Part 1 General

Part 2 Common Elements for Residential Health, Care, and Support Facilities

Part 3 Residential Health Facilities

Part 4 Residential Care and Support Facilities

Part 5 Non-Residential Support Facilities

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Appendix material, shown in shaded boxes at the bottom of the page, is advisory only.
The provisions of this chapter shall apply to all new construction and renovation of residential health, care, and support facilities.
A1.1-1.1 Application. This document covers residential health, care, and support facilities common to communities in the United States. Facilities with unique services will require special consideration. However, sections herein may be applicable for parts of any facility and may be used where appropriate.
A1.1-1.2 Performance vs. prescriptive standards. The minimum standards in the Guidelines for Residential Health, Care, and Support Care Facilities have been established to obtain a desired performance result. Prescriptive limitations (such as exact minimum dimensions or quantities), when given, describe a condition that is commonly recognized as a practical standard for normal operation. For example, referencing a room or area by the resident, participant, or outpatient; equipment; or staff activity that identifies its use avoids the need for complex descriptions of procedures for appropriate functional programming.
Each chapter in this document contains information intended as minimum standards for design and construction of new, and for major renovation of existing, residential health, care, and support facilities.
Standards set forth in the Guidelines for Design and Construction of Residential Health, Care, and Support Facilities shall be considered minimum and do not prohibit designing facilities and systems that exceed these requirements where desired by the governing body of the health, care, or support facility.
A1.1-1.2.2 The Guidelines text is not intended to restrict innovation and improvement in design or construction techniques. Accordingly, authorities adopting these standards as code may approve plans and specifications that contain deviations if they determine the applicable intent or objective of the standards has been met. For more information, see sections 1.1-3.1.2 (Exceptions) and 1.1-6 (Equivalency Concepts). Final implementation of Guidelines requirements may be subject to decisions of the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).
Projects with any of the following scopes of work shall be considered new construction and shall comply with the requirements in the Guidelines for Design and Construction of Residential Health, Care, and Support Facilities:
Site preparation for and construction of entirely new structures and systems
Structural additions to existing facilities that result in an increase of occupied floor area
Major change in function in an existing space
Where renovation or replacement work is done in an existing facility, all new work or additions or both shall comply with applicable sections of the Guidelines for Residential Facilities and local, state, and federal codes.
Projects with either of the following scopes of work shall be considered a major renovation and shall comply with the requirements for new construction in the Guidelines for Residential Facilities to the extent possible as determined by the applicable authority having jurisdiction:
  1. A series of planned changes and updates to the physical plant of an existing facility
  2. A renovation project that includes modification of an entire building or an entire area in a building to accommodate a new use or occupancy
When a building is converted from one occupancy type to another, it shall comply with the new construction requirements.
  1. Only the altered, renovated, or modernized portion of an existing building system or individual component shall be required to meet the installation and equipment requirements in the Guidelines.
  2. When such construction impairs the performance of the balance of an affected building system, upgrades to that system shall be required beyond the limits of the project to the extent required to maintain existing operational performance.
A1.1-3.1.2 Nonconforming conditions. When renovating or expanding existing facilities, it is not always practical or financially reasonable to renovate or upgrade an entire existing facility so it totally conforms to requirements in the Guidelines. Therefore, authorities having jurisdiction are permitted to grant approval to renovate portions of a structure, space, or system if facility operations and resident safety in renovated and existing areas are not jeopardized by existing features of areas retained without complete corrective measures.
This recommendation does not guarantee an AHJ will grant an exception, but attempts to minimize restrictions on those improvements where total compliance would create an unreasonable hardship and would not substantially improve safety.
Where major structural elements make total compliance impractical or impossible, exceptions shall be considered.
The following exceptions to the requirements in Section 1.1-3.1.1 (Compliance Requirements) shall be permitted provided they do not reduce the level of health and safety in an existing facility.
  1. Routine repairs and maintenance to buildings, systems, or equipment shall not require improvements to building features or systems.
