The provisions of Sections 3102.1 through 3102.8 shall apply to air-supported, air-inflated, membrane-covered cable and membrane-covered frame structures, collectively known as membrane structures, erected for a period of 180 days or longer. Those erected for a shorter period of time shall comply with the International Fire Code. Membrane structures covering water storage facilities, water clarifiers, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, greenhouses and similar facilities not used for human occupancy are required to meet only the requirements of Sections 3102.3.1 and 3102.7. Membrane structures erected on a building, balcony, deck or other structure for any period of time shall comply with this section.
Noncombustible membrane structures shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Noncombustible frame or cable-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Heavy timber frame-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IV construction. Other membrane structures shall be classified as Type V construction.
Exception: Plastic less than 30 feet (9144 mm) above any floor used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701.
Membranes and interior liners shall be either noncombustible as set forth in Section 703.5 or meet the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 and the manufacturer's test protocol.
Exception: Plastic less than 20 mil (0.5 mm) in thickness used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701.
Membrane structures shall be permitted to be utilized as specified in this section as a portion of buildings of other types of construction. Height and area limits shall be as specified for the type of construction and occupancy of the building.
A noncombustible membrane shall be permitted for use as the roof or as a skylight of any building or atrium of a building of any type of construction provided it is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
A membrane meeting the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall be permitted to be used as the roof or as a skylight on buildings of Types IIB, III, IV and V construction, provided it is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
This inflation system shall consist of one or more blowers and shall include provisions for automatic control to maintain the required inflation pressures. The system shall be so designed as to prevent overpressurization of the system.
In addition to the primary inflation system, in buildings larger than 1,500 square feet (140 m2) in area, an auxiliary inflation system shall be provided with sufficient capacity to maintain the inflation of the structure in case of primary system failure. The auxiliary inflation system shall operate automatically when there is a loss of internal pressure and when the primary blower system becomes inoperative.
Blower equipment shall meet all of the following requirements:
1. Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at the maximum power required for any flow condition as required by the structural design.
2. Blowers shall be provided with inlet screens, belt guards and other protective devices as required by the building official to provide protection from injury.
3. Blowers shall be housed within a weather-protecting structure.
4. Blowers shall be equipped with backdraft check dampers to minimize air loss when inoperative.
5. Blower inlets shall be located to provide protection from air contamination. The location of inlets shall be approved.
Wherever an auxiliary inflation system is required, an approved standby power-generating system shall be provided. The system shall be equipped with a suitable means for automatically starting the generator set upon failure of the normal electrical service and for automatic transfer and operation of all of the required electrical functions at full power within 60 seconds of such service failure. Standby power shall be capable of operating independently for not less than 4 hours.
A system capable of supporting the membrane in the event of deflation shall be provided for in air-supported and air-inflated structures having an occupant load of 50 or more or where covering a swimming pool regardless of occupant load. The support system shall be capable of maintaining membrane structures used as a roof for Type I construction not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above floor or seating areas. The support system shall be capable of maintaining other membranes not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the floor, seating area or surface of the water.
The provisions of Sections 3103.1 through 3103.4 shall apply to structures erected for a period of less than 180 days. Tents and other membrane structures erected for a period of less than 180 days shall comply with the International Fire Code. Those erected for a longer period of time shall comply with applicable sections of this code.
Temporary structures that cover an area greater than 120 square feet (11.16 m2), including connecting areas or spaces with a common means of egress or entrance which are used or intended to be used for the gathering together of 10 or more persons, shall not be erected, operated or maintained for any purpose without obtaining a permit from the building official.
This section shall apply to connections between buildings such as pedestrian walkways or tunnels, located at, above or below grade level, that are used as a means of travel by persons. The pedestrian walkway shall not contribute to the building area or the number of stories or height of connected buildings.
Connected buildings shall be considered to be separate structures.
1. Buildings on the same lot in accordance with Section 503.1.2 shall be considered a single structure.
The pedestrian walkway shall be of noncombustible construction.
1. Combustible construction shall be permitted where connected buildings are of combustible construction.
Only materials and decorations approved by the building official shall be located in the pedestrian walkway.
Walkways shall be separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. This protection shall extend vertically from a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the walkway roof surface or the connected building roof line, whichever is lower, down to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) below the walkway and horizontally 10 feet (3048 mm) from each side of the pedestrian walkway. Openings within the l0-foot (3048 mm) horizontal extension of the protected walls beyond the walkway shall be equipped with devices providing a 3/4-hour fire protection rating in accordance with Section 715.
Exception: The walls separating the pedestrian walkway from a connected building and the openings within the 10- foot (3048 mm) horizontal extension of the protected walls beyond the walkway are not required to have a fire-resistance rating by this section where any of the following conditions exist:
1. The distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm). The pedestrian walkway and connected buildings, except for open parking garages, are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The wall is capable of resisting the passage of smoke or is constructed of a tempered, wired or laminated glass wall and doors subject to the following:
1.1. The wall or glass separating the interior of the building from the pedestrian walkway shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the sprinkler system shall completely wet the entire surface of interior sides of the wall or glass when actuated;
1.2. The glass shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler operates; and
1.3. Obstructions shall not be installed between the sprinkler heads and the wall or glass.
2. The distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) and both sidewalls of the pedestrian walkway are not less than 50 percent open with the open area uniformly distributed to prevent the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases.
3. Buildings are on the same lot in accordance with Section 503.1.2.
4. Where exterior walls of connected buildings are required by Section 705 to have a fire-resistance rating greater than 2 hours, the walkway shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
The unobstructed width of pedestrian walkways shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm). The total width shall be not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm).
