This chapter shall govern the materials, design, and installation of sanitary drainage systems and building sewers.
Materials for drainage piping shall be in accordance with one of the referenced standards in Table 701.2 except that:
- No galvanized wrought-iron or galvanized steel pipe shall be used underground and shall be kept not less than 6 inches (152 mm) aboveground.
- ABS and PVC DWV piping installations shall be installed in accordance with applicable standards referenced in Table 701.2 and Chapter 14 "Firestop Protection." Except for individual single-family dwelling units, materials exposed within ducts or plenums shall have a flame-spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 50, where tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723. These tests shall comply with all requirements of the standards to include the sample size, both for width and length. Plastic pipe shall not be tested filled with water.
- No vitrified clay pipe or fittings shall be used aboveground or where pressurized by a pump or ejector. They shall be kept not less than 12 inches (305 mm) belowground.
- Copper or copper alloy tube for drainage and vent piping shall have a weight of not less than that of copper or copper alloy drainage tube type DWV.
- Stainless steel 304 pipe and fittings shall not be installed underground and shall be kept not less than 6 inches (152 mm) aboveground.
- Cast-iron soil pipe and fittings and the stainless steel couplings used to join these products shall be listed and tested in accordance with standards referenced in Table 701.2. Such pipe and fittings shall be marked with the country of origin, manufacturer's name or registered trademark as defined in the product standards, the third party certifier's mark, and the class of the pipe or fitting.
|MATERIAL||UNDERGROUND DRAIN, WASTE, VENT PIPE AND FITTINGS||ABOVEGROUND DRAIN, WASTE, VENT PIPE AND FITTINGS||BUILDING SEWER PIPE AND FITTINGS||REFERENCED STANDARD(S) PIPE||REFERENCED STANDARD(S) FITTINGS|
|ABS (Schedule 40)||X||X||X||ASTM D2661,
|Co-Extruded ABS (Schedule 40)||X||X||X||ASTM F628||ASTM D2661,
|Co-Extruded Composite (Schedule 40)||X||X||X||ASTM F1488||ASTM D2661,
|Co-Extruded PVC (Schedule 40)||X||X||X||ASTM F891,
|Copper and Copper Alloys (Type DWV)||X||X||X||ASTM B43,
|ASME B 16.23,
ASME B 16.29
|Galvanized Malleable Iron||—||X||—||—||ASME B 16.3|
|Galvanized Steel||—||X||—||ASTM A53||—|
|PVC (Schedule 40)||X||X||X||ASTM D1785,
|PVC (Sewer and Drain)||—||—||X||ASTM D2729||ASTM D2729|
|PVC PSM||—||—||X||ASTM D3034||ASTM D3034|
|Stainless Steel 304||—||X||—||ASME A112.3.1||ASME A112.3.1|
|Stainless Steel 316L||X||X||X||ASME A112.3.1||ASME A112.3.1|
|Vitrified Clay (Extra strength)||—||—||X||ASTM C700||ASTM C700|
* For building sewer applications.
The threads of drainage fittings shall be tapped to allow 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) grade.
Fittings used for drainage shall be of the drainage type, have a smooth interior water-way, and be constructed to allow 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) grade.
Continuous wastes and fixture tailpieces shall be constructed from the materials specified in Section 701.2 for drainage piping, provided, however, that such connections where exposed or accessible shall be permitted to be of seamless drawn brass not less than No. 20 B & S Gauge (0.032 inches) (0.8 mm).
(See Table 1701.1) Sheet lead shall comply with the following:
- For safe pans — not less than 4 pounds per square foot (lb/ft2) (19 kg/m2) or 1/16 of an inch (1.6 mm) thick.
- For flashings or vent terminals — not less than 3 lb/ft2 (15 kg/m2) or 0.0472 of an inch (1.2 mm) thick.
- Lead bends and lead traps shall be not less than 1/8 of an inch (3.2 mm) in wall thickness.
Caulking ferrules shall be manufactured from copper or copper alloy and shall be in accordance with Table 701.6.
|MINIMUM WEIGHT EACH|
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 pound = 0.453 kg, 1 ounce = 0.02834 kg
Soldering bushings shall be of copper or copper alloy and shall be in accordance with Table 701.7.
|MINIMUM WEIGHT EACH||PIPE SIZE
|MINIMUM WEIGHT EACH|
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 pound = 0.453 kg, 1 ounce = 0.02834 kg
The unit equivalent of plumbing fixtures shown in Table 702.1 shall be based on the size of the trap required, and the unit equivalent of fixtures and devices not shown in Table 702.1 shall be based on the size of trap or trap arm.
Maximum drainage fixture units for a fixture trap and trap arm loadings for sizes up to 4 inches (100 mm) shall be in accordance with Table 702.2(1).