  2. Replacement of building furnishings and movable or fixed equipment shall only require improvements to building systems that serve that equipment and only to the extent necessary to provide sufficient capacity for the replacement.
  3. Minor changes to the configuration of an existing space shall not require upgrade of the entire space.
  4. Cosmetic changes or upgrades to an existing space shall not require upgrade of the entire space.
  5. Improvements to a building system or a space that cannot reasonably meet the requirements of this document shall be permitted provided the improvement does not impair other systems or functions of the building.
  6. Existing systems that are not in strict compliance with the provisions of this document shall be permitted to continue in use, unless the AHJ has determined that such use constitutes a distinct hazard to life.
  7. Replacement of mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection equipment and infrastructure for maintenance purposes due to the failure or degraded performance of the components being replaced shall be permitted provided the health and safety in the facility is maintained at existing levels.
These standards shall not be construed as prohibiting a single phase of improvement.
A.1.1-3.1.3 Phased projects. As an example, a facility may plan to replace a flammable ceiling with noncombustible material but lack funds to do other corrective work. However, the Guidelines standards are not intended as encouragement to ignore deficiencies when resources are available to correct life-threatening problems. See Section 1.1-6 (Equivalency Concepts).
When parts of an existing facility essential to continued overall facility operation cannot comply with particular standards during a renovation project, a temporary waiver of those standards shall be permitted as determined by the authority having jurisdiction if resident, participant, or outpatient health and safety will not be jeopardized as a result.
In renovation projects and additions to existing facilities, only that portion of the total facility affected by the project shall be required to comply with applicable sections of the Residential Guidelines.
Existing portions of the facility and associated building systems that are not included in a renovation project but are essential to the functionality or code compliance of the renovated spaces shall, at minimum, comply with the applicable occupancy chapter of NFPA 101: Life Safety Code.
A1.1-3.2.2 When construction is complete, the facility should satisfy functional requirements for its classification (e.g., nursing home, hospice, assisted living, independent living) in an environment that will provide acceptable care, safety, and quality of life to all occupants.
Renovations, including new additions, shall not diminish the safety level that existed prior to the start of the work. However, a safety level that exceeds that required for new facilities is not required for the renovation.
Nothing in the Guidelines shall be construed as placing restrictions on a facility that chooses to do work or alterations as part of a phased long-range safety improvement plan.
All hazards to life and safety and all areas of noncompliance with applicable codes and regulations shall be corrected as soon as possible in accordance with a plan of correction.
Flexibility in applying general accessibility standards shall be permitted to address considerations for transfer assistance.
A1.1-4.1 Design standards for accessibility
  1. Users of residential health, care, and support facilities often have very different accessibility needs than the typical adult with disabilities addressed by federal model standards and guidelines that focus on design for the disabled. Long-term care facility residents, especially elderly residents, due to their stature, reach, and strength characteristics, typically require the assistance of caregivers during transfer maneuvers. Many prescriptive requirements of model accessibility standards place these persons and their caregivers at greater risk of injury than would noncompliance. Thus, flexibility is needed in applying model guidelines to support many residents' need for transfer assistance.
  2. Federal accessibility standards. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which became law in 1990, extends comprehensive civil rights protection to individuals with disabilities. Under Titles II and III of the ADA, health care facilities are required to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act Standards for Accessible Design for alterations and new construction. The Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) also provides criteria for accessible design.
    Individual federal agencies provide direction on applicable criteria to be used in the design of federal facilities.
  3. State and local accessibility standards. Many state and local jurisdictions have adopted ICC A117.1: Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, which may be used to provide quality design for the disabled. However, some state and local standards for accessibility and usability are more stringent than ADA, UFAS, or ICC A117.1. Designers and owners, therefore, are responsible for adherence to all applicable requirements.
