CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Fire Code 2012 (IFC 2012)

Important Disclaimer

Fire Sprinkler Statutes

Fire Investigations and Criminal Statutes

Effective Dates of Minnesota Building and Fire Codes

Occupancy Classifications Mn State Fire Code — 2015

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 General Requirements

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems

Chapter 7 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

ICC 300 Bleachers, Folding and Telescopic Seating, and Grandstands

Chapter 1 Application and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Construction

Chapter 4 Egress

Chapter 5 Existing Bleachers, Folding and Telescopic Seating, and Grandstands

Chapter 11 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings

Chapter 12 Through 19 Reserved

Chapter 20 Aviation Facilities

Chapter 21 Dry Cleaning

Chapter 22 Combustible Dust-Producing Operations

Chapter 23 Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages

Chapter 24 Flammable Finishes

Chapter 25 Fruit and Crop Ripening

Chapter 26 Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging

Chapter 27 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities

Chapter 28 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities

Chapter 29 Manufacture of Organic Coatings

Chapter 30 Industrial Ovens

Chapter 31 Tents and Other Membrane Structures

Chapter 32 High-Piled Combustible Storage

Chapter 33 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition

Chapter 34 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage

Chapter 35 Welding and Other Hot Work

Chapter 36 Marinas

Chapter 37 Through 49 Reserved

Chapter 50 Hazardous Materials—general Provisions

Chapter 51 Aerosols

Chapter 52 Combustible Fibers

Chapter 53 Compressed Gases

Chapter 54 Corrosive Materials

Chapter 55 Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 56 Explosives and Fireworks

Chapter 57 Flammable and Combustible Liquids

Chapter 58 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 59 Flammable Solids

Chapter 60 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials

Chapter 61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

Chapter 62 Organic Peroxides

Chapter 63 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids

Chapter 64 Pyrophoric Materials

Chapter 65 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics

Chapter 66 Unstable (Reactive) Materials

Chapter 67 Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids

Chapter 68 Through 79. Reserved

Chapter 80 Referenced Standards

Chapter 81 Adult Day Care Centers, Residential Hospice Facilities and Supervised Living Facilities

Appendix A Board of Appeals

Appendix B Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads

Appendix E Hazard Categories

Appendix F Hazard Ranking

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids—weight and Volume Equivalents

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (Hmmp) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (Hmis) Instructions

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems—noncompliant Conditions

Appendix J Building Information Sign

Appendix K Fires or Barbecues on Balconies or Patios

Appendix L Emergency Responder Radio Coverage

The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems.
The fire code official shall have the authority to require construction documents and calculations for all fire protection systems and to require permits be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation.
Before requesting final approval of the installation, where required by the fire code official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protection system has been installed in accordance with approved plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and the appropriate installation standard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall be attached to the written statement.
Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.
Fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the original installation standards for that system. Required systems shall be extended, altered or augmented as necessary to maintain and continue protection whenever the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alterations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance with applicable standards.
Fire protection systems required by this code or the International Building Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and maintained in accordance with this code.
Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code or the International Building Code shall be allowed to be furnished for partial or complete protection provided such installed system meets the applicable requirements of this code and the International Building Code.
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the International Building Code.
In occupancies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where the fire code official determines that access for fire apparatus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required under this section shall be installed in accordance with this code and the applicable referenced standards.
Any device that has the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protection function shall be prohibited.
Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working space around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and an unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.
Fire detection and alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant systems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurtenances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code official. The fire code official shall be notified before any required acceptance testing.
It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the required fire detection, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and approved.
Fire detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems, mechanical smoke exhaust systems, and smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or removed.
Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1.
Exception: Fire alarm and automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at least annually. Inspections and testing shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures specified in the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1. As part of the annual inspection required by this section, all weekly, monthly, quarterly, semiannual, and annual inspections, tests, and maintenance requirements in the listed standards shall be conducted and shall note any problems observed.

TABLE 901.6.1
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

SYSTEMSTANDARD
Portable fire extinguishersNFPA 10
Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systemNFPA 12
Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systemsNFPA 12A
Dry-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17
Wet-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17A
Water-based fire protection systemsNFPA 25
Fire alarm systemsNFPA 72
Mechanical smoke exhaust systemsNFPA 204
Smoke and heat ventsNFPA 204
Water-mist systemsNFPA 750
Clean-agent extinguishing systemsNFPA 2001
Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years and shall be copied to the fire code official upon request.
Initial records shall include the name of the installation contractor, type of components installed, manufacturer of the components, location and number of components installed per floor. Records shall also include the manufacturers’ operation and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall be maintained on the premises.
Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the fire code official, the building shall either be evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service.

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.

The building owner shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator.
A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service.
The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. The fire code official shall specify where the tag is to be placed.
Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.

2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.

3. Recommendations have been submitted to management or building owner/manager.

4. The fire department has been notified.

5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building owner/manager, and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.

6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.

7. A tag impairment system has been implemented.

8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.

When unplanned impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Section 901.7.4.
When impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

1. Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.

2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.

3. The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.

4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.

5. The impairment tag has been removed.

It shall be unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire suppression system, or other fire appliance required by this code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training purposes, recharging or making necessary repairs, or when approved by the fire code official.
Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals which have been installed by or at the direction of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any manner.
For fire alarm systems required to be monitored by this code, notice shall be made to the fire code official whenever alarm monitoring services are terminated. Notice shall be made in writing, to the fire code official by the monitoring service provider being terminated.
Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.
In buildings protected by automatic sprinklers or automatic fire detectors, suspended or removable ceiling tiles shall be maintained in place to prevent the delay in sprinkler or detector activation.
Exception: When additional sprinklers or detectors are installed in the space above the suspended ceiling.
Open-grid ceilings shall not be installed beneath sprinklers.
Exception: Open-grid ceilings are allowed when the requirements of NFPA 13 for open-grid ceilings are met.
Drop-out ceilings shall be permitted to be installed beneath sprinklers when all requirements of NFPA 13 for drop-out ceilings have been met.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
DETECTOR, HEAT.
DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.
EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.
FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.
[B] FIRE AREA.
FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.
MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.
STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.
Class I system.
Class II system.
Class III system.
STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.
TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.
WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.
ZONE, NOTIFICATION.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.
Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor area where the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and in all floors from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the nearest level of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time:

1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.

2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.

In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:

1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has at least one exterior exit door at ground level.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m2) which generate finely divided combustible waste or which use finely divided combustible materials.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that required under the International Building Code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2.
Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

TABLE 903.2.5.2
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

LOCATIONOCCUPANCY HAZARD
CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areas Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensing Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensing Extra Hazard Group 2
Corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.
Exceptions:

1. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group I-1 facilities.

2. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be allowed in Group I-1 facilities when in compliance with all of the following:

2.1. A hydraulic design information sign is located on the system riser;

2.2. Exception 1 of Section 903.4 is not applied; and

2.3. Systems shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of Section 903.3.1.2.

3. An automatic sprinkler system is not required where day care facilities are at the level of exit discharge and where every room where care is provided has at least one exterior exit door.

4. In buildings where Group I-4 day care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be installed on the entire floor where care is provided and all floors between the level of care and the level of exit discharge, all floors below the level of exit discharge, other than areas classified as an open parking garage.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided as required in Chapter 32 in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with Section 903.3 in Group R occupancies and Townhouses as follows:

1. All Group R-4 occupancies.

2. Group R-1 multiunit resort buildings as defined in Minnesota Statutes, Section 157.15, and licensed by the Minnesota Department of Health shall comply with Chapter 1305, the Minnesota Building Code.

3. In other than R-1 multiunit resort buildings, Group R-1 occupancies shall comply with Chapter 1305, the Minnesota Building Code.

