Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.1.2 are met, types of hangers shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 9.1.
Hangers certified by a registered professional engineer to include all of the following shall be an acceptable alternative to the requirements of Section 9.1:
  1. Hangers shall be designed to support five times the weight of the water-filled pipe plus 250 lb (115 kg) at each point of piping support.
  2. These points of support shall be adequate to support the system.
  3. The spacing between hangers shall not exceed the value given for the type of pipe as indicated in Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b).
  4. Hanger components shall be ferrous.
  5. Detailed calculations shall be submitted, when required by the reviewing authority, showing stresses developed in hangers, piping, and fittings, and safety factors allowed.
Shared support structures shall be certified by a registered professional engineer in accordance with 9.1.1.2 and 9.1.1.3.
The design of a shared support structure shall be based on either 9.1.1.3.1.1 or 9.1.1.3.1.2.
Sprinkler pipe and other distribution systems shall be permitted to be supported from a shared support structure designed to support five times the weight of water-filled sprinkler pipe and other supported distribution systems plus 250 lb (115 kg), based on the allowable ultimate stress.
Sprinkler pipe and other distribution systems shall be permitted to be supported from a shared support structure designed to support five times the weight of the water-filled sprinkler pipe plus 250 lb (115 kg), and one and one-half times the weight of all other supported distribution systems.
The building structure shall not be considered a shared support structure.
The requirements of 9.1.1.3.1 shall not apply to 9.2.1.3.3.
Systems that are incompatible with the fire sprinkler systems based on vibration, thermal expansion and contraction, or other factors shall not share support structures.
Where water-based fire protection systems are required to be protected against damage from earthquakes, hangers shall also meet the requirements of 9.3.7.
Unless permitted by 9.1.1.5.2 or 9.1.1.5.3, the components of hanger assemblies that directly attach to the pipe or to the building structure shall be listed.
Mild steel hanger rods and hangers formed from mild steel rods shall be permitted to be not listed.
Fasteners as specified in 9.1.3, 9.1.4, and 9.1.5 shall be permitted to be not listed.
Other fasteners shall be permitted as part of a hanger assembly that has been tested, listed, and installed in accordance with the listing requirements.
Unless permitted by 9.1.1.6.2 or 9.1.1.6.3, hangers and their components shall be ferrous.
Nonferrous components that have been proven by fire tests to be adequate for the hazard application, that are listed for this purpose, and that are in compliance with the other requirements of this section shall be acceptable.
Holes through solid structural members shall be permitted to serve as hangers for the support of system piping, provided such holes are permitted by applicable building codes and the spacing and support provisions for hangers of this standard are satisfied.
For trapeze hangers, the minimum size of steel angle or pipe span between structural members shall be such that the section modulus required in Table 9.1.1.7.1(a) does not exceed the available section modulus of the trapeze member from Table 9.1.1.7.1(b) or Table 9.1.1.7.1(c).

Table 9.1.1.7.1(a) Section Modulus Required for Trapeze Members (in.3)

Nominal Diameter of Pipe Being Supported - Schedule 10 Steel
Span (ft) 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 8 10
1.5 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.26 0.34
2.0 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.20 0.24 0.34 0.45
2.5 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.30 0.36 0.50 0.69
3.0 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.31 0.36 0.51 0.67
3.5 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.60 0.78
4.0 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.25 0.27 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.41 0.48 0.68 0.89
4.5 0.24 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.38 0.46 0.54 0.77 1.01
5.0 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.31 0.34 0.37 0.40 0.43 0.51 0.60 0.85 1.12
5.5 0.30 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.37 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.56 0.66 0.94 1.23
6.0 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.51 0.61 0.71 1.02 1.34
6.5 0.35 0.36 0.38 0.41 0.44 0.48 0.52 0.56 0.66 0.77 1.11 1.45
7.0 0.38 0.39 0.41 0.44 0.47 0.52 0.56 0.60 0.71 0.83 1.19 1.56
7.5 0.41 0.42 0.44 0.47 0.51 0.55 0.60 0.64 0.76 0.89 1.28 1.68
8.0 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.50 0.54 0.59 0.63 0.68 0.82 0.95 1.36 1.79
8.5 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.53 0.58 0.63 0.67 0.73 0.87 1.01 1.45 1.90
9.0 0.49 0.50 0.53 0.56 0.61 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.92 1.07 1.53 2.01
9.5 0.52 0.53 0.56 0.60 0.64 0.70 0.75 0.81 0.97 1.13 1.62 2.12
10.0 0.54 0.56 0.59 0.63 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.85 1.02 1.19 1.70 2.23
10.5 0.57 0.59 0.62 0.66 0.71 0.78 0.83 0.90 1.07 1.25 1.79 2.35
11.0 0.60 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.74 0.81 0.87 0.94 1.12 1.31 1.87 2.46
11.5 0.63 0.64 0.68 0.72 0.78 0.85 0.91 0.98 1.17 1.37 1.96 2.57
12.0 0.65 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.81 0.89 0.95 1.02 1.22 1.43 2.04 2.68
12.5 0.68 0.70 0.74 0.78 0.85 0.92 0.99 1.07 1.27 1.49 2.13 2.79
13.0 0.71 0.73 0.77 0.81 0.88 0.96 1.03 1.11 1.33 1.55 2.21 2.90
13.5 0.73 0.76 0.80 0.85 0.91 1.00 1.07 1.15 1.38 1.61 2.30 3.02
14.0 0.76 0.78 0.83 0.88 0.95 1.03 1.11 1.20 1.43 1.67 2.38 3.13
14.5 0.79 0.81 0.86 0.91 0.98 1.07 1.15 1.24 1.48 1.73 2.47 3.24
15.0 0.82 0.84 0.89 0.94 1.02 1.11 1.19 1.28 1.53 1.79 2.56 3.35
15.5 0.84 0.87 0.92 0.97 1.05 1.14 1.23 1.32 1.58 1.85 2.64 3.46
16.0 0.87 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.08 1.18 1.27 1.37 1.63 1.91 2.73 3.58
Nominal Diameter of Pipe Being Supported - Schedule 40 Steel
Span (ft) 1 1.25 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 5 6 8 10
1.5 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.14 0.15 0.18 0.22 0.30 0.41
2.0 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.24 0.29 0.40 0.55
2.5 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.25 0.30 0.43 0.56
3.0 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.25 0.27 0.30 0.36 0.43 0.60 0.82
3.5 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.26 0.29 0.32 0.35 0.42 0.51 0.70 0.96
4.0 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.29 0.33 0.36 0.40 0.48 0.58 0.80 1.10
4.5 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.29 0.33 0.37 0.41 0.45 0.54 0.65 0.90 1.23
5.0 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.33 0.37 0.41 0.45 0.49 0.60 0.72 1.00 1.37
5.5 0.30 0.31 0.33 0.36 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.54 0.66 0.79 1.10 1.51
6.0 0.33 0.34 0.36 0.39 0.44 0.49 0.54 0.59 0.72 0.87 1.20 1.64
6.5 0.36 0.37 0.40 0.42 0.48 0.54 0.59 0.64 0.78 0.94 1.31 1.78
7.0 0.38 0.40 0.43 0.46 0.52 0.58 0.63 0.69 0.84 1.01 1.41 1.92
7.5 0.41 0.43 0.46 0.49 0.55 0.62 0.68 0.74 0.90 1.08 1.51 2.06
8.0 0.44 0.46 0.49 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.79 0.96 1.16 1.61 2.19
8.5 0.47 0.48 0.52 0.56 0.63 0.70 0.77 0.84 1.02 1.23 1.71 2.33
9.0 0.49 0.51 0.55 0.59 0.66 0.74 0.81 0.89 1.08 1.30 1.81 2.47
9.5 0.52 0.54 0.58 0.62 0.70 0.78 0.86 0.94 1.14 1.37 1.91 2.60
10.0 0.55 0.57 0.61 0.65 0.74 0.82 0.90 0.99 1.20 1.45 2.01 2.74
10.5 0.58 0.60 0.64 0.69 0.77 0.86 0.95 1.04 1.26 1.52 2.11 2.88
11.0 0.60 0.63 0.67 0.72 0.81 0.91 0.99 1.09 1.32 1.59 2.21 3.01
11.5 0.63 0.66 0.70 0.75 0.85 0.95 1.04 1.14 1.38 1.66 2.31 3.15
12.0 0.66 0.68 0.73 0.78 0.88 0.99 1.08 1.19 1.44 1.73 2.41 3.29
12.5 0.69 0.71 0.76 0.82 0.92 1.03 1.13 1.24 1.5 1.81 2.51 3.43
13.0 0.71 0.74 0.79 0.85 0.96 1.07 1.17 1.29 1.56 1.88 2.61 3.56
13.5 0.74 0.77 0.82 0.88 0.99 1.11 1.22 1.34 1.62 1.95 2.71 3.70
14.0 0.77 0.80 0.85 0.91 1.03 1.15 1.26 1.39 1.68 2.02 2.81 3.84
14.5 0.80 0.83 0.88 0.95 1.07 1.19 1.31 1.43 1.74 2.1 2.91 3.97
15.0 0.82 0.86 0.91 0.98 1.10 1.24 1.35 1.48 1.8 2.17 3.01 4.11
15.5 0.85 0.88 0.94 1.01 1.14 1.28 1.4 1.53 1.86 2.24 3.11 4.25
16.0 0.88 0.91 0.97 1.05 1.18 1.32 1.44 1.58 1.92 2.31 3.21 4.39

For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.3048 m.

Note: The table is based on a maximum bending stress of 15 ksi and a midspan concentrated load from 15 ft (4.6 m) of water-filled pipe, plus 250 lb (114 kg).