A1.1-4.2 Seismic standards. The seismic provisions in ASCE/SEI 7: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures are based on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) provisions developed by the National Institute of Building Science's Building Seismic Safety Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The following seismic standards are essentially equivalent to the ASCE/SEI 7 provisions:
  1. NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures
  2. International Building Code
A1.1-4.3 Flood protection. When designing for flood protection, providers and designers should be aware of the possibility that applicable tables, charts, and standards may be outdated or under review, due to climatic changes and other factors that affect the potential for flooding and storm surges. They should also be familiar with Executive Order 11988: Flood Protection, issued May 24, 1977, to minimize financial loss from flood damage to facilities constructed with federal assistance.
A1.1-4.4 HIPAA. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) became law in 1996. HIPAA consists of three major parts: the Privacy Rule, Transaction and Code Sets, and the Security Rule. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued the Privacy Rule to implement the requirement of HIPAA. In HHS, the Office of Civil Rights has responsibility for enforcement of the HIPAA regulations. HHS may provide direction and clarification on the Privacy Rule and Security Rule.
HIPAA does not preempt or override laws that grant individuals even greater privacy protection. Additionally, covered entities are free to retain or adopt more protective policies or practices.
Ultimately, designers and owners are responsible for developing policies and procedures to verify that all applicable requirements that appropriately limit access to personal health information are being met without sacrificing the quality of care.
A.1.1-4.5.1 Federal environmental regulations. The principal federal environmental statutes likely to be applied to residential health, care, and support facilities include the following:
  1. Clean Air Act (CAA)
  2. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
  3. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
  4. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
  5. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
  6. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
  7. Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA)
A.1.1-4.5.2 State and local environmental regulations. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional offices as well as other federal, state, or local AHJs can provide information on state and local regulations pertaining to environmental pollution— including management of trash, noise, and traffic—that may affect the design, construction, or operation of residential health, care, and support facilities.
Every residential health, care, and support facility shall provide and maintain a safe environment for residents, participants, outpatients, personnel, and the public.
A1.1-5.2 References made in the Guidelines to appropriate model codes and standards do not, generally, duplicate wording of the referenced codes. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards are the basic standards of reference, but other codes and/or standards may be included as part of the Guidelines. See Section 1.1-8 (Codes, Standards, and Other Documents Referenced in the Guidelines).
In the absence of state or local requirements, the project shall comply with approved nationally recognized building codes except as modified in the latest edition of NFPA 101: Life Safety Code and/or herein.
Code material referred to in the Guidelines is contained in the edition of the referenced code current when this edition of the Guidelines was published.
A.1.1-5.2.2 The latest revision of code material is usually a clarification of intent and/or a general improvement in safety concepts and may be used as an explanatory document for earlier editions of a code.
Questions of applicability should be addressed as the need occurs. The version of a code adopted by a jurisdiction may differ from the latest version. Confirm the version adopted for use in a specific location with the AHJ.
A.1.1-6 Equivalency concepts. When considering equivalency allowances, the AHJ may consult a variety of expert sources and may document the reasons for approval or denial of equivalency to the requester.
Extraordinary circumstances, new programs, or unusual conditions may lead the AHJ to approve methods, procedures, design criteria, and functional variations other than those that appear in the Guidelines for Design and Construction of Residential Health, Care, and Support Facilities when the facility can effectively demonstrate that the intent of the Guidelines is met and the variation does not reduce the safety, operational effectiveness, or resident quality of life below that required by the exact language of the Guidelines.
In all cases where specific limits are described, equivalent solutions will be acceptable if the AHJ approves them as meeting the intent of the Guidelines.
Although the Guidelines is adopted as a regulatory standard by many jurisdictions, it is the intent of the document to permit and promote equivalency concepts.
Nothing in this document shall be construed as restricting innovations that provide an equivalent level of performance with these standards provided that no other safety element or system is compromised to establish equivalency.
Where measurements are given in this document, the English units shall constitute the basic requirement. Approximately equivalent metric units are provided in parentheses after the English units.
Either method shall be consistently used throughout a given project design.