4. R-2 occupancies shall comply with Chapter 1305, the Minnesota Building Code.

5. Townhouses shall comply with Chapter 1309, the Minnesota Residential Code.

For the purposes of this provision, fire walls, party walls, or attached multiple fire-resistive exterior walls shall only create separate buildings where providing separation from occupancies other than Group R.
For Item 3 above, R-1 occupancies other than those specified in Item 2 with a combined fire area 4,500 square feet or more shall be provided with a fire sprinkler system per Section 903. For Item 4 above, all R-2 occupancies with a combined fire area 4,500 square feet or more shall be provided with a
fire sprinkler system per Section 903. For item 5 above, all townhouses shall be provided with a fire sprinkler system
.
It is important to understand the definition in Section 202 of a Dwelling unit when it comes to applying the sprinkler requirements to licensed facilities in the Care Facility Classifications’ table in Section 202. Group R-3dwelling unit“ constructed to the MSBC that are less than 4,500 sf would not require sprinklers per MSBC Section 903.2.8, Exception 2. However, per Section 903.2.8.2, Group R-3 and R-4 licensed occupancies will require a sprinkler system installed per Section 903.3 no matter the size because they are not dwelling units by definition.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 or R-4 congregate residences with 16 or fewer residents.
Group R-3 or R-4 occupancies containing facilities licensed by Minnesota shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system as required by the applicable licensing provisions or this section, whichever is more restrictive.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R-3 or Group R-4 fire area containing a residential hospice facility.
Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 shall be allowed, provided that all habitable spaces and closets are sprinklered.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

5. A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406.8 of the International Building Code, as shown:

1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).

2. Buildings no more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.6 of the International Building Code as follows:

1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); or

2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided at least one of the following types of exterior wall openings:

1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.

Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall be provided on at least two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor above the discharge. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
Exceptions:

1. Airport control towers.

2. Open parking structures.

3. Occupancies in Group F-2.

Where required by the International Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts having a cross-sectional area of 75 square inches (480 cm2) or more and that convey flammable or combustible components or that have the potential for combustible residue build-up on the inside. When sprinkler protection is installed, means shall be provided to prevent water accumulation in the duct or the flow of water back to a process where the application of water constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in a commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.
In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 also require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

TABLE 903.2.11.6
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTIONSUBJECT
914.2.1Covered and open mall buildings
914.3.1 High rise buildings
914.4.1 Atriums
914.5.1 Underground structures
914.6.1 Stages
914.7.1 Special amusement buildings
914.8.2, 914.8.5 Aircraft hangars
914.9 Flammable finishes
914.10 Drying rooms
914.11.1 Ambulatory care facilities
1028.6.2.3 Smoke-protected assembly seating
1103.5.1 Pyroxylin plastic storage in existing buildings
1103.5.2 Existing Group I-2 occupancies
2108.2 Dry cleaning plants
2108.3 Dry cleaning machines
2309.3.2.6.2 Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies
2404.2 Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R
2404.4 Spray booths and spray rooms
2405.2 Dip-tank rooms in Group A, I or R
2405.4.1 Dip tanks
2405.9.4 Hardening and tempering tanks
2703.10 HPM facilities
2703.10.1.1 HPM work station exhaust
2703.10.2 HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures
2703.10.3 HPM exit access corridor
2703.10.4 HPM exhaust ducts
2703.10.4.1 HPM noncombustible ducts
2703.10.4.2 HPM combustible ducts
2807.3 Lumber production conveyor enclosures
2808.7 Recycling facility conveyor enclosures
3006.1 Class A and B ovens
3006.2 Class C and D ovens
Table 3206.2 Storage fire protection
3206.4 Storage
5003.8.4.1 Gas rooms
5003.8.5.3 Exhausted enclosures
5004.5 Indoor storage of hazardous materials
5005.1.8 Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials
5104.4.1 Aerosol warehouses
5106.3.2 Aerosol display and merchandising areas
5204.5 Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose combustible fibers
5306.2.1Exterior medical gas storage room

(continued)

TABLE 903.2.11.6—continued
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTIONSUBJECT
5306.2.2Interior medical gas storage room
5306.2.3Medical gas storage cabinet
5606.5.2.1 Storage of smokeless propellant
5606.5.2.3 Storage of small arms primers
5704.3.7.5.1 Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms
5704.3.8.4 Flammable and combustible liquid storage warehouses
5705.3.7.3 Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or H-3 areas
6004.1.2 Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas
6004.1.3 Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas
6004.2.2.6 Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas
6004.3.3 Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas
6504.1.1 Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets
6504.1.3 Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults
6504.2 Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m3.
Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.7.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in state-licensed or state-registered facilities shall be installed in accordance with this code and the applicable licensing or registration provisions of Minnesota.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1.
Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from any room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

1. Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, when approved by the fire code official.

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.

5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.

6. Machine rooms and machinery spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.

Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.
Decks and balconies greater than 6 feet (1.8 m) above grade, greater than 4 feet (1.2 m) deep, with an area greater than 40 square feet (3.72 m2), and attached to new Group R-1 and R-2 occupancy buildings protected in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 that are three or more stories in height and with 30 or more units, shall be protected with sprinklers under the balcony or deck framing and under attic eaves when both of the following two conditions exist:

1. The building has an unsprinklered attic; and

2. The building has combustible siding.

Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one and two-family dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 congregate living facilities and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.
When fire sprinkler systems are required in buildings of undetermined use, they shall be designed and installed to have a sprinkler density of not less than that required for an Ordinary Hazard Group 2 use with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Use is considered undetermined if not specified at the time a permit is issued. Where a subsequent occupancy requires a system with greater capability, it shall be the responsibility of the owner to upgrade the system to the required density for the new hazard, use or occupancy.
When fire sprinkler systems are required in areas containing the following uses, they shall be designed and installed to have a sprinkler density of not less than that required for an Ordinary Hazard Group 2 use:

1. Chemistry labs; or

2. Wrestling or gymnastic rooms.

The sprinkler installation standards as referenced in Sections 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2, and 903.3.1.3 are modified as follows:
When, in the opinion of the fire chief, an adequate alternate water supply for hose stream requirements is provided or available, the water supply requirements for the sprinkler system hose stream demands may be modified.

Section 903.3.1.6.1 relaxes the requirements for a hose stream allowance when the sprinkler system is supplied by a private water system (well, tank, or other supply). A hose stream allowance is typically added to the sprinkler system demand due to concerns that the fire department will connect to the fire hydrant, start drawing water and potentially decrease the water available for sprinkler operation. With a private water system this is unlikely to occur.
Sprinkler protection shall not be installed in elevator shafts, elevator pits or elevator machine rooms.
Exception: Health care occupancies required to have NFPA 13 systems and are licensed by the Minnesota Department of Health or that participate in Title XVIII (Medicare) or Title XIX (Medicaid) of the Social Security Act.
Sprinkler protection need not be provided on the ceiling of rooms containing swimming pools when the pool area is used exclusively for swimming purposes and when sprinklers are provided around the perimeter of the pool area.
(See MN Rule 7511.0903 for modifications).
See Minnesota Rule 7511.0903 for language in this section. Also found at www.sfm.dps.mn.gov.
Sprinkler protection is not required in vestibules that meet all of the following conditions:

1. The vestibule is 225 square feet or less in floor area;

2. The vestibule is of noncombustible or limited combustible construction;

3. The vestibule has glazing allowing vision into vestibule;

4. The vestibule’s only purpose is ingress and egress; and

5. The vestibule contains no fueled equipment, flammable or combustible liquids, or furniture. Incidental combustible storage in the vestibule is limited to five cubic feet of material.

Automatic sprinkler systems installed in Group R-3 and R-4 congregate residences and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D. Attached garages in two-family dwellings and townhouse buildings are required to have one dry head sprinkler located within 5 linear feet of each door installed in the common wall separating the dwelling unit and the attached garage.
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the International Building Code.

2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.

4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.

Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.
Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.
Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to be connected to the domestic service where a wet automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area sprinkler systems connected to domestic water supplies shall comply with each of the following requirements:

1. Valves shall not be installed between the domestic water riser control valve and the sprinklers.

Exception: An approved indicating control valve supervised in the open position in accordance with Section 903.4.

2. The domestic service shall be capable of supplying the simultaneous domestic demand and the sprinkler demand required to be hydraulically calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13D or NFPA 13R.

A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.
An automatic secondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by the International Building Code. An additional fire pump shall not be required for the secondary water supply unless needed to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occupancy hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 13.
Exception: Existing buildings.
Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.
The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the fire code official.
For new sprinkler systems or additions to existing sprinkler systems, the available water supply shall exceed the sprinkler system demand, including the hose stream requirements, by 5 psi (0.34 bars) or more.
Exception: 13D systems installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.
All valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.
Exceptions:

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

8. For existing sprinkler systems, monitoring is required when the number of sprinklers is 100 or more.

Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.
Exceptions:

1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.

An approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.
All valves controlling water supplies for automatic sprinklers shall be locked or secured in the open position.
Exception: Valves located in a room or space when access is limited to essential personnel only.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Service personnel installing, providing, or conducting maintenance on automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved organization for the type of system and work performed.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.
Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.
Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.
Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, the following items shall be inspected:

1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.

4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.

5. Identification of devices with proper designations.

6. Operating instructions.

Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.
Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 25.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall be verified at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced.
The liquid-level gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
Hoses shall be tested at not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in proper operating condition.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.
For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.
Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating condition.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing.
Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.
The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.
System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at five-year intervals.
The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.

3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the International Mechanical Code.
A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.
Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.
The actuation of the fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
When carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. When the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) travel distance of commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment involving solid fuels or vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected by a Class K rated portable extinguisher in accordance with Section 904.11.5.1 or 904.11.5.2, as applicable.
All solid fuel cooking appliances, whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet (0.14 m3) or less in volume shall have a minimum 2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accordance with Section 904.11.5.
When hazard areas include deep fat fryers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:

1. For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon (6 L) capacity.

2. For every additional group of four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one additional Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon (6 L) capacity shall be provided.

3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 m2) in surface area: Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer’s recommendations.

Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 904.11.6.1 through 904.11.6.3.
Where changes in the cooking media, positioning of cooking equipment or replacement of cooking equipment occur in existing commercial cooking systems, the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be required to comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 904.11 through 904.11.4.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least every six months and after activation of the system. Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certificate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code official upon completion.
Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, and other protection devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be replaced annually.
Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 32.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14.
In buildings other than high rise that are protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1 and 903.3.1.2, a Class I or III standpipe system need only meet the pressure requirements for the sprinkler system when such systems comply with Sections 905.2.1.1 through 905.2.1.5.
A municipal water supply capable of supplying the required standpipe flow rate with a residual pressure not less than 20 psi (1.4 bars) through a fire hydrant shall be provided. A fire hydrant shall be located within 300 feet (91 m) of the building’s fire department connection.
The standpipe system shall be able to provide the pressure and flow rate required by NFPA 14 when the standpipe system is supported by local fire department apparatus through the fire department connection as verified with hydraulic calculations. The hydraulic calculations are to be performed between the hydraulically most demanding standpipe hose connection and the fire department connection. Pipe sizes shall not be less than the minimum requirements in NFPA 14.
A maximum design pressure of 150 psi (10.3 bars) is permitted at the fire department connection when the standpipe is supported by local fire department apparatus.
At least one 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connection shall be provided on the exterior of the building at the fire department connection for each 250 gpm (980 L/min) of required standpipe flow.
The automatic sprinkler system demand, including the inside hose stream demand from NFPA 13, is to be provided by the municipal water supply system without requiring fire department pumping into the system.
Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.8. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.
Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.
Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.
Exceptions:

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.

5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider:

5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less, and

5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.

Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.
Exceptions:

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.

2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.

Class III automatic standpipes shall be provided in Group A-3 occupancies where the floor area used for exhibition exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways opening directly on the mall.

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building.

4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.

5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.

Deleted.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36.
Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.
Regardless of the height of the building or number of stories, every building in a Group I-3 detention and correctional facility, where 50 or more persons are under restraint or security under Occupancy Condition 3, 4 or 5, shall be provided with a Class III automatic wet or semiautomatic dry standpipe system.
Exception: Combined systems meeting the provisions of Section 905.2 may be used.
When acceptable to the fire chief, fire department connections may be located inside all security walls or fences on the property.
Standpipes shall be located in accordance with Section 905. In addition, standpipes shall be located so that it will not be necessary to extend hose lines through smoke barriers. When located in cell complexes, standpipes may be located in secured pipe chases.
Small hose connections shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies three or more stories in height where any portion of the building’s interior area is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) of travel, vertically or horizontally, from the nearest point of fire department vehicle access. Small hose connections required by this section shall comply with the following:

1. Supply one 11/2-inch (38 mm) fire hose valve at each floor level or intermediate stair landing in each required and enclosed stairway.

2. The water for the small hose connections shall be supplied separately from the sprinkler system protecting that area so that the small hose connections are still functional if the water supply to the sprinkler system is shut down following fire extinguishment.

3. The piping shall be a minimum of 11/2-inch (38 mm).

4. The water shall be supplied from a wet-pipe sprinkler system only.

5. The piping shall be comprised of metallic piping and hose valve connections.

Permanent signage shall be required which reads “Fire Department Overhaul Hose Connection” at each connection in the building. If a separate standpipe system is provided, a sign shall also be provided at the exterior fire department connection.
This section clarifies the original intent of these hose connections from the previous code. It provides specific installation instructions. These will be in buildings protected with a sprinkler system and intended for fire department overhaul operations, extinguishing small fires the sprinkler system controlled. The intent is to provide a hose connection in three- and four-story buildings that were not required to have a standpipe system. Standpipes are still required in buildings that meet the requirements in Section 905.3.
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.

5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with stair access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1009.16.

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.

Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.
Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.
In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.
Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.
Exceptions:

1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.

Cabinets shall be unlocked.
Exceptions:

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.

2. Approved locking arrangements.

3. Group I-3 occupancies.

Dry standpipes shall not be installed.
Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.
Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted to the control unit.
Exceptions:

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.

Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313.
Where required in Chapter 11, existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in the following locations:

1. In all Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.

Exception: In all Group E occupancies equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, fire extinguishers shall be required only in laundry rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, garages, stages, projection booths, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, custodial closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms greater than 100 square feet, and similar areas.

2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.

4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1.

5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.

6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.

7. Group R-3 occupancies used as family day care, group family day care, foster care, adult family day services and residential hospices.

TABLE 906.1
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

IFC SECTIONSUBJECT
303.5Asphalt kettles
307.5Open burning
308.1.3Open flames—torches
309.4Powered industrial trucks
2005.2Aircraft towing vehicles
2005.3Aircraft welding apparatus
2005.4Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
2005.5Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
2005.6Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
2007.7Heliports and helistops
2108.4Dry cleaning plants
2305.5Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2310.6.4Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2311.6Repair garages
2404.4.1Spray-finishing operations
2405.4.2Dip-tank operations
2406.4.2Powder-coating areas
2804.3Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
2808.8Recycling facilities
2809.5Exterior lumber storage
2903.5Organic-coating areas
3006.3Industrial ovens
3104.12Tents and membrane structures
3206.10High-piled storage
3315.1Buildings under construction or demolition
3317.3Roofing operations
3408.2Tire rebuilding/storage
3504.2.6Welding and other hot work
3604.4Marinas
5203.6Combustible fibers
5703.2.1Flammable and combustible liquids, general
5704.3.3.1Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
5704.3.7.5.2Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids
5705.4.9Solvent distillation units
5706.2.7Farms and construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage
5706.4.10.1Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids
5706.5.4.5Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing
5706.6.4Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
5906.5.7Flammable solids
6108.2LP-gas
Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed, and maintained in accordance with this section and NFPA 10. Section 7.1.2 of NFPA 10 is deleted.
NFPA 10 Section 7.1.2 requires personnel servicing fire extinguishers to be certified or licensed by a governmental agency. This would require legislative action and there is no such mandate at this time. Personnel should be factory trained and possess some type of certificate indicating this.
Exceptions:

1. The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.

2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.