|PLUMBING APPLIANCES, APPURTENANCES, OR FIXTURES||MINIMUM SIZE TRAP AND TRAP ARM7
|Bathtub or Combination Bath/Shower||11/2||2.0||2.0||—|
|Clothes Washer, domestic, standpipe5||2||3.0||3.0||3.0|
|Dental Unit, cuspidor||11/4||—||1.0||1.0|
|Dishwasher, domestic, with independent drain2||11/2||2.0||2.0||2.0|
|Drinking Fountain or Water Cooler||11/4||0.5||0.5||1.0|
|Food Waste Disposer, commercial||2||—||3.0||3.0|
|Floor Drain, emergency||2||—||0.0||0.0|
|Floor Drain (for additional sizes see Section 702.0)||2||2.0||2.0||2.0|
|Shower, single-head trap||2||2.0||2.0||2.0|
|Multi-head, each additional||2||1.0||1.0||1.0|
|Lavatories in sets||11/2||2.0||2.0||2.0|
|Mobile Home, trap||3||12.0||—||—|
|Receptor, indirect waste1,3||11/2||See footnote1,3|
|Receptor, indirect waste1,4||2||See footnote1,4|
|Receptor, indirect waste1||3||See footnote1|
|Commercial with food waste2||11/2||—||3.0||3.0|
|Kitchen, domestic2 (with or without food waste disposer, dishwasher, or both)||11/2||2.0||2.0||—|
|Laundry2 (with or without discharge from a clothes washer)||11/2||2.0||2.0||2.0|
|Service or Mop Basin||2||—||3.0||3.0|
|Service or Mop Basin||3||—||3.0||3.0|
|Service, flushing rim||3||—||6.0||6.0|
|Wash, each set of faucets||—||—||2.0||2.0|
|Urinal, integral trap 1.0 GPF2||2||2.0||2.0||5.0|
|Urinal, integral trap greater than 1.0 GPF||2||2.0||2.0||6.0|
|Urinal, exposed trap2||11/2||2.0||2.0||5.0|
|Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank6||3||3.0||4.0||6.0|
|Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Tank6||3||3.0||4.0||6.0|
|Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve6||3||3.0||4.0||6.0|
|Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank6||3||4.0||6.0||8.0|
|Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve6||3||4.0||6.0||8.0|
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm
1 Indirect waste receptors shall be sized based on the total drainage capacity of the fixtures that drain thereinto, in accordance with Table 702.2(2).
2 Provide a 2 inch (50 mm) minimum drain.
3 For refrigerators, coffee urns, water stations, and similar low demands.
4 For commercial sinks, dishwashers, and similar moderate or heavy demands.
5 Buildings having a clothes-washing area with clothes washers in a battery of three or more clothes washers shall be rated at 6 fixture units each for purposes of sizing common horizontal and vertical drainage piping.
6 Water closets shall be computed as 6 fixture units where determining septic tank sizes based on Appendix H of this code.
7 Trap sizes shall not be increased to the point where the fixture discharge is capable of being inadequate to maintain their self-scouring properties.
8 Assembly [Public Use (see Table 422.1)].
Drainage fixture units for intermittent flow into the drainage system shall be computed on the rated discharge capacity in gallons per minute (gpm) (L/s) in accordance with Table 702.2(2).
MAXIMUM DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR A TRAP AND TRAP ARM*
MAXIMUM DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR A TRAP AND TRAP ARM*
|SIZE OF TRAP AND TRAP ARM
|DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUES (DFU)|
For SI Units: 1 inch = 25 mm
* Exception: On self-service laundries.
DISCHARGE CAPACITY IN GALLONS PER MINUTE FOR INTERMITTENT FLOW ONLY*
DISCHARGE CAPACITY IN GALLONS PER MINUTE FOR INTERMITTENT FLOW ONLY*
|up to 71/2||Equals 1 Fixture Unit|
|Greater than 71/2 to 15||Equals 2 Fixture Units|
|Greater than 15 to 30||Equals 4 Fixture Units|
|Greater than 30 to 50||Equals 6 Fixture Units|
For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s
* Discharge capacity exceeding 50 gallons per minute (3.15 L/s) shall be determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
For a continuous flow into a drainage system, such as from a pump, sump ejector, air conditioning equipment, or similar device, 2 fixture units shall be equal to each gallon per minute (gpm) (L/s) of flow.
The minimum sizes of vertical, horizontal, or both drainage piping shall be determined from the total of fixture units connected thereto, and additionally, in the case of vertical drainage pipes, in accordance with their length.
Table 703.2 shows the maximum number of fixture units allowed on a vertical or horizontal drainage pipe, building drain, or building sewer of a given size; the maximum number of fixture units allowed on a branch interval of a given size; and the maximum length (in feet and meters) of a vertical drainage pipe of a given size.
|SIZE OF PIPE (inches)||11/4||11/2||2||3||4||5||6||8||10||12|
|Horizontal and Vertical6|
|Maximum Lengths, (feet)||45||60||120||212||300||390||510||750|
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm
1 Excluding trap arm.
2 Except for sinks, urinals, and dishwashers — exceeding 1 fixture unit.
3 Except for six-unit traps or water closets.
4 Only four water closets or six-unit traps allowed on a vertical pipe or stack, and not to exceed three water closets or six-unit traps on a horizontal branch or drain.
5 Based on 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) slope. For 1/8 of an inch per foot (10.4 mm/m) slope, multiply horizontal fixture units by a factor of 0.8.
6 The diameter of an individual vent shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) nor less than one-half the diameter of the drain to which it is connected. Fixture unit load values for drainage and vent piping shall be computed from Table 702.1 and Table 702.2(2). Not to exceed one-third of the total permitted length of a vent shall be permitted to be installed in a horizontal position. Where vents are increased one pipe size for their entire length, the maximum length limitations specified in this table do not apply. This table is in accordance with the requirements of Section 901.3.
For alternate method of sizing drainage piping, see Appendix C.
Drainage piping shall be provided with approved inlet fittings for fixture connections, correctly located according to the size and type of fixture proposed to be connected.
