**(This is a normative appendix and is part of this standard.)**

**RATED R-VALUE OF INSULATION AND ASSEMBLY U-FACTOR, C-FACTOR, AND F-FACTOR DETERMINATIONS**

**A1. GENERAL**

**A1.1 Pre-Calculated Assembly U-Factors, C-Factors, F-Factors, or Heat Capacities.**

The

*U-factors*,

*C-factors, F-factors,*and

*heat capacities*for typical

*construction*assemblies are included in Sections A2 through A8. These values shall be used for all calculations unless otherwise allowed by Section A1.2. Interpolation between values in a particular table in Normative Appendix A is allowed for

*rated R-values of insulation*, including insulated sheathing. Extrapolation beyond values in a table in Normative Appendix A is not allowed.

**A1.2 Applicant-Determined Assembly U-Factors, C-Factors, F-Factors, or Heat Capacities.**

If the

*building official*determines that the proposed

*construction*assembly is not adequately represented in Sections A2 through A8, the applicant shall determine appropriate values for the assembly using the assumptions in Section A9. An assembly is deemed to be adequately represented if:

a. the interior structure, hereafter referred to as the *base assembly*, for the *class of construction *is the same as described in Sections A2 through A8 and

b. changes in exterior or interior surface *building materials *added to the base assembly do not increase or decrease the R-value by more than 2 from that indicated in the descriptions in Sections A2 through A8.

*building material.*

**A2. ROOFS**

**A2.1 General.**

The buffering effect of suspended ceilings or attic

*spaces*shall not be included in

*U-factor*calculations.

**A2.2 Roofs with Insulation Entirely Above Deck**

TABLE A2.2 Assembly U-Factors for Roofs

with Insulation Entirely Above Deck

Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone | Overall U-Factor for Entire Assembly |

R-0 | U-1.282 |

R-1 | U-0.562 |

R-2 | U-0.360 |

R-3 | U-0.265 |

R-4 | U-0.209 |

R-5 | U-0.173 |

R-6 | U-0.147 |

R-7 | U-0.129 |

R-8 | U-0.114 |

R-9 | U-0.102 |

R-10 | U-0.093 |

R-11 | U-0.085 |

R-12 | U-0.078 |

R-13 | U-0.073 |

R-14 | U-0.068 |

R-15 | U-0.063 |

R-16 | U-0.060 |

R-17 | U-0.056 |

R-18 | U-0.053 |

R-19 | U-0.051 |

R-20 | U-0.048 |

R-21 | U-0.046 |

R-22 | U-0.044 |

R-23 | U-0.042 |

R-24 | U-0.040 |

R-25 | U-0.039 |

R-26 | U-0.037 |

R-27 | U-0.036 |

R-28 | U-0.035 |

R-29 | U-0.034 |

R-30 | U-0.032 |

R-35 | U-0.028 |

R-40 | U-0.025 |

R-45 | U-0.022 |

R-50 | U-0.020 |

R-55 | U-0.018 |

R-60 | U-0.016 |

**A2.2.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is

*continuous insulation*over a structural deck. The

*U-factor*includes R-0.17 for exterior air film, R-0 for metal deck, and R-0.61 for interior air film heat flow up. Added insulation is continuous and uninterrupted by framing. The framing factor is zero.

**A2.2.2 Rated R-Value of Insulation.**

For

*roofs with insulation entirely above deck*, the

*rated R-value of insulation*is for

*continuous insulation*.

**Exception:**Interruptions for framing and pads for mechanical equipment are permitted with a combined total area not exceeding one percent of the total

*opaque*assembly area.

**A2.2.3 U-Factor.**

*U-factors*for

*roofs with insulation entirely above deck*shall be taken from Table A2.2. It is not acceptable to use these

*U-factors*if the insulation is not entirely above deck or not continuous.

**A2.3 Metal Building Roofs**

TABLE A2.3 Assembly U-Factors for Metal Building Roofs

Insulation System | Rated R-Value of Insulation | Total Rated R-Value of Insulation | Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Roof Assembly | Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Roof Plus Continuous Insulation(Uninterrupted by Framing) | |||||

Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation | |||||||||

R-5.6 | R-11.2 | R-16.8 | R-22.4 | R-28.0 | R-33.6 | ||||

Standing Seam Roofs with Thermal Spacer Blocks | |||||||||

Single Layer | None | 0 | U-1.280 | 0.157 | 0.083 | 0.057 | 0.043 | 0.035 | 0.029 |

R-6 | 6 | U-0.167 | 0.086 | 0.058 | 0.044 | 0.035 | 0.029 | 0.025 | |

R-10 | 10 | U-0.097 | 0.063 | 0.046 | 0.037 | 0.031 | 0.026 | 0.023 | |

R-11 | 11 | U-0.092 | 0.061 | 0.045 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.022 | |

R-13 | 13 | U-0.083 | 0.057 | 0.043 | 0.035 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | |

R-16 | 16 | U-0.072 | 0.051 | 0.040 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.024 | 0.021 | |

R-19 | 19 | U-0.065 | 0.048 | 0.038 | 0.031 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | |

Double Layer | R-10 + R-10 | 20 | U-0.063 | 0.047 | 0.037 | 0.031 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 |

R-10 + R-11 | 21 | U-0.061 | 0.045 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | |

R-11 + R-11 | 22 | U-0.060 | 0.045 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.022 | 0.020 | |

R-10 + R-13 | 23 | U-0.058 | 0.044 | 0.035 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | |

R-11 + R-13 | 24 | U-0.057 | 0.043 | 0.035 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | |

R-13 + R-13 | 26 | U-0.055 | 0.042 | 0.034 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.019 | |

R-10 + R-19 | 29 | U-0.052 | 0.040 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | |

R-11 + R-19 | 30 | U-0.051 | 0.040 | 0.032 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | |

R-13 + R-19 | 32 | U-0.049 | 0.038 | 0.032 | 0.027 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 | |

R-16 + R-19 | 35 | U-0.047 | 0.037 | 0.031 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.018 | |

R-19 + R-19 | 38 | U-0.046 | 0.037 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.018 | |

Liner | R-11+R-19 | 30 | U-0.035 | ||||||

R-11+R-25 | 36 | U-0.031 | |||||||

R-11+R-30 | 41 | U-0.029 | |||||||

System | R-11+R-11+R- 25 | 47 | U-0.026 | ||||||

Standing Seam Roofs without Thermal Spacer Blocks | |||||||||

Liner System | R-11+R-19 | 30 | U-0.040 | 0.028 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.020 | 0.017 | |

Filled Cavity with Thermal Spacer Blocks | |||||||||

R-19+R-10 | 29 | U-0.041 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 | |

Thru-Fastened without Thermal Spacer Blocks | |||||||||

R-10 | 10 | U-0.153 | |||||||

R-11 | 11 | U-0.139 | |||||||

R-13 | 13 | U-0.130 | |||||||

R-16 | 16 | U-0.106 | |||||||

R-19 | 19 | U-0.098 | |||||||

Liner System | R-11+R-19 | 30 | U-0.044 | ||||||

(Multiple R-values are listed in order from inside to outside.) |

**A2.3.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is a

*roof*with

*thermal spacer blocks*where the insulation is draped over the steel structure (purlins), spaced nominally 5 ft on center and compressed when the metal

*roof*panels are attached to the steel structure (purlins).

