**CHART A 102.2FRICTION LOSSES FOR DISK-TYPE WATER METERS**

**FLOW (gallons per minute) **

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

APPLIANCES, APPURTENANCES, OR FIXTURES^{2} |
MINIMUM FIXTURE BRANCH PIPE SIZE^{1,4}(inches) |
PRIVATE | PUBLIC | ASSEMBLY^{6} |
---|---|---|---|---|

Bathtub or Combination Bath/Shower (fill) | ^{1}/_{2} |
4.0 | 4.0 | — |

^{3}/_{4} inch Bathtub Fill Valve |
^{3}/_{4} |
10.0 | 10.0 | — |

Bidet | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.0 | — | — |

Clothes Washer | ^{1}/_{2} |
4.0 | 4.0 | — |

Dental Unit, cuspidor | ^{1}/_{2} |
— | 1.0 | — |

Dishwasher, domestic | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.5 | 1.5 | — |

Drinking Fountain or Water Cooler | ^{1}/_{2} |
0.5 | 0.5 | 0.75 |

Hose Bibb | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.5 | 2.5 | — |

Hose Bibb, each additional^{7} |
^{1}/_{2} |
1.0 | 1.0 | — |

Lavatory | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 |

Lawn Sprinkler, each head^{5} |
— | 1.0 | 1.0 | — |

Mobile Home, each (minimum) | — | 12.0 | — | — |

Sinks | — | — | — | — |

Bar | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.0 | 2.0 | — |

Clinical Faucet | ^{1}/_{2} |
— | 3.0 | — |

Clinical Flushometer Valve with or without faucet | 1 | — | 8.0 | — |

Kitchen, domestic | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.5 | 1.5 | — |

Laundry | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.5 | 1.5 | — |

Service or Mop Basin | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.5 | 3.0 | — |

Washup, each set of faucets | ^{1}/_{2} |
— | 2.0 | — |

Shower per head | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.0 | 2.0 | — |

Urinal, 1.0 GPF Flushometer Valve | ^{3}/_{4} |
3.0 | 4.0 | 5.0 |

Urinal, greater than 1.0 GPF Flushometer Valve | ^{3}/_{4} |
4.0 | 5.0 | 6.0 |

Urinal, flush tank | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.0 | 2.0 | 3.0 |

Wash Fountain, circular spray | ^{3}/_{4} |
— | 4.0 | — |

Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.5 | 2.5 | 3.5 |

Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Tank | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.5 | 2.5 | 3.5 |

Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve | 1 | 5.0 | 5.0 | 8.0 |

Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank | ^{1}/_{2} |
3.0 | 5.5 | 7.0 |

Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve | 1 | 7.0 | 8.0 | 10.0 |

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm

**Notes:**

^{1} Size of the cold branch pipe, or both the hot and cold branch pipes.

^{2} Appliances, appurtenances, or fixtures not included in this table shall be permitted to be sized by reference to fixtures having a similar flow rate and frequency of use.

^{3} The listed fixture unit values represent their total load on the cold water building supply. The separate cold water and hot water fixture unit value for fixtures having both cold and hot water connections shall be permitted to be three-quarters of the listed total value of the fixture.

^{4} The listed minimum supply branch pipe sizes for individual fixtures are the nominal (I.D.) pipe size.

^{5} For fixtures or supply connections likely to impose continuous flow demands, determine the required flow in gallons per minute (gpm) (L/s) and add it separately to the demand in gpm (L/s) for the distribution system or portions thereof.

^{6} Assembly [Public Use (see Table 422.1)].

^{7} Reduced fixture unit loading for additional hose bibbs is to be used where sizing total building demand and for pipe sizing where more than one hose bibb is supplied by a segment of water distribution pipe. The fixture branch to each hose bibb shall be sized by 2.5 fixture units.

**CHART A 103.1(1)ESTIMATE CURVES FOR DEMAND LOAD**

For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

**CHART A 103.1(2)ENLARGED SCALE DEMAND LOAD**

For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

**TABLE A 104.4(1)ALLOWANCE IN EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN VALVES AND THREADED FITTINGS*EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE FOR VARIOUS FITTINGS**

DIAMETER OF FITTING (inches) | 90° STANDARD ELBOW (feet) | 45° STANDARD ELBOW (feet) | 90° STANDARD TEE (feet) | COUPLING OR STRAIGHT RUN OF TEE (feet) | GATE VALVE (feet) | GLOBE VALVE (feet) | ANGLE VALVE (feet) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

^{3}/_{8} | 1.0 | 0.6 | 1.5 | 0.3 | 0.2 | 8 | 4 |

^{1}/_{2} | 2.0 | 1.2 | 3.0 | 0.6 | 0.4 | 15 | 8 |

^{3}/_{4} | 2.5 | 1.5 | 4.0 | 0.8 | 0.5 | 20 | 12 |

1 | 3.0 | 1.8 | 5.0 | 0.9 | 0.6 | 25 | 15 |

1^{1}/_{4} | 4.0 | 2.4 | 6.0 | 1.2 | 0.8 | 35 | 18 |

1^{1}/_{2} | 5.0 | 3.0 | 7.0 | 1.5 | 1.0 | 45 | 22 |

2 | 7.0 | 4.0 | 10.0 | 2.0 | 1.3 | 55 | 28 |

2^{1}/_{2} | 8.0 | 5.0 | 12.0 | 2.5 | 1.6 | 65 | 34 |

3 | 10.0 | 6.0 | 15.0 | 3.0 | 2.0 | 80 | 40 |

4 | 14.0 | 8.0 | 21.0 | 4.0 | 2.7 | 125 | 55 |

5 | 17.0 | 10.0 | 25.0 | 5.0 | 3.3 | 140 | 70 |

6 | 20.0 | 12.0 | 30.0 | 6.0 | 4.0 | 165 | 80 |

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.017 rad

* Allowances are based on nonrecessed threaded fittings. Use one-half the allowances for recessed threaded fittings or streamlined solder fittings.