Pot sinks, scullery sinks, dishwashing sinks, silverware sinks, and other similar fixtures shall be connected directly to the drainage system. A floor drain shall be provided adjacent to the fixture, and the fixture shall be connected on the sewer side of the floor drain trap, provided that no other drainage line is connected between the floor drain waste connection and the fixture drain. The fixture and floor drain shall be trapped and vented in accordance with this code.
Joining methods for ABS plastic pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.1.1 through Section 705.1.3.
Mechanical joints shall be designed to provide a permanent seal and shall be of the mechanical or push-on joint. The push-on joint shall include an elastomeric gasket that complies with ASTM D3212 and shall provide a compressive force against the spigot and socket after assembly to provide a permanent seal.
Solvent cement joints for ABS pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Pipe shall be cut square and shall be deburred. Where surfaces to be joined are cleaned, and free of dirt, moisture, oil, and other foreign material, the solvent cement that complies with ASTM D2235 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. Joints shall be made while both the inside socket surface and outside surface of pipe are wet with solvent cement. Hold joint in place and undisturbed for 1 minute after assembly.
Threads shall comply with ASME B1.20.1. A minimum of Schedule 80 shall be permitted to be threaded. Molded threads on adapter fittings for the transition to threaded joints shall be permitted. Thread sealant compound shall be applied to male threads, insoluble in water, and nontoxic. The joint between the pipe and transition fitting shall be of the solvent cement type. Caution shall be used during assembly to prevent over tightening of the ABS components once the thread sealant compound has been applied.
Joining methods for cast-iron pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.2.1 or Section 705.2.2.
Caulked joints shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp and filled with molten lead to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) in one continuous pour. The lead shall be caulked thoroughly at the inside and outside edges of the joint. After caulking, the finished joint shall not exceed 1/8 of an inch (3.2 mm) below the rim of the hub. No paint, varnish, or other coatings shall be permitted on the joining material until after the joint has been tested and approved.
Mechanical joints for cast-iron pipe and fittings shall be of the elastomeric compression type or mechanical joint couplings. Compression type joints with an elastomeric gasket for cast-iron hub and spigot pipe shall comply with ASTM C564 and be tested in accordance with ASTM C1563. Hub and spigot shall be clean and free of dirt, mud, sand, and foreign materials. Cut pipe shall be free from sharp edges. Fold and insert gasket into the hub. Lubricate the joint following manufacturer's instructions. Insert spigot into hub until the spigot end of the pipe bottom out in the hub. Use the same procedure for the installation of fittings.
A mechanical joint shielded coupling type for hubless cast-iron pipe and fittings shall have a metallic shield that complies with ASTM A1056, ASTM C1277, ASTM C1540, or CISPI 310. The elastomeric gasket shall comply with ASTM C564. Hubless cast-iron pipe and fittings shall be clean and free of dirt, mud, sand, and foreign materials. Cut pipe shall be free from sharp edges. Gasket shall be placed on the end of the pipe or fitting and the stainless steel shield and clamp assembly on the end of the other pipe or fitting. Pipe or fittings shall be seated against the center stop inside the elastomeric sleeve. Slide the stainless steel shield and clamp assembly into a position centered over the gasket and tighten. Bands shall be tightened using an approved calibrated torque wrench specifically set by the manufacturer of the couplings.
Joining methods for copper or copper alloy pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.3.1 through Section 705.3.4.
Brazed joints between copper or copper alloy pipe and fittings shall be made with brazing alloys having a liquid temperature above 1000°F (538°C). The joint surfaces to be brazed shall be cleaned bright by either manual or mechanical means. Piping shall be cut square and reamed to full inside diameter. Brazing flux shall be applied to the joint surfaces where required by manufacturer's recommendation. Brazing filler metal shall conform to AWS A5.8 and shall be applied at the point where the pipe or tubing enters the socket of the fitting.
Mechanical joints in copper or copper alloy piping shall be made with a mechanical coupling with grooved end piping or approved joint designed for the specific application.
Soldered joints between copper or copper alloy pipe and fittings shall be made in accordance with ASTM B828 with the following sequence of joint preparation and operation as follows: measuring and cutting, reaming, cleaning, fluxing, assembly and support, heating, applying the solder, cooling, and cleaning. Pipe shall be cut square and reamed to the full inside diameter including the removal of burrs on the outside of the pipe. Surfaces to be joined shall be cleaned bright by manual or mechanical means. Flux shall be applied to pipe and fittings and shall conform to ASTM B813, and shall become noncorrosive and nontoxic after soldering. Insert pipe into the base of the fitting and remove excess flux. Pipe and fitting shall be supported to ensure a uniform capillary space around the joint. Heat shall be applied using air or fuel torch with the flame perpendicular to the pipe using acetylene or an LP gas. Preheating shall depend on the size of the joint. The flame shall be moved to the fitting cup and alternate between the pipe and fitting. Solder conforming to ASTM B32 shall be applied to the joint surfaces until capillary action draws the molten solder into the cup. Joint surfaces shall not be disturbed until cool, and any remaining flux residue shall be cleaned.
Threaded joints for copper or copper alloy pipe shall be made with pipe threads that comply with ASME B1.20.1. Thread sealant tape or compound shall be applied only to male threads, and such material shall be approved types, insoluble in water, and nontoxic.
Joining methods for galvanized steel pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.4.1 or Section 705.4.2.
Mechanical joints shall be made with an elastomeric gasket.
Polyethylene (PE) sewer pipe or tubing and fitting joining methods shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.5.1 through Section 705.5.1.3.