2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.

2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.

2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every three years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.

2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.

3. In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.

Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on portable fire extinguishers shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved organization for the type of work performed.
The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

TABLE 906.3(1)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

LIGHT
(Low)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
ORDINARY
(Moderate)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
EXTRA
(High)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
Minimum rated single extinguisher2-Ac2-A4-Aa
Maximum floor area per unit of A3,000
square feet
1,500
square feet
1,000
square feet
Maximum floor area for extinguisherb11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
Maximum travel distance to extinguisher75 feet75 feet75 feet
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

TABLE 906.3(2)
FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH
DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCHa

TYPE OF HAZARDBASIC MINIMUM
EXTINGUISHER
RATING
MAXIMUM TRAVEL
DISTANCE TO
EXTINGUISHERS
(feet)
Light (Low) 5-B
10-B
30
50
Ordinary (Moderate) 10-B
20-B
30
50
Extra (High)40-B
80-B
30
50
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.11.5.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.
Exceptions:

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.

2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.

The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components in new and existing buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.9 are applicable to existing buildings and structures.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International Building Code, and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.
Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following:

1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.

2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices.

3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.

4. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.

5. Annunciators.

6. Power connection.

7. Battery calculations.

8. Conductor type and sizes.

9. Voltage drop calculations.

10. Manufacturers’ data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.

11. Details of ceiling height and construction.

12. The interface of fire safety control functions.

13. Classification of the supervising station.

Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.
An approved manual, automatic, or manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in new buildings and occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.24 and NFPA 72. For the purposes of Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.24, fire barrier walls or fire walls shall not define separate buildings. In buildings containing mixed occupancies that are designed as separated uses (see Section 102.11), fire alarm and detection systems need only be installed in those occupancies where required by this section.
Exception: In areas protected by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, automatic fire detectors required by Section 907.2 need not be provided. Where Section 907.2 requires smoke detectors, such protection shall be installed.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.1.3 in Group A occupancies having an occupant load of 300 or more.
Exceptions:

1. Assembly areas used solely for worship purposes.

2. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings with an occupant load less than 1,000 when an approved automatic fire sprinkler system is installed throughout the building.

3. Assembly uses located inside Group E occupancies shall have alarms as required for the Group E occupancy.

4. Group A-5 occupancies. See also Section 907.2.11.

Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, kitchens, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms and similar areas.
The required fire alarm system shall activate an audible and visible notification appliance at a constantly attended location within the building for the purposes of initiating emergency action. A presignal feature and positive alarm sequencing in accordance with NFPA 72 are permitted. Occupant notification shall be by means of voice announcements, either live or prerecorded, initiated by the person in the constantly attended location.
Exception: Where no constantly attended location exists, an automatic fire alarm system providing a general evacuation signal or an approved emergency voice/alarm communications system is permitted.
Activation of the fire alarm system in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall immediately initiate an approved prerecorded message announcement using an approved emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed three minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.2 through 907.2.2.3 in Group B occupancies if:

1. The building has an occupant load of 500 or more persons;

2. The building has an occupant load of more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge; or

3. The building contains an ambulatory care facility.

When automatic sprinkler systems or automatic fire detectors are installed in ambulatory care facilities, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.
Exception: In other than ambulatory care facilities, a fire alarm system is not required when an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed throughout the building.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, shops, kitchens, mechanical and electrical rooms, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms and similar areas. In ambulatory care facilities, initiation of the fire alarm system shall also be by manual means.
Activation of the fire alarm system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
Exception: In lieu of audible notification appliances, visible notification appliances shall be permitted to be used in patient care areas.
Corridors and rooms or spaces open to corridors within an ambulatory care facility shall be protected by an automatic smoke-detection system.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.3 through 907.2.3.3 in Group E occupancies having an occupant load of 50 or more.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in laundry rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, custodial closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges and similar areas.
Exceptions:

1. In buildings protected throughout by an approved, fire sprinkler system, manual fire alarm boxes are only required in the main office and in a custodial area.

2. Where all corridors are protected by an approved automatic fire alarm system having smoke detection with alarm verification, manual fire alarm boxes are only required near exits serving shops, chemistry and physics laboratories, boiler rooms, industrial technology and industrial arts rooms, kitchens, custodian’s offices and main offices.

Where the only means of egress travel from an interior room or rooms having an aggregate occupant load of more than ten occupants is through an adjoining or intervening room, automatic smoke detectors shall be installed throughout the common atmosphere through which the path of egress travel passes.
Exception: In buildings that are protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke detectors are not required in intervening or adjoining rooms.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.4 through 907.2.4.2 in Group F occupancies that are two or more stories in height and have an occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
Exception: A fire alarm system is not required when an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed throughout the building.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, trash-collection rooms, kitchens, mechanical and electrical rooms, and similar areas.
Activation of the fire alarm system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.5 through 907.2.5.2 in Group H-5 occupancies, occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings and, when required by Chapters 60, 62, and 63, at the following locations:

1. Rooms or areas where highly toxic compressed gases are stored or used;

2. Rooms or areas where Class I, II or III organic peroxides are stored; and

3. Liquid and solid oxidizer storage areas.

Initiation of the fire alarm system in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings shall be by manual means. Initiation of fire alarm systems installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers shall be by automatic means, as specified in Chapters 60, 62, and 63.
Activation of the fire alarm system in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings shall initiate a general evacuation signal. Activation of the automatic detection systems installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers shall sound a local alarm.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.6 through 907.2.6.4.2 in Group I occupancies.
A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-1 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1.1 through 907.2.6.1.3.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry and soiled linen rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, custodial closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges, gift shops and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in corridors and areas that are open to corridors.
Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in patient sleeping areas of Group I-1 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses’ stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such fire alarm boxes are visible and continuously accessible, if travel distances required by Section 907.4.2 are not exceeded.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal. In addition, activation of the fire alarm system shall immediately transmit an alarm to an approved central station or remote station service.
Exceptions:

1. In lieu of audible notification appliances, visible notification appliances shall be allowed to be used in critical care areas.

2. Where occupants are incapable of evacuating themselves because of age, physical/mental disabilities or physical restraint, only the attendants or other personnel required to evacuate occupants from a zone, area, floor or building shall be required to be notified. This notification shall include means to readily identify the zone, area, floor or building in need of evacuation.

Smoke alarms shall be installed in resident sleeping rooms in accordance with Section 907.2.11.1.
A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-2 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.2 through 907.2.6.2.4.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry and soiled linen rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, custodial closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges, gift shops, and similar areas. Hospitals, nursing homes (both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), board and care homes, and detoxification facilities shall be provided with smoke detection throughout the corridor and areas open to the corridors, other than nurses’ stations.
Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection shall not be required where the sleeping room smoke detectors required in Section 907.2.6.2.3 are connected to an approved fire alarm system and activate a general evacuation signal.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required at exits from patient sleeping areas if located at all nurses’ stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such fire alarm boxes are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances horizontally on the same floor shall not exceed 200 feet to reach a manual fire alarm box.

Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a signal that is distinctive from audible signals used for other purposes in the same building. Such signal is intended to notify staff and need not meet the minimum sound pressure levels required for general evacuation fire alarm notification. In addition, activation of the fire alarm system shall immediately transmit an alarm to an approved central station or remote station service.
Exceptions:

1. In lieu of audible notification appliances, visible notification appliances shall be allowed to be used in critical care areas.