Table 9.1.1.7.1(b) Available Section Modulus of Common Trapeze Hangers (in.3)

Pipe Modulus (in.3) Angles (in.) Modulus (in.3)
in. mm
Schedule 10
1 25 0.12 11/2 × 11/2 × 3/16 0.10
11/4 32 0.19 2× 2× 1/8 0.13
11/2 40 0.26 2× 11/2 × 3/16 0.18
2 50 0.42 2× 2× 3/16 0.19
21/2 65 0.69 2× 2× 1/4 0.25
3 80 1.04 21/2 × 11/2 × 3/16 0.28
31/2 90 1.38 21/2 × 2× 3/16 0.29
4 100 1.76 2 × 2 × 5/16 0.30
5 125 3.03 21/2 × 21/2 × 3/16 0.30
6 150 4.35 2× 2× 3/8 0.35
21/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 0.39
3 × 2 × 3/16 0.41
Schedule 40
1 25 0.13 3× 21/2 × 3/16 0.43
11/4 32 0.23 3× 3× 3/16 0.44
11/2 40 0.33 21/2 × 21/2 × 5/16 0.48
2 50 0.56 3×2×1/4 0.54
21/2 65 1.06 21/2 × 2× 3/8 0.55
3 80 1.72 21/2 × 21/2 × 3/8 0.57
31/2 90 2.39 3× 3× 1/4 0.58
4 100 3.21 3× 3× 5/16 0.71
5 125 5.45 21/2 × 21/2 × 1/2 0.72
6 150 8.50 31/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 0.75
3× 21/2 × 3/8 0.81
3× 3× 3/8 0.83
31/2 × 21/2 × 5/16 0.93
3× 3× 7/16 0.95
4 × 4 × 1/4 1.05
3× 3× 1/2 1.07
4 × 3× 5/16 1.23
4 × 4 × 5/16 1.29
4 × 3× 3/8 1.46
4 × 4 × 3/8 1.52
5 × 31/2 × 5/16 1.94
4 × 4 × 1/2 1.97
4 × 4 × 5/8 2.40
4 × 4 × 3/4 2.81
6 × 4 × 3/8 3.32
6 × 4 × 1/2 4.33
6×4× 3/4 6.25
6×6×1 8.57

Table 9.1.1.7.1(c) Available Section Modulus of Common Trapeze Hangers (cm3)

Pipe Modulus (cm3) Angles (mm) Modulus (cm3)
in. mm
Schedule 10
1 25 1.97 40 × 40 × 5 1.64
11/4 32 3.11 50 × 50 × 3 2.13
11/2 40 4.26 50 × 40 × 5 2.95
2 50 6.88 50 × 50 × 5 3.11
21/2 65 11.3 50 × 50 × 6 4.10
3 80 17.0 65 × 40 × 5 4.59
31/2 90 22.6 65 × 50 × 5 4.75
4 100 28.8 50 × 50 × 8 4.92
5 125 49.7 65 × 65 × 5 4.92
6 150 71.3 50 × 50 × 10 5.74
65 × 65 × 6 6.39
80 × 50 × 5 6.72
Schedule 40
1 25 2.1 80 × 65 × 10 7.05
11/4 32 3.8 3× 3× 3/16 7.21
11/2 40 5.4 65 × 65 × 8 7.87
2 50 9.2 3× 2× 1/4 8.85
21/2 65 17.4 65 × 50 × 10 9.01
3 80 28.2 65 × 65 × 10 9.34
31/2 90 39.2 80 × 80 × 6 9.50
4 100 52.6 80 × 80 × 8 11.6
5 125 89.3 65 × 65 × 15 11.8
6 150 139.3 90 × 65 ×6 12.3
80 × 65 × 10 13.3
80 × 80 × 10 13.6
90 × 65 × 8 15.2
80 × 80 × 11 15.6
100 × 100 × 6 17.2
80 × 80 × 15 17.5
100 × 80 × 8 20.2
100 × 100 × 8 21.1
100 × 80 × 10 23.9
100 × 100 × 10 24.9
125 × 90 × 8 31.8
100 × 100 × 16 32.3
100 × 100 × 8 39.3
100 × 100 × 20 46.0
150 × 100 × 10 54.4
150 × 100 × 15 71.0
150 × 100 × 20 102
150 × 150 × 25 140
Any other sizes or shapes giving equal or greater section modulus shall be acceptable.
All angles shall be installed with the longer leg vertical.
The trapeze member shall be secured to prevent slippage.
All components of each hanger assembly that attach to a trapeze member shall conform to 9.1.1.5 and be sized to support the suspended sprinkler pipe.
The ring, strap, or clevis installed on a pipe trapeze shall be manufactured to fit the pipe size of the trapeze member.
Holes for bolts or rods shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the diameter of the bolt or rod.
Bolts and rods shall be provided with flat washers and nuts.
Where angles are used for trapeze hangers and slotted holes are used, the slotted holes shall meet all of the following:
  1. The length of each slotted hole shall not exceed 3 in. (80 mm)
  2. The width of the slotted hole shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the bolt or rod diameter.
  3. The minimum distance between slotted holes shall be 3 in. (80 mm) edge to edge.
  4. The minimum distance from the end of the angle to the edge of the slotted hole shall be 3 in. (80 mm)
  5. The number of slots shall be limited to three per section of angle.
  6. The washer(s) required by 9.1.1.7.8 shall have a minimum thickness of one-half the thickness of the angle.
  7. Washers and nuts required by 9.1.1.7.8 shall be provided on both the top and bottom of the angle.
Sprinkler piping or hangers shall not be used to support non-system components.
Sprinkler piping shall be permitted to utilize shared support structures in accordance with 9.1.1.3.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.2.2 are met, hanger rod size shall be the same as that approved for use with the hanger assembly, and the size of rods shall not be less than that given in Table 9.1.2.1.

Table 9.1.2.1 Hanger Rod Sizes

Pipe Size Diameter of Rod
in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 10
5 125 1/2 12
6 150
8 200
10 250 5/8 16
12 300
Rods of smaller diameters than indicated in Table 9.1.2.1 shall be permitted where the hanger assembly has been tested and listed by a testing laboratory and installed within the limits of pipe sizes expressed in individual listings.
Where the pitch of the branch line is 6 in 12 or greater, a reduction in the lateral loading on branch line hanger rods shall be done by one of the following:
  1. *Second hanger installed in addition to the required main hangers
  2. Lateral sway brace assemblies on the mains
  3. Branch line hangers utilizing an articulating structural attachment
  4. Equivalent means providing support to the branch line hanger rods
The size of the rod material of U-hooks shall not be less than that given in Table 9.1.2.4.

Table 9.1.2.4 U-Hook Rod Sizes

Pipe Size Hook Material Diameter
in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 2 50 5/l6 8
21/2 to 6 65 to 150 3/8 10
8 200 1/2 12
The size of the rod material for eye rods shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1.2.5.1.

Table 9.1.2.5.1 Eye Rod Sizes

Pipe Size Diameter of Rod
With Bent Eye   With Welded Eye
in. mm in. mm   in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 10   3/8 10
5 125 1/2 12   1/2 12
6 150 1/2 12   1/2 12
8 200 3/4 20   1/2 12
Eye rods shall be secured with lock washers to prevent lateral motion.
Where eye rods are fastened to wood structural members, the eye rod shall be backed with a large flat washer bearing directly against the structural member, in addition to the lock washer.
Threaded sections of rods shall not be formed or bent.
Unless prohibited by 9.1.3.2 or 9.1.3.3, the use of listed inserts set in concrete and listed post-installed anchors to support hangers shall be permitted for mains and branch lines.
Post-installed anchors shall not be used in cinder concrete, except for branch lines where the post-installed anchors are alternated with through-bolts or hangers attached to beams.
Post-installed anchors shall not be used in ceilings of gypsum or other similar soft material.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.3.5 are met, post-installed anchors shall be installed in a horizontal position in the sides of concrete beams.
Post-installed anchors shall be permitted to be installed in the vertical position under any of the following conditions:
  1. When used in concrete having gravel or crushed stone aggregate to support pipes 4 in. (100 mm) or less in diameter
  2. When post-installed anchors are alternated with hangers connected directly to the structural members, such as trusses and girders, or to the sides of concrete beams [to support pipe 5 in. (125 mm) or larger]
  3. When post-installed anchors are spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) apart [to support pipe 4 in. (100 mm) or larger]
Holes for post-installed anchors in the side of beams shall be above the centerline of the beam or above the bottom reinforcement steel rods.
Holes for post-installed anchors used in the vertical position shall be drilled to provide uniform contact with the shield over its entire circumference.
The depth of the post-installed anchor hole shall not be less than specified for the type of shield used.
Powder-driven studs, welding studs, and the tools used for installing these devices shall be listed.
Pipe size, installation position, and construction material into which they are installed shall be in accordance with individual listings.
Representative samples of concrete into which studs are to be driven shall be tested to determine that the studs will hold a minimum load of 750 lb (340 kg) for 2 in. (50 mm) or smaller pipe; 1000 lb (454 kg) for 21/2 in., 3 in., or 31/2 in. (65 mm, 80 mm, or 90 mm) pipe; and 1200 lb (544 kg) for 4 in. or 5 in. (100 mm or 125 mm) pipe.
Increaser couplings shall be attached directly to the powder-driven studs.
The size of a bolt or rod used with a hanger and installed through concrete shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1.3.10.1.

Table 9.1.3.10.1 Minimum Bolt or Rod Size for Concrete

Pipe Size Size of Bolt or Rod
in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 10
5 125 1/2 12
6 150
8 200
10 250 5/8 16
12 300 3/4 20
Holes for bolts or rods shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the diameter of the bolt or rod.
Bolts and rods shall be provided with flat washers and nuts.
Powder-driven studs, welding studs, and the tools used for installing these devices shall be listed.
Pipe size, installation position, and construction material into which they are installed shall be in accordance with individual listings.
Increaser couplings shall be attached directly to the powder-driven studs or welding studs.
Welding studs or other hanger parts shall not be attached by welding to steel less than U.S. Standard, 12 gauge (2.8 mm).
The size of a bolt or rod used with a hanger and installed through steel shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1.4.5.1.

Table 9.1.4.5.1 Minimum Bolt or Rod Size for Steel

Pipe Size Size of Bolt or Rod
in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 10
5 125 1/2 12
6 150
8 200
10 250 5/8 15
12 300 3/4 20
Holes for bolts or rods shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the diameter of the bolt or rod.
Bolts and rods shall be provided with flat washers and nuts.
Drive screws shall be used only in a horizontal position as in the side of a beam and only for 2 in. (50 mm) or smaller pipe.
Drive screws shall only be used in conjunction with hangers that require two points of attachments.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.5.2.2 or 9.1.5.2.3 are met, for ceiling flanges and U-hooks, screw dimensions shall not be less than those given in Table 9.1.5.2.1.

Table 9.1.5.2.1 Screw Dimensions for Ceiling Flanges and U-Hooks

Pipe Size Two Screw Ceiling Flanges
in. mm
Up to and including 2 50 Wood screw No. 18 × 11/2 in.
or
Lag screw 5/16 in. × 11/2 in.
Three Screw Ceiling Flanges
Up to and including 2 50 Wood screw No. 18 × 11/2 in.
21/2 65 Lag screw 3/8 in. × 2 in.
3 80
31/2 90
4 100 Lag screw 1/2 in. × 2 in.
5 125
6 150
8 200 Lag screw 5/8 in. × 2 in.
Four Screw Ceiling Flanges
Up to and including 2 50 Wood screw No. 18 × 11/2 in.
21/2 65 Lag screw 3/8 in. × 11/2 in.
3 80
31/2 90
4 100 Lag screw 1/2 in. × 2 in.
5 125
6 150
8 200 Lag screw 5/8 in. × 2 in.
U-Hooks
Up to and including 2 50 Drive screw No. 16 × 2 in.
21/2 65 Lag screw 3/8 in. × 21/2 in.
3 80
31/2 90
4 100 Lag screw 1/2 in. × 3 in.
5 125
6 150
8 200 Lag screw 5/8 in. × 3 in.
When the thickness of planking and thickness of flange do not permit the use of screws 2 in. (50 mm) long, screws 13/4 in. (45 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) apart.
When the thickness of beams or joists does not permit the use of screws 21/2 in. (65 mm) long, screws 2 in. (50 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) apart.
Unless the requirements of 9.1.5.3.2 are met, the size of bolt, rod, or lag screw used with a hanger and installed on the side of the beam shall not be less than specified in Table 9.1.5.3.1.

