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For the purpose of this code, the following terms have the meanings indicated in this chapter.
No attempt is made to define ordinary words, which are used in accordance with their established dictionary meanings, except where a word has been used loosely, and it is necessary to define its meaning as used in this code to avoid misunderstanding.
The definitions of terms are arranged alphabetically according to the first word of the term.
ABS. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene.
Accepted Engineering Practice. That which conforms to technical or scientific-based principles, tests, or standards that are accepted by the engineering profession.
Accessible. Where applied to a fixture, connection, appliance, or equipment, "accessible" means having access thereto, but which first may require the removal of an access panel, door, or similar obstruction.
Accessible, Readily. Having a direct access without the necessity of removing a panel, door, or similar obstruction.
Air Break. A physical separation which may be a low inlet into the indirect waste receptor from the fixture, appliance, or device indirectly connected.
Air Gap, Drainage. The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from a pipe, plumbing fixture, appliance, or appurtenance conveying waste to the flood-level rim of the receptor.
Air Gap, Water Distribution. The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from a pipe or faucet conveying potable water to the flood-level rim of a tank, vat, or fixture.
Alternate Water Source. Nonpotable source of water that includes but not limited to gray water, on-site treated nonpotable water, rainwater, and reclaimed (recycled) water.
Appliance. A device that utilizes an energy source to produce light, heat, power, refrigeration, air conditioning, or compressed fuel gas. This definition also shall include a vented decorative appliance.
Appliance, Low-Heat. A fuel-burning appliance that produces a continuous flue gas temperature, at the point of entrance to the flue, of not more than 1000°F (538°C).
Appliance, Medium-Heat. A fuel-burning appliance that produces a continuous flue gas temperature, at the point of entrance to the flue, of more than 1000°F (538°C) and less than 2000°F (1093°C).
Appliance Categorized Vent Diameter/Area. The minimum vent diameter/area permissible for Category I appliances to maintain a nonpositive vent static pressure when tested in accordance with nationally recognized standards. [NFPA 54:3.3.6]
Appliance Fuel Connector. An assembly of listed semirigid or flexible tubing and fittings to carry fuel between a fuel-piping outlet and a fuel-burning appliance.
Approved Testing Agency. An organization primarily established for purposes of testing to approved standards and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Area Drain. A receptor designed to collect surface or storm water from an open area.
Aspirator. A fitting or device supplied with water or other fluid under positive pressure that passes through an integral orifice or constriction, causing a vacuum.
Authority Having Jurisdiction. The organization, office, or individual responsible for enforcing the requirements of a code or standard, or for approving equipment, materials, installations, or procedures. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be a federal, state, local, or other regional department or an individual such as a plumbing official, mechanical official, labor department official, health department official, building official, or others having statutory authority. In the absence of statutory authority, the Authority Having Jurisdiction may be some other responsible party. This definition shall include the Authority Having Jurisdiction's duly authorized representative.
Backflow. The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of water from sources other than its intended source. See Backpressure Backflow and Backsiphonage.
Backflow Connection. An arrangement whereby backflow can occur.
Backflow Preventer. A backflow prevention device, an assembly, or another method to prevent backflow into the potable water system.
Backpressure Backflow. Backflow due to an increased pressure above the supply pressure, which may be due to pumps, boilers, gravity, or other sources of pressure.
Backsiphonage. The flowing back of used, contaminated, or polluted water from a plumbing fixture or vessel into a water supply pipe due to a pressure less than atmospheric in such pipe. See Backflow.
Backwater Valve. A device installed in a drainage system to prevent reverse flow.
Bathroom. A room equipped with a shower, bathtub, or combination bath/shower.
Bathroom, Half. A room equipped with only a water closet and lavatory.
Bathroom Group. Any combination of fixtures, not to exceed one water closet, two lavatories, either one bathtub or one combination bath/shower, and one shower, and may include a bidet and an emergency floor drain.
Battery of Fixtures. A group of two or more similar, adjacent fixtures that discharge into a common horizontal waste or soil branch.
Bedpan Steamer. A fixture that is used to sterilize bedpans by way of steam.
Boiler Blowoff. An outlet on a boiler to permit emptying or discharge of sediment.
Bonding Conductor or Jumper. A reliable conductor to ensure the required electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be electrically connected. [NFPA 70:100(I)]
Bottle Filling Station. A plumbing fixture connected to the potable water distribution system and sanitary drainage system that is designed and intended for filling personal use drinking water bottles or containers not less than 10 inches (254 mm) in height. Such fixtures can be separate from or integral to a drinking fountain and can incorporate a water filter and a cooling system for chilling the drinking water.
Branch. A part of the piping system other than a main, riser, or stack.
Branch Vent. A vent connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent.
Building. A structure built, erected, and framed of component structural parts designed for the housing, shelter, enclosure, or support of persons, animals, or property of any kind.
Building Drain. That part of the lowest piping of a drainage system that receives the discharge from soil, waste, and other drainage pipes inside the walls of the building and conveys it to the building sewer beginning 2 feet (610 mm) outside the building wall.
Building Drain (Storm). A building drain that conveys storm water or another drainage, but no sewage.
Building Sewer. That part of the horizontal piping of a drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain and that receives the discharge of the building drain and conveys it to a public sewer, private sewer, private sewage disposal system, or another point of disposal.
Building Sewer (Combined). A building sewer that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage.
Building Sewer (Storm). A building sewer that conveys storm water or another drainage, but no sewage.