Listed in this section are codes and standards that have been referenced in whole or in part in the various sections of this document and documents from which Guidelines concepts have been adopted.
Users of the Guidelines are encouraged to consult these publications for further information as may be necessary to achieve the final product. The editions cited are those available at the time of publication. Later editions will normally be acceptable where requirements for function and safety are not reduced; however, editions of different dates may have portions renumbered or retitled. Care must be taken to ensure that appropriate sections are used.
U.S. Access Board (
ADA Standards for Accessible Design (
Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) (
Acoustics Research Council, Acoustics Working Group (
"Sound & Vibration Design for Health Care Facilities" (2010) (
Air Force Civil Engineer Center (
"Air Force Services Facilities Design Guide, Design: Fitness Centers" (2011) (
American Institute of Architects (
Moore, Keith Diaz. "Design Guidelines for Adult Day Services" in AIA Report on University Research 2005.
American National Standards Institute (
ANSI S1.1: Acoustical Terminology (2013)
ANSI/ASA S2.71: Guide to the Evaluation of Human Exposure to Vibration in Buildings (2012)
ANSI/ASA S3.5 (R2012): Methods for Calculation of the Speech Intelligibility Index (1997)
American Society of Civil Engineers (
ASCE/SEI 7: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Associated Criteria and Other Structures (2016)
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (
ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications (2015)
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy (2013)
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1: Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (2016)
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2: Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings (2016)
ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (2016)
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 90.2: Energy-Efficient Design of Low-Rise Residential Buildings (2007)
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 154: Ventilation for Commercial Cooking Operations (2016)
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 188: Legionellosis: Risk Management for Building Water Systems (2015)
ANSI/ASHRAE/IES/USGBC 189.1: Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (2014)
ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE Standard 189.3: Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable High-Performance Health Care Facilities (2017)
Humidity Control Design Guide for Commercial and Institutional Buildings (2014)
Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments, 4th ed. (2015)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (
ANSI/ASME A17.1: Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators (2016)
ANSI/ASME A17.3: Safety Code for Existing Elevators and Escalators (2015)
American Society of Safety Engineers (
Holman, G. T., Troy Blackburn, and S. Maghsoodloo. "The Effects of Restricting Space: A study involving a patient-handling task." Professional Safety 55(7), 38-46 (2010).
American Society of Sanitary Engineering (
ANSI/ASSE 6000: Professional Qualifications Standard for Medical Gas Systems Personnel (2015)
American Society for Testing and Materials (
ASTM E492: Standard Test Method for Laboratory Measurement of Impact Sound Transmission Through Floor-Ceiling Assemblies Using the Tapping Machine (2016)
ASTM E1007: Standard Test Method for Field Measurement of Tapping Machine Impact Sound Transmission Through Floor-Ceiling Assemblies and Associated Support Structures (2016)
ASTM E1130: Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of Speech Privacy in Open Plan Spaces Using Articulation Index (2016)
ASTM E2638: Standard Test Method for Objective Measurement of the Speech Privacy Provided by a Closed Room (2010)
ASTM E2921: Standard Practice for Minimum Criteria for Comparing Whole Building Life Cycle Assessments for Use with Building Codes and Rating Systems (2016)
American Tree Farm System (American Forest Foundation) (
American Tree Farm System 2015—2020 Standards of Sustainability (2015)
American Water Works Association (
AWWA M14: Recommended Practice for Backflow Prevention and Cross-Connection Control (2015)
Americans with Disabilities Act (U.S. Department of Justice) (
ADA Standards for Accessible Design (
British Standards Institution (
BS EN 15804: Sustainability of construction works. Environmental product declarations. Core rules for the product category of construction products (2013)
Bureau of Labor Statistics (
Industries at a Glance: Healthcare and Social Assistance (
Business + Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (
ANSI/BIFMA e3: Furniture Sustainability Standard (2014)
California Department of Public Health, Environmental Health Laboratory Branch, Indoor Air Quality Section
Standard Method for the Testing and Evaluation of Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions from Indoor Sources Using Environmental Chambers, version 1.2 (2017)
Canadian Standards Association (
CAN/CSA Z809: Sustainable Forest Management: Requirements and Guidance (2016)
Center for Health Design (
Joseph, Anjali, et al. "Designing for Patient Safety: Developing Methods to Integrate Patient Safety Concerns in the Design Process." (2012)
Joseph, Anjali, and Xiaobo Quan. "Summary of Literature Review: Resident Safety Risk Assessment." (2012)
Lee, Su Jin, et al. "Beyond ADA Accessibility Requirements: Meeting Seniors' Needs for Toilet Transfers." Health Environments Research & Design Journal (2017).