Table 9.1.5.3.1 Minimum Bolt, Rod, or Lag Screw Sizes for Side of Beam Installation

Pipe Size Size of Bolt, Rod or Lag Screw Length of Lag Screw Used with Wood Beams
in. mm in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 2 50 3/8 10 21/2 65
21/2 to 6 (inclusive) 65 to 150 1/2 12 3 75
8 200 5/8 16 3 75
Where the thickness of beams or joists does not permit the use of screws 214 in. (65 mm) long, screws 2 in. (50 mm) long shall be permitted with hangers spaced not over 10 ft (3 m) apart.
All holes for lag screws shall be pre-drilled 1/8 in. (3 mm) less in diameter than the maximum root diameter of the lag screw thread.
Holes for bolts or rods shall not exceed 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) greater than the diameter of the bolt or rod.
Bolts and rods shall be provided with flat washers and nuts.
Wood screws shall be installed with a screwdriver.
Nails shall not be acceptable for fastening hangers.
Screws in the side of a timber or joist shall be not less than 21/2 in. (65 mm) from the lower edge where supporting pipe is up to and including nominal 21/2 in. and not less than 3 in. (75 mm) where supporting pipe is greater than nominal 21/2 in.
The requirements of 9.1.5.6.1 shall not apply to 2 in. (50 mm) or thicker nailing strips resting on top of steel beams.
The size of coach screw rods shall not be less than the requirements of Table 9.1.5.7.1.

Table 9.1.5.7.1 Minimum Coach Screw Rod Size

Pipe Size Diameter of Rod Minimum Penetration
in. mm in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 4 100 3/8 10 3 75
Larger than 4 100 NP NP NP NP
NP: Not permitted.
The minimum plank thickness and the minimum width of the lower face of beams or joists in which coach screw rods are used shall be not less than that specified in Table 9.1.5.7.2 and shown in Figure 9.1.5.7.2.

Table 9.1.5.7.2 Minimum Plank Thicknesses and Beam or Joist Widths

Pipe Size Nominal Plank Thickness Nominal Width of Beam or Joist Face
in. mm in. mm in. mm
Up to and including 2 50 3 75 2 50
21/2 65 4 100 2 50
3 80
31/2 90
4 100 4 100 3 75

FIGURE 9.1.5.7.2 Dimensions for Structural Members with Coach Screw Rods.

Coach screw rods shall not be used for support of pipes larger than 4 in. (100 mm) in diameter.
All holes for coach screw rods shall be predrilled 1/8 in. (3 mm) less in diameter than the maximum root diameter of the wood screw thread.
Unless the requirements of 9.2.1.1.2 are met, sprinkler piping shall be supported independently of the ceiling sheathing.
Toggle hangers shall be permitted only for the support of pipe 11/2 in. (40 mm) or smaller in size under ceilings of hollow tile or metal lath and plaster.
Where sprinkler piping is installed in storage racks, piping shall be supported from the storage rack structure or building in accordance with all applicable provisions of Sections 9.2 and 9.3.
Sprinkler piping shall be substantially supported from the building structure, which must support the added load of the water-filled pipe plus a minimum of 250 lb (115 kg) applied at the point of hanging, except where permitted by 9.2.1.1.2, 9.2.1.3.3, and 9.2.1.4.1.
Trapeze hangers shall be used where necessary to transfer loads to appropriate structural members.
Listed flexible sprinkler hose fittings and their anchoring components intended for use in installations connecting the sprinkler system piping to sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of the listing, including any installation instructions.
When installed and supported by suspended ceilings, the ceiling shall meet ASTM C635, Standard Specification for the Manufacture, Performance, and Testing of Metal Suspension Systems for Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panel Ceilings, and shall be installed in accordance with ASTM C636, Standard Practice for Installation of Metal Ceiling Suspension Systems for Acoustical Tile and Lay-In Panels.
Where flexible sprinkler hose fittings exceed 6 ft (1.8 m) in length and are supported by a suspended ceiling in accordance with 9.2.1.3.3.2, a hanger(s) attached to the structure shall be required to ensure that the maximum unsupported length does not exceed 6 ft (1.8 m).
Where flexible sprinkler hose fittings are used to connect sprinklers to branch lines in suspended ceilings, a label limiting relocation of the sprinkler shall be provided on the anchoring component.
Branch line hangers attached to metal deck shall be permitted only for the support of pipe 1 in. (25 mm) or smaller in size, by drilling or punching the vertical portion of the metal deck and using through bolts.
The distance from the bottom of the bolt hole to the bottom of the vertical member shall be not less than 3/8 in. (10 mm).
Where sprinkler piping is installed below ductwork, piping shall be supported from the building structure or from the ductwork supports, provided such supports are capable of handling both the load of the ductwork and the load specified in 9.2.1.3.1.
The maximum distance between hangers shall not exceed that specified in Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b), except where the provisions of 9.2.4 apply.

Table 9.2.2.1(a) Maximum Distance Between Hangers (ft-in.)

  Nominal Pipe Size (in.)
3/4 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8
Steel pipe except threaded lightwall NA 12-0 12-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0
Threaded lightwall steel pipe NA 12-0 12-0 12-0 12-0 12-0 12-0 NA NA NA NA NA
Copper tube 8-0 8-0 10-0 10-0 12-0 12-0 12-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0 15-0
CPVC 5-6 6-0 6-6 7-0 8-0 9-0 10-0 NA NA NA NA NA
Ductile-iron pipe

NA

NA NA NA NA NA 15-0 NA 15-0 NA 15-0 15-0
NA: Not applicable.

Table 9.2.2.1(b) Maximum Distance Between Hangers (m)

  Nominal Pipe Size (mm.)
20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 200
Steel pipe except threaded lightwall NA 3.7 3.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
Threaded lightwall steel pipe NA 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 NA NA NA NA NA
Copper tube 2.4 2.4 3.0 3.0 3.7 3.7 3.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
CPVC 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 NA NA NA NA NA
Ductile-iron pipe

NA

NA NA NA NA NA 4.6 NA 4.6 NA 4.6 4.6
NA: Not applicable.
The maximum distance between hangers for listed nonmetallic pipe shall be modified as specified in the individual product listings.
Subsection 9.2.3 shall apply to the support of steel pipe or copper tube as specified in 6.3.1 and subject to the provisions of 9.2.2.
Unless the requirements of 9.2.3.2.2 through 9.2.3.2.5 are met, there shall be not less than one hanger for each section of pipe.
Unless the requirements of 9.2.3.2.3 are met, where sprinklers are spaced less than 6 ft (1.8 m) apart, hangers spaced up to a maximum of 12 ft (3.7 m) shall be permitted.
For welded or mechanical outlets on a continuous section of pipe, hanger spacing shall be according to Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b).
Starter lengths less than 6 ft (1.8 m) shall not require a hanger, unless on the end line of a sidefeed system or where an intermediate cross main hanger has been omitted.
A single section of pipe shall not require a hanger when the cumulative distance between hangers on the branch line does not exceed the spacing required by Table 9.2.2.1(a) and Table 9.2.2.1(b).
The distance between a hanger and the centerline of an upright sprinkler shall not be less than 3 in. (75 mm).
For steel pipe, the unsupported horizontal length between the end sprinkler and the last hanger on the line shall not be greater than 36 in. (900 mm) for 1 in. (25 mm) pipe, 48 in. (1.2 m) for 11/4 in. (32 mm) pipe, and 60 in. (1.5 m) for 11/2 in. (40 mm) or larger pipe.
For copper tube, the unsupported horizontal length between the end sprinkler and the last hanger on the line shall not be greater than 18 in. (450 mm) for 1 in. (25 mm) pipe, 24 in. (600 mm) for 11/4 in. (32 mm) pipe, and 30 in. (750 mm) for 11/2 in. (40 mm) or larger pipe.
Where the limits of 9.2.3.4.1 and 9.2.3.4.2 are exceeded, the pipe shall be extended beyond the end sprinkler and shall be supported by an additional hanger.
Where the maximum static or flowing pressure, whichever is greater at the sprinkler, applied other than through the fire department connection, exceeds 100 psi (6.9 bar) and a branch line above a ceiling supplies sprinklers in a pendent position below the ceiling, the hanger assembly supporting the pipe supplying an end sprinkler in a pendent position shall be of a type that prevents upward movement of the pipe.
The unsupported length between the end sprinkler in a pendent position or drop nipple and the last hanger on the branch line shall not be greater than 12 in. (300 mm) for steel pipe or 6 in. (150 mm) for copper pipe.
When the limit of 9.2.3.4.4.2 is exceeded, the pipe shall be extended beyond the end sprinkler and supported by an additional hanger.
Unless flexible sprinkler hose fittings in accordance with 9.2.1.3.3.1 are used, the hanger closest to the sprinkler shall be of a type that prevents upward movement of the pipe.
The cumulative horizontal length of an unsupported armover to a sprinkler, sprinkler drop, or sprig shall not exceed 24 in. (600 mm) for steel pipe or 12 in. (300 mm) for copper tube.
Where the maximum static or flowing pressure, whichever is greater at the sprinkler, applied other than through the fire department connection, exceeds 100 psi (6.9 bar) and a branch line above a ceiling supplies sprinklers in a pendent position below the ceiling, the cumulative horizontal length of an unsupported armover to a sprinkler or sprinkler drop shall not exceed 12 in. (300 mm) for steel pipe and 6 in. (150 mm) for copper tube.
Unless flexible sprinkler hose fittings in accordance with 9.2.1.3.3.1 are used, the hanger closest to the sprinkler shall be of a type that prevents upward movement of the pipe.
Where the armover exceeds the maximum unsupported length of 9.2.3.5.2.1, a hanger shall be installed so that the distance from the end sprinkler or drop nipple to the hanger is not greater than 12 in. (300 mm) for steel or 6 in. (150 mm) for copper, or the pipe shall be extended beyond the end sprinkler and shall be supported by an additional hanger.
Wall-mounted sidewall sprinklers shall be restrained to prevent movement.
Sprigs 4 ft (1.2 m) or longer shall be restrained against lateral movement.
Unless any of the requirements of 9.2.4.2 through 9.2.4.6 are met, hangers for mains shall be in accordance with 9.2.2, between each branch line, or on each section of pipe, whichever is the lesser dimension.
For welded or mechanical outlets on a continuous section of pipe, hanger spacing shall be according to Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b).
For cross mains in steel pipe systems in bays having two branch lines, the intermediate hanger shall be permitted to be omitted, provided that a hanger attached to a purlin is installed on each branch line located as near to the cross main as the location of the purlin permits.
The remaining branch line hangers shall be installed in accordance with 9.2.3.
For cross mains in steel pipe systems only in bays having three branch lines, either side or center feed, one (only) intermediate hanger shall be permitted to be omitted, provided that a hanger attached to a purlin is installed on each branch line located as near to the cross main as the location of the purlin permits.
The remaining branch line hangers shall be installed in accordance with 9.2.3.
For cross mains in steel pipe systems only in bays having four or more branch lines, either side or center feed, two intermediate hangers shall be permitted to be omitted, provided the maximum distance between hangers does not exceed the distances specified in 9.2.2 and a hanger attached to a purlin on each branch line is located as near to the cross main as the purlin permits.
At the end of the main, intermediate trapeze hangers shall be installed unless the main is extended to the next framing member with a hanger installed at this point, in which event an intermediate hanger shall be permitted to be omitted in accordance with 9.2.4.3, 9.2.4.4, and 9.2.4.5.
A single section of pipe shall not require a hanger when the cumulative distance between hangers on the main does not exceed the spacing required by Table 9.2.2.1(a) and Table 9.2.2.1(b).
Risers shall be supported by riser clamps or by hangers located on the horizontal connections within 24 in. (600 mm) of the centerline of the riser.
Riser clamps supporting risers by means of set screws shall not be used.
Riser clamps anchored to walls using hanger rods in the horizontal position shall not be permitted to vertically support risers.
In multistory buildings, riser supports shall be provided at the lowest level, at each alternate level above, above and below offsets, and at the top of the riser.
Supports above the lowest level shall also restrain the pipe to prevent movement by an upward thrust where flexible fittings are used.
Where risers are supported from the ground, the ground support shall constitute the first level of riser support.
Where risers are offset or do not rise from the ground, the first ceiling level above the offset shall constitute the first level of riser support.
Distance between supports for risers shall not exceed 25 ft (7.6 m).
Where pipe stands are used to support system piping, the requirements of 9.2.6 shall apply unless the requirements of 9.2.6.1.2 are met.
Pipe stands certified by a registered professional engineer to include all of the following shall be an acceptable alternative to the requirements of 9.2.6:
  1. Pipe stands shall be designed to support five times the weight of water-filled pipe plus 250 lb (115 kg) at each point of piping support.
  2. These points of support shall be adequate to support the system.
  3. The spacing between pipe stands shall not exceed the value given for the type of pipe as indicated in Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b).
  4. Pipe stand components shall be ferrous.
  5. Detailed calculations shall be submitted, when required by the reviewing authority, showing stresses developed in the pipe stand, the system piping and fittings, and safety factors allowed.
Where water-based fire protection systems are required to be protected against damage from earthquakes, pipe stands shall also meet the requirements of 9.3.8.
Pipe stands and their components shall be ferrous unless permitted by 9.2.6.2.2.
Nonferrous components that have been proven by fire tests to be adequate for the hazard application and that are in compliance with the other requirements of this section shall be acceptable.
The maximum heights for pipe stands shall be in accordance with Table 9.2.6.3.1 unless the requirements of 9.2.6.3.2 are met.
Table 9.2.6.3.1 and Table 9.2.6.5.3 were revised by a tentative interim amendment (TIA). See page 1.