Building Subdrain. That portion of a drainage system that does not drain by gravity into the building sewer.
Building Supply. The pipe is carrying potable water from the water meter or another source of water supply to a building or other point of use or distribution on the lot.
Category 1. Activities, systems, or equipment whose failure is likely to cause major injury or death to patients, staff, or visitors. [NFPA 99:]
Category 2. Activities, systems, or equipment whose failure is likely to cause minor injury to patients, staff, or visitors. [NFPA 99:]
Category 3. Activities, systems, or equipment whose failure is not likely to cause injury to patients, staff, or visitors, but can cause discomfort. [NFPA 99:]
Category 3 Vacuum System. A Category 3 vacuum distribution system that can be either a wet system designed to remove liquid, air-gas, or solids from the treated area; or a dry system designed to trap liquids and solids before the service inlet and to accommodate air-gas only through the service inlet. [NFPA 99:3.3.21]
Category 4. Activities, systems, or equipment whose failure would have no impact on patient care. [NFPA 99:]
Certified Backflow Assembly Tester. A person who has shown competence to test and maintain backflow assemblies to the satisfaction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
Cesspool. A lined excavation in the ground that receives the discharge of a drainage system or part thereof, so designed as to retain the organic matter and solids discharging therein but permitting the liquids to seep through the bottom and sides.
Chimney. One or more passageways, vertical or nearly so, for conveying flue or vent gases to the outdoors. [NFPA 54:3.3.18]
Chimney, Factory-Built. A chimney composed of listed factory-built components assembled in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions to form the completed chimney. [NFPA 54:]
Chimney, Masonry. A field-constructed chimney of solid masonry units, bricks, stones, listed masonry chimney units, or reinforced portland cement concrete, lined with suitable chimney flue liners. [NFPA 54:]
Chimney, Metal. A chimney constructed of metal with a minimum thickness not less than 0.127 inches (3.23 mm) (No. 10 manufacturer's standard gauge) steel sheet.
Chimney, High-Heat Appliance-Type. A factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess of 2000°F (1093°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Chimney, Low-Heat Appliance-Type. A factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1400°F (760°C) during intermittent forced firing for periods up to one hour. Temperatures are measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Chimney, Medium-Heat Appliance-Type. A factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases, not in excess of 2000°F (1093°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet.
Chimney, Residential Appliance-Type. A factory-built or masonry chimney suitable for removing products of combustion from residential-type appliances producing combustion gases, not in excess of 1000°F (538°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet. Factory-built Type HT chimneys have high-temperature thermal shock resistance.
Clear Water Waste. Cooling water and condensate drainage from refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment; cooled condensate from steam heating systems, and cooled boiler blowdown water.
Clinical Sink. A fixture that has the same flushing and cleansing characteristics of a water closet that is used to receive the wastes from a bedpan. Also, known as a bedpan washer.
Coastal High Hazard Areas. An area within the flood hazard area that is subject to high-velocity wave action, and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map or other flood hazard map as Zone V, VO, VE or V1-30.
Code. A standard that is an extensive compilation of provisions covering broad subject matter or that is suitable for adoption into law independently of other codes and standards.
Combination Temperature and Pressure-Relief Valve. A relief valve that actuates when a set temperature, pressure, or both is reached. Also, known as a T&P Valve.
Combination Thermostatic/Pressure Balancing Valve. A mixing valve that senses outlet temperature and incoming hot and cold water pressure and compensates for fluctuations in incoming hot and cold water temperatures, pressures, or both to stabilize outlet temperatures.
Combination Waste and Vent System. A specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains using a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.
Combustible Material. A material that, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will ignite and bum; a material that does not meet the definition of noncombustible. [NFPA 54:]
Common. That part of a plumbing system that is so designed and installed as to serve more than one appliance, fixture, building, or system.
Condensate. The liquid phase produced by condensation of a gas or vapor.
Conductor. A pipe inside the building that conveys storm water from the roof to a storm drain, combined building sewer, or other approved point of disposal.
Confined Space. A room or space having a volume less than 50 cubic feet per 1000 British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) (4.83 m3/kW) of the aggregate input rating of all fuel-burning appliances installed in that space.
Construction Documents. Plans, specifications, written, graphic, and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location, and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a permit.
Contamination. An impairment of the quality of the potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids, or waste. Also, defined as High Hazard.
Continuous Vent. A vertical vent that is a continuation of the drain to which it connects.
Continuous Waste. A drain is connecting the compartments of a set of fixtures to a trap or connecting other permitted fixtures to a common trap.
Copper Alloy. A homogenous mixture of two or more metals in which copper is the primary component, such as brass and bronze.
CPVC. Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride.
Critical Care Area. A room or space in which failure of equipment or a system is likely to cause major injury or death to patients or caregivers (Category 1). [NFPA 99:3.3.28]
Critical Level. The critical level (C-L or C/L) marking on a backflow prevention device or vacuum breaker is a point conforming to approved standards and established by the testing laboratory (usually stamped on the device by the manufacturer) that determines the minimum elevation above the flood-level rim of the fixture or receptor served at which the device may be installed. Where a backflow prevention device does not bear a critical level marking, the bottom of the vacuum breaker, combination valve, or the bottom of such approved device shall constitute the critical level.
Cross-Connection. A connection or arrangement, physical or otherwise, between a potable water supply system and a plumbing fixture or a tank, receptor, equipment, or device, through which it may be possible for nonpotable, used, unclean, polluted, and contaminated water, or other substances to enter into a part of such potable water system under any condition.