**A2.3.2 Rated R-Value of Insulation**

**A2.3.2.1**

The first

*rated R-value of insulation*is for insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal

*roof*panels are attached, or for insulation hung between the purlins. A minimum R-3.5 thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal

*roof*panels is required when specified in Table A2.3.

**A2.3.2.2**

For double-layer installations, the second

*rated R-value of insulation*is for insulation installed parallel to the purlins.

**A2.3.2.3**

For

*continuous insulation*(e.g., insulation boards or blankets), it is assumed that the insulation is installed below the purlins and is uninterrupted by framing members. Insulation exposed to the

*conditioned space*or

*semiheated space*shall have a facing, and all insulation seams shall be continuously sealed to provide a

*continuous air barrier*.

**A2.3.2.4**

*Liner System*(Ls).A continuous vapor barrier liner is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the liner between the purlins. For multilayer installations, the first

*rated R-Value of insulation*is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal

*roof*panels are attached. A minimum R-3.5. thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal

*roof*panels is required when specified in Table A2.3.

**A2.3.3 U-factor.**

*U-factors*for

*metal building roofs*shall be taken from Table A2.3 It is not acceptable to use these

*U-factors*if additional insulated sheathing is not continuous.

**A2.4 Attic Roofs with Wood Joists**

TABLE A2.4 Assembly U-Factors for

Attic Roofs with Wood Joists

Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone | Overall U-Factor for Entire Assembly | ||||

Wood-Framed Attic, Standard Framing | |||||

None | U-0.613 | ||||

R-11 | U-0.091 | ||||

R-13 | U-0.081 | ||||

R-19 | U-0.053 | ||||

R-30 | U-0.034 | ||||

R-38 | U-0.027 | ||||

R-49 | U-0.021 | ||||

R-60 | U-0.017 | ||||

R-71 | U-0.015 | ||||

R-82 | U-0.013 | ||||

R-93 | U-0.011 | ||||

R-104 | U-0.010 | ||||

R-115 | U-0.009 | ||||

R-126 | U-0.008 | ||||

Wood-Framed Attic, Advanced Framing | |||||

None | U-0.613 | ||||

R-11 | U-0.088 | ||||

R-13 | U-0.078 | ||||

R-19 | U-0.051 | ||||

R-30 | U-0.032 | ||||

R-38 | U-0.026 | ||||

R-49 | U-0.020 | ||||

R-60 | U-0.016 | ||||

R-71 | U-0.014 | ||||

R-82 | U-0.012 | ||||

R-93 | U-0.011 | ||||

R-104 | U-0.010 | ||||

R-115 | U-0.009 | ||||

R-126 | U-0.008 | ||||

Wood Joists, Single-rafter Roof | |||||

Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Roof Plus Continuous Insulation(Uninterrupted by Framing) | |||||

Cavity Insulation R-Value | Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation | ||||

None | R-5 | R-10 | R-15 | ||

None | U-0.417 | U-0.135 | U-0.081 | U-0.057 | |

R-11 | U-0.088 | U-0.061 | U-0.047 | U-0.038 | |

R-13 | U-0.078 | U-0.056 | U-0.044 | U-0.036 | |

R-15 | U-0.071 | U-0.052 | U-0.041 | U-0.034 | |

R-19 | U-0.055 | U-0.043 | U-0.035 | U-0.030 |

TABLE A2.4

Assembly U-Factors for

Attic Roofs with Wood Joists* (continued)*

Wood Joists, Single-rafter Roof (cont.) | ||||

Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Roof Plus Continuous Insulation(Uninterrupted by Framing) | ||||

Cavity Insulation R-Value | Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation | |||

None | R-5 | R-10 | R-15 | |

R-21 | U-0.052 | U-0.041 | U-0.034 | U-0.029 |

R-25 | U-0.042 | U-0.035 | U-0.030 | U-0.026 |

R-30 | U-0.036 | U-0.030 | U-0.026 | U-0.023 |

R-38 | U-0.029 | U-0.025 | U-0.022 | U-0.020 |

**A2.4.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base

*attic roof*assembly is a

*roof*with nominal 4 in. deep wood as the lower chord of a

*roof*truss or ceiling joist. The ceiling is attached directly to the lower chord of the truss and the attic

*space*above is ventilated. Insulation is located directly on top of the ceiling, first filling the cavities between the wood and then later covering both the wood and cavity areas. No credit is given for roofing materials. The

*single-rafter roof*is similar to the base

*attic roof*, with the key difference being that there is a single, deep rafter to which both the

*roof*and the ceiling are attached. The heat flow path through the rafter is calculated to be the same depth as the insulation. Additional assemblies include

*continuous insulation*, uncompressed and uninterrupted by framing. The

*U-factors*include R-0.46 for semi-exterior air film, R-0.56 for 0.625 in. gypsum board, and R-0.61 for interior air film heat flow up.

*U-factors*are provided for the following configurations:

a. *Attic roof, standard framing: *insulation is tapered around the perimeter with a resultant decrease in *thermal resistance*. Weighting factors are 85% full-depth insulation, 5% half-depth insulation, and 10% joists.

b. *Attic roof*, *advanced framing: *full and even depth of insulation extending to the outside edge of exterior *walls*. Weighting factors are 90% full-depth insulation and 10% joists.

c. *Single-rafter roof: *an *attic roof *where the *roof *sheathing and ceiling are attached to the same rafter. Weighting factors are 90% full-depth insulation and 10% joists.

**A2.4.2 Rated R-Value of Insulation**

TABLE A2.4.2 Single-Rafter Roofs

Climate Zone | Minimum Insulation R-Value or Maximum Assembly U-Factor | ||

Wood Rafter Depth, d (Actual) | |||

d ≤ 8 in. | 8 < d ≤ 10 in. | 10 < d ≤ 12 in. | |

1–7 | R-19 | R-30 | R-38 |

U-0.055 | U-0.036 | U-0.028 | |

8 | R-21 | R-30 | R-38 |

U-0.052 | U-0.036 | U-0.028 |

**A2.4.2.1**

For

*attics and other roofs,*the

*rated R-value of insulation*is for insulation installed both inside and outside the

*roof*or entirely inside the

*roof*cavity.

**A2.4.2.2**

Occasional interruption by framing members is allowed but requires that the framing members be covered with insulation when the depth of the insulation exceeds the depth of the framing cavity.

**A2.4.2.3**

Insulation in such

*roofs*shall be permitted to be tapered at the eaves where the building structure does not allow full depth.

**A2.4.2.4**

For

*single-rafter roofs*, the requirement is the lesser of the values for

*attics and other roofs*and those listed in Table A2.4.2.

**A2.4.3 U-factors for Attic Roofs with Wood Joists.**

*U-factors*for

*attic roofs*with wood joists shall be taken from Table A2.4. It is not acceptable to use these

*U-factors*if the framing is not wood. For

*attic roofs*with

*steel joists*, see Section A2.5.