Malone, Eileen B., and Barbara A. Dellinger. "Furniture Design Features and Healthcare Outcomes." (2011)
Rohde, Jane. "Issue Briefs: Residential Healthcare Facilities" (2012).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (
"Design and Operation of Pools and Hot Tubs," a CDC Web page (
"Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, 2005." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54 (RR-17), 2005. (
"Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 52 (RR-10):l-48, 2003. (
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (
"Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Reform of Requirements for Long-Term Care Facilities." Federal Register, 2016. (
Center for Occupational Safety and Ergonomics Research, Department of Occupational & Environmental Safety & Health, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Choi, Sang, D. and Kathryn Brings. "Work-related musculoskeletal risks associated with nurses and nursing assistants handling overweight and obese patients: A literature review." Work, 53(2), 439-448. doi:10.3233/WOR-152222 (2016).
Facility Guidelines Institute (
Behavioral Health Design Guide (2017)
"Patient Handling and Movement Assessments: A White Paper" (2010)
"Resources for Selecting Architectural Details, Surfaces, and Furnishings for Health Care Facilities" (2010)
Federal Emergency Management Agency (
FEMA P-750: NEHRP [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program] Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures (2009)
Forest Stewardship Council (
FSC-STD-01-001 (V5-2): FSC Principles and Criteria for Forest Stewardship (2015)
Georgia Institute of Technology (
Sanford, Jon A., and Margaret Calkins, PhD. "Beyond ADA Accessibility Requirements: Meeting Seniors' Needs for Toilet Transfers" (unpublished article, 2016).
Green Building Initiative™ (
ANSI/GBI 01: Green Building Assessment Protocol for Commercial Buildings (2010) (
Green Globes® for New Construction
Green Globes® for Existing Buildings
Green Guide for Health Care™ (
Green Seal (
GS-11: Paints, Coatings, Stains, and Sealers (2015)
GS-36: Adhesives for Commercial Use (2013)
Illuminating Engineering Society (
ANSI/IES RP-28: Lighting and the Visual Environment for Seniors and the Low Vision Population (2016)
International Association for Healthcare Security and Safety (
Security Design Guidelines for Health Care Facilities (2016)
International Code Council (
ICC A117.1: Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities (2017)
International Green Construction Code (2015)
International Plumbing Code (2015)
International Organization for Standardization (
ISO-7731: Danger Signals for Work Places—Auditory Danger Signals (2003)
ISO 9921: Ergonomics—Assessment of Speech Communication (2003)
ISO 14025: Environmental labels and declarations—Type III environmental declarations—Principles and procedures (2006)
ISO 14040: Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Principles and framework (2006)
ISO 14044: Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Requirements and guidelines (2006)
ISO 21930: Sustainability in building construction—Environmental declaration of building products (2017)
The Joint Commission (
"Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care: A Roadmap for Hospitals" (
The Mayer-Rothschild Foundation (
Sanford, Jon, and Margaret Calkins. "Determination of Grab Bar Specifications for Independent and Assisted Transfers in Residential Care Settings." (2014)
National Fire Protection Association (
NFPA 13: Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems (2016)
NFPA 70: National Electrical Code® (2017)
NFPA 72: National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code (2016)
NFPA 90A: Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilating Systems (2018)
NFPA 96: Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations (2017)
NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities Code (2015)
NFPA 101: Life Safety Code® (2015)
NFPA 110: Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems (2016)
NFPA 255: Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials (2006)
National Institute of Building Sciences (
Design Guidelines for the Visual Environment (May 2015). (
National Institute on Drug Abuse (
Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations: A Research-Based Guide (
Therapeutic Community (
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 97-111: "Selecting, Evaluating, and Using Sharps Disposal Containers" (January 1998) (
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 2004-165: NIOSH Alert—Preventing Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic and other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings
National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction (
Bradley, J. S. "The Acoustical Design of Conventional Open Plan Offices," NRCC-46274 (2003).