Heat-fusion joints between PE sewer pipe or tubing and fittings shall be assembled in accordance with Section 705.5.1.1 through Section 705.5.1.3 using butt-fusion, electro-fusion, or socket-fusion heat methods. Do not disturb the joint until cooled to ambient temperature.
Butt-fusion joints for PE pipe shall be installed in accordance with ASTM F2620 and shall be made by heating the prepared ends of two pipes, pipe and fitting, or two fittings by holding ends against a heated element. The heated element shall be removed when the required melt or times are obtained and heated ends shall be placed together with applied force. Do not disturb the joint until cooled to ambient temperature.
Electro-fusion joints shall be heated internally by a conductor at the interface of the joint. Fittings shall comply with ASTM F1055 for the performance requirements of polyethylene electro-fusion fittings. The specified electro-fusion cycle used to form the joint requires consideration of the properties of the materials being joined, the design of the fitting being used, and the environmental conditions. Align and restrain fitting to pipe to prevent movement and apply electric current to the fitting. Turn off the current when the required time has elapsed to heat the joint. Do not disturb the joint until cooled to ambient temperature.
Socket fusion joints shall be installed in accordance with ASTM F2620 and shall be made by simultaneously heating the outside surface of a pipe end and the inside of a fitting socket. Where the required melt is obtained, the pipe and fitting shall be joined by inserting one into the other with applied force. Do not disturb the joint until cooled to ambient temperature.
Joining methods for PVC plastic pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.6.1 through Section 705.6.3.
Mechanical joints shall be designed to provide a permanent seal and shall be of the mechanical or push-on joint type. The push-on joint shall include an elastomeric gasket that complies with ASTM D3212 and shall provide a compressive force against the spigot and socket after assembly to provide a permanent seal.
Solvent cement joints for PVC pipe and fittings shall be clean from dirt and moisture. Pipe shall be cut square, and pipe shall be deburred. Where surfaces to be joined are cleaned and free of dirt, moisture, oil, and other foreign material, apply primer purple in color that complies with ASTM F656. Primer shall be applied to the surface of the pipe and fitting is softened. Solvent cement that comply with ASTM D2564 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. Joints shall be made while both the inside socket surface and outside surface of pipe are wet with solvent cement. Hold joint in place and undisturbed for 1 minute after assembly.
Threads shall comply with ASME B1.20.1. A minimum of Schedule 80 shall be permitted to be threaded. Molded threads on adapter fittings for the transition to threaded joints shall be permitted. Thread sealant compound that is compatible with the pipe and fitting, insoluble in water and nontoxic shall be applied to male threads. The joint between the pipe and transition fitting shall be of the solvent cement type. Caution shall be used during assembly to prevent over tightening of the PVC components once the thread sealant has been applied. Female PVC threaded fittings shall be used with plastic male threads only.
Joining methods for stainless steel pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.7.1 or Section 705.7.2.
Mechanical joints between stainless steel pipe and fittings shall be of the compression, grooved coupling, hydraulic press-connect fittings, or flanged.
Welded joints between stainless steel pipe and fittings shall be made in accordance with ASME A112.3.1 and shall be welded autogenously. Pipe shall be cleaned, free of scale and contaminating particles. Pipe shall be cut with a combination cutting and beveling tool that provides a square cut, and free of burrs. Mineral oil lubricant shall be used during the cutting and beveling process.
Joining methods for vitrified clay pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall comply with Section 705.8.1.
Mechanical joints shall be designed to provide a permanent seal and shall be of the mechanical or push-on joint type. The push-on joint shall include an elastomeric gasket that complies with ASTM C425 and shall provide a compressive force against the spigot and socket after assembly to provide a permanent seal.
Special joints shall comply with Section 705.9.1 through Section 705.9.4.
In fixture drains and traps, slip joints of approved materials shall be permitted to be used in accordance with their approvals.
Expansion joints shall be accessible, except where in vent piping or drainage stacks, and shall be permitted to be used where necessary to provide for expansion and contraction of the pipes.
Copper or copper alloy ground joint flared, or ferrule-type connections that allow adjustment of tubing, but provide a rigid joint where made up, shall not be considered as slip joints.
A solvent cement transition joint between ABS and PVC building drain and building sewer shall be made using listed transition solvent cement in accordance with ASTM D3138.
Joints between various materials shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and with Section 705.10.1 through Section 705.10.4. Mechanical couplings used to join different materials shall comply with ASTM C1173 for belowground use, ASTM C1460 for aboveground use, or ASTM C1461 for aboveground and belowground use.
Joints from copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing to cast-iron pipe shall be made with a listed compression-type joint or copper alloy ferrule. The copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing shall be soldered or brazed to the ferrule, and the ferrule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a compression or caulked joint.
Joints from copper or copper alloy pipe or tubing to threaded pipe shall be made by the use of a listed copper alloy adapter or dielectric fitting. The joint between the copper or copper alloy pipe and the fitting shall be a soldered or brazed, and the connection between the threaded and the fittings shall be made with a standard pipe size threaded joint.
Where connecting stainless steel pipe to other types of piping, listed mechanical joints of the compression type and listed for the specific transition intended shall be used.
Horizontal drainage lines, connecting with a vertical stack, shall enter through 45 degree (0.79 rad) wye branches, 60 degree (1.05 rad) wye branches, combination wye and one-eighth bend branches, sanitary tee or sanitary tapped tee branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep. No fitting having more than one inlet at the same level shall be used unless such fitting is constructed so that the discharge from one inlet cannot readily enter any other inlet. Double sanitary tees shall be permitted to be used where the barrel of the fitting is not less than two pipe sizes larger than the largest inlet, (pipe sizes recognized for this purpose are 2 inches, 21/2 inches, 3 inches, 31/2 inches, 4 inches, 41/2 inches, 5 inches, 6 inches, etc.) (50 mm, 65 mm, 80 mm, 90 mm, 100 mm, 115 mm, 125 mm, 150 mm, etc.).
