CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2012 (IRC 2012)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Residential Code

Legislation

Part I ‒ Administrative

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Part II ‒ Definitions

Chapter 2 Definitions

Part III ‒ Building Planning and Construction

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Part IV ‒ Energy Conservation

Chapter 11 [Re] Energy Efficiency

Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency

Part V ‒ Mechanical

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment and Appliances

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Appliances, Equipment and Systems

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Energy Systems

Part VI ‒ Fuel Gas

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Part VII Plumbing Administration

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage

Part VIII ‒ Electrical

Chapter 34 General Requirements

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 36 Services

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Part IX ‒ Referenced Standards

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped With Draft Hoods, Category I Appliances, and Appliances Listed for Use With Type B Vents

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-Vent Venting Systems

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings

Appendix F Radon Control Methods

Appendix G Swimming Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs

Appendix H Patio Covers

Appendix I Private Sewage Disposal

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix L Permit Fees

Appendix M Home Day Care—R-3 Occupancy

Appendix N Venting Methods

Appendix O Automatic Vehicular Gates

Appendix P Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix Q Icc International Residential Code Electrical Provisions/National Electrical Code Cross Reference

The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of all walls and partitions for all buildings.
Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed according to Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than 1/8 inch (3 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor. Relocated
Load-bearing dimension lumber for studs, plates and headers shall be identified by a grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R602.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation “Heat Resistant Adhesive” or “HRA” included in its grade mark.
Glued laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.
Stress grading of structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade, issued by a lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section, shall be permitted to be accepted.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5456.

Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or stud grade lumber.
Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and nonbearing studs may be utility grade lumber, provided the studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5).
Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3(2) or in accordance with AF&PA;'s NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to framing members and, when placed on the exterior side of an exterior wall, shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3). Wood structural panel sheathing used for exterior walls shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA O437 or CSA O325. All panels shall be identified for grade, bond classification, and Performance Category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency and shall conform to the requirements of Table R602.3(3). Wall sheathing used only for exterior wall covering purposes shall comply with Section R703.

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables R502.5(1) and R502.5(2).

TABLE R602.3(1)
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

ITEMDESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTSNUMBER AND TYPE OF FASTENERa, b, cSPACING OF FASTENERS
Roof
1Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate, toe nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
2Ceiling joists to plate, toe nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
3Ceiling joists not attached to parallel rafter, laps over partitions, face nail3-10d
4Collar tie to rafter, face nail or 11/4″ × 20 gage ridge strap3-10d (3″ × 0.128″)
5Rafter or roof truss to plate, toe nail3-16d box nails (31/2″ × 0.135″) or 3-10d common nails
(3″ × 0.148″)
2 toe nails on one side and 1 toe nail on opposite side of each rafter or trussj
6Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters: toe nail face nail 4-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
3-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
Wall
7Built-up studs-face nail10d (3″ × 0.128″)24″ o.c.
8Abutting studs at intersecting wall corners, face nail16d (31/2″ x 0.135″)12″ o.c.
9Built-up header, two pieces with 1/2″ spacer16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)16″ o.c. along each edge
10Continued header, two pieces16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)16″ o.c. along each edge
11Continuous header to stud, toe nail4-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
12Double studs, face nail10d (3″ × 0.128″)24″ o.c.
13Double top plates, face nail10d (3″ × 0.128″)24″ o.c.
14Double top plates, minimum 24-inch offset of end joints, face nail in lapped area8-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
15Sole plate to joist or blocking, face nail16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)16″ o.c.
16Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panels3-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)16″ o.c.
17Stud to sole plate, toe nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
or
2-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)

18Top or sole plate to stud, end nail2-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
19Top plates, laps at corners and intersections, face nail2-10d (3″ × 0.128″)
201″ brace to each stud and plate, face nail2-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
2 staples 13/4

211″ × 6″ sheathing to each bearing, face nail2-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
2 staples 13/4

221″ × 8″ sheathing to each bearing, face nail2-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
3 staples 13/4

23Wider than 1″ × 8″ sheathing to each bearing, face nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
4 staples 13/4

Floor
24Joist to sill or girder, toe nail3-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
25Rim joist to top plate, toe nail (roof applications also)8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)6″ o.c.
26Rim joist or blocking to sill plate, toe nail8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)6″ o.c.
271″ × 6″ subfloor or less to each joist, face nail2-8d (21/2″ × 0.113″)
2 staples 13/4

282″ subfloor to joist or girder, blind and face nail2-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)
292″ planks (plank & beam - floor & roof)2-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)at each bearing
30Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers10d (3″ × 0.128″)Nail each layer as follows: 32″ o.c. at top and bottom and staggered.
Two nails at ends and at each splice.
31Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters3-16d (31/2″ × 0.135″)At each joist or rafter

(continued)

TABLE R602.3(1)—continued
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

ITEMDESCRIPTION OF BUILDING MATERIALSDESCRIPTION OF FASTENERb, c, eSPACING OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)i
Intermediate supportsc, e
(inches)
Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing
323/8″ - 1/26d common (2″ × 0.113″) nail (subfloor, wall)j
8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″) nail (roof)f
612g
3319/32″ - 1″8d common nail (21/2″ × 0.131″)612g
3411/8″ - 11/410d common (3″ × 0.148″) nail or
8d (21/2″ × 0.131″) deformed nail
612
Other wall sheathingh
351/2″ structural cellulosic
fiberboard sheathing
1 1/2″ galvanized roofing nail, 7/16″ crown or 1″crown staple 16 ga., 11/4″ long36
3625/32″ structural cellulosic
fiberboard sheathing
13/4″ galvanized roofing nail, 7/16″ crown or 1″crown staple 16 ga., 11/2″ long36
371/2″ gypsum sheathingd11/2″ galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
11/2″ long; 11/4 screws, Type W or S
77
385/8″ gypsum sheathingd13/4″ galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
15/8″long; 15/8″ screws, Type W or S
77
Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing
393/4″ and less6d deformed (2″ × 0.120″) nail or
8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″) nail
612
407/8″ - 1″8d common (21/2″ × 0.131″) nail or
8d deformed (21/2″ × 0.120″) nail
612
4111/8″ - 11/410d common (3″ × 0.148″) nail or
8d deformed (21/2″ × 0.120″) nail
612
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 Ksi = 6.895 MPa.
a. All nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less.
b. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7/16-inch on diameter crown width.
c. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.
d. Four-foot by 8-foot or 4-foot by 9-foot panels shall be applied vertically.
e. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2).
f. For regions having basic wind speed of 110 mph or greater, 8d deformed (21/2″ × 0.120) nails shall be used for attaching plywood and wood structural panel roof sheathing to framing within minimum 48-inch distance from gable end walls, if mean roof height is more than 25 feet, up to 35 feet maximum.
g. For regions having basic wind speed of 100 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches on center. When basic wind speed is greater than 100 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing.
h. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 208.
i. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at all floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking.
j. Where a rafter is fastened to an adjacent parallel ceiling joist in accordance with this schedule, provide two toe nails on one side of the rafter and toe nails from the ceiling joist to top plate in accordance with this schedule. The toe nail on the opposite side of the rafter shall not be required.

TABLE R602.3(2)
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS TO TABLE R602.3(1)

NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa, b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Intermediate supports
(inches)
Wood structural panels subfloor, roofg and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framingf
Up to 1/2Staple 15 ga. 13/448
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/436
Staple 16 ga. 13/436
19/32 and 5/80.113 Nail 236
Staple 15 and 16 ga. 248
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/448
23/32 and 3/4Staple 14 ga. 248
Staple 15 ga. 13/436
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/448
Staple 16 ga. 248
1Staple 14 ga. 21/448
0.113 Nail 21/436
Staple 15 ga. 21/448
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 21/248
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa,b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Body of paneld
(inches)
Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboardf
Plywood
1/4 and 5/1611/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099″) shank diameter
36
Staple 18 ga., 7/8, 3/16 crown width25
11/32, 3/8, 15/32, and 1/211/4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099″) shank diameter
68e
19/32, 5/8, 23/32 and 3/411/2 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
121/2 ga. (0.099″) shank diameter
68
Staple 16 ga. 11/268
Hardboardf
0.20011/2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail66
4d cement-coated sinker nail66
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long (plastic coated)36
Particleboard
1/44d ring-grooved underlayment nail36
Staple 18 ga., 7/8 long, 3/16 crown36
3/86d ring-grooved underlayment nail610
Staple 16 ga., 11/8 long, 3/8 crown36
1/2, 5/86d ring-grooved underlayment nail610
Staple 16 ga., 15/8 long, 3/8 crown36
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Nail is a general description and may be T-head, modified round head or round head.
b. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16-inch on diameter except as noted.
c. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.
d. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.
e. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way.
f. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to CPA/ANSI A135.4
g. Specified alternate attachments for roof sheathing shall be permitted for windspeeds less than 100 mph. Fasteners attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be installed using the spacing listed for panel edges.