2. Where occupants are incapable of evacuating themselves because of age, physical/mental disabilities, or physical restraint, only the attendants or other personnel required to evacuate occupants from a zone, area, floor, or building shall be required to be notified. This notification shall include means to readily identify the zone, area, floor, or building in need of evacuation.

3. Where total evacuation of occupants is impractical due to building configuration, only the occupants in the affected zones shall be initially notified. Provisions shall be made to selectively notify occupants in other zones to afford orderly evacuation of the entire building.

Smoke detectors shall be installed in patient sleeping rooms of hospitals and nursing homes. Such detector’s primary power shall be other than battery power. Actuation of such detectors shall cause a visual display on the corridor side of the room where the detector is located and shall cause a distinct audible and visual alarm at the nurses’ station attending the room. Such detectors may be part of the facility’s fire alarm system, nurses’ call system, or a standalone system.
Integral smoke detectors for automatic door-closing devices on sleeping room doors can meet the requirement for patient room smoke detectors found in Section 907.2.6.2.3 provided they perform all the required alerting functions found in Section 907.2.6.2.3.
For Group I-2 facilities, other than hospitals and nursing homes, single station smoke alarms shall be installed in resident sleeping rooms.
A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-3 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.3 through 907.2.6.3.4.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry and soiled linen rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, custodial closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges, gift shops, commissaries and similar areas. Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal, which automatically notifies staff. Presignal systems shall not be used.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.
Manual fire alarm boxes are permitted to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.
An approved automatic smoke-detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping areas and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to residents.
Exceptions:

1. Other approved smoke-detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, such as placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective grills, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.

2. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping rooms with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a signal that is distinctive from audible signals used for other purposes in the same building. Such signal is intended to notify staff and need not meet the minimum sound pressure levels required for general evacuation fire alarm notification. In addition, activation of the fire alarm system shall immediately transmit an alarm to an approved central station or remote station service.
A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-4 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.4.1 through 907.2.6.4.2.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry and soiled linen rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, custodial closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges, gift shops, and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in corridors and areas that are open to corridors.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal. In addition, activation of the fire alarm system shall immediately transmit an alarm signal to an approved central station or remote station service.
Deleted.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.8 through 907.2.8.3 in Group R-1 occupancies.
Exceptions:

1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not over two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least one-hour fire partitions and each sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.

2. Buildings containing five or fewer sleeping units shall be allowed to be equipped with approved multiple-station smoke alarms installed as required for Group R-3 occupancies. Installation shall be in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, shops, laundry rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, gift shops, locker rooms and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in all common areas and interior corridors serving as required means of egress.
Exception: System fire and smoke detectors are not required when an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and a manual fire alarm box is provided at a constantly attended location. When a constantly attended location is not provided, the manual fire alarm box shall be provided at the main exit.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
Sleeping unit smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11 shall not be connected to a fire alarm system.
Exception: Connection of such alarms for annunciation only.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.9 through 907.2.9.2 in Group R-2 occupancies where:

1. Any sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located two or more stories above the story containing the lowest level of exit discharge;

2. Any sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit;

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units; or

4. The building is used as a congregate living facility, dormitory, convent, monastery, fraternity, sorority, group home, or shelter and has an occupant load of 20 or more.

Exception: A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not over two stories in height where all dwelling units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least one-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, trash-collection rooms, shops, laundry rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, storage rooms and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in all common areas and interior corridors serving as a required means of egress.
Exception: System fire and smoke detectors are not required when an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed throughout the building.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
Dwelling unit smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11 shall not be connected to the building fire alarm system.
Exception: Connection of such alarms for annunciation only.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.10 through 907.2.10.3 in Group R-4 occupancies.
Exceptions:

1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings two stories or less in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least one-hour fire partitions and each sleeping unit room has an exit directly to a public way, exit court, or yard.

2. Buildings containing five or fewer sleeping units shall be allowed to be equipped with approved multiple-station smoke alarms installed as required for Group R-3 occupancies. Installation shall be in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, shops, laundry rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, gift shops, locker rooms, and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in all common areas and interior corridors serving as required means of egress.
Exception: System fire and smoke detectors are not required when an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2, or 903.3.1.3.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
Single and multistation smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.4 and NFPA 72.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:

1. In sleeping areas.

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

Single or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.

Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms in Group I-1 shall not be required where smoke detectors are provided in the sleeping rooms as part of an automatic smoke detection system.

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R or I-1 occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.
In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery back-up shall be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.
Exceptions:

1. Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup in Group R-1 where they are connected to an emergency electrical system.

2. Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup in Group R-2 occupancies equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

3. Smoke alarms installed in sleeping rooms of Group R-3 buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2, or 903.3.1.3 are allowed to be battery powered.

Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately activate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.
The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically:

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface level;

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions;

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency; and

4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.

An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
High-rise buildings shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Exceptions:

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the International Building Code.

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1 of the International Building Code.

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1 of the International Building Code.

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the International Building Code.

6. In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.

Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2.
Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall activate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.10, smoke detectors shall be located as follows:

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room which is not provided with sprinkler protection.

2. In each elevator machine room and in elevator lobbies.

Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be located as follows:

1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.

Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 508, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the enclosed exit stairway.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection installed throughout the atrium. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2.
Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by this code.
Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system.
Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with the International Building Code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1.
A minimum of one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in the following areas:

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.

2. Elevator lobbies.

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air inlet openings.

Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location.
Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Where the total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
A minimum of one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in Chapter 2 of the International Building Code and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm that will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in airport control towers in all occupiable and equipment spaces.
Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.24 in residential hospices. When automatic sprinkler systems or automatic fire detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, kitchens, laboratories, shops, gift shops, commissaries, laundry and soiled linen rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, locker rooms, storage rooms, janitors’ closets, trash-collection rooms, lounges and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in sleeping rooms, corridors and spaces open to the corridors.
Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required at exits if manual fire alarm boxes are located at all nurses’ stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such fire alarm boxes are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required by Section 907.4.1 are not exceeded.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal. In addition, the fire alarm system shall be monitored by an approved central station service in accordance with Section 903.4.1.
Exception: In lieu of audible notification appliances, visible notification appliances shall be allowed to be used in sleeping areas.
Automatic fire detectors required by Section 907.2 and Chapter 11 are to activate notification appliances in accordance with those sections. When automatic fire detectors are installed for other fire safety functions, they shall perform the intended function upon activation. When automatic detectors are installed for fire safety functions and the building has a fire alarm system, the detectors shall activate supervisory signals at the fire alarm control panel or at a constantly attended location. When the building does not have a fire alarm system, the detectors shall activate a visual and audible supervisory signal at an approved location, which shall indicate the source of the signal.
Smoke detectors installed to shut down the air distribution or air-handling system shall, upon activation, perform the intended function. Air distribution or air-handling equipment that is part of a smoke-control system shall switch to smoke-control mode upon activation of a detector.
Smoke detectors that are installed in air distribution or air-handling systems for shutdown purposes and that are connected to a fire alarm system shall not sound a general evacuation signal.
Smoke detectors that are installed to control or recall elevators or to control doors for elevators, elevator lobbies, or elevator shafts and that are connected to a fire alarm system shall not sound a general evacuation signal. Elevator recall and firefighter’s emergency operation for elevators shall only be controlled by elevator smoke detectors and shall not initiate upon other building fire detectors or evacuation signals.
Smoke detectors that are installed to hold open fire doors under nonemergency conditions and that are connected to a fire alarm system shall sound a general evacuation signal when the doors being held open are part of the means of egress corridor or stair system. Door hold-open smoke detectors are not required to activate a visual or audible signal.
Deleted.
Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 907.4.3.1.
In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders and supervising station transmitting equipment.
Exception: Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of smoke detector, a heat detector shall be permitted.
Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.6.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.
Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS — CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.
Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.
The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, unobscured and visible at all times.
Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors shall be permitted.
For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection.
A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the fire alarm control unit and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.2.3.4. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:

1. Automatic fire detectors.

2. Automatic sprinkler system waterflow devices.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes.

4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended location.
A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approved by the fire department, in order that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency.
Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose.
Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm.
Exceptions:

1. Visible alarm notification appliances shall be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appliances in critical care areas of Group I-2 occupancies.