Vertical drainage lines connecting with horizontal drainage lines shall enter through 45 degree (0.79 rad) wye branches, combination wye and one-eighth bend branches, or other approved fittings of equivalent sweep. Branches or offsets of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) shall be permitted to be used where installed in a true vertical position.
Each cleanout fitting for cast-iron pipe shall consist of a cast-iron or copper alloy body and an approved plug. Each cleanout for galvanized wrought iron, galvanized steel, copper, or copper alloy pipe shall consist of a plug as specified in Table 707.1, or a standard weight copper alloy cap, or an approved ABS or PVC plastic plug, or an approved stainless steel cleanout or plug. Plugs shall have raised square heads or approved countersunk rectangular slots.
|SIZE OF PIPE
|SIZE OF CLEANOUT
|4 & larger||31/2||8|
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm
Each cleanout fitting and each cleanout plug or cap shall be of an approved type.
Cleanouts shall be designed to be watertight and gastight.
Each horizontal drainage pipe shall be provided with a cleanout at its upper terminal, and each run of piping, that is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) in total developed length, shall be provided with a cleanout for each 100 feet (30 480 mm), or fraction thereof, in length of such piping. An additional cleanout shall be provided in a drainage line for each aggregate horizontal change in direction exceeding 135 degrees (2.36 rad). A cleanout shall be installed above the fixture connection fitting, serving each urinal, regardless of the location of the urinal in the building.
- Cleanouts shall be permitted to be omitted on a horizontal drain line less than 5 feet (1524 mm) in length unless such line is serving sinks or urinals.
- Cleanouts shall be permitted to be omitted on a horizontal drainage pipe installed on a slope of 72 degrees (1.26 rad) or less from the vertical angle (one-fifth bend).
- Excepting the building drain, its horizontal branches, and urinals, a cleanout shall not be required on a pipe or piping that is above the floor level of the lowest floor of the building.
- An approved type of two-way cleanout fitting, installed inside the building wall near the connection between the building drain and the building sewer or installed outside of a building at the lower end of a building drain and extended to grade, shall be permitted to be substituted for an upper terminal cleanout.
Each cleanout extension shall be considered as drainage piping and each 90 degree (1.57 rad) cleanout extension shall be extended from a wye-type fitting or other approved fitting of equivalent sweep.
Each cleanout for an interceptor shall be outside of such interceptor.
Each cleanout, unless installed under an approved cover plate, shall be above grade, readily accessible, and so located as to serve the purpose for which it is intended. Cleanouts located under cover plates shall be so installed as to provide the clearances and accessibility required by this section.
Each cleanout in piping 2 inches (50 mm) or less in size shall be so installed that there is a clearance of not less than 18 inches (457 mm) by 18 inches (457 mm) in front of the cleanout. Cleanouts in piping exceeding 2 inches (50 mm) shall have a clearance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm) by 24 inches (610 mm) in front of the cleanout. Cleanouts in under-floor piping shall be extended to or above the finished floor or shall be extended outside the building where there is less than 18 inches (457 mm) vertical overall, allowing for obstructions such as ducts, beams, and piping, and 30 inches of (762 mm) horizontal clearance from the means of access to such cleanout. No under-floor cleanout shall be located exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) from an access door, trap door, or crawl hole.
Cleanout fittings shall be not less in size than those given in Table 707.1.
Cleanouts shall be provided for pressure drainage systems as classified under Section 710.7.
Countersunk cleanout plugs shall be installed where raised heads cause a hazard.
Where a hubless blind plug is used for a required cleanout, the complete coupling and plug shall be accessible for removal or replacement.
Cleanouts for trap arms shall be installed in accordance with Section 1002.3.
Horizontal drainage piping shall be run in practical alignment and a uniform slope of not less than 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) or 2 percent toward the point of disposal provided that, where it is impractical due to the depth of the street sewer, to the structural features, or to the arrangement of a building or structure to obtain a slope of 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) or 2 percent, such pipe or piping 4 inches (100 mm) or larger in diameter shall be permitted to have a slope of not less than 1/8 inch per foot (10.4 mm/m) or 1 percent, where first approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Where practicable, plumbing fixtures shall be drained to the public sewer or private sewage disposal system by gravity.
Fixtures installed on a floor level that is lower than the next upstream manhole cover of the public, or private sewer shall be protected from backflow of sewage by installing an approved type of backwater valve. Fixtures on such floor level that are not below the next upstream manhole cover shall not be required to be protected by a backwater valve. Fixtures on floor levels above such elevation shall not discharge through the backwater valve. Cleanouts for drains that pass through a backwater valve shall be clearly identified with a permanent label stating "backwater valve downstream."
Drainage piping serving fixtures that are located below the crown level of the main sewer shall discharge into an approved watertight sump or receiving tank, so located as to receive the sewage or wastes by gravity. From such sump or receiving tank, the sewage or other liquid wastes shall be lifted and discharged into the building drain or building sewer by approved ejectors, pumps, or other equally efficient approved mechanical devices.
A sewage ejector or sewage pump receiving the discharge of water closets or urinals:
- Shall have a discharge capacity of not less than 20 gpm (1.26 L/s).
