Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The requirements of Section 12.1 shall apply to all storage arrangements and commodities other than miscellaneous storage (see Chapter 13) and as modified by specific sections in Chapter 14 through Chapter 20.
Manually operated roof vents or automatic roof vents with operating elements that have a higher temperature classification than the automatic sprinklers shall be permitted.
Early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers shall not be used in buildings with automatic heat or smoke vents unless the vents use a high-temperature rated, standard-response operating mechanism.
Draft curtains shall not be used within ESFR sprinkler systems.
Draft curtains separating ESFR sprinklers at system breaks or from control mode sprinklers or between hazards shall be permitted. (See 8.4.6.4.)
The sprinkler system criteria specified in Chapter 12 and Chapters 14 through 20 are intended to apply to buildings with ceiling slopes not exceeding 2 in 12 (16.7 percent) unless modified by a specific section in Chapter 12 and Chapters 14 through 20.
The maximum building height shall be measured to the underside of the roof deck or ceiling or in accordance with 12.1.3.1.1 through 12.1.3.1.3.
For corrugated metal deck roofs up to 3 in. (75 mm) in depth, the maximum roof height shall be measured from floor to the bottom of the deck.
For decks deeper than 3 in. (75 mm), the maximum roof height shall be measured to the highest point on the deck.
For ceilings that have insulation installed directly against underside of the ceiling or roof structure, the maximum roof height shall be measured to the bottom of insulation and shall be in accordance with 12.1.3.1.3.1 or 12.1.3.1.3.2.
For insulation that is installed directly against the ceiling or roof structure and is installed flat and parallel to the ceiling or roof structure, the maximum roof height shall be measured to the underside of the insulation.
For insulation that is installed in a manner that causes it to deflect or sag down from the ceiling or roof structure, the maximum roof height shall be measured as half of the distance of the deflection from the insulation high point to the insulation low point. If the deflection or sag in the insulation exceeds 6 in. (150 mm), the maximum roof height shall be measured to the high point of the insulation.
Where the building height changes within a compartment, the sprinklers directly over the storage shall be capable of protecting storage directly beneath.
Where a barrier to heat and smoke in accordance with 12.3(2) or 12.3(3) is not present, the sprinkler criteria 15 ft (4.6 m) into the perimeter of the lower ceiling area shall be the same as the sprinkler protection for the high ceiling area.
ESFR sprinklers shall be used only in buildings equal to, or less than, the height of the building for which they have been listed.
The sprinkler system design shall be based on the storage height and clearance to ceiling that routinely or periodically exist in the building and create the greatest water demand. Where storage is placed above doors, the storage height shall be calculated from the base of storage above the door.
The clearance to ceiling shall be measured in accordance with 12.1.3.4.1.1 through 12.1.3.4.1.3.
For corrugated metal deck roofs up to 3 in. (75 mm) in depth, the clearance to ceiling shall be measured from the top of storage to the bottom of the deck.
For corrugated metal deck roofs deeper than 3 in. (75 mm), the clearance to ceiling shall be measured to the highest point on the deck.
For ceilings that have insulation attached directly to underside of the ceiling or roof structure, the clearance to ceiling shall be measured from the top of storage to the bottom of the insulation and shall be in accordance with 12.1.3.4.1.3(A) or 12.1.3.4.1.3(B).

(A) For insulation that is attached directly to the ceiling or roof structure and is installed flat and parallel to the ceiling or roof structure, the clearance to ceiling shall be measured from the top of storage to the underside of the insulation.

(B) For insulation that is installed in a manner that causes it to deflect or sag down from the ceiling or roof structure, the clearance to ceiling shall be measured from the top of storage to a point half of the distance of the deflection from the insulation high point to the insulation low point. If the deflection or sag in the insulation exceeds 6 in. (150 mm), the clearance to ceiling shall be measured from the top of storage to the high point of the insulation.