Table 9.2.6.3.1 Maximum Pipe Stand Heights

System Pipe Diameter* Pipe Stand Diameter*
11/2 in 2 in. 21/2 in. 3 in. 4 in. 6 in.
11/2 in. 6.6 ft 9.4 ft 11.3 ft 13.8 ft 18.0 ft 26.8 ft
2 in. 4.4 ft 9.4 ft 11.3 ft 13.8 ft 18.0 ft 26.8 ft
21/2 in. 8.1 ft 11.3 ft 13.8 ft 18.0 ft 26.8 ft
3 in. 5.2 ft 11.3 ft 13.8 ft 18.0 ft 26.8 ft
4 in. up to and including 8 in. 14.7 ft 26.8 ft
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm; 1 ft = 0.305 m.
*System piping is assumed to be Schedule 40 (8 in. is Schedule 30).
Pipe stands are Schedule 40 pipe.
Pipe diameters up to and including 10 in. (200 mm) Schedule 40 are permitted to be supported by 2 in. (50 mm) diameter pipe stands when all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The maximum height shall be 4 ft (1.2 m), as measured from the base of the pipe stand to the centerline of the pipe being supported.
  2. *The pipe stand shall be axially loaded.
The distance between pipe stands shall not exceed the values in Table 9.2.2.1(a) or Table 9.2.2.1(b).
The pipe stand base shall be secured by an approved method.
Pipe stand base plates shall be threaded malleable iron flanges or welded steel flanges in accordance with Table 6.4.1.
Pipes stands installed in accordance with 9.2.6.3.2 shall be permitted to use a welded steel plate.
Pipe stands shall be fastened to a concrete floor or footing using listed concrete anchors or other approved means.
A minimum of four anchors shall be used to attach the base plate to the floor.
Pipe stands installed in accordance with 9.2.6.3.2 shall be permitted to use a minimum of two anchors to attach the base plate to the floor.
The minimum diameter for the anchors shall be 1/2 in. for pipe stand diameters up to and including 3 in. and 5/8 in. for pipe stands 4 in. diameter and larger.
Where the pipe stand complies with 9.2.6.3.2, 3/8 in. anchors shall be permitted.
Piping shall be attached to the pipe stand with U-bolts or equivalent attachment.
Where a horizontal bracket is used to attach the system piping to the pipe stand, it shall not be more than 1 ft (0.3 m) as measured horizontally from the centerline of the pipe stand to the centerline of the supported pipe.
Horizontal support brackets shall be sized such that the section modulus required in Table 9.2.6.5.3 does not exceed the available section modulus from Table 9.1.1.7.1(b).

Table 9.2.6.5.3 Required Section Modulus for Pipe Stand Horizontal Support Arms (in.3)

Nominal Diameter of Pipe Being Supported (in.) 1 11/4 11/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8
Section Modulus - Schedule 10 Steel 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.49 0.66 0.85 1.40
Section Modulus - Schedule 40 Steel 0.22 0.24 0.24 0.27 0.36 0.45 0.54 0.63 0.86 1.13 1.64

For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.

Note: The table is based on the controlling section modulus determined for a concentrated load at a 1 ft (0.3 m) cantilever using one of the following: (1) a maximum bending stress of 15 ksi (103 MPa) and a concentrated load equal to the weight of 15 ft (4.6 m) of water-filled pipe plus 250 lb (114 kg), or (2) a maximum bending stress of 28 ksi (193 MPa) and a concentrated load equal to five times the weight of 15 ft (4.6 m) of water-filled pipe plus 250 lb (114 kg).