- In single dwelling units, the ejector or pump shall be capable of passing an 11/2 inch (38 mm) diameter solid ball, and the discharge piping of each ejector or pump shall have a backwater valve and gate valve, and be not less than 2 inches (50 mm) in diameter.
- In other than single-dwelling units, the ejector or pump shall be capable of passing a 2 inch (51 mm) diameter solid ball, and the discharge piping of each ejector or pump shall have a backwater valve and gate valve, and be not less than 3 inches (80 mm) in diameter.
The discharge line from such ejector, pump, or another mechanical device shall be of approved pressure rated material and be provided with an accessible backwater or swing check valve and gate or ball valve. Where the gravity drainage line to which such discharge line connects is horizontal, the method of connection shall be from the top through a wye branch fitting. The gate or ball valve shall be located on the discharge side of the backwater or check valve.
Gate or ball valves, where installed in drainage piping, shall be fullway type with working parts of corrosion-resistant metal. Sizes 4 inches (100 mm) or more in diameter shall have cast-iron bodies and sizes less than 4 inches (100 mm), cast-iron or copper alloy bodies.
Building drains or building sewers receiving a discharge from a pump or ejector shall be adequately sized to prevent overloading. Two fixture units shall be allowed for each gallon per minute (L/s) of flow.
Backwater valves, gate valves, fullway ball valves, unions, motors, compressors, air tanks, and other mechanical devices required by this section shall be located where they will be accessible for inspection and repair and, unless continuously exposed, shall be enclosed in a masonry pit fitted with an adequately sized removable cover.
Backwater valves shall comply with ASME A112.14.1, and have bodies of cast-iron, plastic, copper alloy, or other approved materials; shall have noncorrosive bearings, seats, and self-aligning discs; and shall be constructed to ensure a positive mechanical seal. Such backwater valves shall remain open during periods of low flows to avoid screening of solids and shall not restrict capacities or cause excessive turbulence during peak loads. Unless otherwise listed, valve access covers shall be bolted type with gasket, and each valve shall bear the manufacturer's name cast into the body and the cover.
The drainage and venting systems, in connection with fixtures, sumps, receiving tanks, and mechanical waste-lifting devices shall be installed under the same requirements as provided for in this code for gravity systems.
Sumps and receiving tanks shall be watertight and shall be constructed of concrete, metal, or other approved materials. Where constructed of poured concrete, the walls and bottom shall be adequately reinforced and designed to recognized acceptable standards. Metal sumps or tanks shall be of such thickness as to serve their intended purpose and shall be treated internally and externally to resist corrosion.
Such sumps and receiving tanks shall be automatically discharged and, wherein a "public use" occupancy, shall be provided with dual pumps or ejectors arranged to function alternately in normal use and independently in case of overload or mechanical failure. The pumps shall have an audio and visual alarm, readily accessible, that signals pump failure or an overload condition. The lowest inlet shall have a clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from the high-water or "starting" level of the sump.
Sumps and receiving tanks shall be provided with substantial covers having a bolt-and-gasket-type manhole or equivalent opening to permit access for inspection, repairs, and cleaning. The top shall be provided with a vent pipe that shall extend separately through the roof or, where permitted, be combined with other vent pipes. Such vent shall be large enough to maintain atmospheric pressure within the sump under normal operating conditions and, in no case, shall be less in size than that required by Table 703.2 for the number and type of fixtures discharging into the sump, nor less than 11/2 inches (40 mm) in diameter. Where the preceding requirements are met and the vent, after leaving the sump, is combined with vents from fixtures discharging into the sump, the size of the combined vent need not exceed that required for the total number of fixtures discharging into the sump. No vent from an air-operating sewage ejector shall combine with other vents.
Air tanks shall be so proportioned as to be of equal cubical capacity to the ejectors connected in addition to that in which there shall be maintained an air pressure of not less than 2 pounds per foot (lb/ft) (3 kg/m) of height the sewage is to be raised. No water-operated ejectors shall be permitted.
Grinder pumps shall be permitted to be used.
The discharge piping shall be sized in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in diameter. A check valve and fullway-type shutoff valve shall be located on the discharge line.
Fixtures shall be permitted to discharge to a macerating toilet system, or pumped waste system shall be permitted as an alternate to a sewage pump system where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Such systems shall comply with ASME A112.3.4/CSA B45.9 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
The sump shall be watertight and gastight.
The discharge piping shall be sized in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and shall be not less than 3/4 of an inch (20 mm) in diameter. The developed length of the discharge piping shall not exceed the manufacturer's instructions. A check valve and fullway-type shutoff valve shall be located within the discharge line or internally within the device.
The plumbing fixtures that discharge into the macerating device shall be vented in accordance with this code. The sump shall be vented in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and such vent shall be permitted to connect to the fixture venting.
Drainage connections shall not be made into a drainage piping system within 8 feet (2438 mm) of a vertical to horizontal change of direction of a stack containing suds-producing fixtures. Bathtubs, laundries, washing machine standpipes, kitchen sinks, and dishwashers shall be considered suds-producing fixtures. Where parallel vent stacks are required, they shall connect to the drainage stack at a point 8 feet (2438 mm) above the lowest point of the drainage stack.
- Single-family residences.
- Stacks receiving the discharge from less than three stories of plumbing fixtures.
The piping of the plumbing, drainage, and venting systems shall be tested with water or air except that plastic pipe shall not be tested with air. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to require the removal of cleanouts, etc., to ascertain whether the pressure has reached all parts of the system. After the plumbing fixtures have been set and their traps filled with water, they shall be submitted to a final test.