2. Where provided, audible notification appliances located in each occupant evacuation elevator lobby in accordance with Section 3008.10.1 of the International Building Code shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.

The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building.
The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.
Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building’s fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404. In high-rise buildings, the system shall operate on a minimum of the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:

1. Elevator groups.

2. Exit stairways.

3. Each floor.

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Chapter 2.

Exception: In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.
A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall also have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.
The emergency voice/ alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.
Where stadiums, arenas and grandstands are required to caption audible public announcements in accordance with Section 1108.2.7.3 of the International Building Code, the emergency/voice alarm communication system shall also be captioned. Prerecorded or live emergency captions shall be from an approved location constantly attended by personnel trained to respond to an emergency.
Emergency voice/ alarm communications systems shall be provided with an approved emergency power source.
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.4.
Exceptions:

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Chapter 2.

3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.

Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public areas and common areas.
Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with a minimum of 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing impaired employee(s).
Group I-1 and R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.5.2.3.3 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

TABLE 907.5.2.3.3
VISIBLE ALARMS

NUMBER OF SLEEPING UNITSSLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS
WITH VISIBLE ALARMS
6 to 252
26 to 504
51 to 757
76 to 1009
101 to 15012
151 to 20014
201 to 30017
301 to 40020
401 to 50022
501 to 1,0005% of total
1,001 and over50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000
In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with Chapter 10 of ICC A117.1. Such capability shall be permitted to include the potential for future interconnection of the building fire alarm system with the unit smoke alarms, replacement of audible appliances with combination audible/visible appliances, or future extension of the existing wiring from the unit smoke alarm locations to required locations for visible appliances.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.6.1 through 907.6.5.2 and NFPA 72.
Wiring shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.
The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.
Exception: Backup power for single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.4.
Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direction.
Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13.
A zoning indicator panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible alarm-silencing switch.
In high-rise buildings, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided:

1. Smoke detectors.

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes.

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detectiondevices or suppression systems.

Access shall be provided to each fire alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.
Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number unless approved by the fire chief.
Termination of fire alarm monitoring services shall be in accordance with Section 901.9.
Upon completion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72.
When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72.
A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed and tested in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided.
Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings (“as builts”) and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location.
The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Sections 907.8.1 through 907.8.5 and NFPA 72.
Whenever required for compliance with the provisions of this code, devices, equipment, systems, conditions, arrangements, levels of protection or other features shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as directed by the fire code official.
Fire alarm systems shall be inspected and tested at least annually in accordance with NFPA 72 or more frequently where required by the code official.
Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but not less than every 18 months.
Smoke detector sensitivity shall be checked within one year after installation and every alternate year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4-percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the length of time between calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to a maximum of five years. Where the frequency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed.
To verify that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using one of the following methods:

1. A calibrated test method;

2. The manufacturer’s calibrated sensitivity test instrument;

3. Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose;

4. A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where the detector’s sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range; or

5. Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the fire code official.

Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced.
Exceptions:

1. Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced.

2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.

Smoke detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured using a device that administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the detector.
The building owner shall be responsible to maintain the fire and life safety systems in an operable condition at all times. Service personnel shall meet the qualification requirements of NFPA 72 for maintaining, inspecting and testing such systems. A written record shall be maintained and shall be made available to the fire code official.
An approved fire alarm system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.
Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 50.
Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 2703.12. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 2703.13.
Where required by Section 6004.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed gases.
A gas detection system shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance with Section 6005.3.2.
A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 2311.7.2.
Refrigeration system machinery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in accordance with Section 606.8.
Deleted.
For carbon monoxide requirements in one- and two-family homes, townhouses and Group R-2 apartments, see Minnesota Statute 299F.50 and 299F.51 and SFMD info sheet at dps.mn.gov/divisions/sfm. For new construction of Group I and R occupancies, see Minnesota State Building Code Section 908.7, Carbon Monoxide Alarms, and Section 908.7.1, Carbon Monoxide Detection Systems.
This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems when they are required for new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of this section or Minnesota Rules, Chapter 1305. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation, and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants and for fire suppression and overhaul efforts. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents or the timely restoration of operations.
Buildings, structures, or parts thereof required by the International Building Code or this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to describe adequately the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.
In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements which buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1704 of the International Building Code.
A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their operations, the systems supporting them, and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6.
The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.
Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities.
The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of the International Building Code.
The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems.
The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.
All portions of the active or passive smoke control system shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than 20 minutes. System design shall be for 20 minutes; however fans shall continue to operate after 20 minutes and shall continue to operate automatically for suppression efforts for a minimum of 5 minutes for every 10 feet of height of the protected space.
With any of the design methods allowed by Section 909, the door opening force, latch release, and set-in-motion force shall comply with Section 1008.1.3 requirements when the system is in smoke control mode.
Smoke barriers shall comply with the International Building Code. Smoke barriers shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:

1. Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100

2. Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw= 0.00035

3. Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150

4. Floors and roofs: A/AF= 0.00050

where:
A=Total leakage area, square feet (m2).
AF=Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).
Aw=Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be included in calculating the total leakage area.

Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive smoke control systems tested using other approved means, such as door fan testing, shall be as approved by the fire code official.
Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.5.3 of the International Building Code.
Exceptions:

1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.

3. In Group I-2, where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 of the International Building Code. Positive-latching devices are not required.

4. Group I-3.

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.

Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 717 of the International Building Code.
The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin.
The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.
In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences at least two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.
The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1008.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by: F = Fdc + K(WAΔP)/2(W - d) (Equation 9-1)
where:
A=Door area, square feet (m2).
d=Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).
F=Total door opening force, pounds (N).
Fdc=Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).
K=Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
W=Door width, feet (m).
ΔP=Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).
When approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke-control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects.
The minimum average velocity through a fixed opening shall not be less than:

v = 217.2 [h(Tf - To)/(Tf + 460)]1/2 (Equation 9-2)

For SI: v = 119.9 [h(Tf - To)/Tf]1/2

where:

h=Height of opening, feet (m).
Tf=Temperature of smoke, °F (K).
To=Temperature of ambient air, °F (K).
v=Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).
This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflows to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.
When approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B.
The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.
The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section.
The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire, and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.
Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.
The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.
A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.
Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as approved by the fire code official.
Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by: Ts = (Qc/mc) + (Ta) (Equation 9-3)
where:
c=Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature, Btu/lb°F (kJ/kg K).
m=Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
Qc=Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
Ta=Ambient temperature, °F (K).
Ts=Smoke temperature, °F (K).
Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.
Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.
Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of vibration isolation) complying with the International Mechanical Code and which are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.
Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.
Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved recognized standards.
In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the structural design requirements of Chapter 16 of the International Building Code.
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from measurement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.
The smoke control system shall be supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be from the normal building power systems. Secondary power shall be from an approved standby source complying with Section 604 and NFPA 70. The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both. The transfer to full standby power shall be automatic and within 60 seconds of failure of the primary power.
Elements of the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.

In addition to meeting requirements of NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.
Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.
Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.
Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.
Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire department, and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analysis.
Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.
Control air tubing shall be hard drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B42, ASTM B43, ASTM B68, ASTM B88, ASTM B251 and ASTM B280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.
Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices, provided all of the following conditions are met:

1. Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3 of the International Mechanical Code.

2. Tubing and the connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No.22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable brass compression to male-barbed adapter.

3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or moveable device shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.

Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.
Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.
The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.
Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief.
A fire-fighter’s smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command center complying with Section 508 in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3.
Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire-fighter’s control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:

1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.

2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.