For spray sprinkler criteria where the clearance to ceiling exceeds those identified in this section, the requirements of 12.1.3.4.3 through 12.1.3.4.8 shall apply.
Where the clearance to ceiling exceeds 20 ft (6.1 m) for Chapters 14 and 15, protection shall be based upon the storage height that would result in a clearance to ceiling of 20 ft (6.1 m).
Where the clearance to ceiling exceeds 20 ft (6.1 m) for Section 16.2, protection shall be based upon the storage height that would result in a clearance to ceiling of 20 ft (6.1 m) or providing one level of supplemental, quick-response in-rack sprinklers located directly below the top tier of storage and at every flue space intersection.
Where the clearance to ceiling exceeds 10 ft (3.0 m) for Section 16.3 or Section 17.2, protection shall be based upon the storage height that would result in a clearance to ceiling of 10 ft (3.0 m) or providing one level of supplemental, quick-response in-rack sprinklers located directly below the top tier of storage and at every flue space intersection.
Where the clearance exceeds 10 ft (3.0 m) for Section 17.3, protection shall be based upon providing one level of supplemental, quick-response in-rack sprinklers located directly below the top tier of storage and at every flue space intersection.
When applying the supplemental in-rack sprinkler option, the ceiling density shall be based upon the given storage height with an assumed acceptable clearance to ceiling.
If in-rack sprinklers are required for the actual storage height with an acceptable clearance to ceiling, in-rack sprinklers shall be installed as indicated by that criteria.
The installation of HVLS fans in buildings equipped with sprinklers, including ESFR sprinklers, shall comply with the following:
  1. The maximum fan diameter shall be 24 ft (7.3 m).
  2. The HVLS fan shall be centered approximately between four adjacent sprinklers.
  3. The vertical clearance from the HVLS fan to sprinkler deflector shall be a minimum of 3 ft (900 mm).
  4. All HVLS fans shall be interlocked to shut down immediately upon receiving a waterflow signal from the alarm system in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 72.
Small hose connections [11/2 in. (38 mm)] shall be provided where required by the authority having jurisdiction in accordance with 8.17.5 for first-aid fire-fighting and overhaul operations.
Small hose connections shall not be required for the protection of Class I, II, III, and IV commodities stored 12 ft (3.7 m) or less in height.
For buildings with two or more adjacent hazards or design methods, the following shall apply:
  1. Where areas are not physically separated by a barrier or partition capable of delaying heat from a fire in one area from fusing sprinklers in the adjacent area, the required sprinkler protection for the more demanding design basis shall extend 15 ft (4.6 m) beyond its perimeter.
  2. The requirements of 12.3(1) shall not apply where the areas are separated by a draft curtain or barrier located above an aisle, horizontally a minimum of 2 ft (600 mm) from the adjacent hazard on each side, or a partition that is capable of delaying heat from a fire in one area from fusing sprinklers in the adjacent area.
  3. The requirements of 12.3(1) shall not apply to the extension of more demanding criteria from an upper ceiling level to beneath a lower ceiling level where the difference in height between the ceiling levels is at least 2 ft (600 mm), located above an aisle, horizontally a minimum 2 ft (600 mm) from the adjacent hazard on each side.
Sprinkler systems shall be wet pipe systems.
In areas that are subject to freezing or where special conditions exist, dry pipe systems and preaction systems shall be permitted to protect storage occupancies.
For dry pipe systems and preaction systems, the area of sprinkler operation shall be increased by 30 percent without revising the density.
For storage applications with densities of 0.2 gpm/ft2 (8.1 mm/min) or less, standard-response sprinklers with a K-factor of K-5.6 (80) or larger shall be permitted.
For general storage applications, rack storage, rubber tire storage, roll paper storage, and baled cotton storage being protected with upright and pendent spray sprinklers with required densities of greater than 0.2 gpm/ft2 to 0.34 gpm/ft2 (8.1 mm/min to 13.9 mm/min), standard-response sprinklers with a nominal K-factor of K-8.0 (115) or larger shall be used.
For general storage applications, rack storage, rubber tire storage, roll paper storage, and baled cotton storage being protected with upright and pendent spray sprinklers with required densities greater than 0.34 gpm/ft2 (13.9 mm/min), standard-response spray sprinklers with a K-factor of K-11.2 (161) or larger that are listed for storage applications shall be used.
Unless the requirements of 12.6.5 are met, the requirements of 12.6.2 and 12.6.3 shall not apply to modifications to existing storage application systems, using sprinklers with K-factors of K-8.0 (115) or less.
Where applying the requirements of Figure 17.2.1.2.1(b) and Figure 17.2.1.2.1(c) utilizing the design criteria of 0.6 gpm/ft2 per 2000 ft2 (24.4 mm/min per 186 m2) to existing storage applications, the requirements of 12.6.3 shall apply.
The use of quick-response spray sprinklers for storage applications shall be permitted when listed for such use.
CMSA and ESFR sprinklers shall be permitted to protect storage of Class I through Class IV commodities, Group A plastic commodities, miscellaneous storage, and other storage as specified in Chapter 12 through Chapter 20 or by other NFPA standards.