The water test shall be applied to the drainage and vent systems either in its entirety or in sections. Where the test is applied to the entire system, openings in the piping shall be tightly closed, except the highest opening, and the system filled with water to the point of overflow. Where the system is tested in sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged, except the highest opening of the section under test, and each section shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested with less than a 10 foot head of water (30 kPa). In testing successive sections, not less than the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the next preceding section shall be tested, so that no joint or pipe in the building (except the uppermost 10 feet (3048 mm) of the system) shall have been submitted to a test of less than a 10 foot head of water (30 kPa). The water shall be kept in the system, or in the portion under test, for not less than 15 minutes before inspection starts. The system shall then be tight at all points.
The air test shall be made by attaching an air compressor testing apparatus to a suitable opening and, after closing all other inlets and outlets to the system, forcing air into the system until there is a uniform gauge pressure of 5 pounds-force per square inch (psi) (34 kPa) or sufficient to balance a column of mercury 10 inches (34 kPa) in height. The pressure shall be held without the introduction of additional air for a period of not less than 15 minutes.
A building in which plumbing fixtures are installed and premises having drainage piping thereon shall have a connection to a public or private sewer, except as provided in Section 713.2, and Section 713.4.
Where no public sewer intended to serve a lot or premises is available in a thoroughfare or right of way abutting such lot or premises, drainage piping from a building or works shall be connected to an approved private sewage disposal system.
Within the limits prescribed by Section 713.4 hereof, the rearrangement or subdivision into smaller parcels of a lot that abuts and is served by a public sewer shall not be deemed cause to permit the construction of a private sewage disposal system, and plumbing or drainage systems on a smaller parcel or parcels shall connect to the public sewer.
The public sewer shall be permitted to be considered as not being available where such public sewer or a building or an exterior drainage facility connected thereto is located more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a proposed building or exterior drainage facility on a lot or premises that abut and is served by such public sewer.
No permit shall be issued for the installation, alteration, or repair of a private sewage disposal system, or part thereof, on a lot for which a connection with a public sewer is available.
On every lot or premises hereafter connected to a public sewer, plumbing, and drainage systems or parts thereof on such lot or premises shall be connected with such public sewer.
In cities, counties, or both where the installation of building sewers is under the jurisdiction of a department other than the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the provisions of this code relating to building sewers need not apply.
Exception: Single-family dwellings and buildings or structures accessory thereto, existing and connected to an approved private sewage disposal system prior to the time of connecting the premises to the public sewer shall be permitted, where no hazard, nuisance, or insanitary condition is evidenced, and written permission has been obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction, remain connected to such properly maintained private sewage disposal system where there is insufficient grade or fall to permit drainage to the sewer by gravity.
It shall be unlawful for a person to deposit, by means whatsoever, into a plumbing fixture, floor drain, interceptor, sump, receptor, or device which is connected to a drainage system, public sewer, private sewer, septic tank, or cesspool, ashes; cinders; solids; rags; flammable, poisonous, or explosive liquids or gases; oils; grease; and whatsoever that is capable of causing damage to the public sewer, private sewer, or private sewage disposal system.
No rain, surface, or subsurface water shall be connected to or discharged into a drainage system unless first approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
No cesspool, septic tank, seepage pit, or drain field shall be connected to a public sewer or to a building sewer leading to such public sewer.
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall review before approval, the installation of a commercial food waste disposer connecting to a private sewage disposal system.
An approved type, watertight sewage or wastewater holding tank, the contents of which, due to their character, shall be periodically removed and disposed of at some approved off-site location, shall be installed where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction or the Health Officer to prevent anticipated surface or subsurface contamination or pollution, damage to the public sewer, or other hazardous or nuisance conditions.
The building sewer, beginning 2 feet (610 mm) from a building or structure, shall be of such materials as prescribed in this code.
Joining methods and materials shall be as prescribed in this code.
Replacement of existing building sewer and building storm sewers using trenchless methodology and materials shall be installed in accordance with ASTM F1216.
Pipe, brick, block, prefabricated septic tanks, prefabricated septic tank or seepage pit covers, or other parts or appurtenances incidental to the installation of building sewers or private sewage disposal systems shall be in accordance with the approval requirements of Chapter 3 of this code.
The minimum size of a building sewer shall be determined on the basis of the total number of fixture units drained by such sewer, in accordance with Table 717.1. No building sewer shall be smaller than the building drain.
For alternate methods of sizing building sewers, see Appendix C.
For alternate methods of sizing building sewers, see Appendix C.
|SIZE OF PIPE
(inches per foot)
|6 and smaller||(As specified in Table 703.2/No minimum loading)|
For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m
* See also Appendix H, Private Sewage Disposal Systems. For alternate methods of sizing drainage piping, see Appendix C.
Building sewers shall be run in practical alignment and at a uniform slope of not less than 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m) toward the point of disposal.
Exception: Where approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction and where it is impractical, due to the depth of the street sewer or to the structural features or the arrangement of a building or structure, to obtain a slope of 1/4 inch per foot (20.8 mm/m), such pipe or piping 4 inches (100 mm) through 6 inches (150 mm) shall be permitted to have a slope of not less than 1/8 inch per foot (10.4 mm/m) and such piping 8 inches (200 mm) and larger shall be permitted to have a slope of not less than 1/16 inch per foot (5.2 mm/m).