Veitch, J. A., et al. "Masking Speech in Open-Plan Offices with Simulated Ventilation Noise: Noise Level and Spectral Composition Effects on Acoustic Satisfaction," IRC-IR-846 (April 2002).
National Stone Council (
ANSI/NSC 373: Sustainable Production of Natural Dimension Stone (2013)
New York State Office of Mental Health
Patient Safety Standards, Materials and Systems Guidelines (
Noise and Vibration Control Engineering
Vér, István L., and Leo L. Beranek. Noise and Vibration Control Engineering: Principles and Applications, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2005).
North Carolina Office on Disability and Health and the Center for Universal Health
Removing Barriers to Health Clubs and Fitness Facilities: A Guide for Accommodating All Members, Including People with Disabilities and Older Adults (2008) (
NSF International (
NSF/ANSI 140: Sustainability Assessment for Carpet (2015)
NSF/ANSI 332: Sustainability Assessment for Resilient Floor Coverings (2015)
NSF/ANSI 336: Sustainability Assessment for Commercial Furnishings Fabric (2011)
NSF/ANSI 342: Sustainability Assessment for Wallcovering Products (2014)
NSF/ANSI 347: Sustainability Assessment for Single Ply Roofing Membranes (2012)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor (
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 29—OSHA Regulations, Part 1910 (29 CFR 1910), Occupational Safety and Health Standards (
Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (
PEFC National Standards
South Coast Air Quality Management District (
SCAQMD Rule 1168: Adhesive and Sealant Applications (
Sustainable Forestry Initiative® (
SFI 2015-2019 Forest Management Standard
Telecommunications Industry Association (
TIA-607-C: Generic Telecommunications Bonding and Grounding (Earthing) for Customer Premises (2015)
Tile Council of North America (
ANSI A138.1: Green Squared®—American National Standard Specifications for Sustainable Ceramic Tiles, Glass Tiles, and Tile Installation Materials (2011)
Toxic Substance Control Act
Title VI—Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products (
Underwriters Laboratories (
UL 100: Standard for Sustainability for Gypsum Boards and Panels (2012)
UL 102: Standard for Sustainability for Swinging Door Leafs (2012)
UL 1069: Standard for Hospital Signaling and Nurse Call Equipment (2007)
UL 2560: Standard for Emergency Call Systems for Assisted Living and Independent Living Facilities (2011)
UL 2762: Adhesives (2011)
UL 2768: Standard for Sustainability for Architectural Surface Coatings (2011)
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
The Noise Guidebook (
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Construction & Facilities Management
Mental Health Facilities Design Guide (
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration
VHA Handbook 1330.01: Health Care Services for Women Veterans (
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (
Hospital Bed Safety Workgroup. "Clinical Guidance for the Assessment and Implementation of Bed Rails In Hospitals, Long Term Care Facilities, and Home Care Settings" (2003) (
U.S. Green Building Council (
LEED® v.4 (includes LEED for Healthcare) Green Building Rating System (2013)
U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (
U.S. Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF)—<Chapter 1066>: "Physical Environments that Promote Safe Medication Use" (
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, School of Architecture & Urban Planning
Dementia Design Info Database (in partnership with I.D.E.A.S., Inc. and Polisher Research Institute) (
With Seniors in Mind, Inc. (
Senior Living Sustainability Guide® (2011)
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