Debris Excluder. A device installed on the rainwater catchment conveyance system to prevent the accumulation of leaves, needles, or other debris in the system.
Department Having Jurisdiction. The Authority Having Jurisdiction, including any other law enforcement agency affected by a provision of this code, whether such agency is specifically named or not.
Design Flood Elevation. The elevation of the "design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO, the design flood elevation is the elevation of the highest existing grade of the building's perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO where a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth number is taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm).
Developed Length. The length along the centerline of a pipe and fittings.
Diameter. Unless specifically stated, "diameter" is the nominal diameter as designated commercially.
Direct-Vent Appliances. Appliances that are constructed and installed so that all air for combustion is derived directly from the outdoors and all flue gases are discharged to the outdoors. [NFPA 54:]
Domestic Sewage. The liquid and water-borne wastes derived from the ordinary living processes, free from industrial wastes, and of such character as to permit satisfactory disposal, without special treatment, into the public sewer or by means of a private sewage disposal system.
Downspout. The rain leader from the roof to the building storm drain, combined building sewer, or other means of disposal located outside of the building. See Conductor and Leader.
Drain. A pipe that carries waste or waterborne wastes in a building drainage system.
Drainage System. Includes all the piping within public or private premises that conveys sewage, storm water, or other liquid wastes to a legal point of disposal, but does not include the mains of a public sewer system or a public sewage treatment or disposal plant.
Drinking Fountain. A plumbing fixture connected to the potable water distribution system and sanitary drainage system that provides drinking water in a flowing stream so that the user can consume water directly from the fixture without the use of accessories. Drinking fountains should also incorporate a bottle filling station and can incorporate a water filter and a cooling system for chilling the drinking water.
Dry Vent. A vent that does not receive the discharge of any sewage or waste.
Durham System. Soil or waste system in which all piping is threaded pipe, tubing, or other such rigid construction, using recessed drainage fittings to correspond to the types of piping.
Effective Ground-Fault Current Path. An intentionally constructed, low-impedance electrically conductive path designed and intended to carry current under ground-fault conditions from the point of a ground fault on a wiring system to the electrical supply source and that facilitates the operation of the overcurrent protective device or ground-fault detectors on high-impedance grounded systems. [NFPA 54:3.3.34]
Effective Opening. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water supply discharge measured or expressed in terms of (1) diameter of a circle or (2) where the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. (This applies to an air gap).
Essentially Nontoxic Transfer Fluid. Essentially nontoxic at practically nontoxic, Toxicity Rating Class 1 (reference "Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products" by Gosselin, Smith, Hodge, & Braddock).
Exam Room Sink. A sink used in the patient exam room of a medical or dental office with a primary purpose of the washing of hands.
Excess Flow Valve (EFV). A valve designed to activate when the fuel gas passing through it exceeds a prescribed flow rate. [NFPA 54:]
Existing Work. A plumbing system or any part thereof that has been installed prior to the effective date of this code.
Expansion Joint. A fitting or arrangement of pipe and fittings that permit the contraction and expansion of a piping system.
F Rating. The time period that the penetration firestop system limits the spread of fire through the penetration, where tested in accordance with ASTM E814 or UL 1479.
Fixture Branch. A water supply pipe between the fixture supply pipe and the water distribution pipe.
Fixture Drain. The drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of that drain with any other drain pipe.
Fixture Fitting. A device that controls and guides the flow of water.
Fixture Supply. A water supply pipe is connecting the fixture with the fixture branch.
Fixture Unit. A quantity in terms of which the load-producing effects on the plumbing system of different kinds of plumbing fixtures are expressed on some arbitrarily chosen scale.
Flammable Vapor or Fumes. The concentration of flammable constituents in the air that exceeds 25 percent of its lower flammability limit (LFL).
Flood Hazard Area. The greater of the following two areas:
  1. The area within a floodplain subject to a 1 percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
  2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a community's flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated.
Flood-Level Rim. The top edge of a receptor from which water overflows.
Flooded. A fixture is flooded where the liquid therein rises to the flood-level rim.
Flue Collar. That portion of an appliance designed for the attachment of a draft hood, vent connector, or venting system. [NFPA 54:3.3.44]
Flush Tank. A tank located above or integral with water closets, urinals, or similar fixtures for the purpose of flushing the usable portion of the fixture.
Flush Valve. A valve located at the bottom of a tank for flushing water closets and similar fixtures.
Flushometer Tank. A tank integrated within an air accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.
Flushometer Valve. A valve that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes and is actuated by direct water pressure.
FOG Disposal System. A grease interceptor that reduces nonpetroleum fats, oils, and grease (FOG) in the effluent by separation, mass, and volume reduction.
Fuel Gas. Natural, manufactured liquefied petroleum, or a mixture of these.
Gang or Group Shower. Two or more showers in a common area.
Gas Piping. An installation of pipe, valves, or fittings that are used to convey fuel gas, installed on a premise or in a building, but shall not include:
  1. A portion of the service piping.
  2. An approved piping connection 6 feet (1829 mm) or less in length between an existing gas outlet and a gas appliance in the same room with the outlet.
Gas Piping System. An arrangement of gas piping or regulators after the point of delivery and each arrangement of gas piping serving a building, structure, or premises, whether individually metered or not.
Governing Body. The person or persons who have the overall legal responsibility for the operation of a health care facility. [NFPA 99:3.3.62]
Grade. The slope or fall of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane. In drainage, it is usually expressed as the fall in a fraction of an inch (mm) or percentage slope per foot (meter) length of pipe.