ESFR sprinklers designed to meet any criteria in Chapter 12 or Chapter 14 through Chapter 20 shall be permitted to protect any of the following:
  1. Light hazard occupancies
  2. Ordinary hazard occupancies
  3. Any storage arrangement in Chapter 13 referencing OH1, OH2, EH1, and EH2 design criteria
Quick-response CMSA sprinklers designed to meet any criteria in Chapter 12 or Chapter 14 through Chapter 20 shall be permitted to protect any of the following:
  1. Light hazard occupancies
  2. Ordinary hazard occupancies
  3. Any storage arrangement in Chapter 13 referencing OH1, OH2, EH1, and EH2 design criteria
Standard-response CMSA sprinklers designed to meet any criteria in Chapter 12 or Chapter 14 through Chapter 20 shall be permitted to protect any of the following:
  1. Ordinary hazard occupancies
  2. Any storage arrangement in Chapter 13 referencing OH1, OH2, EH1, and EH2 design criteria
The design figures indicate water demands for ordinary-temperature-rated and nominal high-temperature-rated sprinklers at the ceiling.
The ordinary-temperature design densities correspond to ordinary-temperature-rated sprinklers and shall be used for sprinklers with ordinary- and intermediate-temperature classification.
The high-temperature design densities correspond to high-temperature-rated sprinklers and shall be used for sprinklers having a high-temperature rating.
Ordinary and intermediate-temperature sprinklers with K-factors of K-11.2 (161) or larger, where listed for storage, shall be permitted to use the densities for high-temperature sprinklers.
The water supply for sprinklers only shall be determined either from the density/area requirements of Chapter 12 through Chapter 20 or shall be based upon the room design method in accordance with Section 12.10, at the discretion of the designer.
For systems with multiple hazard classifications, the hose stream allowance and water supply duration shall be in accordance with Section 12.8 as well as one of the following:
  1. The water supply requirements for the highest hazard classification within the system shall be used.
  2. The water supply requirements for each individual hazard classification shall be used in the calculations for the design area for that hazard.
  3. *For systems with multiple hazard classifications where the higher classification only lies within single rooms less than or equal to 400 ft2 (37.2 m2) in area with no such rooms adjacent, the water supply requirements for the principal occupancy shall be used for the remainder of the system.
The calculations shall satisfy any single point on appropriate density/area curves.
The minimum water supply requirements shall be determined by adding the hose stream allowance from Section 12.8 to the water supply for sprinklers as determined by Chapter 12 through Chapter 20.
The minimum water supply requirements determined from 12.7.4 shall be available for the minimum duration specified in Section 12.8.
Total system water supply requirements shall be determined in accordance with the hydraulic calculation procedures of Chapter 23.
When using the density/area method, the design area shall meet the requirements of 23.4.4.2.1.
When using CMSA, the design area shall meet the requirements of 23.4.4.3.1.
When using ESFR sprinklers, the design area shall consist of the most hydraulically demanding area of 12 sprinklers, consisting of four sprinklers on each of three branch lines, unless other specific numbers of design sprinklers are required in other sections of this standard.
Where multiple adjustments to the area of operation are required to be made, these adjustments shall be compounded based on the area of operation originally selected.
If the building has unsprinklered combustible concealed spaces, the rules of Section 12.9 shall be applied after all other modifications have been made.
The minimum design density for any sprinkler system installed in a storage occupancy shall be not less than 0.15 gpm/ft2 (6.1 mm/min) after all adjustments are made.
Tanks shall be sized to supply the equipment that they serve.
Pumps shall be sized to supply the equipment that they serve.
Water allowance for outside hose shall be added to the sprinkler requirement at the connection to the city main or a yard hydrant, whichever is closer to the system riser.
Where inside hose connections are planned or are required, the following shall apply:
  1. A total water allowance of 50 gpm (190 L/min) for a single hose connection installation shall be added to the sprinkler requirements.
  2. A total water allowance of 100 gpm (380 L/min) for a multiple hose connection installation shall be added to the sprinkler requirements.
  3. The water allowance shall be added in 50 gpm (190 L/min) increments beginning at the most remote hose connection, with each increment added at the pressure required by the sprinkler system design at that point.
When hose valves for fire department use are attached to wet pipe sprinkler system risers in accordance with 8.17.5.2, the following shall apply:
  1. The water supply shall not be required to be added to standpipe demand as determined from NFPA 14.
  2. Where the combined sprinkler system demand and hose stream allowance of Chapter 12 and Chapters 14 through 20 exceeds the requirements of NFPA 14, this higher demand shall be used.
  3. For partially sprinklered buildings, the sprinkler demand, not including hose stream allowance, as indicated in Chapter 12 and Chapters 14 through 20 shall be added to the requirements given in NFPA 14.
Unless indicated otherwise, the minimum water supply requirements for a hydraulically designed sprinkler system shall be determined by adding the hose stream allowance from Table 12.8.6 to the water demand for sprinklers.