**A2.5 Attic Roofs with Steel Joists**

TABLE A2.5 Assembly U-Factors for Attic Roofs

with Steel Joists (4.0 ft on Center)

Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone | Overall U-Factor for Entire Assembly |

R-0 | U-1.282 |

R-4 | U-0.215 |

R-5 | U-0.179 |

R-8 | U-0.120 |

R-10 | U-0.100 |

R-11 | U-0.093 |

R-12 | U-0.086 |

R-13 | U-0.080 |

R-15 | U-0.072 |

R-16 | U-0.068 |

R-19 | U-0.058 |

R-20 | U-0.056 |

R-21 | U-0.054 |

R-24 | U-0.049 |

R-25 | U-0.048 |

R-30 | U-0.041 |

R-35 | U-0.037 |

R-38 | U-0.035 |

R-40 | U-0.033 |

R-45 | U-0.031 |

R-50 | U-0.028 |

R-55 | U-0.027 |

**A2.5.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is a

*roof*supported by

*steel joists*with insulation between the joists. The assembly represents a

*roof*in many ways similar to a

*roof with insulation entirely above deck*and a

*metal building roof*. It is distinguished from the

*metal building roof*category in that there is no metal exposed to the exterior. It is distinguished from the

*roof with insulation entirely above deck*in that the insulation is located below the deck and is interrupted by metal trusses that provide thermal bypasses to the insulation. The

*U-factors*include R-0.17 for exterior air film, R-0 for metal deck, and R-0.61 for interior air film heat flow up. The performance of the insulation/framing layer is calculated using the values in Table A9.2A.

**A2.5.2**

*U-factors*for

*attic roofs*with

*steel joists*shall be taken from Table A2.5. It is acceptable to use these

*U-factors*for any

*attic roof*with

*steel joists*.

**A3.1 Mass Wall**

TABLE A3.1A Assembly U-Factors for Above-Grade Concrete Walls and Masonry Walls

Framing Type and Depth | Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone | Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Normal Weight 145 lb/ft ^{3} Solid Concrete Walls | Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Medium Weight 115 lb/ft ^{3} Concrete Block Walls: Solid Grouted | Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Medium Weight 115 lb/ft ^{3} Concrete Block Walls: Partially Grouted (Cores Uninsulated Except Where Specified) |

No Framing | R-0 | U-0.740 | U-0.580 | U-0.480 |

Ungrouted Cores Filled with Loose-Fill Insulation | N/A | N/A | U-0.350 | |

Continuous Metal Framing at 24 in. on Center Horizontally | ||||

3.5 in. | R-11.0 | U-0.168 | U-0.158 | U-0.149 |

3.5 in. | R-13.0 | U-0.161 | U-0.152 | U-0.144 |

3.5 in. | R-15.0 | U-0.155 | U-0.147 | U-0.140 |

4.5 in. | R-17.1 | U-0.133 | U-0.126 | U-0.121 |

4.5 in. | R-22.5 | U-0.124 | U-0.119 | U-0.114 |

4.5 in. | R-25.2 | U-0.122 | U-0.116 | U-0.112 |

5.0 in. | R-19.0 | U-0.122 | U-0.117 | U-0.112 |

5.0 in. | R-25.0 | U-0.115 | U-0.110 | U-0.106 |

5.0 in. | R-28.0 | U-0.112 | U-0.107 | U-0.103 |

5.5 in. | R-19.0 | U-0.118 | U-0.113 | U-0.109 |

5.5 in. | R-20.9 | U-0.114 | U-0.109 | U-0.105 |

5.5 in. | R-21.0 | U-0.113 | U-0.109 | U-0.105 |

5.5 in. | R-27.5 | U-0.106 | U-0.102 | U-0.099 |

5.5 in. | R-30.8 | U-0.104 | U-0.100 | U-0.096 |

6.0 in. | R-22.8 | U-0.106 | U-0.102 | U-0.098 |

6.0 in. | R-30.0 | U-0.099 | U-0.095 | U-0.092 |

6.0 in. | R-33.6 | U-0.096 | U-0.093 | U-0.090 |

6.5 in. | R-24.7 | U-0.099 | U-0.096 | U-0.092 |

7.0 in. | R-26.6 | U-0.093 | U-0.090 | U-0.087 |

7.5 in. | R-28.5 | U-0.088 | U-0.085 | U-0.083 |

8.0 in. | R-30.4 | U-0.083 | U-0.081 | U-0.079 |

1 in. Metal Clips at 24 in. on Center Horizontally and 16 in. Vertically | ||||

1.0 in. | R-3.8 | U-0.210 | U-0.195 | U-0.182 |

1.0 in. | R-5.0 | U-0.184 | U-0.172 | U-0.162 |

1.0 in. | R-5.6 | U-0.174 | U-0.163 | U-0.154 |

1.5 in. | R-5.7 | U-0.160 | U-0.151 | U-0.143 |

TABLE A3.1A

Assembly U-Factors for Above-Grade

Concrete Walls and Masonry Walls (*continued*)

Framing Type and Depth | Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone | Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Normal Weight 145 lb/ft ^{3}Solid Concrete Walls | Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Medium Weight 115 lb/ft ^{3} Concrete Block Walls: Solid Grouted | Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Medium Weight 115 lb/ft ^{3} Concrete Block Walls: Partially Grouted (Cores Uninsulated Except Where Specified) |

No Framing | R-0 | U-0.740 | U-0.580 | U-0.480 |

Ungrouted Cores Filled with Loose-Fill Insulation | N/A | N/A | U-0.350 | |

1.5 in. | R-7.5 | U-0.138 | U-0.131 | U-0.125 |

1.5 in. | R-8.4 | U-0.129 | U-0.123 | U-0.118 |

2.0 in. | R-7.6 | U-0.129 | U-0.123 | U-0.118 |

2.0 in. | R-10.0 | U-0.110 | U-0.106 | U-0.102 |

2.0 in. | R-11.2 | U-0.103 | U-0.099 | U-0.096 |

2.5 in. | R-9.5 | U-0.109 | U-0.104 | U-0.101 |

2.5 in. | R-12.5 | U-0.092 | U-0.089 | U-0.086 |

2.5 in. | R-14.0 | U-0.086 | U-0.083 | U-0.080 |

3.0 in. | R-11.4 | U-0.094 | U-0.090 | U-0.088 |

3.0 in. | R-15.0 | U-0.078 | U-0.076 | U-0.074 |

3.0 in. | R-16.8 | U-0.073 | U-0.071 | U-0.069 |

3.5 in. | R-13.3 | U-0.082 | U-0.080 | U-0.077 |

3.5 in. | R-17.5 | U-0.069 | U-0.067 | U-0.065 |

3.5 in. | R-19.6 | U-0.064 | U-0.062 | U-0.061 |

4.0 in. | R-15.2 | U-0.073 | U-0.071 | U-0.070 |

4.0 in. | R-20.0 | U-0.061 | U-0.060 | U-0.058 |

4.0 in. | R-22.4 | U-0.057 | U-0.056 | U-0.054 |

1 in. Metal Clips at 24 in. on Center Horizontally and 16 in. Vertically (continued) | ||||