Gravity Grease Interceptor. A plumbing appurtenance or appliance that is installed in a sanitary drainage system to intercept nonpetroleum fats, oils, and greases (FOG) from a wastewater discharge and is identified by volume, 30 minute retention time, baffle(s), not less than two compartments, a total volume of not less than 300 gallons (1135 L), and gravity separation. [These interceptors comply with the requirements of Chapter 10 or are designed by a registered design professional.] Gravity grease interceptors are generally installed outside.
Gray Water. Untreated wastewater that has not come into contact with toilet waste, kitchen sink waste, dishwasher waste or similarly contaminated sources. Gray water includes wastewater from bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers, and laundry tubs. Also, known as grey water, graywater, and greywater.
Gray Water Diverter Valve. A valve that directs gray water to the sanitary drainage system or a subsurface irrigation system.
Grease Interceptor. A plumbing appurtenance or appliance that is installed in a sanitary drainage system to intercept nonpetroleum fats, oil, and greases (FOG) from a wastewater discharge.
Grease Removal Device (GRD). A hydromechanical grease interceptor that automatically, mechanically removes nonpetroleum fats, oils and grease (FOG) from the interceptor, the control of which are either automatic or manually initiated.
Grounding Electrode. A conducting object through which a direct connection to earth is established. [NFPA 70:100(I)]
Heat-Fusion Weld Joints. A joint used in some thermoplastic systems to connect the pipe to fittings or pipe lengths directly to one another (butt-fusion). This method of joining pipe to fittings includes socket-fusion, electro-fusion, and saddle-fusion. This method of welding involves the application of heat and pressure to the components, allowing them to fuse together forming a bond between the pipe and fitting.
Horizontal Branch. A drain pipe extending laterally from soil or waste stack or building drain with or without vertical sections or branches, which receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains and conducts it to the soil or waste stack or the building drain.
Horizontal Pipe. A pipe or fitting that is installed in a horizontal position or which makes an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal.
Hot Water. Water at a temperature exceeding or equal to 120°F (49°C).
Hydromechanical Grease Interceptor. A plumbing appurtenance or appliance that is installed in a sanitary drainage system to intercept nonpetroleum fats, oil, and grease (FOG) from a wastewater discharge and is identified by flow rate, and separation and retention efficiency. The design incorporates air entrainment, hydromechanical separation, interior baffling, or barriers in combination or separately, and one of the following:
  1. External flow control, with an air intake (vent), directly connected.
  2. External flow control, without air intake (vent), directly connected.
  3. Without external flow control, directly connected.
  4. Without external flow control, indirectly connected.
These interceptors comply with the requirements of Table 1014.2.1. Hydromechanical grease interceptors are generally installed inside.
Indirect-Fired Water Heater. A water heater consisting of a storage tank equipped with an internal or external heat exchanger used to transfer heat from an external source to heat potable water. The storage tank either contains heated potable water or water supplied from an external source, such as a boiler.
Indirect Waste Pipe. A pipe that does not connect directly to the drainage system but conveys liquid wastes by discharging into a plumbing fixture, interceptor, or receptacle that is directly connected to the drainage system.
Individual Vent. A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap, and that connects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates in the open air.
Industrial Waste. Liquid or water-borne waste from industrial or commercial processes, except domestic sewage.
Insanitary. A condition that is contrary to sanitary principles or is injurious to health.
Conditions to which "insanitary" shall apply include the following:
  1. A trap that does not maintain a proper trap seal.
  2. An opening in a drainage system, except where lawful that is not provided with an approved liquid-sealed trap.
  3. A plumbing fixture or other waste discharging receptor or device that is not supplied with water sufficient to flush and maintain the fixture or receptor in a clean condition.
  4. A defective fixture, trap, pipe, or fitting.
  5. A trap, except where in this code exempted, directly connected to a drainage system, the seal of which is not protected against siphonage and backpressure by a vent pipe.
  6. A connection, cross-connection, construction, or condition, temporary or permanent that would permit or make possible by any means whatsoever for an unapproved foreign matter to enter a water distribution system used for domestic purposes.
  7. The preceding enumeration of conditions to which the term "insanitary" shall apply, shall not preclude the application of that term to conditions that are, in fact, insanitary.
Interceptor (Clarifier). A device designed and installed to separate and retain deleterious, hazardous, or undesirable matter from normal wastes and permit normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge into the disposal terminal by gravity.
Invert. The lowest portion of the inside of a horizontal pipe.
Joint, Brazed. A joint obtained by joining of metal parts with alloys that melt at temperatures exceeding 840°F (449°C), but less than the melting temperature of the parts to be joined.
Joint, Compression. A multipiece joint with cup-shaped threaded nuts that, when tightened, compress tapered sleeves so that they form a tight joint on the periphery of the tubing they connect.
Joint, Flanged. One made by bolting together a pair of flanged ends.
Joint, Flared. A metal-to-metal compression joint in which a conical spread is made on the end of a tube that is compressed by a flare nut against a mating flare.
Joint, Mechanical. The general form for gas-tight or liquid-tight joints obtained by the joining of parts through a positive holding mechanical construction.
Joint, Press-Connect. A permanent mechanical joint incorporating an elastomeric seal or an elastomeric seal and corrosion resistant grip ring. The joint is made with a pressing tool and jaw or ring that complies with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Joint, Soldered. A joint obtained by the joining of metal parts with metallic mixtures or alloys that melt at a temperature up to and including 840°F (449°C).