TABLE R602.3(3)
REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa, b, c

MINIMUM NAILMINIMUM WOOD
STRUCTURAL
PANEL SPAN
RATING
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
PANEL
THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM WALL
STUD SPACING

(inches)
PANEL NAIL SPACINGMAXIMUM WIND SPEED
(mph)
SizePenetration
(inches)
Edges
(inches o.c.)
Field
(inches o.c.)
Wind exposure category
BCD
6d Common
(2.0″ × 0.113″)
1.524/03/8166121109085
8d Common
(2.5″× 0.131″)
1.7524/167/1616612130110105
246121109085
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
b. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces per Section R301.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.
c. Wood structural panels with span ratings of Wall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 o.c. or 24 o.c. shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 o.c. shall be used with studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches on center.

TABLE R602.3(4)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa

THICKNESS
(inch)
GRADE STUD SPACING
(inches)
When siding is nailed to studs When siding is nailed to sheathing
3/8M-1 Exterior glue16
1/2M-2 Exterior glue1616
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panels corners will not meet. All panel edges must be supported. Leave a 1/16-inch gap between panels and nail no closer than 3/8 inch from panel edges.

TABLE R602.3(5)
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSa

STUD SIZE
(inches)
BEARING WALLSNONBEARING WALLS
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum spacing
when supporting a
roof-ceiling
assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly, only
(inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting one
floor, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting two
floors, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting
one floor heighta

(feet)
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum
spacing
(inches)
2 × 3b1016
2 × 41024c16c241424
3 × 410242416241424
2 × 5102424241624
2 × 610242416242024
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.093 m2.
a. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where justified by analysis.
b. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
c. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 × 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 × 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.3(1)
TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.3(2)
FRAMING DETAILS

The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3.(5).

Exceptions:

1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.
2. Studs more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in height which are in accordance with Table R602.3.1.

TABLE R602.3.1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 MPH OR LESS
IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, D0, D1 and D2b, c

HEIGHT
(feet)
ON-CENTER SPACING (inches)
2416128
Supporting a roof only
> 102 × 42 × 42 × 42 × 4
122 × 62 × 42 × 42 × 4
142 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 4
162 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 4
18NAa2 × 62 × 62 × 6
20NAaNAa2 × 62 × 6
24NAaNAaNAa2 × 6
Supporting one floor and a roof
> 102 × 62 × 42 × 42 × 4
122 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 4
142 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
16NAa2 × 62 × 62 × 6
18NAa2 × 62 × 62 × 6
20NAaNAa2 × 62 × 6
24NAaNAaNAa2 × 6
Supporting two floors and a roof
> 102 × 62 × 62 × 42 × 4
122 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
142 × 62 × 62 × 62 × 6
16NAaNAa2 × 62 × 6
18NAaNAa2 × 62 × 6
20NAaNAaNAa2 × 6
22NAaNAaNAaNAa
24NAaNAaNAaNAa
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Design required.
b. Applicability of this table assumes the following: Snow load not exceeding 25 psf, fb not less than 1310 psi determined by multiplying the AF&PA NDS tabular base design value by the repetitive use factor, and by the size factor for all species except southern pine, E not less than 1.6 × 106 psi, tributary dimensions for floors and roofs not exceeding 6 feet, maximum span for floors and roof not exceeding 12 feet, eaves not over 2 feet in dimension and exterior sheathing. Where the conditions are not within these parameters, design is required.
c. Utility, standard, stud and No. 3 grade lumber of any species are not permitted.
Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset at least 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate may be installed in stud walls, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting walls by a minimum 3-inch by 6-inch by a 0.036-inch-thick (76 mm by 152 mm by 0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to each wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails on each side, provided the rafters or joists are centered over the studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm). The top plate may be omitted over lintels that are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections with steel plates or equivalent as previously described.

Where joists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.

Exceptions:

1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.
2. A third top plate is installed.
3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.
Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs. Relocated
Braced wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following:
1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(1) where:
1.1. The basic wind speed does not exceed 90 mph (40 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5:12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less, or
1.2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf. The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.
2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top of the wall to the foundation or to a point where the uplift force is 100 plf (146 N/mm) or less. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2 above.
3. Wall sheathing and fasteners designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice to resist combined uplift and shear forces.
Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls.
Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2 inch by 3 inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, when not part of a braced wall line, 2 inch by 4 inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with at least a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8.
Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:
1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition may be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions may be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width.
2. Drilling. Any stud may be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is no more than 60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is no more than 5/8 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or notch. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall also be doubled with no more than two successive doubled studs bored. See Figures R602.6(1) and R602.6(2).

Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted when they are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Note: Condition for exterior and bearing walls.

FIGURE R602.6(1)
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6(2)
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS

When piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) having a minimum length of 11/2 inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1.

Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.6.1
TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING

For header spans see Tables R502.5(1), R502.5(2) and R602.7.1.
Single headers shall be framed with a single flat 2-inch-nominal (51 mm) member or wall plate not less in width than the wall studs on the top and bottom of the header in accordance with Figures R602.7.1(1) and R602.7.1(2).

TABLE R602.7.1
SPANS FOR MINIMUM No.2 GRADE SINGLE HEADERa, b, c, f

SINGLE
HEADERS
SUPPORTING
SIZEWOOD SPECIESGROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)
≤ 20d3050
Building Width (feet)e
202836202836202836
Roof and ceiling2 × 8Spruce-Pine-Fir
Hem-Fir
Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine
4-10
5-1
5-3
4-2
4-4
4-6
3-8
3-10
4-0
4-3
4-6
4-7
3-8
3-10
3-11
3-3
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-9
3-10
3-0
3-2
3-3
2-8
2-10
2-11
2 × 10Spruce-Pine-Fir
Hem-Fir
Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine
6-2
6-6
6-8
5-3
5-6
5-8
4-8
4-11
5-1
5-5
5-8
5-10
4-8
4-11
5-0
4-2
4-4
4-6
4-6
4-9
4-11
3-11
4-1
4-2
3-1
3-7
3-9
2 × 12Spruce-Pine-Fir
Hem-Fir
Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine
7-6
7-10
8-1
6-5
6-9
6-11
5-9
6-0
6-2
6-7
6-11
7-2
5-8
5-11
6-1
4-5
5-3
5-5
5-4
5-9
5-11
3-11
4-8
5-1
3-1
3-8
4-6
Roof, ceiling and
one center-bearing floor
2 × 8Spruce-Pine-Fir
Hem-Fir
Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine
3-10
4-0
4-1
3-3
3-5
3-7
2-11
3-1
3-2
3-9
3-11
4-1
3-3
3-5
3-6
2-11
3-0
3-1
3-5
3-7
3-8
2-11
3-0
3-2
2-7
2-8
2-9
2 × 10Spruce-Pine-Fir
Hem-Fir
Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine
4-11
5-1
5-3
4-2
4-5
4-6
3-8
3-11
4-1
4-10
5-0
5-2
4-1
4-4
4-5
3-6
3-10
4-0
4-4
4-6
4-8
3-7
3-11
4-0
2-10
3-4
3-7
2 × 12Spruce-Pine-Fir
Hem-Fir
Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine
5-8
5-11
6-1
4-2
4-11
5-3
3-4
3-11
4-8
5-5
5-10
6-0
4-0
4-9
5-2
3-6
4-2
4-10
4-9
5-5
5-7
3-6
4-2
4-10
2-10
3-4
4-3
Roof, ceiling and
one clear span floor
2 × 8Spruce-Pine-Fir
Hem-Fir
Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine
3-5
3-7
3-8
2-11
3-1
3-2
2-7
2-9
2-10
3-4
3-6
3-7
2-11
3-0
3-1
2-7
2-8
2-9
3-3
3-5
3-6
2-10
2-11
3-0
2-6
2-7
2-9
2 × 10Spruce-Pine-Fir
Hem-Fir
Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine
4-4
4-7
4-8
3-7
3-11
4-0
2-10
3-5
3-7
4-3
4-6
4-7
3-6
3-10
4-0
2-9
3-3
3-6
4-2
4-4
4-6
3-4
3-9
3-10
2-7
3-1
3-5
2 × 12Spruce-Pine-Fir
Hem-Fir
Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine
4-11
5-6
5-8
3-7
4-3
4-11
2-10
3-5
4-4
4-9
5-6
5-7
3-6
4-2
4-10
2-9
3-3
4-3
4-6
5-4
5-6
3-4
3-11
4-8
2-7
3-1
4-2
For SI: 1 inch=25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Spans are given in feet and inches.
b. Table is based on a maximum roof-ceiling dead load of 15 psf.
c. The header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header in lieu of the required jack stud.
d. The 20 psf ground snow load condition shall apply only when the roof pitch is 9:12 or greater. In conditions where the ground snow load is 30 psf or less and the roof pitch is less than 9:12, use the 30 psf ground snow load condition.
e. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
f. The header shall bear on a minimum of one jack stud at each end.

FIGURE R602.7.1(1)
SINGLE MEMBER HEADER IN EXTERIOR BEARING WALL

FIGURE R602.7.1(2)
ALTERNATIVE SINGLE MEMBER HEADER WITHOUT CRIPPLE

Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.2 and Table R602.7.2.