5.0 in. | R-28.0 | U-0.046 | U-0.046 | U-0.045 |

6.0 in. | R-33.6 | U-0.039 | U-0.039 | U-0.038 |

7.0 in. | R-39.2 | U-0.034 | U-0.034 | U-0.033 |

8.0 in. | R-44.8 | U-0.030 | U-0.030 | U-0.029 |

9.0 in. | R-50.4 | U-0.027 | U-0.027 | U-0.026 |

10.0 in. | R-56.0 | U-0.024 | U-0.024 | U-0.024 |

11.0 in. | R-61.6 | U-0.022 | U-0.022 | U-0.022 |

Continuous Insulation Uninterrupted by Framing | ||||

No framing | R-1.0 | U-0.425 | U-0.367 | U-0.324 |

No framing | R-2.0 | U-0.298 | U-0.269 | U-0.245 |

No framing | R-3.0 | U-0.230 | U-0.212 | U-0.197 |

No framing | R-4.0 | U-0.187 | U-0.175 | U-0.164 |

No framing | R-5.0 | U-0.157 | U-0.149 | U-0.141 |

No framing | R-6.0 | U-0.136 | U-0.129 | U-0.124 |

No framing | R-7.0 | U-0.120 | U-0.115 | U-0.110 |

No framing | R-8.0 | U-0.107 | U-0.103 | U-0.099 |

No framing | R-9.0 | U-0.097 | U-0.093 | U-0.090 |

No framing | R-10.0 | U-0.088 | U-0.085 | U-0.083 |

No framing | R-11.0 | U-0.081 | U-0.079 | U-0.076 |

No framing | R-12.0 | U-0.075 | U-0.073 | U-0.071 |

No framing | R-13.0 | U-0.070 | U-0.068 | U-0.066 |

No framing | R-14.0 | U-0.065 | U-0.064 | U-0.062 |

No framing | R-15.0 | U-0.061 | U-0.060 | U-0.059 |

No framing | R-16.0 | U-0.058 | U-0.056 | U-0.055 |

No framing | R-17.0 | U-0.054 | U-0.053 | U-0.052 |

TABLE A3.1A

Assembly U-Factors for Above-Grade Concrete

Walls and Masonry Walls *(continued)*

Framing Type and Depth | Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone | Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Normal Weight 145 lb/ft ^{3} Solid Concrete Walls | Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Medium Weight 115 lb/ft ^{3} Concrete Block Walls: Solid Grouted | Assembly U-Factors for 8 in. Medium Weight 115 lb/ft ^{3} Concrete Block Walls: Partially Grouted (Cores Uninsulated Except Where Specified) |

No Framing | R-0 | U-0.740 | U-0.580 | U-0.480 |

Ungrouted Cores Filled with Loose-Fill Insulation | N/A | N/A | U-0.350 | |

No framing | R-18.0 | U-0.052 | U-0.051 | U-0.050 |

No framing | R-19.0 | U-0.049 | U-0.048 | U-0.047 |

No framing | R-20.0 | U-0.047 | U-0.046 | U-0.045 |

No framing | R-21.0 | U-0.045 | U-0.044 | U-0.043 |

No framing | R-22.0 | U-0.043 | U-0.042 | U-0.042 |

No framing | R-23.0 | U-0.041 | U-0.040 | U-0.040 |

No framing | R-24.0 | U-0.039 | U-0.039 | U-0.038 |

No framing | R-25.0 | U-0.038 | U-0.037 | U-0.037 |

No framing | R-30.0 | U-0.032 | U-0.032 | U-0.031 |

No framing | R-35.0 | U-0.028 | U-0.027 | U-0.027 |

No framing | R-40.0 | U-0.024 | U-0.024 | U-0.024 |

No framing | R-45.0 | U-0.022 | U-0.021 | U-0.021 |

No framing | R-50.0 | U-0.019 | U-0.019 | U-0.019 |

No framing | R-55.0 | U-0.018 | U-0.018 | U-0.018 |

No framing | R-60.0 | U-0.016 | U-0.016 | U-0.016 |

TABLE A3.1B Assembly U-Factors, C-Factors, *R***_{u}**,

*R*

**, and**

_{c}*HC*for Concrete

Density, lb/ft ^{3} | Properties | Thickness, in. | |||||||||

3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | ||

20 | U-factor | 0.22 | 0.17 | 0.14 | 0.12 | 0.10 | 0.09 | 0.08 | 0.07 | 0.07 | 0.06 |

C-factor | 0.27 | 0.20 | 0.16 | 0.13 | 0.11 | 0.10 | 0.09 | 0.08 | 0.07 | 0.07 | |

R_{u} | 4.60 | 5.85 | 7.10 | 8.35 | 9.60 | 10.85 | 12.10 | 13.35 | 14.60 | 15.85 | |

R_{c} | 3.75 | 5.00 | 6.25 | 7.50 | 8.75 | 10.00 | 11.25 | 12.50 | 13.75 | 15.00 | |

HC | 1.0 | 1.3 | 1.7 | 2.0 | 2.3 | 2.7 | 3.0 | 3.3 | 3.7 | 4.0 | |

30 | U-factor | 0.28 | 0.22 | 0.19 | 0.16 | 0.14 | 0.12 | 0.11 | 0.10 | 0.09 | 0.09 |

C-factor | 0.37 | 0.28 | 0.22 | 0.18 | 0.16 | 0.14 | 0.12 | 0.11 | 0.10 | 0.09 | |

R_{u} | 3.58 | 4.49 | 5.40 | 6.30 | 7.21 | 8.12 | 9.03 | 9.94 | 10.85 | 11.76 | |

R_{c} | 2.73 | 3.64 | 4.55 | 5.45 | 6.36 | 7.27 | 8.18 | 9.09 | 10.00 | 10.91 | |

HC | 1.5 | 2.0 | 2.5 | 3.0 | 3.5 | 4.0 | 4.5 | 5.0 | 5.5 | 6.0 | |

40 | U-factor | 0.33 | 0.27 | 0.23 | 0.19 | 0.17 | 0.15 | 0.14 | 0.13 | 0.11 | 0.11 |

C-factor | 0.47 | 0.35 | 0.28 | 0.23 | 0.20 | 0.18 | 0.16 | 0.14 | 0.13 | 0.12 | |

R_{u} | 2.99 | 3.71 | 4.42 | 5.14 | 5.85 | 6.56 | 7.28 | 7.99 | 8.71 | 9.42 | |

R_{c} | 2.14 | 2.86 | 3.57 | 4.29 | 5.00 | 5.71 | 6.43 | 7.14 | 7.86 | 8.57 | |

HC | 2.0 | 2.7 | 3.3 | 4.0 | 4.7 | 5.3 | 6.0 | 6.7 | 7.3 | 8.0 | |

50 | U-factor | 0.38 | 0.31 | 0.26 | 0.23 | 0.20 | 0.18 | 0.16 | 0.15 | 0.14 | 0.13 |

C-factor | 0.57 | 0.43 | 0.34 | 0.28 | 0.24 | 0.21 | 0.19 | 0.17 | 0.15 | 0.14 | |

R_{u} | 2.61 | 3.20 | 3.79 | 4.38 | 4.97 | 5.56 | 6.14 | 6.73 | 7.32 | 7.91 | |

R_{c} | 1.76 | 2.35 | 2.94 | 3.53 | 4.12 | 4.71 | 5.29 | 5.88 | 6.47 | 7.06 | |

HC | 2.5 | 3.3 | 4.2 | 5.0 | 5.8 | 6.7 | 7.5 | 8.3 | 9.2 | 10.0 | |

85 | U-factor | 0.65 | 0.56 | 0.50 | 0.44 | 0.40 | 0.37 | 0.34 | 0.31 | 0.29 | 0.27 |