System piping shall be supported and restrained to restrict movement due to sprinkler/nozzle reaction and water surges.
Where thrust forces are anticipated to be high, a pipe ring or clamp shall secure the system piping to the pipe stand.
Where required, pipe stands used in exterior applications shall be made of galvanized steel or other suitable corrosion-resistant materials.
A welded, threaded, grooved, or other approved cap shall be securely attached to the top of the pipe stand.
Where water-based fire protection systems are required to be protected against damage from earthquakes, the requirements of Section 9.3 shall apply, unless the requirements of 9.3.1.2 are met.
Alternative methods of providing earthquake protection of sprinkler systems based on a seismic analysis certified by a registered professional engineer such that system performance will be at least equal to that of the building structure under expected seismic forces shall be permitted.
Braces and restraints shall not obstruct sprinklers and shall comply with the obstruction rules of Chapter 8.
Listed flexible pipe couplings joining grooved end pipe shall be provided as flexure joints to allow individual sections of piping 21/2 in. (65 mm) or larger to move differentially with the individual sections of the building to which it is attached.
Couplings shall be arranged to coincide with structural separations within a building.
Systems having more flexible couplings than required by this section shall be provided with additional sway bracing as required in 9.3.5.5.9.
The flexible couplings shall be installed as follows:
  1. *Within 24 in. (600 mm) of the top and bottom of all risers, unless the following provisions are met:
    1. In risers less than 3 ft (900 mm) in length, flexible couplings are permitted to be omitted.
    2. In risers 3 ft to 7 ft (900 mm to 2.1 m) in length, one flexible coupling is adequate.
  2. Within 12 in. (300 mm) above and within 24 in. (600 mm) below the floor in multistory buildings
  3. On both sides of concrete or masonry walls within 1 ft (300 mm) of the wall surface, unless clearance is provided in accordance with 9.3.4
  4. *Within 24 in. (600 mm) of building expansion joints
  5. Within 24 in. (600 mm) of the top of drops exceeding 15 ft (4.6 m) in length to portions of systems supplying more than one sprinkler, regardless of pipe size
  6. Within 24 in. (600 mm) above and 24 in. (600 mm) below any intermediate points of support for a riser or other vertical pipe
When the flexible coupling below the floor is above the tie-in main to the main supplying that floor, a flexible coupling shall be provided in accordance with one of the following:
  1. *On the horizontal portion within 24 in. (600 mm) of the tie-in where the tie-in is horizontal
  2. *On the vertical portion of the tie-in where the tie-in incorporates a riser
Flexible couplings for drops to hose lines, rack sprinklers, mezzanines, and freestanding structures shall be installed regardless of pipe sizes as follows:
  1. Within 24 in. (600 mm) of the top of the drop
  2. Within 24 in. (600 mm) above the uppermost drop support attachment, where drop supports are provided to the structure, rack, or mezzanine
  3. Within 24 in. (600 mm) above the bottom of the drop where no additional drop support is provided
An approved seismic separation assembly shall be installed where sprinkler piping, regardless of size, crosses building seismic separation joints at ground level and above.
Seismic separation assemblies shall consist of flexible fittings or flexible piping so as to allow movement sufficient to accommodate closing of the separation, opening of the separation to twice its normal size, and movement relative to the separation in the other two dimensions in an amount equal to the separation distance.
The seismic separation assembly shall include a four-way brace upstream and downstream within 6 ft (1.8 m) of the seismic separation assembly.
Bracing shall not be attached to the seismic separation assembly.
Clearance shall be provided around all piping extending through walls, floors, platforms, and foundations, including drains, fire department connections, and other auxiliary piping.
Unless any of the requirements of 9.3.4.3 through 9.3.4.7 or 9.3.4.10 are met, where pipe passes through holes in platforms, foundations, walls, or floors, the holes shall be sized such that the diameter of the holes is nominally 2 in. (50 mm) larger than the pipe for pipe 1 in. (25 mm) nominal to 31/2 in. (90 mm) nominal and 4 in. (100 mm) larger than the pipe for pipe 4 in. (100 mm) nominal and larger.
Where clearance is provided by a pipe sleeve, a nominal diameter 2 in. (50 mm) larger than the nominal diameter of the pipe shall be acceptable for pipe sizes 1 in. (25 mm) through 31/2 in. (90 mm), and the clearance provided by a pipe sleeve of nominal diameter 4 in. (100 mm) larger than the nominal diameter of the pipe shall be acceptable for pipe sizes 4 in. (100 mm) and larger.
No clearance shall be required for piping passing through gypsum board or equally frangible construction that is not required to have a fire resistance rating.
No clearance shall be required if flexible couplings are located within 1 ft (300 mm) of each side of a wall or if the requirements of 9.3.2.3.1(2) are met.
No clearance shall be required where horizontal piping passes perpendicularly through successive studs or joists that form a wall or floor/ceiling assembly.
No clearance shall be required where nonmetallic pipe has been demonstrated to have inherent flexibility equal to or greater than the minimum provided by flexible couplings located within 1 ft (300 mm) of each side of a wall, floor, platform, or foundation.
Where required, the clearance shall be filled with a flexible material that is compatible with the piping material.
The installed horizontal and upward vertical clearance between horizontal sprinkler piping and structural members not penetrated or used, collectively or independently, to support the piping shall be at least 2 in. (50 mm).
No clearance shall be required where piping is supported by holes through structural members as permitted by 9.1.1.6.3.
The installed clearance between a sprinkler and structural elements not used collectively or independently to support the sprinklers shall be at least 3 in. (75 mm).
Where sprinklers are installed using flexible sprinkler hose, clearance for the sprinkler shall not be required.
Clearance shall not be required for piping that is vertically supported by the bottom edge of holes through structural members as permitted by 9.1.1.6.3.
No horizontal clearance (tight fit) shall be provided for piping that is laterally supported by the side edges of holes through structural members.
Clearance shall be permitted where piping is secured to the structural member with an approved hanger or restraint.
The system piping shall be braced to resist both lateral and longitudinal horizontal seismic loads and to prevent vertical motion resulting from seismic loads.
The structural components to which bracing is attached shall be determined to be capable of resisting the added applied seismic loads.
Horizontal loads on system piping shall be determined in accordance with 9.3.5.9.
A shared support structure shall be permitted to support both the gravity loads addressed in 9.1.1.3.1 and the seismic loads addressed in 9.3.5.9.
When a shared support structure is used to support gravity and seismic loads, the structure shall be designed to support these loads for all pipe and distribution systems on the structure using either 9.3.5.9.3 or 9.3.5.9.4 with an importance factor, Ip, of 1.5 being applied to all of the distribution systems.
If a shared support structure is used to support sprinkler pipe and other distribution systems per 9.1.1.3.1 and that structure does not provide seismic resistance as required in 9.3.5.1.4, the following shall be met:
  1. The sprinkler pipe shall be braced using the method in 9.3.5.6 with the zone of influence including the water-filled sprinkler pipe and all other distribution systems that are not independently equipped with seismic protection and attached to the shared support structure.
  2. The sprinkler sway bracing attachment shall be connected to the same building or structure as the shared support structure.
Bracing requirements of 9.3.5 shall not apply to drain piping downstream of the drain valve.
Sway bracing assemblies shall be listed for a maximum load rating, unless the requirements of 9.3.5.2.2 are met.
Where sway bracing utilizing pipe, angles, flats, or rods as shown in Table 9.3.5.11.8(a) Table 9.3.5.11.8(b), and Table 9.3.5.11.8(c) is used, the components shall not require listing.
Bracing fittings and connections used with those specific materials shall be listed.
The listed load rating shall be reduced as shown in Table 9.3.5.2.3 to determine the allowable load for installations where the brace is less than 90 degrees from vertical.

Table 9.3.5.2.3 Listed Horizontal Load Adjustment

Brace Angle Degrees from Vertical Allowable Horizontal Load
30 to 44 Listed load rating divided by 2.000
45 to 59 Listed load rating divided by 1.414
60 to 89 Listed load rating divided by 1.155
90 Listed load rating
Maximum allowable horizontal loads shall be determined by testing at angles of 30, 45, 60, and 90 degrees from vertical and confirmed to be equal to or greater than those calculated using 9.3.5.2.3.
For attachments to structures, additional tests shall be performed at 0 degrees.
Unless permitted by 9.3.5.3.2, components of sway brace assemblies shall be ferrous.
Nonferrous components that have been proven by fire tests to be adequate for the hazard application, that are listed for this purpose, and that are in compliance with the other requirements of this section shall be acceptable.
Sway braces shall be designed to withstand forces in tension and compression, unless the requirements of 9.3.5.4.2 are met.
Tension-only bracing systems shall be permitted for use where listed for this service and where installed in accordance with their listing limitations, including installation instructions.
For all braces, whether or not listed, the maximum allowable load shall be based on the weakest component of the brace with safety factors.
Lateral sway bracing shall be provided on all feed and cross mains regardless of size and all branch lines and other piping with a diameter of 21/2 in. (65 mm) and larger.
Where branch lines are not provided with lateral sway bracing, they shall be provided with restraint in accordance with 9.3.6.
Lateral sway bracing shall be in accordance with either Table 9.3.5.5.2(a) through Table 9.3.5.5.2(1), or 9.3.5.5.3, based on the piping material of the sprinkler system.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(a) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy = 30 ksi) Schedule 10 Steel Pipe

Pipe (in.) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
1 111 89 73 63 52
11/4 176 141 116 99 83
11/2 241 193 158 136 114
2 390 312 256 219 183
21/2 641 513 420 360 301
3 966 773 633 543 454
31/2 1281 1025 840 720 603
4 1634 1307 1071 918 769
5 2814 2251 1844 1581 1324
6 and largere 4039 3231 2647 2269 1900

Note: ASTMA106 Grade B or ASTMA53 Grade B has an Fy = 35 ksi. An Fy = 30 ksi was used as a conservative value to account for differences in material properties as well as other operational stresses.

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(b) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (kg), (Fy = 207 N/mm2) Schedule 10 Steel Pipe

Pipe (mm) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (m)a
6.1b 7.6b 9.1c 10.7c 12.2d
25 50 40 33 29 24
32 80 64 53 45 38
40 109 88 72 62 52
50 177 142 116 99 83
65 291 233 191 163 137
80 438 351 287 246 206
90 581 465 381 327 273
100 741 593 486 416 349
125 1276 1021 836 717 601
150e 1832 1466 1201 1029 862

Note: ASTMA 106 Grade B or ASTMA 53 Grade B has an Fy = 241 N/mm2. An Fy = 207 N/mm2 was used also as a conservative value to account for differences in material properties as well as other operational stresses.

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(c) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy = 30 ksi) Schedule 40 Steel Pipe

Pipe (in.) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
1 121 97 79 68 57
11/4 214 171 140 120 100
11/2 306 245 201 172 144
2 520 416 341 292 245
21/2 984 787 645 553 463
3 1597 1278 1047 897 751
31/2 2219 1775 1455 1247 1044
4 2981 2385 1954 1675 1402
5 5061 4049 3317 2843 2381
6 and largere 7893 6314 5173 4434 3713

Note: ASTM A106 Grade B or ASTM A53 Grade B has an Fy = 35 ksi. An Fy = 30 ksi was used as a conservative value to account for differences in material properties as well as other operational stresses.

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(d) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (kg), (Fy = 207 N/mm2) Schedule 40 Steel Pipe

Pipe (mm) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (m)a
6.1b 7.6b 9.1c 10.7c 12.2d
25 55 44 36 31 26
32 97 78 63 54 45
40 139 111 91 78 65
50 236 189 155 132 111
65 446 357 293 251 210
80 724 580 475 407 341
90 1007 805 660 566 474
100 1352 1082 886 760 636
125 2296 1837 1505 1290 1080
150e 3580 2864 2346 2011 1684

Note: ASTM A 106 Grade B or ASTM A 53 Grade B has an Fy = 241 N/ mm2. An Fy = 207 N/mm2 was used also as a conservative value to account for differences in material properties as well as other operational stresses.

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(e) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy = 30 ksi) Schedule 5 Steel Pipe

Pipe (in.) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
1 71 56 46 40 33
11/4 116 93 76 65 55
11/2 154 124 101 87 73
2 246 197 161 138 116
21/2 459 367 301 258 216
3 691 552 453 388 325
31/2 910 728 597 511 428
4e 1160 928 760 652 546

Note: ASTM A 106 Grade B or ASTM A53 Grade B has an Fy = 35 ksi. An Fy = 30 ksi was used as a conservative value to account for differences in material properties as well as other operational stresses.

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(f) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (kg), (Fy = 207 N/mm2) Schedule 5 Steel Pipe

Pipe (mm) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (m)a
6.1b 7.6b 9.1c 10.7c 12.2d
25 32 25 21 18 15
32 53 42 34 29 25
40 70 56 46 39 33
50 112 89 73 63 53
65 208 166 137 117 98
80 313 250 205 176 147
90 413 330 271 232 194
100e 526 421 345 296 248

Note: ASTM A 106 Grade B or ASTM A 53 Grade B has an Fy = 241 N/ mm2. An Fy = 207 N/mm2 was used also as a conservative value to account for differences in material properties as well as other operational stresses.

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(g) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy = 8 ksi) CPVC Pipe

Pipe (in) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
3/4 15 12 10 8 7
1 28 22 18 15 13
11/4 56 45 37 30 26
11/2 83 67 55 45 39
2 161 129 105 87 76
21/2 286 229 188 154 135
3 516 413 338 278 243

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(h) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (kg), (Fy = 55 N/mm2) CPVC Pipe

Pipe (mm) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
6.1b 7.6b 9.1c 10.7c 12.2d
20 7 5 5 4 3
25 13 10 8 7 6
32 25 20 17 14 12
40 38 30 25 20 18
50 73 59 48 39 34
65 130 104 85 70 61
80 234 187 153 126 110

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(i) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lb), (Fy = 30 ksi) Type M Copper Tube (with Soldered Joints)

Pipe (in.) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
20b 25b 30c 35c 40d
3/4 16 13 10 9 8
1 29 24 19 16 14
11/4 53 42 35 28 25
11/2 86 69 56 46 41
2e 180 144 118 97 85

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(j) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (kg), (Fy = 3207 N/mm2) Type M Copper Tube (with Soldered Joints)

Pipe (mm) Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (m)a
6.1b 7.6b 9.1c 10.7c 12.2d
20 7.3 5.9 5 4.1 3.6
25 13.2 10.9 8.6 7.3 6.4
32 24 19.1 15.9 12.7 11.3
40 39 31.3 25.4 20.9 18.6
50e 81.6 65.3 53 44 38.6

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(k) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lbs), (Fy = 9 ksi) Type M Copper Tube (with Brazed Joints)

Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
Diameter 20a 25b 30c 35c 40d
3/4 6 5 4 3 3
1 11 9 7 6 5
11/4 20 16 13 12 10
11/2 33 27 22 19 16
2e 70 56 46 39 33

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each sup.3.5.5.2(l) Maximum Load port.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Table 9.3.5.5.2(l) Maximum Load (Fpw) in Zone of Influence (lbs), (Fy = 9 ksi) Red Brass Pipe(with Brazed Joints)

Lateral Sway Brace Spacing (ft)a
Diameter 20a 25b 30c 35c 40d
3/4 34 27 22 19 16
1 61 49 40 35 29
11/4 116 93 76 65 55
11/2 161 129 105 90 76
2e 272 218 178 153 128

aThe tables for the maximum load, Fpw, in zone of influence are based on specific configurations of mains and branch lines.

bAssumes branch lines at center of pipe span and near each support.

cAssumes branch lines at third-points of pipe span and near each support.

dAssumes branch lines at quarter-points of pipe span and near each support.

eLarger diameter pipe can be used when justified by engineering analysis.