TABLE R602.7.2
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa

HEADER CONSTRUCTIONbHEADER DEPTH (inches)HOUSE DEPTH (feet)
24 26 28 30 32
Wood structural panel–one side9
15
4
5
4
5
3
4
3
3

3
Wood structural panel–both sides9
15
7
8
5
8
5
7
4
7
3
6
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two-story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.
b. See Figure R602.7.2 for construction details.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NOTES:
a. The top plate shall be continuous over header.
b. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet.
c. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs.
d. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of 15/32-inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the header.
e. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 1/2 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.

FIGURE R602.7.2
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION

Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member may be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, no cripples or blocking are required above the header.
Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.
Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be continuously sheathed on one side with wood structural panels fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table R602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking.

All cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Buildings shall be braced in accordance with this section or, when applicable, Section R602.12. Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R301.1.
For the purpose of determining the amount and location of bracing required in each story level of a building, braced wall lines shall be designated as straight lines in the building plan placed in accordance with this section.
The length of a braced wall line shall be the distance between its ends. The end of a braced wall line shall be the intersection with a perpendicular braced wall line, an angled braced wall line as permitted in Section R602.10.1.4 or an exterior wall as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.1
BRACED WALL LINES

All exterior walls parallel to a braced wall line shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line location as shown Figure R602.10.1.1. Interior walls used as bracing shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from a braced wall line through the interior of the building as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1. Relocated
The spacing between parallel braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3. Intermediate braced wall lines through the interior of the building shall be permitted.

TABLE R602.10.1.3
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING

APPLICATIONCONDITIONBUILDING TYPEBRACED WALL LINE SPACING CRITERIA
Maximum SpacingException to Maximum Spacing
Wind bracing85 mph to < 110 mphDetached,
townhouse
60 feetNone
Seismic bracingSDC A – CDetachedUse wind bracing
SDC A – BTownhouseUse wind bracing
SDC CTownhouse35 feetUp to 50 feet when length of required bracing per Table R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).
SDC D0, D1, D2Detached, townhouses, one- and two-story only25 feetUp to 35 feet to allow for a single room not to exceed 900 square feet. Spacing of all other braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet.
SDC D0, D1, D2Detached,
townhouse
25 feetUp to 35 feet when length of required bracing per Table R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
Any portion of a wall along a braced wall line shall be permitted to angle out of plane for a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 mm). Where the angled wall occurs at a corner, the length of the braced wall line shall be measured from the projected corner as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Where the diagonal length is greater than 8 feet (2438 mm), it shall be considered a separate braced wall line and shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.1.
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4
ANGLED WALLS

Braced wall panels shall be full-height sections of wall that shall have no vertical or horizontal offsets. Braced wall panels shall be constructed and placed along a braced wall line in accordance with this section and the bracing methods specified in Section R602.10.4.
The bracing lengths in Table R602.10.3(1) apply only when uplift loads are resisted in accordance with Section R602.3.5.
A braced wall panel shall begin within 10 feet (3810 mm) from each end of a braced wall line as determined in Section R602.10.1.1. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels along a braced wall line shall be no greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) as shown in Figure R602.10.2.2.
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.2.2
LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS

Braced wall panels shall be located at each end of a braced wall line.

Exception: Braced wall panels constructed of Methods WSP or BV-WSP and continuous sheathing methods as specified in Section R602.10.4 shall be permitted to begin no more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from each end of a braced wall line provided each end complies with one of the following.

1. A minimum 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panel for Methods WSP, CS-WSP, CS-G, and CS-PF, and 32-inch-wide (813 mm) panel for Method CS-SFB is applied to each side of the building corner as shown in Condition 4 of Figure R602.10.7.
2. The end of each braced wall panel closest to the end of the braced wall line shall have an 1,800 lb (8 kN) hold-down device fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below as shown in Condition 5 of Figure R602.10.7.
3. For Method BV-WSP, hold-down devices shall be provided in accordance with Table R602.10.6.5 at the ends of each braced wall panel.
Braced wall lines with a length of 16 feet (4877 mm) or less shall have a minimum of two braced wall panels of any length or one braced wall panel equal to 48 inches (1219 mm) or more. Braced wall lines greater than 16 feet (4877 mm) shall have a minimum of two braced wall panels.
The required length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be determined as follows.
1. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories A and B shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
2. Detached buildings in Seismic Design Category C shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
3. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4) respectively.
4. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4) respectively.

Only braced wall panels parallel to the braced wall line shall contribute toward the required length of bracing of that braced wall line. Braced wall panels along an angled wall meeting the minimum length requirements of Tables R602.10.5 and R602.10.5.2 shall be permitted to contribute its projected length toward the minimum required length of bracing for the braced wall line as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Any braced wall panel on an angled wall at the end of a braced wall line shall contribute its projected length for only one of the braced wall lines at the projected corner.

Exception: The length of wall bracing for dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 with stone or masonry veneer installed per Section R703.7 and exceeding the first-story height shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.6.5.

TABLE R602.10.3(1)
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED

• EXPOSURE CATEGORY B
• 30 FOOT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT
• 10 FOOT EAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT
• 10 FOOT WALL HEIGHT
• 2 BRACED WALL LINES
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Basic Wind
Speed
(mph)
Story LocationBraced Wall Line Spacing
(feet)
Method LIBbMethod GBMethods
DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS,
CS-SFBc
Methods
CS-WSP, CS-G,
CS-PF
≤ 85103.53.52.01.5
206.06.03.53.0
308.58.55.04.5
4011.511.56.55.5
5014.014.08.07.0
6016.516.59.58.0
106.56.53.53.0
2011.511.56.55.5
3016.516.59.58.0
4021.521.512.510.5
5026.526.515.013.0
6031.531.518.015.5
10NP9.05.54.5
20NP17.010.08.5
30NP24.514.012.0
40NP32.018.015.5
50NP39.022.519.0
60NP46.526.522.5
≤ 90103.53.52.02.0
207.07.04.03.5
309.59.55.55.0
4012.512.57.56.0
5015.515.59.07.5
6018.518.510.59.0
107.07.04.03.5
2013.013.07.56.5
3018.518.510.59.0
4024.024.014.012.0
5029.529.517.014.5
6035.035.020.017.0
10NP10.56.05.0
20NP19.011.09.5
30NP27.515.513.5
40NP35.520.517.5
50NP44.025.021.5
60NP52.030.025.5

(continued)

TABLE R602.10.3(1)—continued
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED

• EXPOSURE CATEGORY B
• 30 FOOT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT
• 10 FOOT EAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT
• 10 FOOT WALL HEIGHT
• 2 BRACED WALL LINES
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Basic Wind
Speed
(mph)
Story LocationBraced Wall Line Spacing
(feet)
Method LIBbMethod GBMethods
DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS,
CS-SFBc
Methods
CS-WSP, CS-G,
CS-PF
≤ 100104.54.52.52.5
208.58.55.04.0
3012.012.07.06.0
4015.515.59.07.5
5019.019.011.09.5
6022.522.513.011.0
108.58.55.04.5
2016.016.09.08.0
3023.023.013.011.0
4029.529.517.014.5
5036.536.521.018.0
6043.543.525.021.0
10NP12.57.56.0
20NP23.513.511.5
30NP34.019.516.5
40NP44.025.021.5
50NP54.031.026.5
60NP64.036.531.0
< 110c105.55.53.03.0
2010.010.06.05.0
3014.514.58.57.0
4018.518.511.09.0
5023.023.013.011.5
6027.527.515.513.5
1010.510.56.05.0
2019.019.011.09.5
3027.527.516.013.5
4036.036.020.517.5
5044.044.025.521.5
6052.552.530.025.5
10NP15.59.07.5
20NP28.516.514.0
30NP41.023.520.0
40NP53.030.526.0
50NP65.537.532.0
60NP77.544.537.5
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
b. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to at least one side with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches.
c. Method CS-SFB does not apply where the wind speed is greater than 100 mph.

TABLE R602.10.3(2)
WIND ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING

ADJUSTMENT BASED ONSTORY/ SUPPORTINGCONDITIONADJUSTMENT FACTORa, b
[multiply length from Table R602.10.3(1) by this factor]
APPLICABLE METHODS
Exposure categoryOne-story structureB1.00All methods
C1.20
D1.50
Two-story structureB1.00
C1.30
D1.60
Three-story structureB1.00
C1.40
D1.70
Roof eave-to-ridge heightRoof only≤ 5 feet0.70
10 feet1.00
15 feet1.30
20 feet1.60
Roof + 1 floor≤ 5 feet0.85
10 feet1.00
15 feet1.15
20 feet1.30
Roof + 2 floors≤ 5 feet0.90
10 feet1.00
15 feet1.10
20 feetNot permitted
Wall height adjustmentAny story8 feet0.90
9 feet0.95
10 feet1.00
11 feet1.05
12 feet1.10
Number of braced wall lines (per plan direction)cAny story21.00
31.30
41.45
≥ 51.60
Additional 800-pound hold-down deviceTop story onlyFastened to the end studs of each braced wall panel and to the foundation or framing below0.80DWB, WSP, SFB,
PBS, PCP, HPS
Interior gypsum board finish (or equivalent)Any storyOmitted from inside face of braced wall panels1.40DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS,
PCP, HPS, CS-WSP,
CS-G, CS-SFB
Gypsum board fasteningAny story4 inches o.c. at panel edges, including top and bottom plates, and all horizontal joints blocked0.7GB
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound = 4.48 N.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
b. The total adjustment factor is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
c. The adjustment factor is permitted to be 1.0 when determining bracing amounts for intermediate braced wall lines provided the bracing amounts on adjacent braced wall lines are based on a spacing and number that neglects the intermediate braced wall line.