C-factor | 1.43 | 1.08 | 0.86 | 0.71 | 0.61 | 0.54 | 0.48 | 0.43 | 0.39 | 0.36 | |

R_{u} | 1.55 | 1.78 | 2.01 | 2.25 | 2.48 | 2.71 | 2.94 | 3.18 | 3.41 | 3.64 | |

R_{c} | 0.70 | 0.93 | 1.16 | 1.40 | 1.63 | 1.86 | 2.09 | 2.33 | 2.56 | 2.79 | |

HC | 4.3 | 5.7 | 7.1 | 8.5 | 9.9 | 11.3 | 12.8 | 14.2 | 15.6 | 17.0 |

TABLE A3.1B

Assembly U-Factors, C-Factors, *R***_{u}**,

*R*

**, and**

_{c}*HC*for Concrete

*(continued)*

Density, lb/ft ^{3} | Properties | Thickness, in. | |||||||||

3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | ||

95 | U-factor | 0.72 | 0.64 | 0.57 | 0.52 | 0.48 | 0.44 | 0.41 | 0.38 | 0.36 | 0.33 |

C-factor | 1.85 | 1.41 | 1.12 | 0.93 | 0.80 | 0.70 | 0.62 | 0.56 | 0.51 | 0.47 | |

R_{u} | 1.39 | 1.56 | 1.74 | 1.92 | 2.10 | 2.28 | 2.46 | 2.64 | 2.81 | 2.99 | |

R_{c} | 0.54 | 0.71 | 0.89 | 1.07 | 1.25 | 1.43 | 1.61 | 1.79 | 1.96 | 2.14 | |

HC | 4.8 | 6.3 | 7.9 | 9.5 | 11.1 | 12.7 | 14.3 | 15.8 | 17.4 | 19.0 | |

105 | U-factor | 0.79 | 0.71 | 0.65 | 0.59 | 0.54 | 0.51 | 0.47 | 0.44 | 0.42 | 0.39 |

C-factor | 2.38 | 1.79 | 1.43 | 1.18 | 1.01 | 0.88 | 0.79 | 0.71 | 0.65 | 0.59 | |

R_{u} | 1.27 | 1.41 | 1.56 | 1.70 | 1.84 | 1.98 | 2.12 | 2.26 | 2.40 | 2.54 | |

R_{c} | 0.42 | 0.56 | 0.70 | 0.85 | 0.99 | 1.13 | 1.27 | 1.41 | 1.55 | 1.69 | |

HC | 5.3 | 7.0 | 8.8 | 10.5 | 12.3 | 14.0 | 15.8 | 17.5 | 19.3 | 21.0 | |

115 | U-factor | 0.84 | 0.77 | 0.70 | 0.65 | 0.61 | 0.57 | 0.53 | 0.50 | 0.48 | 0.45 |

C-factor | 2.94 | 2.22 | 1.75 | 1.47 | 1.25 | 1.10 | 0.98 | 0.88 | 0.80 | 0.74 | |

R_{u} | 1.19 | 1.30 | 1.42 | 1.53 | 1.65 | 1.76 | 1.87 | 1.99 | 2.10 | 2.21 | |

R_{c} | 0.34 | 0.45 | 0.57 | 0.68 | 0.80 | 0.91 | 1.02 | 1.14 | 1.25 | 1.36 | |

HC | 5.8 | 7.7 | 9.6 | 11.5 | 13.4 | 15.3 | 17.3 | 19.2 | 21.1 | 23.0 | |

125 | U-factor | 0.88 | 0.82 | 0.76 | 0.71 | 0.67 | 0.63 | 0.60 | 0.56 | 0.53 | 0.51 |

C-factor | 3.57 | 2.70 | 2.17 | 1.79 | 1.54 | 1.35 | 1.20 | 1.03 | 0.98 | 0.90 | |

R_{u} | 1.13 | 1.22 | 1.31 | 1.41 | 1.50 | 1.59 | 1.68 | 1.78 | 1.87 | 1.96 | |

R_{c} | 0.28 | 0.37 | 0.46 | 0.56 | 0.65 | 0.74 | 0.83 | 0.93 | 1.02 | 1.11 | |

HC | 6.3 | 8.3 | 10.4 | 12.5 | 14.6 | 16.7 | 18.8 | 20.8 | 22.9 | 25.0 | |

135 | U-factor | 0.93 | 0.87 | 0.82 | 0.77 | 0.73 | 0.69 | 0.66 | 0.63 | 0.60 | 0.57 |

C-factor | 4.55 | 3.33 | 2.70 | 2.22 | 1.92 | 1.67 | 1.49 | 1.33 | 1.22 | 1.11 | |

R_{u} | 1.07 | 1.15 | 1.22 | 1.30 | 1.37 | 1.45 | 1.52 | 1.60 | 1.67 | 1.75 | |

R_{c} | 0.22 | 0.30 | 0.37 | 0.45 | 0.52 | 0.60 | 0.67 | 0.75 | 0.82 | 0.90 | |

HC | 6.8 | 9.0 | 11.3 | 13.5 | 15.8 | 18.0 | 20.3 | 22.5 | 24.8 | 27.0 | |

144 | U-factor | 0.96 | 0.91 | 0.86 | 0.81 | 0.78 | 0.74 | 0.71 | 0.68 | 0.65 | 0.63 |

C-factor | 5.26 | 4.00 | 3.23 | 2.63 | 2.27 | 2.00 | 1.79 | 1.59 | 1.45 | 1.33 | |

R_{u} | 1.04 | 1.10 | 1.16 | 1.23 | 1.29 | 1.35 | 1.41 | 1.48 | 1.54 | 1.60 | |

R_{c} | 0.19 | 0.25 | 0.31 | 0.38 | 0.44 | 0.50 | 0.56 | 0.63 | 0.69 | 0.75 | |

HC | 7.2 | 9.6 | 12.0 | 14.4 | 16.8 | 19.2 | 21.6 | 24.0 | 26.4 | 28.8 |

The U-factors and R include standard air film resistances. _{u}The C-factors and R are for the same assembly without air film resistances. _{c}Note that the following assemblies do not qualify as a mass wall or mass floor: 3 in. thick concrete with densities of 85, 95, 125, and 135 lb/ft ^{3}. |

TABLE A3.1C Assembly U-Factors, C-Factors, *R***_{u}**,

*R*

**, and**

_{c}*HC*for Concrete Block Walls

Product Size, in. | Density, lb/ft ^{3} | Properties | Concrete Block Grouting and Cell Treatment | ||||

Solid Grouted | Partly Grouted, Cells Empty | Partly Grouted, Cells Insulated | Unreinforced, Cells Empty | Unreinforced, Cells Insulated | |||