Joint, Welded. A gastight joint obtained by the joining of metal parts in the plastic molten state.
Labeled. Equipment or materials bearing a label of a listing agency (accredited conformity assessment body). See Listed (third-party certified).
Lavatories in Sets. Two or three lavatories that are served by one trap.
Leader. An exterior vertical drainage pipe for conveying storm water from roof or gutter drains. See Downspout.
Deep Sedation/Analgesia. A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully following repeated or painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. Patients may require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation may be inadequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained. [NFPA 99:]
General Anesthesia. A drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function is often impaired. Patients often require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and positive pressure ventilation may be required because of depressed spontaneous ventilation or drug-induced depression of neuromuscular function. Cardiovascular function may be impaired. [NFPA 99:]
Minimal Sedation (Anxiolysis). A drug induced state during which patients respond normally to verbal commands. Although cognitive function and coordination may be impaired, ventilatory and cardiovascular functions are unaffected. [NFPA 99:]
Moderate Sedation/Analgesia (Conscious Sedation). A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patient airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained. [NFPA 99:]
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas) Facilities. Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas) facilities include tanks, containers, container valves, regulating equipment, meters, appurtenances, or any combination thereof for the storage and supply of liquefied petroleum gas for a building, structure, or premises.
Liquid Waste. The discharge from a fixture, appliance, or appurtenance in connection with a plumbing system that does not receive fecal matter.
Listed (Third-party certified). Equipment or materials included in a list published by a listing agency (accredited conformity assessment body) that maintains periodic inspection of current production of listed equipment or materials and whose listing states either that the equipment or material complies with approved standards or has been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner.
Listing Agency. An agency accredited by an independent and authoritative conformity assessment body to operate a material and product listing and labeling (certification) system and that are accepted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, which is in the business of listing or labeling. The system includes initial and ongoing product testing, a periodic inspection on current production of listed (certified) products, and that makes available a published report of such listing in which specific information is included that the material or product is in accordance with applicable standards and found safe for use in a specific manner.
Lot. A single or individual parcel or area of land legally recorded or validated by other means acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction on which is situated a building or which is the site of any work regulated by this code, together with the yards, courts, and unoccupied spaces legally required for the building or works, and that is owned by or is in the lawful possession of the owner of the building or works.
Macerating Toilet System. A system comprised of a sump with macerating pump and with connections for a water closet and other plumbing fixtures, which is designed to accept, grind and pump wastes to an approved point of discharge.
Main. The principal artery of a system of continuous piping to which branches may be connected.
Main Vent. The principal artery of the venting system to which vent branches may be connected.
May. A permissive term.
Medical Air. For the purposes of this code, medical air is air supplied from cylinders, bulk containers, or medical air compressors, or reconstituted from oxygen USP and oil-free, dry nitrogen NF. [NFPA 99:3.3.96]
Manifold. A device for connecting the outlets of one or more gas cylinders to the central piping system for that specific gas. [NFPA 99:3.3.93]
Medical Gas System. An assembly of equipment and piping for the distribution of nonflammable medical gases such as oxygen, nitrous oxide, compressed air, carbon dioxide, and helium. [NFPA 99:3.3.100]
Medical Support Gas. Nitrogen or instrument air used for any medical support purpose (e.g., to remove excess moisture from instruments before further processing, or to operate medical-surgical tools, air-driven booms, pendants, or similar applications) and, if appropriate to the procedures, used in laboratories and are not respired as part of any treatment. Medical support gas falls under the general requirements for medical gases. [NFPA 99:3.3.101]
Medical-Surgical Vacuum. A method used to provide a source of drainage, aspiration, and suction in order to remove body fluids from patients. [NFPA 99:3.3.102]
Medical-Surgical Vacuum System. An assembly of central vacuum-producing equipment and a network of piping for patient suction in medical, medical-surgical, and waste anesthetic gas disposal (WAGD) applications. [NFPA 99:3.3.103]
Mobile Home Park Sewer. That part of the horizontal piping of a drainage system that begins 2 feet (610 mm) downstream from the last mobile home site and conveys it to a public sewer, private sewer, private sewage disposal system, or other point of disposal.
Mulch. Organic materials, such as wood chips and fines, tree bark chips, and pine needles that are used in a mulch basin to conceal gray water outlets and permit the infiltration of gray water.
Mulch Basin. A subsurface catchment area for gray water that is filled with mulch and of sufficient depth and volume to prevent ponding, surfacing, or runoff.
Nitrogen, NF. Nitrogen complying as a minimum, with nitrogen NF. [NFPA 99:]
Nuisance. Includes, but is not limited to:
  1. A public nuisance known at common law or in equity jurisprudence.
  2. Where work regulated by this code is dangerous to human life or is detrimental to health and property.
  3. Inadequate or unsafe water supply or sewage disposal system.
Offset. A combination of elbows or bends in a line of piping that brings one section of the pipe out of line but into a line parallel with the other section.
On-Site Treated Nonpotable Water. Nonpotable water, including gray water that has been collected, treated, and intended to be used on-site and is suitable for direct beneficial use.