Table 12.8.6 Hose Stream Allowance and Water Supply Duration

Commodity Sprinkler Type Sprinkler Spacing Type Number of Ceiling Sprinklers in Design Area* Size of Design Area at Ceiling Hose Stream Allowance Water Supply Duration
(minutes)
gpm L/min
Class I-IV Commodities, Group A plastics, idle wood pallets, idle plastic pallets and miscellaneous storage Control mode density/area (CMDA) Standard and extended-coverage NA Up to 1200 ft2 (110 m2) 250 950 60
Over 1200 ft2 (111 m2) up to 1500 ft2 (140 m2) 500 1900 90
Over 1500 ft2 (139 m2) up to 2600 ft2 (240 m2) 500 1900 120
Over 2600 ft2 (240 m2) 500 1900 150
Control Mode Specific Application (CMSA) Standard Up to 12 NA 250 950 60
Over 12 to 15 NA 500 1900 90
Over 15 to 25 NA 500 1900 120
Over 25 NA 500 1900 150
Extended-coverage Up to 6 NA 250 950 60
Up to 8† NA 250 950 60
Over 6 to 8 NA 500 1900 90
Over 8 to 12 NA 500 1900 120
Over 12 NA 500 1900 150
Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR) Standard Up to 12 NA 250 950 60
Over 12 to 15 NA 500 1900 90
Over 15 to 25 NA 500 1900 120
Over 25 NA 500 1900 150
On-floor rubber tire storage up to 5 ft (1.5 m) in height CMDA & CMSA Standard and extended-coverage Any Any 250 950 120
Rubber tire storage CMDA Standard and extended-coverage NA Up to 5000 ft2 (372 m2) 750 2850 180
CMSA Standard Up to 15 NA 500 1900 180
ESFR Standard Up to 12 NA 250 950 180
Over 12 to20 NA 500 1900 180
Roll paper CMDA Standard NA Up to 4000 ft2 (372 m2) 500 1900 120
CMSA Standard Up to 25 NA 500 1900 120
ESFR Standard Up to 12 NA 250 950 60
Alternative Protection per 16.1.2.4 or 17.1.2.9 NA NA NA NA 500 1900 120

NA: Not applicable.