6 in. block | 85 | U-factor | 0.57 | 0.46 | 0.34 | 0.40 | 0.20 |

C-factor | 1.11 | 0.75 | 0.47 | 0.60 | 0.23 | ||

R_{u} | 1.75 | 2.18 | 2.97 | 2.52 | 5.13 | ||

R_{c} | 0.90 | 1.33 | 2.12 | 1.67 | 4.28 | ||

HC | 10.9 | 6.7 | 7.0 | 4.2 | 4.6 | ||

95 | U-factor | 0.61 | 0.49 | 0.36 | 0.42 | 0.22 | |

C-factor | 1.25 | 0.83 | 0.53 | 0.65 | 0.27 | ||

R_{u} | 1.65 | 2.06 | 2.75 | 2.38 | 4.61 | ||

R_{c} | 0.80 | 1.21 | 1.90 | 1.53 | 3.76 | ||

HC | 11.4 | 7.2 | 7.5 | 4.7 | 5.1 | ||

105 | U-factor | 0.64 | 0.51 | 0.39 | 0.44 | 0.24 | |

C-factor | 1.38 | 0.91 | 0.58 | 0.71 | 0.30 | ||

R_{u} | 1.57 | 1.95 | 2.56 | 2.26 | 4.17 | ||

R_{c} | 0.72 | 1.10 | 1.71 | 1.41 | 3.32 | ||

HC | 11.9 | 7.7 | 7.9 | 5.1 | 5.6 |

TABLE A3.1C Assembly U-Factors, C-Factors, *R***_{u}**,

*R*

**, and**

_{c}*HC*for Concrete Block Walls

*(continued)*

Product Size, in. | Density, lb/ft ^{3} | Properties | Concrete Block Grouting and Cell Treatment | ||||

Solid Grouted | Partly Grouted, Cells Empty | Partly Grouted, Cells Insulated | Unreinforced, Cells Empty | Unreinforced, Cells Insulated | |||

6 in. block | 115 | U-factor | 0.66 | 0.54 | 0.41 | 0.46 | 0.26 |

C-factor | 1.52 | 0.98 | 0.64 | 0.76 | 0.34 | ||

R_{u} | 1.51 | 1.87 | 2.41 | 2.16 | 3.79 | ||

R_{c} | 0.66 | 1.02 | 1.56 | 1.31 | 2.94 | ||

HC | 12.3 | 8.1 | 8.4 | 5.6 | 6.0 | ||

125 | U-factor | 0.70 | 0.56 | 0.45 | 0.49 | 0.30 | |

C-factor | 1.70 | 1.08 | 0.73 | 0.84 | 0.40 | ||

R_{u} | 1.44 | 1.78 | 2.23 | 2.04 | 3.38 | ||

R_{c} | 0.59 | 0.93 | 1.38 | 1.19 | 2.53 | ||

HC | 12.8 | 8.6 | 8.8 | 6.0 | 6.5 | ||

135 | U-factor | 0.73 | 0.60 | 0.49 | 0.53 | 0.35 | |

C-factor | 1.94 | 1.23 | 0.85 | 0.95 | 0.49 | ||

R_{u} | 1.36 | 1.67 | 2.02 | 1.90 | 2.89 | ||

R_{c} | 0.51 | 0.82 | 1.17 | 1.05 | 2.04 | ||

HC | 13.2 | 9.0 | 9.3 | 6.5 | 6.9 | ||

8 in. block | 85 | U-factor | 0.49 | 0.41 | 0.28 | 0.37 | 0.15 |

C-factor | 0.85 | 0.63 | 0.37 | 0.53 | 0.17 | ||

R_{u} | 2.03 | 2.43 | 3.55 | 2.72 | 6.62 | ||

R_{c} | 1.18 | 1.58 | 2.70 | 1.87 | 5.77 | ||

HC | 15.0 | 9.0 | 9.4 | 5.4 | 6.0 | ||

95 | U-factor | 0.53 | 0.44 | 0.31 | 0.39 | 0.17 | |

C-factor | 0.95 | 0.70 | 0.41 | 0.58 | 0.20 | ||

R_{u} | 1.90 | 2.29 | 3.27 | 2.57 | 5.92 | ||

R_{c} | 1.05 | 1.44 | 2.42 | 1.72 | 5.07 | ||

HC | 15.5 | 9.6 | 10.0 | 6.0 | 6.6 | ||

105 | U-factor | 0.55 | 0.46 | 0.33 | 0.41 | 0.19 | |

C-factor | 1.05 | 0.76 | 0.46 | 0.63 | 0.22 | ||

R_{u} | 1.81 | 2.17 | 3.04 | 2.44 | 5.32 | ||

R_{c} | 0.96 | 1.32 | 2.19 | 1.59 | 4.47 | ||

HC | 16.1 | 10.2 | 10.6 | 6.6 | 7.2 | ||

115 | U-factor | 0.58 | 0.48 | 0.35 | 0.43 | 0.21 | |

C-factor | 1.14 | 0.82 | 0.50 | 0.68 | 0.25 | ||

R_{u} | 1.72 | 2.07 | 2.84 | 2.33 | 4.78 | ||

R_{c} | 0.87 | 1.22 | 1.99 | 1.48 | 3.93 | ||

HC | 16.7 | 10.8 | 11.2 | 7.2 | 7.8 | ||

125 | U-factor | 0.61 | 0.51 | 0.38 | 0.45 | 0.24 | |

C-factor | 1.27 | 0.90 | 0.57 | 0.74 | 0.30 | ||

R_{u} | 1.64 | 1.96 | 2.62 | 2.20 | 4.20 | ||

R_{c} | 0.79 | 1.11 | 1.77 | 1.35 | 3.35 | ||

HC | 17.3 | 11.4 | 11.8 | 7.8 | 8.4 | ||

135 | U-factor | 0.65 | 0.55 | 0.42 | 0.49 | 0.28 | |

C-factor | 1.44 | 1.02 | 0.67 | 0.83 | 0.37 | ||

R_{u} | 1.54 | 1.83 | 2.35 | 2.05 | 3.55 | ||

R_{c} | 0.69 | 0.98 | 1.50 | 1.20 | 2.70 | ||

HC | 17.9 | 12.0 | 12.4 | 8.4 | 9.0 | ||

10 in. block | 85 | U-factor | 0.44 | 0.38 | 0.25 | 0.35 | 0.13 |

C-factor | 0.70 | 0.57 | 0.31 | 0.50 | 0.14 | ||

R_{u} | 2.29 | 2.61 | 4.05 | 2.84 | 7.87 | ||

R_{c} | 1.44 | 1.76 | 3.20 | 1.99 | 7.02 | ||

HC | 19.0 | 11.2 | 11.7 | 6.5 | 7.3 | ||

95 | U-factor | 0.47 | 0.41 | 0.27 | 0.37 | 0.14 | |

C-factor | 0.77 | 0.62 | 0.35 | 0.55 | 0.16 | ||

R_{u} | 2.15 | 2.46 | 3.73 | 2.67 | 6.94 | ||

R_{c} | 1.30 | 1.61 | 2.88 | 1.82 | 6.09 | ||

HC | 19.7 | 11.9 | 12.4 | 7.3 | 8.1 | ||

105 | U-factor | 0.49 | 0.43 | 0.29 | 0.39 | 0.16 | |

C-factor | 0.85 | 0.68 | 0.39 | 0.59 | 0.19 | ||

R_{u} | 2.03 | 2.33 | 3.45 | 2.54 | 6.17 | ||

R_{c} | 1.18 | 1.48 | 2.60 | 1.69 | 5.32 | ||

HC | 20.4 | 12.6 | 13.1 | 8.0 | 8.8 |

TABLE A3.1C Assembly U-Factors, C-Factors,* R***_{u}**,

*R*

**, and**

_{c}*HC*for Concrete Block Walls

*(continued)*

Product Size, in. | Density, lb/ft ^{3} | Properties | Concrete Block Grouting and Cell Treatment | ||||