The length of exit access travel shall be 200 feet (60 960 mm) or less.
1. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be 250 feet (76 200 mm) or less.
2. Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway constructed with both sides not less than 50 percent open shall be 300 feet (91 440 mm) or less.
Separation between the tunneled walkway and the building to which it is connected shall be not less than 2-hour fire-resistant construction and openings therein shall be protected in accordance with Table 716.5.
Awnings and canopies shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind or other lateral loads and live loads as required by Chapter 16 with due allowance for shape, open construction and similar features that relieve the pressures or loads. Structural members shall be protected to prevent deterioration. Awnings shall have frames of noncombustible material, fire-retardant-treated wood, wood of Type IV size, or 1-hour construction with combustible or noncombustible covers and shall be either fixed, retractable, folding or collapsible.
The height or thickness of a marquee measured vertically from its lowest to its highest point shall be not greater than 3 feet (914 mm) where the marquee projects more than two-thirds of the distance from the lot line to the curb line, and shall be not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) where the marquee is less than two-thirds of the distance from the lot line to the curb line.
Signs shall be designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with this code.
Towers shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of TIA-222. Towers shall be designed for seismic loads; exceptions related to seismic design listed in Section 2.7.3 of TIA-222 shall not apply. In Section 220.127.116.11 of TIA 222, the horizontal extent of Topographic Category 2, escarpments, shall be 16 times the height of the escarpment.
Exception: Single free-standing poles used to support antennas not greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm), measured from the top of the pole to grade, shall not be required to be noncombustible.
Towers shall be located such that guy wires and other accessories shall not cross or encroach upon any street or other public space, or over above-ground electric utility lines, or encroach upon any privately owned property without the written consent of the owner of the encroached-upon property, space or above-ground electric utility lines. Towers shall be equipped with climbing and working facilities in compliance with TIA-222. Access to the tower sites shall be limited as required by applicable OSHA, FCC and EPA regulations.
Public swimming pools shall be completely enclosed by a fence not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) in height or a screen enclosure. Openings in the fence shall not permit the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere. The fence or screen enclosure shall be equipped with self-closing and self-latching gates.
The top of the barrier shall be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above grade measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the swimming pool. The vertical clearance between grade and the bottom of the barrier shall be not greater than 2 inches (51 mm) measured on the side of the barrier that faces away from the swimming pool. Where the top of the pool structure is above grade, the barrier is authorized to be at ground level or mounted on top of the pool structure, and the vertical clearance between the top of the pool structure and the bottom of the barrier shall be not greater than 4 inches (102 mm).
Openings in the barrier shall not allow passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere.
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is less than 45 inches (1143 mm), the horizontal members shall be located on the swimming pool side of the fence. Spacing between vertical members shall be not greater than 13/4 inches (44 mm) in width. Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall be not greater than 13/4 inches (44 mm) in width.
Where the barrier is composed of horizontal and vertical members and the distance between the tops of the horizontal members is 45 inches (1143 mm) or more, spacing between vertical members shall be not greater than 4 inches (102 mm). Where there are decorative cutouts within vertical members, spacing within the cutouts shall be not greater than 13/4 inches (44 mm) in width.
Mesh size for chain link fences shall be not greater than a 21/4 inch square (57 mm square) unless the fence is provided with slats fastened at the top or the bottom which reduce the openings to not more than 13/4 inches (44 mm).
Where the barrier is composed of diagonal members, the opening formed by the diagonal members shall be not greater than 13/4 inches (44 mm).
Access doors or gates shall comply with the requirements of Sections 318.104.22.168 through 322.214.171.124 and shall be equipped to accommodate a locking device. Pedestrian access doors or gates shall open outward away from the pool and shall be self-closing and have a self-latching device. Doors or gates other than pedestrian access doors or gates shall have a self-latching device. Release mechanisms shall be in accordance with Sections 1008.1.9 and 1109.13. Where the release mechanism of the self-latching device is located less than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the bottom of the door or gate, the release mechanism shall be located on the pool side of the door or gate 3 inches (76 mm) or more, below the top of the door or gate, and the door or gate and barrier shall be without openings greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) within 18 inches (457 mm) of the release mechanism.
Where a wall of a dwelling serves as part of the barrier, one of the following shall apply:
1. Doors with direct access to the pool through that wall shall be equipped with an alarm that produces an audible warning when the door and/or its screen, if present, are opened. The alarm shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2017. In dwellings not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the deactivation switch shall be located 54 inches (1372 mm) or more above the threshold of the door. In dwellings required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the deactivation switch shall be located not higher than 54 inches (1372 mm) and not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) above the threshold of the door.
2. The pool shall be equipped with a power safety cover that complies with ASTM F 1346.
3. Other means of protection, such as self-closing doors with self-latching devices, which are approved, shall be accepted so long as the degree of protection afforded is not less than the protection afforded by Section 3126.96.36.199, Item 1 or 2.
Where an aboveground pool structure is used as a barrier or where the barrier is mounted on top of the pool structure, and the means of access is a ladder or steps, then the ladder or steps either shall be capable of being secured, locked or removed to prevent access, or the ladder or steps shall be surrounded by a barrier which meets the requirements of Sections 3188.8.131.52 through 3184.108.40.206. Where the ladder or steps are secured, locked or removed, any opening created shall not allow the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere.
Barriers shall be located so as to prohibit permanent structures, equipment or similar objects from being used to climb the barriers.
Suction outlets shall be designed and installed in accordance with ANSI/APSP-7.
Vehicular gates intended for automation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F 2200.
Vehicular gate openers, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.