Specially listed nonstandard pipe shall be permitted using the values in Table 9.3.5.5.2(e) and Table 9.3.5.5.2(f) or with values provided by the manufacturer.
Spacing shall not exceed a maximum interval of 40 ft (12 m) on center.
The maximum permissible load in the zone of influence of a sway brace shall not exceed the values given in Table 9.3.5.5.2(a) through Table 9.3.5.5.2(1) or the values calculated in accordance with 9.3.5.5.3.
When determining permissible loads in accordance with 9.3.5.5.2 or 9.3.5.5.2.1 on a main with varying sizes, the allowable load shall be based on the smallest pipe size within the zone of influence.
The maximum load (Fpw) in the zone of influence for specially listed pipe shall be calculated. (See Annex E.)
The requirements of 9.3.5.5.1 shall not apply to 21/2 in. (65 mm) starter pieces that do not exceed 12 ft (3.7 m) in length.
The distance between the last brace and the end of the pipe shall not exceed 6 ft (1.8 m).
Where there is a change in direction of the piping, the cumulative distance between consecutive lateral sway braces shall not exceed the maximum permitted distance in accordance with 9.3.5.5.2.2.
The last length of pipe at the end of a feed or cross main shall be provided with a lateral brace.
Lateral braces shall be allowed to act as longitudinal braces if they are within 24 in. (600 mm) of the centerline of the piping braced longitudinally and the lateral brace is on a pipe of equal or greater size than the pipe being braced longitudinally.
Where flexible couplings are installed on mains other than as required in 9.3.2, a lateral brace shall be provided within 24 in. (600 mm) of every other coupling, including flexible couplings at grooved fittings, but not more than 40 ft (12 m) on center.
The lateral sway bracing required by 9.3.5.5 shall be permitted to be omitted when 9.3.5.5.10.1 for branch lines or 9.3.5.5.10.2 for mains is met.
Branch lines shall comply with the following:
  1. *The branch lines shall be individually supported within 6 in. (150 mm) of the structure, measured between the top of the pipe and the point of attachment to the building structure.
  2. At least 75 percent of all the hangers on the branch line shall meet the requirements of 9.3.5.5.10.1(1).
  3. Consecutive hangers on the branch line shall not be permitted to exceed the limitation in 9.3.5.5.10.1.
Mains shall comply with all the following:
  1. *The main piping shall be individually supported within 6 in. (150 mm) of the structure, measured between the top of the pipe and the point of attachment to the building structure.
  2. At least 75 percent of all the hangers on the main shall meet the requirements of 9.3.5.5.10.2(1).
  3. Consecutive hangers on the main shall not be permitted to exceed the limitation in 9.3.5.5.10.2(1)
  4. The seismic coefficient (Cp) shall not exceed 0.5.
  5. The nominal pipe diameter shall not exceed 6 in. (152 mm) for feed mains and 4 in. (102 mm) for cross mains.
  6. Hangers shall not be omitted in accordance with 9.2.4.3, 9.2.4.4, or 9.2.4.5.
Branch lines permitted to omit lateral sway bracing by 9.3.5.5.10 shall not be omitted from load calculations for the mains serving them in 9.3.5.9.6.
The requirements of 9.3.5.5 shall not apply where U-type hooks of the wraparound type or those U-type hooks arranged to keep the pipe tight to the underside of the structural element shall be permitted to be used to satisfy the requirements for lateral sway bracing, provided the legs are bent out at least 30 degrees from the vertical and the maximum length of each leg and the rod size satisfies the conditions of Table 9.3.5.11.8(a), Table 9.3.5.11.8(b), and Table 9.3.5.11.8(c).
Longitudinal sway bracing spaced at a maximum of 80 ft (24 m) on center shall be provided for feed and cross mains.
Longitudinal braces shall be allowed to act as lateral braces if they are within 24 in. (600 mm) of the centerline of the piping braced laterally.
The distance between the last brace and the end of the pipe or a change in direction shall not exceed 40 ft (12 m).
Each run of pipe between changes in direction shall be provided with both lateral and longitudinal bracing, unless the requirements of 9.3.5.7.2 are met.
Pipe runs less than 12 ft (3.7 m) in length shall be permitted to be supported by the braces on adjacent runs of pipe.
Tops of risers exceeding 3 ft (900 mm) in length shall be provided with a four-way brace.
Riser nipples shall be permitted to omit the four-way brace required by 9.3.5.8.1.
When a four-way brace at the top of a riser is attached on the horizontal piping, it shall be within 24 in. (600 mm) of the centerline of the riser and the loads for that brace shall include both the vertical and horizontal pipe.
Distance between four-way braces for risers shall not exceed 25 ft (7.6 m).
Four-way bracing shall not be required where risers penetrate intermediate floors in multistory buildings where the clearance does not exceed the limits of 9.3.4.
The horizontal seismic load for the braces shall be as determined in 9.3.5.9.6 or 9.3.5.9.7, or as required by the authority having jurisdiction.
The weight of the system being braced (Wp) shall be taken as 1.15 times the weight of the water-filled piping. (See A. 9.3.5.9.1.)
The horizontal force, Fpw, acting on the brace shall be taken as Fpw = CpWp where Cp is the seismic coefficient selected in Table 9.3.5.9.3 utilizing the short period response parameter, Ss.

Table 9.3.5.9.3 Seismic Coefficient Table

Ss Cp Ss Cp
0.33 or less 0.35 2.2 1.03
0.4 0.38 2.3 1.07
0.5 0.4 2.4 1.12
0.6 0.42 2.5 1.17
0.7 0.42 2.6 1.21
0.8 0.44 2.7 1.26
0.9 0.48 2.8 1.31
1 0.51 2.9 1.35
1.1 0.54 3 1.4
1.2 0.57 3.1 1.45
1.3 0.61 3.2 1.49
1.4 0.65 3.3 1.54
1.5 0.7 3.4 1.59
1.6 0.75 3.5 1.63
1.7 0.79 3.6 1.68
1.8 0.84 3.7 1.73
1.9 0.89 3.8 1.77
2 0.93 3.9 1.82
2.1 0.98 4 1.87
The value of Ss used in Table 9.3.5.9.3 shall be obtained from the authority having jurisdiction or from seismic hazard maps.
Linear interpolation shall be permitted to be used for intermediate values of Ss.
The horizontal force, Fpw, acting on the brace shall be permitted to be determined in accordance with Section 13.3.1 of SEI/ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads of Buildings and Other Structures, multiplied by 0.7 to convert to allowable stress design (ASD).
Where data for determining Cp are not available, the horizontal seismic force acting on the braces shall be determined as specified in 9.3.5.9.3 with Cp = 0.5.
The zone of influence for lateral braces shall include all branch lines and mains tributary to the brace, except branch lines that are provided with longitudinal bracing or as prohibited by 9.3.5.9.6.1.
When riser nipples are provided in systems requiring seismic protection, they shall satisfy the following equation, unless one of the following conditions is met:
  1. Where riser nipples are 4 ft (1.2 m) or less in length and Cp is 0.50 or less
  2. Where riser nipples are 3 ft (900 mm) or less in length and Cp is less than 0.67
  3. Where riser nipples are 2 ft (600 mm) in length or less and Cp is less than is 1.0

Hr = length of riser nipple piping (in inches)
Wp = tributary weight (in pounds) for the branch line or portion of branch line within the zone of influence including the riser nipple
Cp = seismic coefficient
S = sectional modulus of the riser nipple pipe
Fy = allowable yield strength of 30,000 psi (2070 bar) for steel, 30,000 psi for copper (soldered), 8000 psi (550 bar) for CPVC
If the calculated value is equal to or greater than the yield strength of the riser nipple, the longitudinal seismic load of each line shall be evaluated individually, and branch lines shall be provided with longitudinal sway bracing per 9.3.5.6.
The zone of influence for longitudinal braces shall include all mains tributary to the brace.
Where the horizontal seismic loads used exceed 0.5 Wp and the brace angle is less than 45 degrees from vertical or where the horizontal seismic load exceeds 1.0 Wp and the brace angle is less than 60 degrees from vertical, the braces shall be arranged to resist the net vertical reaction produced by the horizontal load.
Bracing shall be attached directly to the system pipe.
Sway bracing shall be tight.
For individual braces, the slenderness ratio (l/r) shall not exceed 300, where l is the length of the brace and r is the least radius of gyration.
Where threaded pipe is used as part of a sway brace assembly, it shall not be less than Schedule 30.
All parts and fittings of a brace shall lie in a straight line to avoid eccentric loadings on fittings and fasteners.
For longitudinal braces only, the brace shall be permitted to be connected to a tab welded to the pipe in conformance to 6.5.2.
For tension-only braces, two tension-only brace components opposing each other must be installed at each lateral or longitudinal brace location.
The loads determined in 9.3.5.9 shall not exceed the lesser of the maximum allowable loads provided in Table 9.3.5.11.8(a), Table 9.3.5.11.8(b), and Table 9.3.5.11.8(c) and the manufacturer's certified maximum allowable horizontal loads for brace angles of 30 to 44 degrees, 45 to 59 degrees, 60 to 89 degrees, or 90 degrees.