TABLE R602.10.3(3)
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

SOIL CLASS Db
• WALL HEIGHT = 10 FEET
• 10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
• 15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
• BRACED WALL LINE SPACING ≤ 25 FEET
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Seismic Design
Category
Story LocationBraced Wall
Line Length
(feet)
Method LIBcMethod GBMethods
DWB, SFB,
PBS, PCP,
HPS, CS-SFBd
Method
WSP
Methods
CS-WSP, CS-G
C
(townhouses only)
102.52.52.51.61.4
205.05.05.03.22.7
307.57.57.54.84.1
4010.010.010.06.45.4
5012.512.512.58.06.8
10NP4.54.53.02.6
20NP9.09.06.05.1
30NP13.513.59.07.7
40NP18.018.012.010.2
50NP22.522.515.012.8
10NP6.06.04.53.8
20NP12.012.09.07.7
30NP18.018.013.511.5
40NP24.024.018.015.3
50NP30.030.022.519.1
D010NP2.82.81.81.6
20NP5.55.53.63.1
30NP8.38.35.44.6
40NP11.011.07.26.1
50NP13.813.89.07.7
10NP5.35.33.83.2
20NP10.510.57.56.4
30NP15.815.811.39.6
40NP21.021.015.012.8
50NP26.326.318.816.0
10NP7.37.35.34.5
20NP14.514.510.59.0
30NP21.821.815.813.4
40NP29.029.021.017.9
50NP36.336.326.322.3

(continued)

TABLE R602.10.3(3)—continued
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY

• SOIL CLASS Db
• WALL HEIGHT = 10 FEET
• 10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
• 15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
• BRACED WALL LINE SPACING ≤ 25 FEET
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Seismic Design CategoryStory LocationBraced Wall Line Length
(feet)
Method LIBcMethod GBMethods
DWB, SFB,
PBS, PCP,
HPS, CS-
SFBd
Method
WSP
Methods
CS-WSP,
CS-G
D110NP3.03.02.01.7
20NP6.06.04.03.4
30NP9.09.06.05.1
40NP12.012.08.06.8
50NP15.015.010.08.5
10NP6.06.04.53.8
20NP12.012.09.07.7
30NP18.018.013.511.5
40NP24.024.018.015.3
50NP30.030.022.519.1
10NP8.58.56.05.1
20NP17.017.012.010.2
30NP25.525.518.015.3
40NP34.034.024.020.4
50NP42.542.530.025.5
D210NP4.04.02.52.1
20NP8.08.05.04.3
30NP12.012.07.56.4
40NP16.016.010.08.5
50NP20.020.012.510.6
10NP7.57.55.54.7
20NP15.015.011.09.4
30NP22.522.516.514.0
40NP30.030.022.018.7
50NP37.537.527.523.4
10NPNPNPNPNP
20NPNPNPNPNP
30NPNPNPNPNP
40NPNPNPNPNP
50NPNPNPNPNP
Cripple wall below
one- or two-story dwelling
10NPNPNP7.56.4
20NPNPNP15.012.8
30NPNPNP22.519.1
40NPNPNP30.025.5
50NPNPNP37.531.9
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
b. Wall bracing lengths are based on a soil site class “D.” Interpolation of bracing length between the Sds values associated with the Seismic Design Categories shall be permitted when a site-specific Sds value is determined in accordance with Section 1613.3 of the International Building Code.
c. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to at least one side with nails or screws per Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches.
d. Method CS-SFB applies in SDC C only.

TABLE R602.10.3(4)
SEISMIC ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING

ADJUSTMENT
BASED ON:
STORY/SUPPORTINGCONDITIONADJUSTMENT
FACTORa, b
[Multiply length from
Table R602.10.3(3) by
this factor]
APPLICABLE
METHODS
Story height
(Section 301.3)
Any story≤ 10 feet1.0All methods
> 10 feet and ≤ 12 feet1.2
Braced wall line spacing, townhouses in SDC CAny story≤ 35 feet1.0
> 35 feet and ≤ 50 feet1.43
Braced wall line spacing, in SDC D0, D1, D2cAny story> 25 feet and ≤ 30 feet1.2
> 30 feet and ≤ 35 feet1.4
Wall dead loadAny story> 8 psf and < 15 psf1.0
< 8 psf0.85
Roof/ceiling dead load for wall supportingRoof only or roof plus one or two stories≤15 psf1.0
Roof plus one or two stories> 15 psf and ≤ 25 psf1.1
Roof only> 15 psf and ≤ 25 psf1.2
Walls with stone or
masonry veneer, townhouses in SDC Cd, e
1.0All intermittent and continuous methods
1.5
1.5
Walls with stone or
masonry veneer, detached one-and two-family
dwellings in SDC D0 – D2d
Any storySee Table R602.10.6.5 BV-WSP
Interior gypsum board
finish (or equivalent)
Any storyOmitted from
inside face of braced wall panels
1.5DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS,
CS-WSP, CS-G,
CS-SFB
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
b. The total length of bracing required for a given wall line is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
c. The length-to-width ratio for the floor/roof diaphragm shall not exceed 3:1. The top plate lap splice nailing shall be a minimum of 12-16d nails on each side of the splice.
d. Applies to stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first story height. See Section R602.10.6.5 for requirements when stone or masonry veneer does not exceed the first story height.
e. The adjustment factor for stone or masonry veneer shall be applied to all exterior braced wall lines and all braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supported veneered walls.
Intermittent and continuously sheathed braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with this section and the methods listed in Table R602.10.4.

TABLE R602.10.4
BRACING METHODS

METHODS, MATERIALMINIMUM THICKNESSFIGURECONNECTION CRITERIAa
FastenersSpacing
Intermittent Bracing MethodLIB
Let-in-bracing
1 × 4 wood or
approved metal straps
at 45° to 60° angles for maximum 16″
stud spacing
Wood: 2-8d common nails
or
3-8d (21/2″ long x 0.113″ dia.) nails
Wood: per stud and
top and bottom plates
Metal strap: per manufacturerMetal:
per manufacturer
DWB
Diagonal
wood boards
3/4″(1″ nominal) for maximum 24″
stud spacing
2-8d (21/2″ long × 0.113″ dia.) nails
or
2 - 13/4″ long staples
Per stud
WSP
Wood
structural panel
(See Section R604)
3/8Exterior sheathing per
Table R602.3(3)
6″ edges 12″ field
Interior sheathing per
Table R602.3(1)or R602.3(2)
Varies by fastener
BV-WSPe
Wood Structural Panels with Stone
or Masonry Veneer
(See Section R602.10.6.5)
7/16See Figure R602.10.6.58d common (21/2″ × 0.131) nails4″ at panel edges
12″ at intermediate
supports 4″ at braced wall panel end posts
SFB
Structural
fiberboard sheathing
1/2″ or 25/32″ for
maximum 16″
stud spacing
11/2″ long × 0.12″ dia. (for1/2″ thick sheathing) 13/4″ long × 0.12″ dia.
(for 25/32″ thick sheathing)
galvanized roofing nails or 8d common
(21/2″ long × 0.131″ dia.) nails
3″ edges 6″ field
GB
Gypsum board
1/2Nails or screws per TableR602.3(1) for exterior locations For all braced wall
panel locations: 7″edges (including top
and bottom plates) 7″field
Nails or screws per TableR702.3.5 for interior locations
PBS
Particleboard sheathing
(See Section R605)
3/8″ or 1/2″ for
maximum 16″
stud spacing
For 3/8″, 6d common
(2″ long × 0.113″ dia.) nails
For 1/2″, 8d common
(21/2″ long × 0.131″ dia.) nails
3″ edges 6″ field
PCP
Portland
cement plaster
See Section R703.6for maximum 16″
stud spacing
11/2″ long, 11 gage, 7/16″ dia. head nails
or
7/8″long, 16 gage staples
6″ o.c. on all framing members
HPS
Hardboard
panel siding
7/16″ for maximum 16″ stud spacing0.092″ dia., 0.225″ dia. head nails with length to accommodate 11/2
penetration into studs
4″ edges 8″ field
ABW
Alternate
braced wall
3/8See Section R602.10.6.1See
Section R602.10.6.1

(continued)