Building sewer piping shall be laid on a firm bed throughout its entire length, and such piping laid in made or filled-in ground shall be laid on a bed of approved materials and shall be properly supported as required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
No building sewer or other drainage piping or part thereof, which is constructed of materials other than those approved for use under or within a building, shall be installed under or within 2 feet (610 mm) of a building or structure, or part thereof, nor less than 1 foot (305 mm) below the surface of the ground. The provisions of this subsection include structures such as porches and steps, whether covered or uncovered; breezeways; roofed porte cochere; roofed patios; carports; covered walks; covered driveways; and similar structures or appurtenances.
Cleanouts shall be placed inside the building near the connection between the building drain and the building sewer or installed outside the building at the lower end of the building drain and extended to grade.
Additional building sewer cleanouts shall be installed at intervals not to exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm) in straight runs and for each aggregate horizontal change in direction exceeding 135 degrees (2.36 rad).
Where a building sewer or a branch thereof does not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) in length and is a straight-line projection from a building drain that is provided with a cleanout, no cleanout will be required at its point of connection to the building drain.
Required building sewer cleanouts shall be extended to grade and shall be in accordance with the appropriate sections of cleanouts, Section 707.0, for sizing, construction, and materials. Where building sewers are located under buildings, the cleanout requirements of Section 707.0 shall apply.
Cleanouts installed under concrete or asphalt paving shall be made accessible by yard boxes or by extending flush with paving with approved materials and shall be adequately protected.
Approved manholes shall be permitted to be installed in lieu of cleanouts, where first approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The maximum distance between manholes shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm).
The inlet and outlet connections shall be made by the use of a flexible compression joint not less than 12 inches (305 mm) and not exceeding 3 feet (914 mm) from the manhole. No flexible compression joints shall be embedded in the manhole base.
Building sewers or drainage piping of clay or materials that are not approved for use within a building shall not be run or laid in the same trench as the water pipes unless the following requirements are met:
- The bottom of the water pipe, at points, shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the sewer or drain line.
- The water pipe shall be placed on a solid shelf excavated at one side of the common trench with a clear horizontal distance of not less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the sewer or drain line.
- Water pipes crossing sewer or drainage piping constructed of clay or materials that are not approved for use within a building shall be laid not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the sewer or drain pipe.
For the purpose of this section, "within a building" shall mean within the fixed limits of the building foundation.
Except as provided in Section 721.2, no building sewer shall be located in a lot other than the lot that is the site of the building or structure served by such sewer nor shall a building sewer be located at a point having less than the minimum distances referenced in Table 721.1.
|Buildings or structures1||2|
|Property line adjoining private property||Clear2|
|Water supply wells||503|
|On-site domestic water service line||14|
|Public water main||105, 6|
For SI units: 1 foot = 304.8 mm
1 Including porches and steps, whether covered or uncovered; breezeways; roofed porte-cochere; roofed patios; carports; covered walks; covered driveways; and similar structures or appurtenances.
2 See also Section 312.3.
3 Drainage piping shall clear domestic water supply wells by not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm). This distance shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) where the drainage piping is constructed of materials approved for use within a building.
4 See Section 720.0.
5 For parallel construction.
6 For crossings, approval by the Health Department or the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be required.
Nothing contained in this code shall be construed to prohibit the use of all or part of an abutting lot to:
- Provide access to connect a building sewer to an available public sewer where proper cause and legal easement, not in violation of other requirements, has been first established to the satisfaction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
- Provide additional space for a building sewer where the proper cause, transfer of ownership, or change of boundary, not in violation of other requirements, has been first established to the satisfaction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The instrument recording such action shall constitute an agreement with the Authority Having Jurisdiction and shall clearly state and show that the areas so joined or used shall be maintained as a unit during the time they are so used. Such an agreement shall be recorded in the office of the County Recorder as part of the conditions of ownership of said properties, and shall be binding on heirs, successors, and assigns to such properties. A copy of the instrument recording such proceedings shall be filed with the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
An abandoned building (house) sewer, or part thereof, shall be plugged or capped in an approved manner within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the property line.
Cesspools, Septic Tanks, and Seepage Pits. A cesspool, septic tank, and seepage pit that has been abandoned or has been discontinued otherwise from further use, or to which no waste or soil pipe from a plumbing fixture is connected, shall have the sewage removed therefrom and be completely filled with earth, sand, gravel, concrete, or other approved material.
The top cover or arch over the cesspool, septic tank, or seepage pit shall be removed before filling, and the filling shall not extend above the top of the vertical portions of the sidewalls or above the level of the outlet pipe until inspection has been called and the cesspool, septic tank, or seepage pit has been inspected. After such inspection, the cesspool, septic tank, or seepage pit shall be filled to the level of the top of the ground.
No person owning or controlling a cesspool, septic tank, or seepage pit on the premises of such person or in that portion of a public street, alley, or other public property abutting such premises, shall fail, refuse, or neglect to comply with the provisions of this section or upon receipt of notice so to comply from the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Where disposal facilities are abandoned consequent to connecting premises with the public sewer, the permittee making the connection shall fill abandoned facilities in accordance with the Authority Having Jurisdiction within 30 days from the time of connecting to the public sewer.
Building sewers shall be tested by plugging the end of the building sewer at its points of connection to the public sewer or private sewage disposal system and completely filling the building sewer with water from the lowest to the highest point thereof, or by approved equivalent low-pressure air test. Plastic DWV piping systems shall not be tested by the air test method. The building sewer shall be watertight.