Patient Care Space. Any space of a health care facility wherein patients are intended to be examined or treated. [NFPA 99:3.3.127]
Category 1 Space. Space in which failure of equipment or a system is likely to cause major injury or death of patients, staff, or visitors. [NFPA 99:]
Category 2 Space. Space in which failure of equipment or a system is likely to cause minor injury to patients, staff, or visitors. [NFPA 99:]
Category 3 Space. Space in which the failure of equipment or a system is not likely to cause injury to patients, staff, or visitors but can cause discomfort. [NFPA 99:]
Category 4 Space. Space in which failure of equipment or a system is not likely to have a physical impact on patient care. [NFPA 99:]
Patient Medical Gas. Piped gases such as oxygen, nitrous oxide, helium, carbon dioxide, and medical air that are used in the application of human respiration and the calibration of medical devices used for human respiration. [NFPA 99:3.3.131]
PB. Polybutylene.
PE. Polyethylene.
PE-AL-PE. Polyethylene-aluminum-polyethylene.
PE-RT. Polyethylene of raised temperature.
Penetration Firestop System. A specific assemblage of field-assembled materials, or a factory-made device, which has been tested to a standard test method and, where installed properly on penetrating piping materials, is capable of maintaining the fire-resistance rating of assemblies penetrated.
Person. A natural person, his heirs, executor, administrators, or assigns and shall also include a firm, corporation, municipal or quasi-municipal corporation, or governmental agency. The singular includes the plural, male includes female.
PEX. Cross-linked polyethylene.
PEX-AL-PEX. Cross-linked polyethylene-aluminum-cross-linked polyethylene.
Pipe. A cylindrical conduit or conductor is conforming to the dimensions commonly known as "pipe size."
Plumbing. The business, trade, or work having to do with the installation, removal, alteration, or repair of plumbing systems or parts thereof.
Plumbing Appliance. A special class of device or equipment that is intended to perform a special plumbing function. Its operation, control, or both may be dependent upon one or more energized components, such as motors, controls, heating elements, or pressure- or temperature-sensing elements. Such device or equipment may operate automatically through one or more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature range, a pressure range, a measured volume or weight; or the device or equipment may be manually adjusted or controlled by the user or operator.
Plumbing Appurtenance. A manufactured device, a prefabricated assembly, or an on-the-job assembly of component parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no additional water supply, nor does it add a discharge load to a fixture or the drainage system. It performs some useful function in the operation, maintenance, servicing, economy, or safety of the plumbing system.
Plumbing Fixture. An approved type installed receptacle, device or appliance that is supplied with water or that receives liquid or liquid-borne wastes and discharges such wastes into the drainage system to which it may be directly or indirectly connected. Industrial or commercial tanks, vats, and similar processing equipment are not plumbing fixtures, but may be connected to or discharged into approved traps or plumbing fixtures where and as otherwise provided for elsewhere in this code.
Plumbing System. Includes all potable water, alternate water sources, building supply, and distribution pipes; all plumbing fixtures and traps; all drainage and vent pipes; and all building drains and building sewers, including their respective joints and connections, devices, receptors, and appurtenances within the property lines of the premises and shall include potable water piping, potable water treating or using equipment, medical gas and medical vacuum systems, liquid and fuel gas piping, and water heaters and vents for same.
Plumbing Vent. A pipe provided to ventilate a plumbing system, to prevent trap siphonage and backpressure, or to equalize the air pressure within the drainage system.
Plumbing Vent System. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system or to provide a circulation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and backpressure.
Pollution. An impairment of the quality of the potable water to the degree that does not create a hazard to the public health but which does adversely and unreasonably affect the aesthetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use. Also, defined as "Low Hazard."
Potable Water. Water that is satisfactory for drinking, culinary, and domestic purposes and that meets the requirements of the Health Authority Having Jurisdiction.
PP. Polypropylene.
Pressure. The normal force exerted by a homogeneous liquid or gas, per unit of area, on the wall of the container.
Residual Pressure. The pressure available at the fixture or water outlet after allowance is made for pressure drop due to friction loss, head, meter, and other losses in the system during maximum demand periods.
Static Pressure. The pressure is existing without any flow.
Pressure-Balancing Valve. A mixing valve that senses incoming hot and cold water pressures and compensates for fluctuations in either to stabilize outlet temperature.
Pressure-Lock-Type Connection. A mechanical connection that depends on an internal retention device to prevent pipe or tubing separation. The connection is made by inserting the pipe or tubing into the fitting to a prescribed depth.
Private or Private Use. Applies to plumbing fixtures in residences and apartments, to private bathrooms in hotels and hospitals, and to restrooms in commercial establishments where the fixtures are intended for the use of a family or an individual.
Private Sewage Disposal System. A septic tank with the effluent discharging into a subsurface disposal field, into one or more seepage pits, or into a combination of subsurface disposal field and seepage pit or of such other facilities as may be permitted under the procedures set forth elsewhere in this code.
Private Sewer. A building sewer that receives the discharge from more than one building drain and conveys it to a public sewer, private sewage disposal system, or another point of disposal.
Proportioning System for Medical Air USP. A central supply that produces medical air (USP) reconstituted from oxygen USP and nitrogen NF by means of a mixer or blender. [NFPA 99:]
Public Sewer. A common sewer directly controlled by public authority.
Push Fit Fitting. A mechanical fitting where the connection is assembled by pushing the tube or pipe into the fitting and is sealed with an o-ring.
PVC. Polyvinyl Chloride.
PVDF. Polyvinylidene Fluoride.
Quick-Disconnect Device. A hand-operated device that provides a means for connecting and disconnecting a hose to a water supply, and that is equipped with a means to shut off the water supply when the device is disconnected.
Quick-Disconnect Device (Fuel Gas). A hand-operated device that provides a means for connecting and disconnecting an appliance or an appliance connector to a gas supply, and that is equipped with an automatic means to shut off the gas supply when the device is disconnected. [NFPA 54:]
Rainwater. Natural precipitation that has not been contaminated by use.