*For CSMA and ESFR sprinklers, the additional sprinklers included in the design area for obstructions do not need to be considered in determining the total number of sprinklers in this column.

†Limited to a maximum of 144 ft2 (13.4 m2) per sprinkler.

When using the density/area method or room design method, unless the requirements of 12.9.2 are met for buildings having unsprinklered combustible concealed spaces as described in 8.15.1.2 and 8.15.6, the minimum area of sprinkler operation for that portion of the building shall be 3000 ft2 (280 m2).
The design area of 3000 ft2 (280 m2) shall be applied only to the sprinkler system or portions of the sprinkler system that are adjacent to the qualifying combustible concealed space.
The term adjacent shall apply to any sprinkler system protecting a space above, below, or next to the qualifying concealed space except where a barrier with a fire resistance rating at least equivalent to the water supply duration completely separates the concealed space from the sprinklered area.
The following unsprinklered combustible concealed spaces shall not require a minimum design area of sprinkler operation of 3000 ft2 (280 m2):
  1. Noncombustible and limited-combustible concealed spaces with minimal combustible loading having no access. The space shall be considered a concealed space even with small openings such as those used as return air for a plenum.
  2. Noncombustible and limited-combustible concealed spaces with limited access and not permitting occupancy or storage of combustibles. The space shall be considered a concealed space even with small openings such as those used as return air for a plenum.
  3. Combustible concealed spaces filled entirely with noncombustible insulation.
  4. Concealed spaces where rigid materials are used and the exposed surfaces have a flame spread index of 25 or less and the materials have been demonstrated to not propagate fire more than 10.5 ft (3.2 m) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or ANSI/ UL 723, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, extended for an additional 20 minutes in the form in which they are installed in the space.
  5. Concealed spaces in which the exposed materials are constructed entirely of fire retardant-treated wood as defined by NFPA 703.
  6. Concealed spaces over isolated small compartments not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2) in area.
  7. Vertical pipe chases under 10 ft2 (0.9 m2), provided that in multifloor buildings the chases are firestopped at each floor using materials equivalent to the floor construction. Such pipe chases shall contain no sources of ignition, piping shall be noncombustible, and pipe penetrations at each floor shall be properly sealed.
  8. Exterior columns under 10 ft2 (0.9 m2) in area formed by studs or wood joists, supporting exterior canopies that are fully protected with a sprinkler system.
The water supply requirements for sprinklers only shall be based upon the room that creates the greatest demand.
To utilize the room design method, all rooms shall be enclosed with walls having a fire resistance rating equal to the required water supply duration.
Minimum protection of openings shall include automatic- or self-closing doors with the appropriate fire protection rating for the enclosure.
Where the room design method is used, the density shall correspond to that required for the smallest area acceptable under the density/area method.
High-expansion foam systems that are installed in addition to automatic sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 11
High-expansion foam systems shall be automatic in operation.
High-expansion foam used to protect the idle pallet shall have a maximum fill time of 4 minutes.
Detectors for high-expansion foam systems shall be listed and shall be installed at no more than one-half the listed spacing.
The release system for the high expansion foam deluge system shall be designed to operate prior to the sprinklers installed in the area.
Wood pallets shall be permitted to be stored in the following arrangements:
  1. Stored outside
  2. Stored in a detached structure
  3. Stored indoors where arranged and protected in accordance with 12.12.1.2
Wood pallets, where stored indoors, shall be protected in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Control mode density/area sprinkler protection as specified in Table 12.12.1.2(a).
  2. CMSA sprinkler protection in accordance with Table 12.12.1.2(b).
  3. ESFR sprinkler protection in accordance with Table 12.12.1.2(c).
  4. Control mode density/area sprinkler protection in accordance with the OH2 curve of Figure 13.2.1 existing with a hose stream demand of at least 250 gpm (950 L/min) for a duration of at least 60 minutes when pallets are stored no higher than 6 ft (1.8 m) and each pile of no more than four stacks is separated from other pallet piles by at least 8 ft (2.4 m) of clear space or 25 ft (7.6 m) of commodity. The maximum clearance to ceiling of 20 ft (6.1 m) specified in 12.1.3.4 shall not apply to arrangement 12.12.1.2(4).

