|
|2. Determine capacities of test elements and conduct additional load tests, as required.||X||—|
|3. Inspect driving operations and maintain complete and accurate records for each element.||X||—|
|4. Verify placement locations and plumbness, confirm type and size of hammer, record number of blows per foot of penetration, determine required penetrations to achieve design capacity, record tip and butt elevations and document any damage to foundation element.||X||—|
|5. For steel elements, perform additional special inspections in accordance with Section 1705.2.||—||—|
|6. For concrete elements and concrete-filled elements, perform tests and additional special inspections in accordance with Section 1705.3.||—||—|
|7. For specialty elements, perform additional inspections as determined by the registered design professional in responsible charge.||—||—|
Special inspections and tests shall be performed during installation of cast-in-place deep foundation elements as specified in Table 1705.8. The approved geotechnical report and the construction documents prepared by the registered design professionals shall be used to determine compliance.
|TYPE||CONTINUOUS SPECIAL INSPECTION||PERIODIC SPECIAL INSPECTION|
|1. Inspect drilling operations and maintain complete and accurate records for each element.||X||—|
|2. Verify placement locations and plumbness, confirm element diameters, bell diameters (if |
applicable), lengths, embedment into bedrock (if applicable) and adequate end-bearing stratacapacity. Record concrete or grout volumes.
|3. For concrete elements, perform tests and additional special inspections in accordance with Section 1705.3.||—||—|
- The structure consists of light-frame construction; the design spectral response acceleration at short periods, SDS, as determined in Section 1613.2.4, does not exceed 0.5; and the building height of the structure does not exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm).
- The seismic force-resisting system of the structure consists of reinforced masonry or reinforced concrete; the design spectral response acceleration at short periods, SDS, as determined in Section 1613.2.4, does not exceed 0.5; and the building height of the structure does not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm).
- In structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E, or F, special inspections of structural steel elements are not required for seismic force-resisting systems where design and detailing other than AISC 341 is permitted by ASCE 7, Table 15.4-1. Special inspection shall be in accordance with the applicable referenced standard listed in ASCE 7, Table 15.4-1.
- Continuous special inspection shall be required during field gluing operations of elements of the seismic force-resisting system.
- Periodic special inspection shall be required for nailing, bolting, anchoring and other fastening of elements of the seismic force-resisting system, including wood shear walls, wood diaphragms, drag struts, braces, shear panels and hold-downs.
Exception:Special inspections are not required for wood shear walls, shear panels and diaphragms, including nailing, bolting, anchoring and other fastening to other elements of the seismic force-resisting system, where the fastener spacing of the sheathing is more than 4 inches (102 mm) on center.
- Welding operations of elements of the seismic force-resisting system.
- Screw attachment, bolting, anchoring and other fastening of elements of the seismic force-resisting system, including shear walls, braces, diaphragms, collectors (drag struts) and hold-downs.
Exception:Special inspections are not required for cold-formed steel light-frame shear walls and diaphragms, including screw installation, bolting, anchoring and other fastening to components of the seismic force-resisting system, where either of the following applies:
Periodic special inspection is required for the erection and fastening of exterior cladding, interior and exterior nonbearing walls and interior and exterior veneer in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
Exception: Periodic special inspection is not required for the following:
- Exterior cladding, interior and exterior nonbearing walls and interior and exterior veneer 30 feet (9144 mm) or less in height above grade or walking surface.
- Exterior cladding and interior and exterior veneer weighing 5 psf (24.5 N/m2) or less.
- Interior nonbearing walls weighing 15 psf (73.5 N/m2) or less.
Periodic special inspection of plumbing, mechanical and electrical components shall be required for the following:
- Anchorage of electrical equipment for emergency and standby power systems in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
- Anchorage of other electrical equipment in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category E or F.
- Installation and anchorage of piping systems designed to carry hazardous materials and their associated mechanical units in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
- Installation and anchorage of ductwork designed to carry hazardous materials in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F.