TABLE R602.10.4—continued
BRACING METHODS

METHODS, MATERIALMINIMUM THICKNESSFIGURECONNECTION CRITERIAa
FastenersSpacing
Intermittent Bracing MethodsPFH
Portal frame with
hold-downs
3/8See Section R602.10.6.2 See Section R602.10.6.2
PFG
Portal frame at garage
7/16See Section R602.10.6.3 See Section R602.10.6.3
Continuous Sheathing MethodsCS-WSP
Continuously sheathed wood structural panel
3/8Exterior sheathing per
Table R602.3(3)
6″ edges 12″ field
Interior sheathing per
Table R602.3(1) or R602.3(2)
Varies by fastener
CS-Gb, c
Continuously sheathed wood structural panel adjacent to garage openings
3/8See Method CS-WSPSee Method CS-WSP
CS-PF
Continuously sheathed portal frame
7/16See Section R602.10.6.4 See Section R602.10.6.4
CS-SFBd
Continuously sheathed structural fiberboard
1/2″ or 25/32″ for
maximum 16″
stud spacing
11/2″ long × 0.12″ dia.
(for 1/2″ thick sheathing)
13/4″ long × 0.12″ dia.
(for 25/32″ thick sheathing)
galvanized roofing nails or
8d common
(21/2″ long × 0.131″ dia.) nails
3″ edges 6″ field
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad, 1 pound per square foot = 47.8 N/m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing, including Method GB, shall not be permitted in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2.
b. Applies to panels next to garage door opening when supporting gable end wall or roof load only. May only be used on one wall of the garage. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, roof covering dead load may not exceed 3 psf.
c. Garage openings adjacent to a Method CS-G panel shall be provided with a header in accordance with Table R502.5(1). A full height clear opening shall not be permitted adjacent to a Method CS-G panel.
d. Method CS-SFB does not apply in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 and in areas where the wind speed exceeds 100 mph.
e. Method applies to detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0 through D2 only.
Mixing of bracing methods shall be permitted as follows:
1. Mixing intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from story to story shall be permitted.
2. Mixing intermittent bracing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted. Within Seismic Design Categories A, B and C or in regions where the basic wind speed is less than or equal to 100 mph (45 m/s), mixing of intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted.
3. Mixing intermittent bracing methods along a braced wall line shall be permitted in Seismic Design Categories A and B, and detached dwellings in Seismic Design Category C provided the length of required bracing in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) is the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used.
4. Mixing of continuous sheathing methods CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along a braced wall line shall be permitted.
5. In Seismic Design Categories A and B, and for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category C, mixing of intermittent bracing methods along the interior portion of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing methods CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along the exterior portion of the same braced wall line shall be permitted. The length of required bracing shall be the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) as adjusted by Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4), respectively. The requirements of Section R602.10.7 shall apply to each end of the continuously sheathed portion of the braced wall line.
Continuous sheathing methods require structural panel sheathing to be used on all sheathable surfaces on one side of a braced wall line including areas above and below openings and gable end walls and shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.7.
Braced wall panels shall have gypsum wall board installed on the side of the wall opposite the bracing material. Gypsum wall board shall be not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and be fastened with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum wall board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges for gypsum wall board opposite Method LIB bracing shall not exceed 8 inches (203 mm). Interior finish material shall not be glued in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.

Exceptions:

1. Interior finish material is not required opposite wall panels that are braced in accordance with Methods GB, BV-WSP, ABW, PFH, PFG and CS-PF, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
2. An approved interior finish material with an in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gypsum board shall be permitted to be substituted, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
3. Except for Method LIB, gypsum wall board is permitted to be omitted provided the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3) is multiplied by the appropriate adjustment factor in Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4) respectively, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
The minimum length of a braced wall panel shall comply with Table R602.10.5. For Methods CS-WSP and CS-SFB, the minimum panel length shall be based on the adjacent clear opening height in accordance with Table R602.10.5 and Figure R602.10.5. When a panel has an opening on either side of differing heights, the taller opening height shall be used to determine the panel length.

TABLE R602.10.5
MINIMUM LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANELS

METHOD
(See Table R602.10.4)
MINIMUM LENGTHa
(inches)
CONTRIBUTING LENGTH
(inches)
Wall Height
8 feet9 feet10 feet11 feet12 feet
DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, BV-WSP4848485358Actualb
GB4848485358Double sided = Actual
Single sided = 0.5 × Actual
LIB556269NPNPActualb
ABWSDC A, B and C,
wind speed < 110 mph
283234384248
SDC Do, D1 and D2,
wind speed < 110 mph
323234NPNP
PFHSupporting roof only16161618c20c48
Supporting one story and roof24242427c29c48
PFG24273033d36d1.5 × Actualb
CS-G2427303336Actualb
CS-PF16182022e24eActualb
CS-WSP, CS-SFBAdjacent clear opening height
(inches)
≤ 642427303336Actualb
682627303336
722727303336
763029303336
803230303336
843532323336
883835333336
924337353536
964841383636
10044403838
10449434039
10854464341
112504543
116554845
120605248
1245651
1286154
1326658
13662
14066
14472
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
NP = Not Permitted.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
b. Use the actual length when it is greater than or equal to the minimum length.
c. Maximum header height for PFH is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2, but wall height may be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
d. Maximum opening height for PFG is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.3, but wall height may be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
e. Maximum opening height for CS-PF is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.4, but wall height may be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.

FIGURE R602.10.5
BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

For purposes of computing the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), the contributing length of each braced wall panel shall be as specified in Table R602.10.5.
For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, panels between 36 inches and 48 inches (914 mm and 1219 mm)) in length shall be considered a braced wall panel and shall be permitted to partially contribute toward the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), and the contributing length shall be determined from Table R602.10.5.2.

TABLE R602.10.5.2
PARTIAL CREDIT FOR BRACED WALL PANELS LESS THAN 48 INCHES IN ACTUAL LENGTH

ACTUAL LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL
(inches)
CONTRIBUTING LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL
(inches)a
8-foot Wall Height9-foot Wall Height
484848
423636
3627N/A
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
N/A = Not Applicable.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
Methods ABW, PFH, PFG, CS-PF and BV-WSP shall be constructed as specified in Sections R602.10.6.1 through R602.10.6.5.
Method ABW braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.1. The hold-down force shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.6.1.

TABLE R602.10.6.1
MINIMUM HOLD-DOWN FORCES FOR METHOD ABW BRACED WALL PANELS

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY AND WIND SPEEDSUPPORTING/STORYHOLD DOWN FORCE (pounds)
Height of Braced Wall Panel
8 feet9 feet10 feet11 feet12 feet
SDC A, B and C
Wind speed < 110 mph
One story1,8001,8001,8002,0002,200
First of two stories3,0003,0003,0003,3003,600
SDC Do, D1 and D2
Wind speed < 110 mph
One story1,8001,8001,800NPNP
First of two stories3,0003,0003,000NPNP
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
NP = Not Permitted.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.1
METHOD ABW—ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL

Method PFH braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.2
METHOD PFH—PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS

Where supporting a roof or one story and a roof, a Method PFG braced wall panel constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.3 shall be permitted on either side of garage door openings.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.3
METHOD PFG—PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B AND C

Continuously sheathed portal frame braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.4 and Table R602.10.6.4. The number of continuously sheathed portal frame panels in a single braced wall line shall not exceed four.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.6.4
METHOD CS-PF—CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION

TABLE R602.10.6.4
TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED FOR RESISTING WIND PRESSURES
PERPENDICULAR TO METHOD PFH, PFG AND CS-PF BRACED WALL PANELS

MINIMUM WALL STUD FRAMING NOMINAL SIZE AND GRADEMAXIMUM PONY WALL HEIGHT (feet)MAXIMUM TOTAL WALL HEIGHT (feet)MAXIMUM OPENING WIDTH
(feet)
TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED (pounds)a, b
Basic Wind Speed (mph)
85901008590100
Exposure BExposure C
2 × 4 No. 2 Grade010181,0001,0001,0001,0001,0001,000
11091,0001,0001,0001,0001,0001,275
161,0001,0001,7501,8002,3253,500
181,0001,2002,1002,1752,725DR
21091,0001,0001,0251,0751,5502,500
161,5252,0253,1253,2003,900DR
181,8752,4003,5753,700DRDR
21291,0001,2002,0752,1252,7504,000
162,6003,200DRDRDRDR
183,1753,850DRDRDRDR
41291,7752,3503,5003,550DRDR
164,175DRDRDRDRDR
2 × 6 Stud Grade21291,0001,0001,3251,3751,7502,550
161,6502,0502,9253,0003,550DR
182,0252,4503,4253,5004,100DR
41291,1251,5002,2252,2752,7753,800
162,6503,150DRDRDRDR
183,1253,675DRDRDRDR
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.
a. DR = design required.
b. Strap shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.
Relocated
Where stone and masonry veneer are installed in accordance with Section R703.7, wall bracing on exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supporting veneered walls shall comply with this section.

Where dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.7, and the veneer does not exceed the first-story height, wall bracing shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.3.