Rainwater Catchment System. A system that utilizes the principal of collecting, storing, and using rainwater from a rooftop or other manmade, aboveground collection surface. Also, known as a rainwater harvesting system.
Rainwater Storage Tank. The central component of the rainwater catchment system. Also, known as a cistern or rain barrel.
Receptor. An approved plumbing fixture or device of such material, shape, and capacity as to adequately receive the discharge from indirect waste pipes, so constructed and located as to be readily cleaned.
Reclaimed Water. Nonpotable water provided by a water/wastewater utility that, as a result of tertiary treatment of domestic wastewater, meets requirements of the public health Authority Having Jurisdiction for its intended uses.
Registered Design Professional. An individual who is registered or licensed by the laws of the state to perform such design work in the jurisdiction.
Regulating Equipment. Includes valves and controls used in a plumbing system that is required to be accessible or readily accessible.
Relief Vent. A vent, the primary function of which is to provide circulation of air between drainage and vent systems or to act as an auxiliary vent on a specially designed system.
Remote Outlet. Where used for sizing water piping, it is the furthest outlet dimension, measuring from the meter, either the developed length of the cold-water piping or through the water heater to the furthest outlet on the hot-water piping.
Rim. See Flood-Level Rim.
Riser. A water supply pipe that extends vertically one full story or more to convey water to branches or fixtures.
Roof Drain. A drain installed to receive water collecting on the surface of a roof and to discharge it into a leader, downspout, or conductor.
Roof Washer. A device or method for removal of sediment and debris from a collection surface by diverting initial rainfall from entry into the cistern(s). Also, known as a first flush device.
Roughing-ln. The installation of all parts of the plumbing system that can be completed prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, water supply, gas piping, vent piping, and the necessary fixture supports.
Scavenging. Evacuation of exhaled mixtures of oxygen and nitrous oxide. [NFPA 99:3.3.147]
Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). Volumetric flow rate of gas in units of standard cubic feet per minute. [NFPA 99:3.3.156]
SDR. An abbreviation for "standard dimensional ratio," which is the specific ratio of the average specified outside diameter to the minimum wall thickness for outside controlled diameter plastic pipe.
Seepage Pit. A lined excavation in the ground which receives the discharge of a septic tank so designed as to permit the effluent from the septic tank to seep through its bottom and sides.
Septic Tank. A watertight receptacle that receives the discharge of a drainage system or part thereof, designed and constructed so as to retain solids, digest organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of open joint piping or a seepage pit meeting the requirements of this code.
Service Piping. The piping and equipment between the street gas main and the gas piping system inlet that is installed by, and is under the control and maintenance of, the serving gas supplier.
Sewage. Liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution and that may include liquids containing chemicals in solution.
Sewage Ejector. A device for lifting sewage by entraining it on a high-velocity jet stream, air, or water.
Sewage Pump. A permanently installed mechanical device, other than an ejector, for removing sewage or liquid waste from a sump.
Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement.
Shielded Coupling. An approved elastomeric sealing gasket with an approved outer shield and a tightening mechanism.
Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is advised but not required.
Single-Family Dwelling. A building designed to be used as a home by the owner of such building, which shall be the only dwelling located on a parcel of ground with the usual accessory buildings.
Slip Joint. An adjustable tubing connection, consisting of a compression nut, a friction ring, and a compression washer, designed to fit a threaded adapter fitting or a standard taper pipe thread.
Slope. See Grade.
Soil Pipe. A pipe that conveys the discharge of water closets, urinals, clinical sinks, or fixtures having similar functions of collection and removal of domestic sewage, with or without the discharge from other fixtures to the building drain or building sewer.
Special Wastes. Wastes that require some special method of handling, such as the use of indirect waste piping and receptors, corrosion-resistant piping, sand, oil or grease interceptors, condensers, or other pretreatment facilities.
Stack. The vertical main of a system of soil, waste, or vent piping extending through one or more stories.
Stack Vent. The extension of soil or waste stacks above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack.
Standard. A document, the main text of which contains only mandatory provisions using the word "shall" to indicate requirements and which is in a form generally suitable for mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adoption into law. Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an appendix, footnote, or fine print note and are not to be considered a part of the requirements of a standard.
Station Inlet. An inlet point in a piped medical/surgical vacuum distribution system at which the user makes connections and disconnections. [NFPA 99:3.3.157]
Station Outlet. An outlet point in a piped medical gas distribution system at which the user makes connections and disconnections. [NFPA 99:3.3.158]
Sterilizer. A piece of equipment that disinfects instruments and equipment by way of heat.
Storm Sewer. A sewer used for conveying rainwater, surface water, condensate, cooling water, or similar liquid wastes.
Subsoil Drain. A drain that collects subsurface or seepage water and conveys it to a place of disposal.
Subsoil Irrigation Field. Gray water irrigation field installed in a trench within the layer of soil below the topsoil. This system is typically used for irrigation of deep rooted plants.
Subsurface Irrigation Field. Gray water irrigation field installed below finished grade within the topsoil.
Sump. An approved tank or pit that receives sewage or liquid waste and which is located below the normal grade of the gravity system and which must be emptied by mechanical means.
Supports. Supports, hangers, and anchors are devices for properly supporting and securing pipe, fixtures, and equipment.
Surge Tank. A reservoir to modify the fluctuation in flow rates to allow for uniform distribution of gray water to the points of irrigation.