Table 12.12.1.2(a) Control Mode Density/Area Sprinkler Protection for Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets

Type of Sprinkler Location of Storage Nominal K-Factor Maximum Storage Height Maximum Ceiling/Roof Height Sprinkler Density Areas of Operation
ft m ft m gpm/ft2 mm/min ft2 m2
Control mode density/area On floor 8 (115) or larger Up to 6 Up to 1.8 20 6.1 0.20 8.1 3000* 280*
On floor 11.2 (160) or larger Up to 8 Up to 2.4 30 9.1 0.45 18.3 2500 230
On floor or rack without solid shelves 11.2 (160) or larger 8 to 12 2.4 to 3.7 30 9.1 0.6 24.4 3500 325
12 to 20 3.7 to 6.1 30 9.1 0.6 24.4 4500 420
On floor 16.8 (240) or larger Up to 20 Up to 6.1 30 9.1 0.6 24.4 2000 185

*The area of sprinkler operation should be permitted to be reduced to 2000 ft2 (186 m2) when sprinklers having a nominal K-factor of 11.2 or larger are used or if high temperature-rated sprinklers with a nominal K-factor of 8.0 are used.

Table 12.12.1.2(b) CMSA Sprinkler Protection for Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets

Storage Arrangement Commodity Class Maximum Storage Height Maximum Ceiling/Roof Height K-Factor/Orientation Type of System Number of Design Sprinklers Minimum Operating Pressure
ft m ft m psi bar
On floor Idle wood pallet 20 6.1 30 9.1 11.2 (160) Upright Wet 15 25 1.7
Dry 25 25 1.7
16.8 (240) Upright Wet 15 15 1.0
Dry 25 15 1.0
19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 16 1.1
35 11 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 25 1.7
40 12 19.6 (280) Pendent Wet 15 30 2.1

Table 12.12.1.2(c) ESFR Sprinkler Protection for Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets

Type of Sprinkler (Orientation) Location of Storage Nominal K-Factor Maximum Storage Height Maximum Ceiling/Roof Height Minimum Operating Pressure
ft m ft m psi bar
ESFR (pendent) On floor or rack without solid shelves 14.0 (200) 25 7.6 30 9.1 50 3.4
25 7.6 32 10 60 4.1
16.8 (240) 25 7.6 30 9.1 35 2.4
25 7.6 32 10 42 2.9
35 11 40 12 52 3.6
22.4 (320) 25 7.6 30 9.1 25 1.7
30 9.1 35 11 35 2.4
35 11 40 12 40 2.7
25.2 (360) 25 7.6 30 9.1 15 1.0
30 9.1 35 11 20 1.4
35 11 40 12 25 1.7
ESFR (upright) On floor 14.0 (200) 20 6.1 30 9.1 50 3.4
20 6.1 35 11 75 5.2
16.8 (240) 20 6.1 30 9.1 35 2.4
20 6.1 35 11 52 3.6
The maximum clearance to ceiling of 20 ft (6.1 m) specified in 12.1.3.4 shall not apply to arrangement 12.12.1.2(4).
Idle wood pallets shall not be stored in racks unless they are protected in accordance with the appropriate requirements of Table 12.12.1.2(a) or Table 12.12.1.2(c). (See Section C. 7.)
Plastic pallets shall be permitted to be stored in the following manner:
  1. Plastic pallets shall be permitted to be stored outside.
  2. Plastic pallets shall be permitted to be stored in a detached structure.
  3. Plastic pallets shall be permitted to be stored indoors where arranged and protected in accordance with the requirements of 12.12.2.2.
Plastic pallets having a demonstrated fire hazard that is equal to or less than idle wood pallets and is listed for such equivalency shall be permitted to be protected in accordance with 12.12.1.
When specific test data are available, the data shall take precedence in determining the required protection of idle plastic pallets.
Protection with ESFR sprinklers shall be in accordance with the requirements of Table 12.12.2.2.3.