Where detached one- or two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.7, and the veneer exceeds the first-story height, wall bracing at exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building shall be constructed using Method BV-WSP in accordance with this section and Figure R602.10.6.5. Cripple walls shall not be permitted, and required interior braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Townhouses in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 with stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first-story height shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

TABLE R602.10.6.5
METHOD BV-WSP WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORYSTORYBRACED WALL LINE LENGTH (FEET)SINGLE-STORY HOLD-DOWN FORCE (pounds)aCUMULATIVE HOLD-DOWN FORCE (pounds)b
1020304050
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE
D04.07.010.514.017.5N/A
4.07.010.514.017.51900
4.59.013.518.022.535005400
6.012.018.024.030.035008900
D14.59.013.518.022.52100
4.59.013.518.022.537005800
6.012.018.024.030.037009500
D25.511.016.522.027.52300
5.511.016.522.027.539006200
NPNPNPNPNPN/AN/A
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479 kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N.
NP = Not Permitted.
N/A = Not Applicable.
a. Hold-down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story to wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single-story hold-down force where edges of braced wall panels do not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained.
b. Where hold-down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold-down force to size middle- and bottom-story hold-down connectors.

FIGURE R602.10.6.5
METHOD BV-WSP—WALL BRACING FOR DWELLINGS WITH STONE AND
MASONRY VENEER IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D0, D1 and D2

The length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be the greater of that required by the design wind speed and braced wall line spacing in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) as adjusted by the factors in the Table R602.10.3(2) or the Seismic Design Category and braced wall line length in accordance with Table R602.10.6.5. Angled walls shall be permitted to be counted in accordance with Section R602.10.1.4, and braced wall panel location shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.2.2. The seismic adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(4) shall not be applied to the length of bracing determined using Table R602.10.6.5. In no case shall the minimum total length of bracing in a braced wall line, after all adjustments have been taken, be less than 48 inches (1219 mm) total.
Each end of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing shall have one of the conditions shown in Figure R602.10.7.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.

FIGURE R602.10.7
END CONDITIONS FOR BRACED WALL LINES WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

Braced wall panels shall be connected to floor framing or foundations as follows:
1. Where joists are perpendicular to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, band joist or blocking shall be provided along the entire length of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(1). Fastening of top and bottom wall plates to framing, rim joist, band joist and/or blocking shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
2. Where joists are parallel to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, end joist or other parallel framing member shall be provided directly above and below the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(2). Where a parallel framing member cannot be located directly above and below the panel, full-depth blocking at 16-inch (406 mm) spacing shall be provided between the parallel framing members to each side of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(2). Fastening of blocking and wall plates shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and Figure R602.10.8(2).
3. Connections of braced wall panels to concrete or masonry shall be in accordance with Section R403.1.6.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.8(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.8(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

Braced wall panels shall be fastened to required foundations in accordance with Section R602.11.1, and top plate lap splices shall be face-nailed with at least eight 16d nails on each side of the splice.
Top plates of exterior braced wall panels shall be attached to rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and this section. Where required by this section, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be attached to top plates of braced wall panels and to rafters and roof trusses in accordance with Table R602.3(1). A continuous band, rim, or header joist or roof truss parallel to the braced wall panels shall be permitted to replace the blocking required by this section. Blocking shall not be required over openings in continuously-sheathed braced wall lines. In addition to the requirements of this section, lateral support shall be provided for rafters and ceiling joists in accordance with Section R802.8 and for trusses in accordance with Section R802.10.3. Roof ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section R806.1.
1. For Seismic Design Categories A, B and C and wind speeds less than 100 mph (45 m/s) where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is 91/4 inches (235 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall not be required. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is between 91/4 inches (235 mm) and 151/4 inches (387 mm), blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(1).
2. For Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 or wind speeds of 100 mph (45 m/s) or greater, where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses is 151/4 inches (387 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(1).
3. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of rafters or roof trusses exceeds 151/4 inches (387 mm), the top plates of the braced wall panel shall be connected to perpendicular rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with one or more of the following methods:
3.1. Soffit blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(2);
3.2. Vertical blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(3);
3.3. Full-height engineered blocking panels designed in accordance with the AF&PA WFCM; or
3.4. Blocking, blocking panels, or other methods of lateral load transfer designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.8.2(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.4.

FIGURE R602.10.8.2(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.4.

FIGURE R602.10.8.2(3)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

Braced wall panel support shall be provided as follows:
1. Cantilevered floor joists complying with Section R502.3.3 shall be permitted to support braced wall panels.
2. Raised floor system post or pier foundations supporting braced wall panels shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
3. Masonry stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. Masonry stem walls with a length greater than 48 inches (1219 mm) supporting braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Section R403.1 Methods ABW and PFH shall not be permitted to attach to masonry stem walls.
4. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall have reinforcement sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R602.10.9
MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS

In one-story buildings located in Seismic Design Category D2, braced wall panels shall be supported on continuous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). In two-story buildings located in Seismic Design Category D2, all braced wall panels shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Exception: Two-story buildings shall be permitted to have interior braced wall panels supported on continuous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm) provided that:

1. The height of cripple walls does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm).
2. First-floor braced wall panels are supported on doubled floor joists, continuous blocking or floor beams.
3. The distance between bracing lines does not exceed twice the building width measured parallel to the braced wall line.
All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over, and be fastened to, common studs. Horizontal joints in braced wall panels shall occur over, and be fastened to, common blocking of a minimum 11/2 inch (38 mm) thickness.

Exceptions:

1. Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall be permitted to occur over double studs, where adjoining panel edges are attached to separate studs with the required panel edge fastening schedule, and the adjacent studs are attached together with two rows of 10d box nails [3 inches by 0.128 inch (76.2 mm by 3.25 mm)] at 10 inches o.c. (254 mm).
2. Blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in wall segments that are not counted as braced wall panels.
3. Where the bracing length provided is at least twice the minimum length required by Table R602.10.3(1) and Table R602.10.3(3) blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in braced wall panels constructed using Methods WSP, SFB, GB, PBS or HPS.
4. When Method GB panels are installed horizontally, blocking of horizontal joints is not required.
Cripple walls shall be constructed in accordance with Section R602.9 and braced in accordance with this section. Cripple walls shall be braced with the length and method of bracing used for the wall above in accordance with Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively, except that the length of cripple wall bracing shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.15. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels shall be reduced from 20 feet (6096 mm) to 14 feet (4267 mm).
In addition to the requirements in Section R602.10.11, the distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels for cripple walls along a braced wall line shall be 14 feet (4267 mm) maximum.

Where braced wall lines at interior walls are not supported on a continuous foundation below, the adjacent parallel cripple walls, where provided, shall be braced with Method WSP or Method CS-WSP in accordance with Section R602.10.4. The length of bracing required in accordance with Table R602.10.3(3) for the cripple walls shall be multiplied by 1.5. Where the cripple walls do not have sufficient length to provide the required bracing, the spacing of panel edge fasteners shall be reduced to 4 inches (102 mm) on center and the required bracing length adjusted by 0.7. If the required length can still not be provided, the cripple wall shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

In Seismic Design Category D2, cripple walls shall be braced in accordance with Tables R602.10.3(3) and R602.10.3(4).
Where all cripple wall segments along a braced wall line do not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the cripple walls shall be permitted to be redesignated as a first-story wall for purposes of determining wall bracing requirements. Where any cripple wall segment in a braced wall line exceeds 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the entire cripple wall shall be counted as an additional story. If the cripple walls are redesignated, the stories above the redesignated story shall be counted as the second and third stories, respectively.
Braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1.
Plate washers, a minimum of 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut except where approved anchor straps are used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3/16 inch (5 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut.
In all buildings located in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 or D2, where the height of a required braced wall line that extends from foundation to floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the braced wall line shall be constructed in accordance with the following:
1. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the upper top plate a minimum of 4 feet (1219 mm) along the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located a maximum of 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the step in the foundation. See Figure R602.11.2.
2. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing requirements of Sections R602.10.11, R602.10.11.1 and R602.10.11.2 shall apply.
3. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1 shall apply.
Relocated
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Note: Where footing Section “A” is less than 8 feet long in a 25-foot-long wall, install bracing at cripple stud wall.

FIGURE R602.11.2
STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

Buildings meeting all of the conditions listed in items 1-8 shall be permitted to be braced in accordance with this section as an alternative to the requirements of Section R602.10. The entire building shall be braced in accordance with this section; the use of other bracing provisions of R602.10, except as specified herein, shall not be permitted.
1. There shall be no more than two stories above the top of a concrete or masonry foundation or basement wall. Permanent wood foundations shall not be permitted.
2. Floors shall not cantilever more than 24 inches (607 mm) beyond the foundation or bearing wall below.
3. Wall height shall not be greater than 10 feet (2743 mm).
4. The building shall have a roof eave-to-ridge height of 15 feet (4572 mm) or less.
5. All exterior walls shall have gypsum board with a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) installed on the interior side fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5.
6. The structure shall be located where the basic wind speed is less than or equal to 90 mph (40 m/s), and the Exposure Category is A or B.
7. The structure shall be located in Seismic Design Category A, B or C for detached one- and two-family dwellings or Seismic Design Category A or B for townhouses.
8. Cripple walls shall not be permitted in two-story buildings.
The bracing required for each building shall be determined by circumscribing a rectangle around the entire building on each floor as shown in Figure R602.12.1. The rectangle shall surround all enclosed offsets and projections such as sunrooms and attached garages. Open structures, such as carports and decks, shall be permitted to be excluded. The rectangle shall have no side greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm), and the ratio between the long side and short side shall be a maximum of 3:1.