T Rating. The time period that the penetration firestop system, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum temperature rise of 325°F (181°C) above its initial temperature through the penetration on the nonfire side, where tested in accordance with ASTM E814 or UL 1479.
Tailpiece. The pipe or tubing that connects the outlet of a plumbing fixture to a trap.
Thermostatic (Temperature Control) Valve. A mixing valve that senses outlet temperature and compensates for fluctuations in incoming hot or cold water temperatures.
Toilet Facility. A room or space containing not less than one lavatory and one water closet.
Transition Gas Riser. A listed or approved section or sections of pipe and fittings used to convey fuel gas and installed in a gas piping system to provide a transition from belowground to aboveground.
Trap. A fitting or device so designed and constructed as to provide, where properly vented, a liquid seal that will prevent the back passage of air without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through it.
Trap Arm. Those portions of a fixture drain between a trap and the vent.
Trap Primer. A device and system of piping that maintains a water seal in a remote trap.
Trap Seal. The vertical distance between the crown weir and the top dip of the trap.
Crown Weir (Trap Weir). The lowest point in the cross-section of the horizontal waterway at the exit of the trap.
Top Dip (of the trap). The highest point in the internal cross-section of the trap at the lowest part of the bend (inverted siphon). By contrast, the bottom dip is the lowest point in the internal cross-section.
Urinal, Hybrid. A urinal that conveys waste into the drainage system without the use of water for flushing and automatically performs a drain-cleansing action after a predetermined amount of time.
Vacuum. A pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere.
Vacuum Relief Valve. A device that prevents excessive vacuum in a pressure vessel.
Vacuum System-Level 1. A system consisting of central vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and operating controls, shutoff valves, alarm warning systems, gauges, and a network of piping extending to and terminating with suitable station inlets at locations where patient suction could be required.
Valve, Isolation. A valve that isolates one piece of equipment from another.
Valve, Pressure-Relief. A pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means and designed automatically to relieve pressure in excess of its setting.
Valve, Riser. A valve at the base of a vertical riser that isolates that riser.
Valve, Service. A valve is serving horizontal piping extending from a riser to a station outlet or inlet.
Valve, Source. A single valve at the source that controls a number of units that makes up the source.
Valve, Zone. A valve that controls the gas or vacuum to a particular area.
Vent Connector, Gas. That portion of a gas venting system that connects a listed gas appliance to a gas vent and is installed within the space or area in which the appliance is located.
Vent Offset. An arrangement of two or more fittings and pipe installed for the purpose of locating a vertical section of the vent pipe in a different but parallel plane with respect to an adjacent section of a vertical vent pipe. [NFPA 54:3.3.102]
Vent Stack. The vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of the drainage system.
Vented Flow Control Device. A device installed upstream from the hydromechanical grease interceptor having an orifice that controls the rate of flow through the interceptor, and an air intake (vent) downstream from the orifice, which allows air to be drawn into the flow stream.
Venting System. A continuous open passageway from the flue collar or draft hood of an appliance to the outdoors for the purpose of removing flue or vent gases. [NFPA 54:]
Vent, Gases. A listed factory-made vent pipe and vent fittings for conveying flue gases to the outdoors.
Type B Gas Vent. A factory-made gas vent listed by a nationally recognized testing agency for venting listed or approved appliances equipped to burn only gas.
Type BW Gas Vent. A factory-made gas vent listed by a nationally recognized testing agency for venting listed or approved gas-fired vented wall furnaces.
Type L Gas Vent. A venting system consisting of listed vent piping and fittings for use with oil-burning appliances listed for use with Type L or with listed gas appliances.
Vertical Pipe. A pipe or fitting that is installed in a vertical position or that makes an angle of not more than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the vertical.
Wall-Hung Water Closet. A water closet installed in such a way that no part of the water closet touches the floor.
Waste Pipe. A pipe that conveys only liquid waste, free of fecal matter.
Water-Conditioning or Treating Device. A device that conditions or treats a water supply to change its chemical content or remove suspended solids by filtration.
Water Distribution Pipe. In a building or premises, a pipe that conveys potable water from the building supply pipe to the plumbing fixtures and other water outlets.
Water Hammer Arrester. A device designed to provide protection against hydraulic shock in the building water supply system.
Water Heater or Hot Water Heating Boiler. An appliance designed primarily to supply hot water for domestic or commercial purposes and equipped with automatic controls limiting water temperature to a maximum of 210°F (99°C).
Water Main (Street Main). A water supply pipe for public or community use.
Water Supply System. The building supply pipe, the water distribution pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves, backflow prevention devices, and all appurtenances carrying or supplying potable water in or adjacent to the building or premises.
Water/Wastewater Utility. A public or private entity which may treat, deliver or do both functions to reclaimed (recycled) water, potable water, or both to wholesale or retail customers.
Welder, Pipe. A person who specializes in the welding of pipes and holds a valid certificate of competency from a recognized testing laboratory, based on the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels code, Section IX.
Wet Procedure Locations. The area in a patient care space where a procedure is performed that is normally subject to wet conditions while patients are present, including standing fluids on the floor or drenching of the work area, either of which condition is intimate to the patient or staff. [NFPA 99:3.3.171]
Wet Vent. A vent that also serves as a drain.
Whirlpool Bathtub. A bathtub fixture equipped and fitted with a circulating piping system designed to accept, circulate, and discharge bathtub water upon each use.
Yoke Vent. A pipe connecting upward from soil or waste stack to a vent stack to prevent pressure changes in the stacks.