Table 12.12.2.2.3 ESFR Sprinkler Protection for Indoor Storage of Idle Plastic Pallets

Type of Sprinkler (Orientation) Location of Storage Nominal K-Factor Maximum Storage Height Maximum Ceiling/Roof Height Minimum Operating Pressure
ft m ft m psi bar
ESFR (pendent) On floor or rack without solid shelves 14.0 (200) 25 7.6 30 9.1 50 3.4
25 7.6 32 10 60 4.1
16.8 (240) 25 7.6 30 9.1 35 2.4
25 7.6 32 10 42 2.9
35 11 40 12 52 3.6
Protection with spray sprinklers shall be in accordance with one of the scenarios in 12.12.2.2.4.1 through 12.12.2.2.4.3.
Where plastic pallets are stored in cutoff rooms, the following shall apply:
  1. The cutoff rooms shall have at least one exterior wall.
  2. The plastic pallet storage shall be separated from the remainder of the building by 3 hour-rated fire walls.
  3. The storage shall be protected by sprinklers designed to deliver 0.6 gpm/ft2 (24.4 mm/min) for the entire room or by high-expansion foam and sprinklers designed to deliver 0.3 gpm/ft2 (12.2 mm/min) for the entire room.
  4. The storage shall be piled no higher than 12 ft (3.7 m).
  5. Any steel columns shall be protected by 1-hour fireproofing or a sidewall sprinkler directed to one side of the column at the top or at the 15 ft (4.6 m) level, whichever is lower. Flow from these sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from the sprinkler system demand for hydraulic calculations.
Where plastic pallets are stored without cutoffs from other storage, the following shall apply:
  1. Maximum storage height of 10 ft (3.0 m)
  2. Maximum ceiling height of 30 ft (9.1 m)
  3. Sprinkler density 0.6 gpm/ft2 over 2000 ft2 (24.4 mm/min over 186 m2)
  4. Minimum sprinkler K-factor of 16.8 (240)
Plastic pallets shall have no impact on the required sprinkler protection when stored as follows:
  1. Storage shall be piled no higher than 4 ft (1.2 m).
  2. Sprinkler protection shall employ high temperature-rated sprinklers.
  3. Each pallet pile of no more than two stacks shall be separated from other pallet piles by at least 8 ft (2.4 m) of clear space or 25 ft (7.6 m) of stored commodity.
  4. Minimum ceiling design of OH2 shall be used.
Idle plastic pallets shall be stored only in racks where protected in accordance with the requirements of Table 12.12.2.2.3.
When specific test data and a product listing are available, the data shall take precedence in determining the required protection of idle plastic pallets stored in racks.
Idle pallets shall not be stored on racks or shelves, except where permitted in 12.12.1.3, 12.12.2.3, and 12.12.3.2.
Idle pallets shall be permitted to be stored on the lowest level of storage only where no storage or shelves are located above the stored pallets and the applicable protection criteria referenced for on-floor storage in Section 12.12 are applied.
Where idle pallet storage is above a door, the idle pallet storage height and ceiling height shall be calculated from the base of storage above the door using the applicable protection criteria referenced in Section 12.12.
A reduction in ceiling density to one-half that required for idle pallets shall be permitted without revising the design area, but the density shall be no less than 0.15 gpm/ft2 (6.1 mm/min).
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