- Installation and anchorage of vibration isolation systems in structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F where the approved construction documents require a nominal clearance of 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) or less between the equipment support frame and restraint.
- 6.1. Minimum clearances have been provided as required by Section 13.2.3 ASCE/SEI 7.
- 6.2. A nominal clearance of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) has been be provided between fire protection sprinkler system drops and sprigs and: structural members not used collectively or independently to support the sprinklers; equipment attached to the building structure; and other systems' piping.
Where flexible sprinkler hose fittings are used, special inspection of minimum clearances is not required.
The density of the sprayed fire-resistant material shall be not less than the density specified in the approved fire-resistance design. Density of the sprayed fire-resistant material shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E605. The test samples for determining the density of the sprayed fire-resistant materials shall be selected as follows:
- From each floor, roof and wall assembly at the rate of not less than one sample for every 2,500 square feet (232 m2) or portion thereof of the sprayed area in each story.
- From beams, girders, trusses and columns at the rate of not less than one sample for each type of structural member for each 2,500 square feet (232 m2) of floor area or portion thereof in each story.
Special inspections shall be required for all EIFS applications.
The test scope shall be as follows:
- During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.
- Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure difference testing, flow measurements and detection and control verification.
In the absence of applicable load test procedures contained within a material standard referenced by this code or acceptance criteria for a specific material or method of construction, such existing structure shall be subjected to an approved test procedure developed by a registered design professional that simulates applicable loading and deformation conditions. For components that are not a part of the seismic force-resisting system, at a minimum the test load shall be equal to the specified factored design loads. For materials such as wood that have strengths that are dependent on load duration, the test load shall be adjusted to account for the difference in load duration of the test compared to the expected duration of the design loads being considered. For statically loaded components, the test load shall be left in place for a period of 24 hours. For components that carry dynamic loads (for example, machine supports or fall arrest anchors), the load shall be left in place for a period consistent with the component's actual function. The structure shall be considered to have successfully met the test requirements where the following criteria are satisfied:
- Under the design load, the deflection shall not exceed the limitations specified in Section 1604.3.
- Within 24 hours after removal of the test load, the structure shall have recovered not less than 75 percent of the maximum deflection.
- During and immediately after the test, the structure shall not show evidence of failure.
The test assembly shall be subjected to an increasing superimposed load equal to not less than two times the superimposed design load. The test load shall be left in place for a period of 24 hours. The tested assembly shall be considered to have successfully met the test requirements if the assembly recovers not less than 75 percent of the maximum deflection within 24 hours after the removal of the test load. The test assembly shall then be reloaded and subjected to an increasing superimposed load until either structural failure occurs or the superimposed load is equal to two and one-half times the load at which the deflection limitations specified in Section 1709.3.2 were reached, or the load is equal to two and one-half times the superimposed design load. In the case of structural components and assemblies for which deflection limitations are not specified in Section 1709.3.2, the test specimen shall be subjected to an increasing superimposed load until structural failure occurs or the load is equal to two and one-half times the desired superimposed design load. The allowable superimposed design load shall be taken as the lesser of:
- The load at the deflection limitation given in Section 1709.3.2.
- The failure load divided by 2.5.
- The maximum load applied divided by 2.5.
The design pressure rating of exterior windows and doors in buildings shall be determined in accordance with Section 1709.5.1 or 1709.5.2. For exterior windows and doors tested in accordance with Sections 1709.5.1 or 1709.5.2, required design wind pressures determined from ASCE 7 shall be permitted to be converted to allowable stress design by multiplying by 0.6.
Exception: Structural wind load design pressures for window units smaller than the size tested in accordance with Section 1709.5.1 or 1709.5.2 shall be permitted to be higher than the design value of the tested unit provided such higher pressures are determined by accepted engineering analysis. Components of the small unit shall be the same as the tested unit. Where such calculated design pressures are used, they shall be validated by an additional test of the window unit having the highest allowable design pressure.