Table 9.3.5.11.8(a) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r = 100 for Steel Braces with Fy = 36 ksi

Brace Shape and Size (in.) Area (in.2) Least Radius of Gyration (r) (in.) Maximum Length for l/r = 100 Maximum Horizontal Load (lb)
Brace Angle
ft in. 30° to 44° Angle from Vertical 45° to 59° Angle from Vertical 60° to 90° Angle from Vertical
Pipe
Schedule 40
1 0.494 0.421 3 6 3,150 4,455 5,456
11/4 0.669 0.540 4 6 4,266 6,033 7,389
11/2 0.799 0.623 5 2 5,095 7,206 8,825
2 1.07 0.787 6 6 6,823 9,650 11,818
Angles 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 0.688 0.292 2 5 4,387 6,205 7,599
2× 2× 1/4 0.938 0.391 3 3 5,982 8,459 10,360
21/2 × 2× 1/4 1.06 0.424 3 6 6,760 9,560 11,708
21/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 1.19 0.491 4 1 7,589 10,732 13,144
3× 21/2 × 1/4 1.31 0.528 4 4 8,354 11,814 14,469
3× 3× 1/4 1.44 0.592 4 11 9,183 12,987 15,905
Rods
(all thread)
3/8 0.07 0.075 0 7 446 631 773
1/2 0.129 0.101 0 10 823 1,163 1,425
5/8 0.207 0.128 1 0 1,320 1,867 2,286
3/4 0.309 0.157 1 3 1,970 2,787 3,413
7/8 0.429 0.185 1 6 2,736 3,869 4,738
Rods
(threaded at ends only)
3/8 0.11 0.094 0 9 701 992 1,215
1/2 0.196 0.125 1 0 1,250 1,768 2,165
5/8 0.307 0.156 1 3 1,958 2,769 3,391
3/4 0.442 0.188 1 6 2,819 3,986 4,882
7/8 0.601 0.219 1 9 3,833 5,420 6,638
Flats 11/2 × 1/4 0.375 0.0722 0 7 2,391 3,382 4,142
1/4 0.5 0.0722 0 7 3,189 4,509 5,523
3/8 0.75 0.1082 0 10 4,783 6,764 8,284

Table 9.3.5.11.8(b) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r = 200 for Steel Braces with Fy = 36 ksi

Brace Shape and Size (in.) Area (in.2) Least Radius of Gyration (r) (in.) Maximum Length for l/r = 200 Maximum Horizontal Load (lb)
Brace Angle
ft in. 30° to 44° Angle from Vertical 45° to 59° Angle from Vertical 60° to 90° Angle from Vertical
Pipe
Schedule 40
1 0.494 0.421 7 0 926 1310 1604
11/4 0.669 0.540 9 0 1254 1774 2173
11/2 0.799 0.623 10 4 1498 2119 2595
2 1.07 0.787 13 1 2006 2837 3475
Angles 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 0.688 0.292 4 10 1290 1824 2234
2× 2× 1/4 0.938 0.391 6 6 1759 2487 3046
21/2 × 2× 1/4 1.06 0.424 7 0 1988 2811 3442
21/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 1.19 0.491 8 2 2231 3155 3865
3× 21/2 × 1/4 1.31 0.528 8 9 2456 3474 4254
3× 3× 1/4 1.44 0.592 9 10 2700 3818 4677
Rods
(all thread)
3/8 0.07 0.075 1 2 131 186 227
1/2 0.129 0.101 1 8 242 342 419
5/8 0.207 0.128 2 1 388 549 672
3/4 0.309 0.157 2 7 579 819 1004
7/8 0.429 0.185 3 0 804 1138 1393
Rods
(threaded at ends only)
3/8 0.11 0.094 1 6 206 292 357
1 0.196 0.125 2 0 368 520 637
5/8 0.307 0.156 2 7 576 814 997
3/4 0.442 0.188 3 1 829 1172 1435
5/8 0.601 0.219 3 7 1127 1594 1952
Flats 11/2 × 1/4 0.375 0.0722 1 2 703 994 1218
1/4 0.5 0.0722 1 2 938 1326 1624
3/8 0.75 0.1082 1 9 1406 1989 2436

Table 9.3.5.11.8(c) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r = 300 for Steel Braces with Fy = 36 ksi

Brace Shape and Size (in.) Area (in.2) Least Radius of Gyration (r) (in.) Maximum Length for l/r = 300 Maximum Horizontal Load (lb)
Brace Angle
ft in. 30° to 44° Angle from Vertical 45° to 59° Angle from Vertical 60° to 90° Angle from Vertical
Pipe
Schedule 40
1 0.494 0.421 10 6 412 582 713
11/4 0.669 0.540 13 6 558 788 966
11/2 0.799 0.623 15 6 666 942 1153
2 1.07 0.787 19 8 892 1261 1544
Angles 11/2 × 11/2 × 1/4 0.688 0.292 7 3 573 811 993
2× 2× 1/4 0.938 0.391 9 9 782 1105 1354
21/2 × 2× 1/4 1.06 0.424 10 7 883 1249 1530
21/2 × 21/2 × 1/4 1.19 0.491 12 3 992 1402 1718
3× 21/2 × 1/4 1.31 0.528 13 2 1092 1544 1891
3× 3× 1/4 1.44 0.592 14 9 1200 1697 2078
Rods
(all thread)
3/8 0.07 0.075 1 10 58 82 101
1/2 0.129 0.101 2 6 108 152 186
5/8 0.207 0.128 3 2 173 244 299
3/4 0.309 0.157 3 11 258 364 446
7/8 0.429 0.185 4 7 358 506 619
Rods (threaded at ends only) 3/8 0.11 0.094 2 4 92 130 159
1/2 0.196 0.125 3 1 163 231 283
5/8 0.307 0.156 3 10 256 362 443
3/4 0.442 0.188 4 8 368 521 638
7/8 0.601 0.219 5 5 501 708 867
Flats 11/2 × 1/4 0.375 0.0722 1 9 313 442 541
1/4 0.5 0.0722 1 9 417 589 722
3/8 0.75 0.1082 2 8 625 884 1083

Table 9.3.5.11.8(d) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r =100 for Steel Braces with Fy = 248 N/mm2

Brace Shape and Size (mm) Area (mm2) Least Radius of Gyration (r) (mm) Maximum Length for l/r = 100 Maximum Horizontal Load (kg)
Brace Angle
meters mm 30° to 44° Angle from Vertical 45° to 59° Angle from Vertical 60° to 90° Angle from Vertical
Pipe
Schedule 40
25 318.7 11 1.0 150 1,429 2,021 2,475
32 431.6 14 1.2 150 1,935 2,737 3,352
40 515.5 16 1.5 50 2,311 3,269 4,003
50 690.3 20 1.8 150 3,095 4,377 5,361
Angles 40 × 40 × 6 443.9 7 0.6 125 1,990 2,815 3,447
50 × 50 × 6 605.2 10 1.0 75 2,713 3,837 4,699
65 × 50 × 6 683.9 11 1.0 150 3,066 4,336 5,311
65 × 65 × 6 767.7 12 1.2 25 3,442 4,868 5,962
80 × 65 × 6 845.2 13 1.2 100 3,789 5,359 6,563
80 × 80 × 6 929.0 15 1.2 275 4,165 5,891 7,214
Rods (all thread) 10 45.2 2 0.0 175 202 286 351
15 83.2 3 0.0 250 373 528 646
16 133.5 3 0.3 0 599 847 1,037
20 199.4 4 0.3 75 894 1,264 1,548
22 276.8 5 0.3 150 1,241 1,755 2,149
Rods
(threaded at ends only)
10 71.0 2 0.0 225 318 450 551
15 126.5 3 0.3 0 567 802 982
16 198.1 4 0.3 75 888 1,256 1,538
20 285.2 5 0.3 150 1,279 1,808 2,214
22 387.7 5 0.3 225 1,739 2,458 3,011
Flats 40 × 6 241.9 2 0.0 175 1,085 1,534 1,879
50 × 6 322.6 2 0.0 175 1,447 2,045 2,505
50 × 10 483.9 3 0.0 250 2,170 3,068 3,758

Table 9.3.5.11.8(e) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r = 200 for Steel Braces with Fy = 248 N/mm2

Brace Shape and Size (mm) Area (mm2) Least Radius of Gyration (r) (mm) Maximum Length for l/r = 200 Maximum Horizontal Load (kg)
Brace Angle
meters mm 30° to 44° Angle from Vertical 45° to 59° Angle from Vertical 60° to 90° Angle from Vertical
Pipe Schedule 40 25 318.7 11 2.1 0 420 594 728
32 431.6 14 2.7 0 569 805 986
40 515.5 16 3 100 679 961 1177
50 690.3 20 4.0 25 910 1287 1576
Angles 40 × 40 × 6 443.9 7 1.2 250 585 827 1013
50 × 50 × 6 605.2 10 1.8 150 798 1128 1382
65 × 50 × 6 683.9 11 2.1 0 902 1275 1561
65 × 65 × 6 767.7 12 2.4 50 1012 1431 1753
80 × 65 × 6 845.2 13 2.4 225 1114 1576 1930
80 × 80 × 6 929.0 15 2.7 250 1225 1732 2121
Rods
(all thread)
10 45.2 2 0.3 50 59 84 103
15 83.2 3 0.3 200 110 155 190
16 133.5 3 0.6 25 176 249 305
20 199.4 4 0.6 175 263 371 455
22 276.8 5 0.9 0 365 516 632
Rods (threaded at ends only) 10 71.0 2 0.3 150 93 132 162
15 126.5 3 0.6 0 167 236 289
16 198.1 4 0.6 175 261 369 452
20 285.2 5 0.9 25 376 532 651
22 387.7 5 0.9 175 511 723 885
Flats 40 × 6 241.9 2 0.3 50 319 451 552
50 × 6 322.6 2 0.3 50 425 601 737
50 × 10 483.9 3 0.3 225 638 902 1105

Table 9.3.5.11.8(f) Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r = 300 for Steel Braces with Fy = 248 N/mm2

Brace Shape and Size (mm) Area (mm2) Least Radius of Gyration (r) (mm) Maximum Length for l/r = 300 Maximum Horizontal Load (kg)
Brace Angle
meters mm 30° to 44° Angle from Vertical 45° to 59° Angle from Vertical 60° to 90° Angle from Vertical
Pipe Schedule 40 25 318.7 10.5 3 150 187 264 323
32 431.6 13.5 4 150 253 357 438
40 515.5 15.6 4.6 150 302 427 523
50 690.3 19.7 5.8 200 405 572 700
Angles 40 × 40 × 6 443.9 7.3 2.1 75 260 368 450
50 × 50 × 6 605.2 9.8 2.7 225 355 501 614
65 × 50 × 6 683.9 10.6 3 175 401 567 694
65 × 65 × 6 767.7 12.3 3.7 75 450 636 779
80 × 65 × 6 845.2 13.2 4 50 495 700 858
80 × 80 × 6 929.0 14.8 4.3 225 544 770 943
Rods
(all thread)
10 45.2 1.9 0.3 250 26 37 46
15 83.2 2.5 0.6 150 49 69 84
16 133.5 3.2 0.9 50 79 111 136
20 199.4 3.9 0.9 275 117 165 202
22 276.8 4.6 1.2 175 162 230 281
Rods
(threaded at ends only)
10 71.0 2.4 0.6 100 42 59 72
15 126.5 3.1 0.9 25 74 105 128
16 198.1 3.9 0.9 250 116 164 201
20 285.2 4.7 1.2 200 167 236 289
22 387.7 5.5 1.5 125 227 321 393
Flats 40 × 6 241.9 1.8 0.3 225 142 200 245
50 × 6 322.6 1.8 0.3 225 189 267 327
50 × 10 483.9 2.7 0.6 200 283 401 491
Other pipe schedules and materials not specifically included in Table 9.3.5.11.8(a), Table 9.3.5.11.8(b), and Table 9.3.5.11.8(c) shall be permitted to be used if certified by a registered professional engineer to support the loads determined in accordance with the criteria in the tables.
Calculations shall be submitted where required by the authority having jurisdiction.
C-type clamps including beam and large flange clamps, with or without restraining straps, shall not be used to attach braces to the building structure.
Powder-driven fasteners shall not be used to attach braces to the building structure, unless they are specifically listed for service in resisting lateral loads in areas subject to earthquakes.
The paragraphs in 9.3.5.12 were revised by a tentative interim amendment (TIA). See page 1.
The designated angle category for the fastener(s) used in the sway brace installation shall be determined in accordance with Figure 9.3.5.12.1.