FIGURE R602.12.1
RECTANGLE CIRCUMSCRIBING AN ENCLOSED BUILDING

The following sheathing materials installed on the exterior side of exterior walls shall be used to construct a bracing unit as defined in Section R602.12.3. Mixing materials is prohibited.
1. Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(3).
2. Structural fiberboard sheathing with a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
A bracing unit shall be a full-height sheathed segment of the exterior wall with no openings or vertical or horizontal offsets and a minimum length as specified herein. Interior walls shall not contribute toward the amount of required bracing. Mixing of Items 1 and 2 is prohibited on the same story.
1. Where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed in accordance with Section R602.12.2, including wall areas between bracing units, above and below openings and on gable end walls, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 3 feet (914 mm).
2. Where the exterior walls are braced with sheathing panels in accordance with Section R602.12.2 and areas between bracing units are covered with other materials, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 4 feet (1219 mm).
Segments of wall compliant with Section R602.12.3 and longer than the minimum bracing unit length shall be considered as multiple bracing units. The number of bracing units shall be determined by dividing the wall segment length by the minimum bracing unit length. Full-height sheathed segments of wall narrower than the minimum bracing unit length shall not contribute toward a bracing unit except as specified in Section R602.12.6.
Each side of the circumscribed rectangle, as shown in Figure R602.12.1, shall have, at a minimum, the number of bracing units in accordance with Table R602.12.4 placed on the parallel exterior walls facing the side of the rectangle. Bracing units shall then be placed using the distribution requirements specified in Section R602.12.5.

TABLE R602.12.4
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING UNITS ON EACH SIDE OF THE CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLE

STORY LEVELEAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT
(feet)
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING
UNITS ON EACH LONG SIDEa, b
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING
UNITS ON EACH SHORT SIDEa, b
Length of short side (feet)cLength of long side (feet)c
102030405060102030405060
10122233122233
233456233456
15123344123344
234567234567
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Interpolation shall not be permitted.
b. Cripple walls or wood-framed basement walls in a walk-out condition of a one-story structure shall be designed as the first floor of a two-story house.
c. Actual lengths of the sides of the circumscribed rectangle shall be rounded to the next highest unit of 10 when using this table.
The placement of bracing units on exterior walls shall meet all of the following requirements as shown in Figure R602.12.5.
1. A bracing unit shall begin no more than 12 feet (3658 mm) from any wall corner.
2. The distance between adjacent edges of bracing units shall be no greater than 20 feet (6096 mm).
3. Segments of wall greater than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length shall have a minimum of one bracing unit.
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

FIGURE R602.12.5
BRACING UNIT DISTRIBUTION

The bracing methods referenced in Section R602.10 and specified in Sections R602.12.6.1 through R602.12.6.3 shall be permitted when using simplified wall bracing.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-G in accordance with Tables R602.10.4 and R602.10.5 shall be permitted for one-story garages when all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-G panel shall be equivalent to 0.5 of a bracing unit. Segments of wall which include a Method CS-G panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-PF in accordance with Section R602.10.6.4 shall be permitted when all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-PF panel shall equal 0.5 bracing units. A maximum of four CS-PF panels shall be permitted on all segments of walls parallel to each side of the circumscribed rectangle. Segments of wall which include a Method CS-PF panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method PFH and PFG shall be permitted when bracing units are constructed using wood structural panels. Each PFH panel shall equal one bracing unit and each PFG panel shall be equal to 0.75 bracing units.
For bracing units located along the eaves, the vertical distance from the outside edge of the top wall plate to the roof sheathing above shall not exceed 9.25 inches (235 mm) at the location of a bracing unit unless lateral support is provided in accordance with Section R602.10.8.2.
Masonry stem walls with a height and length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting a bracing unit or a Method CS-G, CS-PF or PFG braced wall panel shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall be reinforced sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9.
Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with the requirements of this section.
The provisions of this section shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. All exterior walls installed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as load-bearing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) Exposure B or C and a maximum ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).
Load-bearing cold-formed steel studs constructed in accordance with Section R603 shall be located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in accordance with Figure R603.1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows:
1. The maximum tolerance shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.
2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener are located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be 1/8 inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm,

FIGURE R603.1.2
IN-LINE FRAMING

Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with Figure R603.2(1) and with the dimensional and minimum thickness requirements specified in Tables R603.2(1) and R603.2(2). Tracks shall comply with Figure R603.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 11/4 inches (32 mm).

FIGURE R603.2(1)
C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE R603.2(2)
TRACK SECTION

TABLE R603.2(1)
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES

MEMBER
DESIGNATIONa
WEB DEPTH
(inches)
MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches)MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches)MINIMUM LIP SIZE
(inch)
350S162-t 3.5 1.625 2 0.5
550S162-t 5.5 1.625 2 0.5
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch “S” representing a stud or joist member, the second number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter “t” shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table R603.2(2)].

TABLE R603.2(2)
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS

DESIGNATION THICKNESS
(mils)
MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS
(inch)
330.0329
430.0428
540.0538
680.0677
970.0966
For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold-formed to shape from structural quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one of the following:
1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33 and 50 (Class 1 and 3).
2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33 and 50A.
3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H, and 50 Type H.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:
1. Manufacturer's identification.
2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).
3. Minimum coating designation.
4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following:
1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653.
2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 792.
Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to ASTM C 1513. Structural sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to cold-formed steel wall framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board shall be attached to cold-formed steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For all connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All fasteners shall have rust inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel connection, the required number of screws in the connection is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction factors in Table R603.2.4, when larger screws are used or when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor, the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up.

TABLE R603.2.4
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR

SCREW SIZETHINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils)
3343
#81.00.67
#100.930.62
#120.860.56
For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.
Web holes in wall studs and other structural members shall comply with all of the following conditions:
1. Holes shall conform to Figure R603.2.5.1;
2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member;
3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm);
4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or 11/2 inches (38 mm);
5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 41/2 inches (114 mm); and
6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).

Framing members with web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R603.2.5.2, patched in accordance with Section R603.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2.5.1
WEB HOLES

Web holes in gable endwall studs not conforming to the requirements of Section R603.2.5.1 shall be permitted to be reinforced if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section R603.2.5.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No.8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
Web holes in wall studs and other structural members not conforming to the requirements in Section R603.2.5.1 shall be permitted to be patched in accordance with either of the following methods:
1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice when web holes exceed the following size limits:
1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of the web; or
1.2. The length of the hole measured along the web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.
2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section R603.2.5.3, Item 1 shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or track section in accordance with Figure R603.2.5.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with a minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2.5.3
STUD WEB HOLE PATCH

All exterior cold-formed steel framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Cold-formed steel framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2) or R603.3.1(3). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts shall extend a minimum of 15 inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete. Foundation anchor straps shall be permitted, in lieu of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.

TABLE R603.3.1
WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b

FRAMING
CONDITION
WIND SPEED (MPH) AND EXPOSURE
85 B 90 B 100 B
85 C
110 B
90 C
100 C < 110 C
Wall bottom track to floor per Figure R603.3.1(1)1-No. 8 screw at 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw at 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw at 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw at 12″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws at 12″ o.c.2 No. 8 screws at 12″ o.c.
Wall bottom track to foundation per Figure R603.3.1(2)d1/2″ minimum diameter anchor
bolt at 6' o.c.
1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 6' o.c.1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c.1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c.1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c.1/2″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c.
Wall bottom track to wood sill per Figure R603.3.1(3)Steel plate spaced at 4'' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nailsSteel plate spaced at 4'' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nailsSteel plate spaced at 3'' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nailsSteel plate spaced at 3'' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nailsSteel plate spaced at 2'' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nailsSteel plate spaced at 2'' o.c., with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails
Wind uplift connector strength to 16″ stud spacingcNRNRNRNRNR65 lb per foot of wall length
Wind uplift connector strength for 24″ stud spacingcNRNRNRNRNR100 lb per foot of wall length
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.
a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or corners). Bolts are to extend a minimum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete.
b. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
c. NR = uplift connector not required.
d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.

FIGURE R603.3.1(1)
WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(2)
WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.3.1(3)
WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

Gable endwalls with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Tables R603.3.1.1(1) or R603.3.1.1(2).

TABLE R603.3.1.1(1)
GABLE ENDWALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c

BASIC WIND SPEED
(mph)
WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION
ExposureStud height, h (feet)
BC10 < h ≤ 1414 < h ≤ 1818 < h ≤ 22
851-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.
901-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.
100851-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.
110901-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws @ 12″ o.c.
1001-No. 8 screw @ 12″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 8″ o.c.
1102-No. 8 screws @ 12″ o.c.1-No. 8 screw @ 8″ o.c.2-No. 8 screws @ 8″ o.c.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections.
b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.