3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.

4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.

The fire-fighter’s control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke-control system equipment within the building as follows:

1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.

2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building.

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire-fighter’s control panel.

Exceptions:

1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.

2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.

The fire-fighter’s control panel actions shall be as follows:

1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter’s control panel, no automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire-fighter’s control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire-fighter’s control panel switch position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70.

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire-fighter’s control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described above. When directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire-fighter’s control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.
Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.
Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. When applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.
Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.
Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.
Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.
Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute and belt tension shall be made.
Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.
Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire-fighter’s control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector.
Special inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the following:

1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.

Special inspection agencies for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers.
A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the special inspector or special inspection agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall seal, sign and date the report.
A copy of the final report shall be filed with the fire code official and an identical copy shall be maintained in an approved location at the building.
Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating each component of the smoke control system, and describing their proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.
Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system and a written maintenance program complying with the requirements of Section 909.20.1 has been submitted and approved by the fire code official.
Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent buildings.
Smoke control systems and post-fire smoke exhaust systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.6.
A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established.
A written record of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises. The written record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.
Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows.
Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually. The system shall also be tested under standby power conditions.
Non-dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall also be tested under standby power conditions.
Special inspection agencies for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering, and certification as air balancers.
High-rise buildings not provided with a smoke control or a post-fire smoke exhaust system, shall be equipped with a smoke removal system installed and maintained in accordance with the Building Code. Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in floor area, excluding anchor stores, and not provided with a smoke control system, shall be equipped with a post-fire smoke exhaust system installed and maintained in accordance with the Building Code.
Where required by this code or otherwise installed, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke exhaust systems and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements of this section.
Exceptions:

1. Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of Class I and II commodities where protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.

2. Where areas of buildings are equipped with early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, automatic smoke and heat vents shall not be required within these areas.

Required smoke and heat venting shall be accomplished with mechanical smoke exhaust according to Section 910.4.
Exceptions:

1. Calculated engineering design of mechanical smoke exhaust in accordance with Section 910.5 shall be permitted for buildings sprinklered throughout.

2. For nonsprinklered buildings, smoke and heat vents as specified in Section 910.3 shall be permitted.

3. Where approved by the code official, smoke and heat vents as specified in Section 910.3 shall be permitted in sprinklered buildings.

Smoke and heat vents and mechanical smoke exhaust fans shall be listed for the intended purpose.
When mechanical smoke exhaust is provided in accordance with Section 910.4 or 910.5, curtain boards are only required at the separation between areas protected with early suppression fast response (ESFR) sprinklers and conventional sprinkler systems.
Smoke and heat vents shall be installed in the roofs of buildings or portions thereof occupied for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2.1 and 910.2.2.
Exception: In occupied portions of a building where the upper surface of the story is not a roof assembly, mechanical smoke exhaust in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be an acceptable alternative.
Buildings and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) of undivided area.
Exception: Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars.
Buildings and portions thereof containing high-piled combustible stock or rack storage in any occupancy group when required by Section 3206.7.
The design and installation of smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified in Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.5.2 and Table 910.3.

TABLE 910.3
REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTSa

OCCUPANCY GROUP
AND COMMODITY
CLASSIFICATION
DESIGNATED
STORAGE
HEIGHT (feet)
MINIMUM DRAFT
CURTAIN DEPTH
(feet)
MAXIMUM AREA
FORMED BY DRAFT
CURTAINS
(square feet)
VENT-AREA
TO FLOOR-
AREA RATIOc
MAXIMUM SPACING
OF VENT CENTERS
(feet)
MAXIMUM DISTANCE
FROM VENTS TO WALL
OR DRAFT CURTAINb

(feet)
Group F-1 and S-1 0.2 × Hd but ≥ 450,0001:10012060
High-piled storage
(see Section 910.2.2)
Class I-IV Commodities
(Option 1)
≤ 20610,0001:10010060
> 20 ≤ 4068,0001:7510055
High-piled storage
(see Section 910.2.2)
Class I-IV Commodities
(Option 2)
≤ 2043,0001:7510055
> 20 ≤ 4043,0001:5010050
High-piled storage
(see Section 910.2.2)
High-hazard Commodities
(Option 1)
≤ 2066,0001:5010050
> 20 ≤ 3066,0001:409045
High-piled storage
(see Section 910.2.2)
High-hazard Commodities
(Option 2)
≤ 2044,0001:5010050
> 20 ≤ 3042,0001:307540
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Additional requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 32. For solid-piled storage heights in excess of those indicated, an approved engineered design shall be used.
b. Vents adjacent to walls or draft curtains shall be located within a horizontal distance not greater than the maximum distance specified in this column as measured perpendicular to the wall or draft curtain that forms the perimeter of the draft curtained area.
c. Where draft curtains are not required, the vent area to floor area ratio shall be calculated based on a minimum draft curtain depth of 6 feet (Option 1).
d. “H” is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor.
Smoke and heat vents shall be listed and labeled to indicate compliance with UL 793.
Smoke and heat vents shall be capable of being operated by approved automatic and manual means. Automatic operation of smoke and heat vents shall conform to the provisions of Sections 910.3.2.1 through 910.3.2.3.
Automatic smoke and heat vents containing heat-sensitive glazing designed to shrink and drop out of the vent opening when exposed to fire shall fully open within 5 minutes after the vent cavity is exposed to a simulated fire, represented by a time-temperature gradient that reaches an air temperature of 500°F (260°C) within 5 minutes.
Where installed in buildings provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall be designed to operate automatically.
Where installed in buildings not provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall operate automatically by actuation of a heat-responsive device rated at between 100°F (38°C) and 220°F (104°C) above ambient.
Exception: Gravity-operated drop-out vents complying with Section 910.3.2.1.
The effective venting area shall not be less than 16 square feet (1.5 m2) with no dimension less than 4 feet (1219 mm), excluding ribs or gutters having a total width not exceeding 6 inches (152 mm).
Smoke and heat vents shall be located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines and fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire barriers. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof in the areas of the building where the vents are required to be installed by Section 910.2, with consideration given to roof pitch, draft curtain location, sprinkler location and structural members.
Where required by Table 910.3, draft curtains shall be installed on the underside of the roof in accordance with this section.
Exception: Where areas of buildings are equipped with ESFR sprinklers, draft curtains shall not be provided within these areas. Draft curtains shall only be provided at the separation between the ESFR sprinklers and the non-ESFR sprinklers.
Draft curtains shall be constructed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum board or other approved materials that provide equivalent performance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and connections shall be smoke tight.
The location and minimum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance with Table 910.3.
Mechanical smoke exhaust shall be in accordance with Sections 910.4.1 through 910.4.6.
Exhaust fans shall be uniformly spaced within each draft-curtained area and the maximum distance between fans shall not be greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
Fans shall have a maximum individual capacity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 m3/s). The aggregate capacity of smoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation: C = A × 300 (Equation 9-4)
where:
C=Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in cubic feet per minute (m3/s).
A=Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m2) in accordance with Table 910.3.
Mechanical smoke exhaust fans shall be manually activated. Individual manual controls of each fan unit shall also be provided.
Wiring for operation and control of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of the main disconnect and protected against exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of not less than 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to be immediately accessible to the fire service from the exterior of the building and protected against interior fire exposure by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.
Supply air for exhaust fans shall be sized to provide a minimum of 50 percent of the required exhaust. Air velocity at each supply air opening shall not exceed an average of 200 feet per minute when measured 4 feet (1219 mm) in front of the opening. Openings for supply air shall be uniformly distributed around the periphery of the area served and be located or ducted to a position not more than one-half the storage height above the floor. Supply air openings shall open automatically upon operation of the smoke exhaust system and shall not require a manual action at each supply opening for operation. Supply air openings shall be kept clear of storage or obstructions to airflow for at least 4 feet (1219 mm) in front of the opening. Supply air openings shall be separated from exhaust fans and exterior combustibles to prevent introduction of smoke into the building.
On combination comfort air-handling/smoke removal systems or independent comfort air-handling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut down in accordance with the approved smoke control sequence.
Calculated engineering design of mechanical smoke exhaust shall be in accordance with Sections 910.5.1 through 910.5.5.
Mechanical smoke exhaust systems shall be designed to remove smoke after a fire is extinguished and to assist the fire department during suppression operations or during marginal sprinkler control situations. They are not considered life safety systems and are not designed for occupant safety.
Volumetric flow rate calculations shall demonstrate that the system will provide at least three air changes per hour for the space required to be provided with smoke exhaust. When only a portion of a space is used for high-piled storage requiring smoke exhaust, the volume to be extracted shall be based on the ceiling height multiplied by the actual gross floor area for storage.
Mechanical smoke exhaust fans shall be manually activated. In addition, individual manual controls of each fan unit shall also be provided.
Supply air for exhaust fans shall be sized to provide a minimum of 50 percent of the required exhaust. Air velocity at each supply air opening shall not exceed an average of 200 feet per minute when measured 4 feet (1219 mm) in front of the opening. Openings for supply air shall be uniformly distributed around the periphery of the area served and be located or ducted to a position not more than one-half the storage height above the floor. Supply air openings shall open automatically upon operation of the smoke exhaust system and shall not require a manual action at each supply opening for operation. Supply air openings shall be kept clear of storage or obstructions to airflow for at least 4 feet (1219 mm) in front of the opening. Supply air openings shall be separated from exhaust fans and exterior combustibles to prevent introduction of smoke into the building.
Wiring and controls shall be as required in Section 910.4.4. Interlocks shall be as required in Section 910.4.6. Exhaust fans shall be uniformly spaced and each fan shall have a maximum individual capacity of 30,000 cfm (850 m3/min).
Mechanical smoke exhaust systems shall be tested and maintained as required in Sections 910.6.1 through 910.6.4.
Mechanical smoke exhaust systems shall be acceptance tested as required by Sections 909.18 and 909.19.
For testing purposes, each smoke exhaust system equipped for automatic activation shall be put into operation by the actuation of the automatic initiating device. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the firefighter’s control panel when systems are equipped for automatic activation.
Special inspections for mechanical smoke exhaust shall be conducted according to Section 909.18.8.
Mechanical smoke exhaust systems, including exhaust fans, supply air openings and controls, shall be maintained and unobstructed.
Operational testing of the smoke exhaust system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls and supply air openings. Mechanical smoke exhaust systems shall be operated and tested under each control sequence at least annually.
Smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 204. Fusible links shall be promptly replaced whenever fused, damaged, or painted. Smoke and heat vents shall not be modified.
Explosion control shall be provided in the following locations:

1. Where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 911.1.

2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 5003.1.1(1).

Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems, or barricades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, or NFPA 495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards.

TABLE 911.1
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

MATERIALCLASSEXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS
Barricade constructionExplosion (deflagration) venting or
explosion (deflagration) prevention systems
Hazard Category
Combustible dustsaNot requiredRequired
Cryogenic fluidsFlammableNot requiredRequired
ExplosivesDivision 1.1RequiredNot required
Division 1.2RequiredNot required
Division 1.3Not requiredRequired
Division 1.4Not requiredRequired
Division 1.5RequiredNot required
Division 1.6RequiredNot required
Flammable gasGaseousNot requiredRequired
LiquefiedNot requiredRequired
Flammable liquidsIAbNot requiredRequired
IBcNot requiredRequired
Organic peroxidesUnclassified detonableRequiredNot permitted
IRequiredNot permitted
Oxidizer liquids and solids4RequiredNot permitted
PyrophoricGasesNot requiredRequired
Unstable (reactive)4RequiredNot permitted
3 detonableRequiredNot permitted
3 nondetonableNot requiredRequired
Water-reactive liquids and solids3Not requiredRequired
2eNot requiredRequired
Special Uses
Acetylene generator roomsNot requiredRequired
Grain processingNot requiredRequired
Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilitiesNot requiredRequired
Where explosion hazards existdDetonationRequiredNot permitted
DeflagrationNot requiredRequired
a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 22.
b. Storage or use.
c. In open use or dispensing.
d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
e. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.
Areas that are required to be provided with deflagration venting shall comply with the following:

1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The minimum internal design pressure shall not be less than five times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in Section 911.2, Item 5.

2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior walls and roofs.

Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof venting cannot be provided because of inadequate exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the exterior of the building.

3. Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unacceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagration, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property or adjacent public ways.

4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the construction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section and the maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of this section.

5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance with the International Building Code. Vents shall consist of any one or any combination of the following to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads required by the International Building Code:

5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward.

5.2. Hatch covers.

5.3. Outward swinging doors.

5.4. Roofs designed to uplift.

5.5. Venting devices listed for the purpose.

6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs of the building when venting a deflagration shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building where an unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in width is provided between the exterior walls of the building and the lot line.

Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 of this section.

7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when venting a deflagration shall be so located that the discharge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) vertically from window openings and exits in the building and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the building, from window openings and exits in adjacent buildings on the same lot, and from the lot line.

8. Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of the building.

Explosion prevention systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69.
Barricades shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 495.
Fire department connections shall be installed in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 through 912.6.
With respect to hydrants, driveways, buildings and landscaping, fire department connections shall be so located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.
Fire department connections shall be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible and recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire department vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the fire chief.
On existing buildings, wherever the fire department connection is not visible to approaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the letters “FDC” at least 6 inches (152 mm) high and words in letters at least 2 inches (51 mm) high or an arrow to indicate the location. All such signs shall be subject to the approval of the fire code official.
Newly installed fire department connections shall be located not less than 18 inches (457 mm) and not more than 4 feet (1.2 m) above the level of the adjacent grade or access level.
Immediate access to fire department connections shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable object. Access to fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.
Exception: Fences, where provided with an access gate equipped with a sign complying with the legend requirements of Section 912.4 and a means of emergency operation. The gate and the means of emergency operation shall be approved by the fire chief and maintained operational at all times.
The fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on fire department connections for water-based fire protection systems where the responding fire department carries appropriate key wrenches for removal.
A working space of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to the sides of wall-mounted fire department connections and around the circumference of free-standing fire department connections, except as otherwise required or approved by the fire chief.
Where fire department connections are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.
A metal sign with raised letters at least 1 inch (25 mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department connections serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION or a combination thereof as applicable. Where the fire department connection does not serve the entire building, a sign shall be provided indicating the portions of the building served.
The potable water supply to automatic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected against backflow as required by the International Plumbing Code.
All fire department connections shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25.
Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 20.
The fire pump, driver, and controller shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse conditions.
Rooms where fire pumps are located shall be separated from all other areas of the building in accordance with Section 913.2.1 of the International Building Code.
Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C).
Temperature of the pump room, pump house or area where engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine manufacturer’s recommendations for oil heaters shall be followed.
Where provided, the fire pump suction, discharge and bypass valves, and the isolation valves on the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open by one of the following methods.

1. Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling service.

2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

3. Locking valves open.

4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspection where valves are located within fenced enclosures under the control of the owner.

Fire pump test outlet valves shall be supervised in the closed position.
Fire pumps shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the requirements of this section and NFPA 25.
Acceptance testing shall be done in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20.
Engine generator sets supplying emergency or standby power to fire pump assemblies shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110.
Automatic transfer switches shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110.
Tests of pump room environmental conditions, including heating, ventilation and illumination shall be made to ensure proper manual or automatic operation of the associated equipment.
This section shall specify where fire protection systems are required based on the detailed requirements of use and occupancy of the International Building Code.
Covered and open mall buildings shall comply with Sections 914.2.1 through 914.2.4.