FIGURE 9.3.5.12.1 Designation of Angle Category Based on Angle of Sway Brace and Fastener Orientation.

For individual fasteners, unless alternate allowable loads are determined and certified by a registered professional engineer, the loads determined in 9.3.5.9 shall not exceed the allowable loads provided in Table 9.3.5.12.2(a) through Table 9.3.5.12.2(i).

Table 9.3.5.12.2(a) Maximum Load for Wedge Anchors in 3000 psi ( 207 bar) Lightweight Cracked Concrete on Metal Deck

Wedge Anchors in 3000 psi Lightweight Cracked Concrete on Metal Deck (lbs.)
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr
≤2.0
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤0.7
Pr
≤1.2
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.4
Pr
≤0.9
Pr
≤0.8
3/8 2 117 184 246
1/2 23/8 164 257 344
5/8 31/8 214 326 424
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
2.1-3.5 1.2-1.8 0.8-1.0 1.3-1.7 1.2-1.8 1.2-2.0 1.5-1.9 1.0-1.3 0.9-1.1
3/8 2 69 127 196
1/2 23/8 97 178 274
5/8 31/8 133 232 346
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
3.6-5.0 1.9-2.5 1.1-1.3 1.8-2.2 1.9-2.5 2.1-2.9 2.0-2.4 1.4-1.7 1.2-1.4
3/8 2 48 97 163
1/2 23/8 67 136 228
5/8 31/8 93 179 292
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
5.1-6.5 2.6-3.2 1.4-1.6 2.3-2.7 2.6-3.2 3.0-3.8 2.5-2.9 1.8-2.1 1.5-1.7
3/8 2 36 75 139
1/2 23/8 51 106 196
5/8 31/8 71 146 252

*Pr = Prying Factor Range. (Refer to Annex for additional information.) 1 lb = 0.45 kg

Table 9.3.5.12.2(b) Maximum Load for Wedge Anchors in 3000 psi (207 bar) Lightweight Cracked Concrete

Wedge Anchors in 3000 psi Lightweight Cracked Concrete (lbs.)
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr
≤2.0
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤0.7
Pr
≤1.2
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.4
Pr
≤0.9
Pr
≤0.8
3/8 2 102 144 175 101 144 184 87 128 152
1/2 23/8 140 196 238 137 196 251 118 174 207
5/8 31/4 222 308 372 215 308 397 220 272 323
3/4 41/8 327 469 580 336 469 586 289 426 504
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
2.1-3.5 1.2-1.8 0.8-1.0 1.3-1.7 1.2-1.8 1.2-2.0 1.5-1.9 1.0-1.3 0.9-1.1
3/8 2 69 109 150 87 109 121 76 110 133
1/2 23/8 94 149 205 119 149 166 104 150 181
5/8 31/4 151 237 322 187 237 265 201 236 285
3/4 41/8 217 351 492 286 351 380 252 362 436
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
3.6-5.0 1.9-2.5 1.1-1.3 1.8-2.2 1.9-2.5 2.1-2.9 2.0-2.4 1.4-1.7 1.2-1.4
3/8 2 52 88 132 76 88 90 68 97 118
1/2 23/8 71 121 180 104 121 124 93 132 161
5/8 31/4 114 192 284 165 192 198 185 208 254
3/4 41/8 162 280 427 249 280 281 223 315 385
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
5.1-6.5 2.6-3.2 1.4-1.6 2.3-2.7 2.6-3.2 3.0-3.8 2.5-2.9 1.8-2.1 1.5-1.7
3/8 2 41 74 117 68 74 70 61 86 106
1/2 23/8 56 101 160 93 101 97 84 118 145
5/8 31/4 91 161 253 148 161 157 172 186 230
3/4 41/8 124 233 378 221 233 214 200 279 344

*Pr = Prying Factor Range. (Refer to Annex for additional information.) 1 lb = 0.45 kg

Table 9.3.5.12.2(c) Maximum Load for Wedge Anchors in 3000 psi (207 bar) Normal Weight Cracked Concrete

Wedge Anchors in 3000 psi Lightweight Cracked Concrete on Metal Deck (lbs.)
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr
≤2.0
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤0.7
Pr
≤1.2
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.4
Pr
≤0.9
Pr
≤0.8
3/8 2 171 240 292 169 240 307 145 214 254
1/2 35/8 412 567 682 394 567 735 340 498 592
5/8 37/8 480 668 809 468 668 859 479 591 703
3/4 41/8 545 780 965 559 780 976 482 709 839
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
2.1-3.5 1.2-1.8 0.8-1.0 1.3-1.7 1.2-1.8 1.2-2.0 1.5-1.9 1.0-1.3 0.9-1.1
3/8 2 116 183 252 146 183 203 128 184 223
1/2 35/8 282 438 592 344 438 493 302 434 523
5/8 37/8 327 512 699 406 512 571 438 512 618
3/4 41/8 363 584 819 477 584 634 420 604 727
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
3.6-5.0 1.9-2.5 1.1-1.3 1.8-2.2 1.9-2.5 2.1-2.9 2.0-2.4 1.4—1.7 1.2-1.4
3/8 2 87 148 221 128 148 152 114 162 198
1/2 35/8 214 357 523 305 357 371 271 384 469
5/8 37/8 247 415 615 359 415 428 404 452 551
3/4 41/8 271 467 712 416 467 468 371 526 641
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
5.1-6.5 2.6-3.2 1.4—1.6 2.3-2.7 2.6-3.2 3.0-3.8 2.5-2.9 1.8-2.1 1.5-1.7
3/8 2 69 124 197 115 124 118 103 145 178
1/2 35/8 173 301 469 274 301 296 247 345 425
5/8 37/8 197 349 549 321 349 337 374 404 498
3/4 41/8 208 389 629 369 389 357 333 465 573

*Pr = Prying Factor Range. (Refer to Annex for additional information.) 1 lb = 0.45 kg

Table 9.3.5.12.2(d) Maximum Load for Wedge Anchors in 4000 psi (276 bar) Normal Weight Cracked Concrete

Wedge Anchors in 3000 psi Lightweight Cracked Concrete on Metal Deck (lbs.)
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr
≤2.0
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤0.7
Pr
≤1.2
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.4
Pr
≤0.9
Pr
≤0.8
3/8 2 200 282 344 199 282 359 171 251 299
1/2 35/8 430 607 742 430 607 770 370 544 645
5/8 37/8 532 729 872 505 729 950 511 636 758
3/4 41/8 630 903 1117 647 903 1129 558 821 971
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
2.1-3.5 1.2-1.8 0.8-1.0 1.3-1.7 1.2-1.8 1.2-2.0 1.5-1.9 1.0-1.3 0.9-1.1
3/8 2 135 214 295 171 214 236 150 216 261
1/2 35/8 289 460 636 370 460 506 325 467 563
5/8 37/8 367 566 760 442 566 642 470 557 672
3/4 41/8 419 676 948 552 676 733 486 699 841
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
3.6-5.0 1.9-2.5 1.1-1.3 1.8-2.2 1.9-2.5 2.1-2.9 2.0-2.4 1.4-1.7 1.2-1.4
3/8 2 101 172 258 150 172 176 134 190 232
1/2 3 5/8 218 370 556 325 370 377 290 410 500
5/8 37/8 280 463 674 393 463 484 435 494 603
3/4 41/8 313 540 824 481 540 541 430 608 741
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
5.1-6.5 2.6-3.2 1.4-1.6 2.3-2.7 2.6-3.2 3.0-3.8 2.5-2.9 1.8-2.1 1.5-1.7
3/8 2 79 144 230 134 144 137 121 169 209
1/2 35/8 170 310 494 289 310 292 261 365 449
5/8 37/8 226 391 605 354 391 389 406 445 547
3/4 4/8 241 449 728 427 449 413 386 538 663

*Pr = Prying Factor Range. (Refer to Annex for additional information.) 1 lb = 0.45 kg

Table 9.3.5.12.2(e) Maximum Load for Wedge Anchors in 6000 psi (414 bar) Normal Weight Cracked Concrete

Wedge Anchors in 6000 psi Normal Weight Cracked Concrete (lbs.)
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr
≤2.0
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤0.7
Pr
≤1.2
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.1
Pr
≤1.4
Pr
≤0.9
Pr
≤0.8
3/8 21/4 254 354 428 199 354 585 213 313 372
1/2 35/8 527 744 910 418 744 1227 454 667 791
5/8 37/8 652 893 1069 504 893 1481 626 780 928
3/4 41/8 772 1106 1369 622 1106 1819 684 1005 1190
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
2.1—3.5 1.2—1.8 0.8—1.0 1.3—1.7 1.2—1.8 1.2—2.0 1.5—1.9 1.0—1.3 0.9—1.1
3/8 21/4 172 271 370 215 271 302 188 271 327
1/2 35/8 355 564 780 453 564 621 399 573 690
5/8 37/8 450 694 932 542 694 786 576 682 823
3/4 41/8 514 828 1162 676 828 898 595 856 1030
Diameter
(in.)
Embedment
(in.)
A B C D E F G H I
Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr Pr
3.6—5.0 1.9—2.5 1.1—1.3 1.8—2.2 1.9—2.5 2.1—2.9 2.0—2.4 1.4—1.7 1.2—1.4
3/8 21/4 130 219 325 189 219 226 169 239 292
1/2 35/8 267 454 682 398 454 462 355 502 613
5/8 37/8 343 567 826 481 567 593 534 606 739
3/4 41/8 384 662 1009 590<