**TABLE A 104.4(2)EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF COPPER TUBE SIZE CPVC PIPE FOR VARIOUS FITTINGS**

DIAMETER OF FITTING (inches) | 90 DEGREE ELBOW (feet) | 45 DEGREE ELBOW (feet) | COUPLING OR STRAIGHT RUN OF TEE (feet) | 90 DEGREE STANDARD TEE (feet) |
---|---|---|---|---|

^{1}/_{2} | 1.6 | 0.8 | 1.0 | 3.1 |

^{3}/_{4} | 2.1 | 1.1 | 1.4 | 4.1 |

1 | 2.6 | 1.4 | 1.7 | 5.3 |

1^{1}/_{4} | 3.5 | 1.8 | 2.3 | 6.9 |

1^{1}/_{2} | 4.0 | 2.1 | 2.7 | 8.1 |

2 | 5.2 | 2.8 | 3.5 | 10.3 |

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm

**TABLE A 104.4(3)EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF SCHEDULE 40 AND 80 CPVC PIPE FOR VARIOUS FITTINGS**

DIAMETER OF FITTING (inches) | 90 DEGREE ELBOW (feet) | 45 DEGREE ELBOW (feet) | COUPLING OR STRAIGHT RUN OF TEE (feet) | 90 DEGREE STANDARD TEE (feet) |
---|---|---|---|---|

^{1}/_{2} | 1.5 | 0.8 | 1.0 | 4.0 |

^{3}/_{4} | 2.0 | 1.1 | 1.4 | 5.0 |

1 | 2.5 | 1.4 | 1.7 | 6.0 |

1^{1}/_{4} | 3.8 | 1.8 | 2.3 | 7.0 |

1^{1}/_{2} | 4.0 | 2.1 | 2.7 | 8.0 |

2 | 5.7 | 2.6 | 4.3 | 12.0 |

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm

**CHART A 105.1(1)**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A 105.1(2)**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A 105.1(3)**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A 105.1(4)**

**CHART A 105.1(5)**

**CHART A 105.1(6)**

**CHART A 105.1(7)**

- Selecting the sizes of pipe for the different branches so that the total friction loss in each lower branch is approximately equal to the total loss in the riser, including both friction loss and loss in static pressure.
- Throttling each such branch using a valve until the preceding balance is obtained.
- Increasing the size of the building supply and risers above the minimum required to meet the maximum permissible friction loss.

Where the pipe material and water supply are such that Chart A 105.1(2) applies, the required diameter of the building supply is 3^{1}/_{2} inches (90 mm), and the required diameter of the branch to the hot-water heater is 1^{1}/_{2} inches (40 mm).

The sizes of the various branches and risers shall be permitted to be determined in the same manner as the size of the building supply or the branch to the hot-water system, by estimating the demand for the riser or branch from Chart A 103.1(1) or Chart A 103.1(2) and applying the total demand estimate from the branch, riser, or section thereof to the appropriate flowchart.

**A 108.1 EXAMPLE**

FIXTURE UNITS AND ESTIMATED DEMANDS | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

BUILDING SUPPLY DEMAND | BRANCH TO HOT WATER SYSTEM | ||||||

KIND OF FIXTURES | NUMBER OF FIXTURES | FIXTURE UNIT DEMAND | TOTAL UNITS | BUILDING SUPPLY DEMAND (gallons per minute) |
NUMBER OF FIXTURES | FIXTURE UNIT DEMAND CALCULATION | DEMAND (gallons per minute) |

Water Closets | 130 | 8.0 | 1040 | — | — | — | — |

Urinals | 30 | 4.0 | 120 | — | — | — | — |

Showerheads | 12 | 2.0 | 24 | — | 12 | 12 × 2 × ^{3}/_{4} = 18 |
— |

Lavatories | 100 | 1.0 | 100 | — | 100 | 100 × 1 × ^{3}/_{4} = 75 |
— |

Service Sinks | 27 | 3.0 | 81 | — | 27 | 27 × 3 × ^{3}/_{4} = 61 |
— |

Total | — | — | 1365 | 252 | — | 154 | 55 |

For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square foot = 6.8947 kPa

Allowing for 15 psi (103 kPa) at the highest fixture under the maximum demand of 252 gallons per minute (15.90 L/s), the pressure available for friction loss is found by the following:

55 — [15 + (45 × 0.43)] = 20.65 psi (142.38 kPa)

The allowable friction loss per 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the pipe is, therefore:

100 × 20.65 ÷ 200 = 10.32 psi (71.15 kPa)