TABLE R603.3.1.1(2)
GABLE ENDWALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c

BASIC WIND SPEED
(mph)
MINIMUM SPACING FOR 1/2-INCH-DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTSd
ExposureStud height, h (feet)
BC10 < h ≤ 1414 < h ≤ 1818 < h ≤ 22
856'- 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
906'- 0″ o.c.5'- 7″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
100855'- 10″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
110904'- 10″ o.c.5'- 6″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
1004'- 1″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.
1105'- 1″ o.c.6'- 0″ o.c.5'- 2″ o.c.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections.
b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.
d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.
Cold-formed steel walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2) or R603.3.1(3), as applicable. Exterior wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31). Interior load-bearing wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31) based upon an 85 miles per hour (38 m/s) Exposure A/B wind value and the building width, stud spacing and snow load, as appropriate. Fastening requirements shall be in accordance with Section R603.2.4 and Table R603.3.2(1). Top and bottom tracks shall have the same minimum thickness as the wall studs.

Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where both of the following conditions exist:

1. Minimum of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on the interior surface.
2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 7/16-inch-thick (11 mm) oriented strand board or 15/32-inch-thick (12 mm) plywood is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(1) on the outside surface.

Interior load-bearing walls shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where a minimum of 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on both sides of the wall. The tabulated stud thickness for load- bearing walls shall be used when the attic load is 10 pounds per square feet (480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 pounds per square feet (960 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31).

For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be used when second floor live load is 30 pounds per square feet (1440 Pa). Second floor live loads of 40 psf (1920 pounds per square feet) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(21).

For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one or two floors, roof and ceiling shall be used when the third floor live load is 30 pounds per square feet (1440 Pa). Third floor live loads of 40 pounds per square feet (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(22) through R603.3.2(31).

TABLE R603.3.2(1)
WALL FASTENING SCHEDULEa

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING
ELEMENT
NUMBER AND SIZE OF
FASTENERSa
SPACING OF FASTENERS
Floor joist to track of load-bearing wall2-No. 8 screwsEach joist
Wall stud to top or bottom track2-No. 8 screwsEach end of stud, one per flange
Structural sheathing to wall studsNo. 8 screwsb6″ o.c. on edges and 12″ o.c. at intermediate supports
Roof framing to wallApproved design or tie down in accordance with Section R802.11.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
b. Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels are to be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head styles with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch.

TABLE R603.3.2(2)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
33 KSI STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
110 mph90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333343434343
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333343434343
24434343434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
110
mph
350S16216333333334343434343434343
24434343435454545468686868
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24334343434343434343434343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(3)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
50 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEEDMEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85 mph350S162163333 33 33 33 33333333333333
243333 3343 3333333333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
90 mph350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100 mph85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
110 mph90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
110
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(4)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
33 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEEDMEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050 702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216 33 33 33333333333333333333
24 33 33 43 4333334343 33 33 43 54
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434333334354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100 mph85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343433333434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110 mph90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333343
24333343434343434343434354
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
100 mph350S16216333333333333333343434343
24434343544343435454545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
110 mph350S16216333333334343434343434343
24434343545454545468686868
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(5)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
50 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEEDMEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85 mph350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
90 mph350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333333343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100 mph85
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334333334343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
110 mph90
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333334343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333333
100
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333434343434343434343
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333433333333333333333
110
mph
350S16216333333333333333333333333
24333343434343434354545454
550S16216333333333333333333333333
24333333333333333333333343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(6)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
33 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEED MEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. B Exp. C Ground Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S162 163333 33333333 33 33 33333343
243333 4354333343 43 33334354
550S162 16 3333 33333333 33 33 33333333
24 3333 33433333 33 43 33333343
90
mph
350S162 16 3333 33333333 33 33 33333343
24 3333 43543333 43 43 33334354
550S162 16 3333 33333333 33 33 33333333
24 3333 33433333 33 43 33333343
100 mph85
mph
350S162 16 3333 33333333 33 33 33333343
24 3333 43543333 43 54 43434354
550S162 16 3333 33333333 33 33 33333333
24 3333 33433333 33 43 33333343
110 mph90
mph
350S162 16 3333 33433333 33 33 33333343
24 3333 43544343 43 5443434354
550S162 16 3333 33333333 33 33 33333333
24 3333 33433333 33 43 33334343
100 mph 350S162 16 3333 33433333 33 43 43434343
24 4343 43544343 43 5454545454
550S162 16 3333 33333333 33 33 33333333
24 3333 43433333 33 43 33334343
110 mph 350S162 16 3333 33434343 43 43 43434343
24 4343 43545454 54 54 68686868
550S162 16 3333 33333333 33 33 33333333
24 3333 43433333 43 43 43434343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(7)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
50 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEED MEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. B Exp. C Ground Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020 305070
85
mph
350S162 16 333333333333 333333333333
24 33333343333333433333 4343
550S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333333433333333333333343
90
mph
350S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333333433333334333334343
550S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333333433333333333333343
100 mph 85
mph
350S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333343433333334333334343
550S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333333433333333333333343
110 mph 90
mph
350S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333343433333334343434354
550S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333333433333333333333343
100
mph
350S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333343434343434343434354
550S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333333433333334333333343
110
mph
350S162 16 333333333333333333333343
24 333343434343434354545454
550S162 16 333333333333333333333333
24 333333433333334333333343
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(8)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
33 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEEDMEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
20 30 507020 30 5070 2030 5070
85
mph
350S162 16 3333 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
243333 43 5433 33 43 54 33 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
90
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 33 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
100 mph85
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
110
mph
90
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
100 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
110 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(9)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
50 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEEDMEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
85 mph 350S162 1633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 3343 43 33 33 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
90 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
100 mph 85
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
110 mph 90
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
100
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 33 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
110
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(10)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
33 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEED MEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Exp. B Exp. C Ground Snow Load (psf)
20 30 50 70 20 30 5070 20 30 5070
85
mph
350S162 1633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
90
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
100 mph 85
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 43 43 54 33 43 43 54 43 43 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
110 mph 90
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
24 33 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
100 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 54 68 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54
110 mph 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 68 54 54 54 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(11)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa, b, c
50 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEED MEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. B Exp. C Ground Snow Load (psf)
20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
85 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 3333 33 333333333343
24 33 3343 54 33 33 434333334354
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
90 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
100 mph 85 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
110 mph 90 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
100 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
110 mph 350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(12)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c
33 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEED MEMBER SIZE STUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. B Exp. C Ground Snow Load (psf)
20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 5070
85
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 43 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
90
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 33 43 43 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
100
mph
85
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
110
mph
90
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 43 43
24 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
100
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
110
mph
350S162 16 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(13)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c
50 KSI STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S162163333 33 33333333 3333 333333
2433333343333333433333 4343
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
100 mph85
mph
350S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
110 mph90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
100 mph350S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
110 mph350S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43 43
2443 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(14)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c
33 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEEDMEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S1621633 3333433333334333333343
24434343544343435443434354
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
100 mph85
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
110 mph90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43
100
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43
2443 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
110
mph
350S1621633 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
2443 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 68 68 68 68
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2443 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(15)
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c
50 KSI STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. BExp. C203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S162163333 333333 3333 33 3333 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
100 mph85
mph
350S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
110 mph90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2433 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
100
mph
350S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
110
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 43 43 43 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(16)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c
33 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEEDMEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
85
mph
350S162163333 33 433333 33 43 33 33 43 43
244343 43 544343 43 54 4343 5454
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2433 43 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2433 43 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
100 mph85
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 43 43 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 68
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2433 43 43 54 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
110 mph90
mph
350S1621633 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
2443 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2433 43 43 54 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
100
mph
350S1621633 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
2443 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2433 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
110
mph
350S1621643 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54
2454 54 54 68 54 54 54 68 68 68 68 68
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(17)
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c
50 KSI STEEL

WIND
SPEED
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
203050702030507020305070
85
mph
350S16216333333433333333333333343
243333435433334343434343 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2433 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
100
mph
85
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2433 33 43 54 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
110 mph90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
100 mph350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
110 mph350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(18)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c
33 KSI STEEL

WIND SPEEDMEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
85
mph
350S162163333 43 43 33334343 33 33 43 43
2443 43 54 54 4343 5454 54 54 54 68
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
90
mph
350S1621633 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
2443 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
100 mph85
mph
350S1621633 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43
2443 43 54 68 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
110 mph90
mph
350S1621633 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
2443 43 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
100
mph
350S1621633 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
2454 54 54 68 54 54 54 68 54 68 68 68
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
110
mph
350S1621643 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54
2454 54 54 68 54 54 54 68 68 68 68 68
550S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
a. Deflection criterion: L/240.
b. Design load assumptions:
Second floor dead load is 10 psf.
Second floor live load is 30 psf.
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
Attic live load is 10 psf.
c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.

TABLE R603.3.2(19)
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa, b, c
50 KSI STEEL

<
WIND SPEEDMEMBER SIZESTUD SPACING (inches)MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs9-foot Studs10-foot Studs
Exp. BExp. CGround Snow Load (psf)
20 30 50 7020 30 5070 20 305070
85
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
244343 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 33 33 43 54 43 43 43 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
100
mph
85
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S1621633 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
2433 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43
110
mph
90
mph
350S1621633 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
2443 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
550S162