Solid Grouted | Partly Grouted, Cells Empty | Partly Grouted, Cells Insulated | Unreinforced, Cells Empty | Unreinforced, Cells Insulated | |||

10 in. block | 115 | U-factor | 0.52 | 0.45 | 0.31 | 0.41 | 0.18 |

C-factor | 0.92 | 0.73 | 0.42 | 0.64 | 0.21 | ||

R_{u} | 1.94 | 2.22 | 3.21 | 2.42 | 5.52 | ||

R_{c} | 1.09 | 1.37 | 2.36 | 1.57 | 4.67 | ||

HC | 21.1 | 13.4 | 13.9 | 8.7 | 9.5 | ||

125 | U-factor | 0.54 | 0.48 | 0.34 | 0.44 | 0.21 | |

C-factor | 1.01 | 0.80 | 0.48 | 0.70 | 0.25 | ||

R_{u} | 1.84 | 2.10 | 2.95 | 2.28 | 4.81 | ||

R_{c} | 0.99 | 1.25 | 2.10 | 1.43 | 3.96 | ||

HC | 21.8 | 14.1 | 14.6 | 9.4 | 10.2 | ||

135 | U-factor | 0.58 | 0.51 | 0.38 | 0.47 | 0.25 | |

C-factor | 1.14 | 0.90 | 0.56 | 0.79 | 0.32 | ||

R_{u} | 1.72 | 1.96 | 2.64 | 2.12 | 4.00 | ||

R_{c} | 0.87 | 1.11 | 1.79 | 1.27 | 3.15 | ||

HC | 22.6 | 14.8 | 15.3 | 10.2 | 11.0 | ||

12 in. block | 85 | U-factor | 0.40 | 0.36 | 0.22 | 0.34 | 0.11 |

C-factor | 0.59 | 0.52 | 0.27 | 0.48 | 0.12 | ||

R_{u} | 2.53 | 2.77 | 4.59 | 2.93 | 9.43 | ||

R_{c} | 1.68 | 1.92 | 3.74 | 2.08 | 8.58 | ||

HC | 23.1 | 13.3 | 14.0 | 7.5 | 8.5 | ||

95 | U-factor | 0.42 | 0.38 | 0.24 | 0.36 | 0.12 | |

C-factor | 0.66 | 0.57 | 0.30 | 0.52 | 0.13 | ||

R_{u} | 2.30 | 2.60 | 4.22 | 2.76 | 8.33 | ||

R_{c} | 1.53 | 1.75 | 3.37 | 1.91 | 7.48 | ||

HC | 23.9 | 14.2 | 14.8 | 8.3 | 9.3 | ||

105 | U-factor | 0.44 | 0.41 | 0.26 | 0.38 | 0.14 | |

C-factor | 0.71 | 0.62 | 0.33 | 0.57 | 0.15 | ||

R_{u} | 2.25 | 2.47 | 3.90 | 2.62 | 7.35 | ||

R_{c} | 1.40 | 1.62 | 3.05 | 1.77 | 6.50 | ||

HC | 24.7 | 15.0 | 15.6 | 9.1 | 10.2 | ||

115 | U-factor | 0.47 | 0.42 | 0.28 | 0.40 | 0.15 | |

C-factor | 0.77 | 0.66 | 0.36 | 0.61 | 0.18 | ||

R_{u} | 2.15 | 2.36 | 3.63 | 2.49 | 6.54 | ||

R_{c} | 1.30 | 1.51 | 2.78 | 1.64 | 5.69 | ||

HC | 25.6 | 15.8 | 16.4 | 10.0 | 11.0 | ||

125 | U-factor | 0.49 | 0.45 | 0.30 | 0.42 | 0.18 | |

C-factor | 0.84 | 0.72 | 0.40 | 0.66 | 0.21 | ||

R_{u} | 2.04 | 2.23 | 3.34 | 2.36 | 5.68 | ||

R_{c} | 1.19 | 1.38 | 2.49 | 1.51 | 4.83 | ||

HC | 26.4 | 16.6 | 17.3 | 10.8 | 11.8 | ||

135 | U-factor | 0.52 | 0.48 | 0.34 | 0.46 | 0.21 | |

C-factor | 0.94 | 0.81 | 0.47 | 0.74 | 0.26 | ||

R_{u} | 1.91 | 2.08 | 2.98 | 2.19 | 4.67 | ||

R_{c} | 1.06 | 1.23 | 2.13 | 1.34 | 3.82 | ||

HC | 27.2 | 17.5 | 18.1 | 11.6 | 12.6 |

TABLE A3.1D Effective R-Values for Insulation/Framing

Layers Added to Above-Grade Mass Walls

and Below-Grade Walls

Depth, in. | Framing Type | Rated R-Value of Insulation | |||||||||||||||||||||||||

0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | ||

Effective R-value if continuous insulation uninterrupted by framing (includes gypsum board) | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||

None | 0.5 | 1.5 | 2.5 | 3.5 | 4.5 | 5.5 | 6.5 | 7.5 | 8.5 | 9.5 | 10.5 | 11.5 | 12.5 | 13.5 | 14.5 | 15.5 | 16.5 | 17.5 | 18.5 | 19.5 | 20.5 | 21.5 | 22.5 | 23.5 | 24.5 | 25.5 | |

Effective R-value if insulation is installed in cavity between framing (includes gypsum board) | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||

0.5 | Wood | 1.3 | 1.3 | 1.9 | 2.4 | 2.7 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA |

Metal | 0.9 | 0.9 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.2 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | |

0.75 | Wood | 1.4 | 1.4 | 2.1 | 2.7 | 3.1 | 3.5 | 3.8 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA |

Metal | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.3 | 1.4 | 1.5 | 1.5 | 1.6 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | |

1.0 | Wood | 1.3 | 1.5 | 2.2 | 2.9 | 3.4 | 3.9 | 4.3 | 4.6 | 4.9 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA |

Metal | 1.0 | 1.1 | 1.4 | 1.6 | 1.7 | 1.8 | 1.8 | 1.9 | 1.9 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | |

1.5 | Wood | 1.3 | 1.5 | 2.4 | 3.1 | 3.8 | 4.4 | 4.9 | 5.4 | 5.8 | 6.2 | 6.5 | 6.8 | 7.1 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA |

Metal | 1.1 | 1.2 | 1.6 | 1.9 | 2.1 | 2.2 | 2.3 | 2.4 | 2.5 | 2.5 | 2.6 | 2.6 | 2.7 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | |

2.0 | Wood | 1.4 | 1.5 | 2.5 | 3.3 | 4.0 | 4.7 | 5.3 | 5.9 | 6.4 | 6.9 | 7.3 | 7.7 | 8.1 | 8.4 | 8.7 | 9.0 | 9.3 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA |

Metal | 1.1 | 1.2 | 1.7 | 2.1 | 2.3 | 2.5 | 2.7 | 2.8 | 2.9 | 3.0 | 3.1 | 3.2 | 3.2 | 3.3 | 3.3 | 3.4 | 3.4 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | |

2.5 | Wood | 1.4 | 1.5 | 2.5 | 3.4 | 4.2 | 4.9 | 5.6 | 6.3 | 6.8 | 7.4 | 7.9 | 8.4 | 8.8 | 9.2 | 9.6 | 10.0 | 10.3 | 10.6 | 10.9 | 11.2 | 11.5 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA |

Metal | 1.2 | 1.3 | 1.8 | 2.3 | 2.6 | 2.8 | 3.0 | 3.2 | 3.3 | 3.5 | 3.6 | 3.6 | 3.7 | 3.8 | 3.9 | 3.9 | 4.0 | 4.0 | 4.1 | 4.1 | 4.1 | NA | NA | NA | NA | NA | |

3.0 | Wood | 1.4 | 1.5 | 2.5 | 3.5 | 4.3 | 5.1 | 5.8 | 6.5 | 7.2 | 7.8 | 8.3 | 8.9 | 9.4 | 9.9 | 10.3 | 10.7 | 11.1 | 11.5 | 11.9 | 12.2 | 12.5 | 12.9 | na | na | na | na |

Metal | 1.2 | 1.3 | 1.9 | 2.4 | 2.8 | 3.1 | 3.3 | 3.5 | 3.7 | 3.8 | 4.0 | 4.1 | 4.2 | 4.3 | 4.4 | 4.4 | 4.5 | 4.6 | 4.6 | 4.7 | 4.7 | 4.8 | na | na | na | na | |

3.5 | Wood | 1.4 | 1.5 | 2.6 | 3.5 | 4.4 | 5.2 | 6.0 | 6.7 | 7.4 | 8.1 | 8.7 | 9.3 | 9.8 | 10.4 | 10.9 | 11.3 | 11.8 | 12.2 | 12.6 | 13.0 | 13.4 | 13.8 | 14.1 | 14.5 | 14.8 | 15.1 |

Metal | 1.2 | 1.3 | 2.0 | 2.5 | 2.9 | 3.2 | 3.5 | 3.8 | 4.0 | 4.2 | 4.3 | 4.5 | 4.6 | 4.7 | 4.8 | 4.9 | 5.0 | 5.1 | 5.1 | 5.2 | 5.2 | 5.3 | 5.4 | 5.4 | 5.4 | 5.5 | |

4.0 | Wood | 1.4 | 1.6 | 2.6 | 3.6 | 4.5 | 5.3 | 6.1 | 6.9 | 7.6 | 8.3 | 9.0 | 9.6 | 10.2 | 10.8 | 11.3 | 11.9 | 12.4 | 12.8 | 13.3 | 13.7 | 14.2 | 14.6 | 14.9 | 15.3 | 15.7 | 16.0 |

Metal | 1.2 | 1.3 | 2.0 | 2.6 | 3.0 | 3.4 | 3.7 | 4.0 | 4.2 | 4.5 | 4.6 | 4.8 | 5.0 | 5.1 | 5.2 | 5.3 | 5.4 | 5.5 | 5.6 | 5.7 | 5.8 | 5.8 | 5.9 | 5.9 | 6.0 | 6.0 | |

4.5 | Wood | 1.4 | 1.6 | 2.6 | 3.6 | 4.5 | 5.4 | 6.2 | 7.1 | 7.8 | 8.5 | 9.2 | 9.9 | 10.5 | 11.2 | 11.7 | 12.3 | 12.8 | 13.3 | 13.8 | 14.3 | 14.8 | 15.2 | 15.7 | 16.1 | 16.5 | 16.9 |

Metal | 1.2 | 1.3 | 2.1 | 2.6 | 3.1 | 3.5 | 3.9 | 4.2 | 4.5 | 4.7 | 4.9 | 5.1 | 5.3 | 5.4 | 5.6 | 5.7 | 5.8 | 5.9 | 6.0 | 6.1 | 6.2 | 6.3 | 6.4 | 6.4 | 6.5 | 6.6 | |

5.0 | Wood | 1.4 | 1.6 | 2.6 | 3.6 | 4.6 | 5.5 | 6.3 | 7.2 | 8.0 | 8.7 | 9.4 | 10.1 | 10.8 | 11.5 | 12.1 | 12.7 | 13.2 | 13.8 | 14.3 | 14.8 | 15.3 | 15.8 | 16.3 | 16.7 | 17.2 | 17.6 |

Metal | 1.2 | 1.4 | 2.1 | 2.7 | 3.2 | 3.7 | 4.1 | 4.4 | 4.7 | 5.0 | 5.2 | 5.4 | 5.6 | 5.8 | 5.9 | 6.1 | 6.2 | 6.3 | 6.5 | 6.6 | 6.7 | 6.8 | 6.8 | 6.9 | 7.0 | 7.1 | |

5.5 | Wood | 1.4 | 1.6 | 2.6 | 3.6 | 4.6 | 5.5 | 6.4 | 7.3 | 8.1 | 8.9 | 9.6 | 10.3 | 11.0 | 11.7 | 12.4 | 13.0 | 13.6 | 14.2 | 14.7 | 15.3 | 15.8 | 16.3 | 16.8 | 17.3 | 17.8 | 18.2 |

Metal | 1.3 | 1.4 | 2.1 | 2.8 | 3.3 | 3.8 | 4.2 | 4.6 | 4.9 | 5.2 | 5.4 | 5.7 | 5.9 | 6.1 | 6.3 | 6.4 | 6.6 | 6.7 | 6.8 | 7.0 | 7.1 | 7.2 | 7.3 | 7.4 | 7.5 | 7.6 |

**A3.1.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is a masonry or concrete

*wall*.

*Continuous insulation*is installed on the interior or exterior or within the masonry units, or it is installed on the interior or exterior of the concrete. The

*U-factors*include R-0.17 for exterior air film and R-0.68 for interior air film, vertical surfaces. For insulated

*walls*, the

*U-factor*also includes R-0.45 for 0.5 in. gypsum board.

*U-factors*are provided for the following configurations:

a. Concrete *wall*: 8 in. normal weight concrete *wall *with a density of 145 lb/ft^{3}.

b. Solid grouted concrete block *wall*: 8 in. medium weight ASTM C90 concrete block with a density of 115 lb/ft^{3} and solid grouted cores.

c. Partially grouted concrete block *wall*: 8 in. medium weight ASTM C90 concrete block with a density of 115 lb/ft^{3} having reinforcing steel every 32 in. vertically and every 48 in. horizontally, with cores grouted in those areas only. Other cores are filled with insulating material only if there is no other insulation.

**A3.1.2 Mass Wall Rated R-Value of Insulation**

**A3.1.2.1**

*Mass wall HC*shall be determined from Table A3.1B or A3.1C.

**A3.1.2.2**

The

*rated R-value of insulation*is for

*continuous insulation*uninterrupted by framing other than 20 gauge 1 in. metal clips spaced no closer than 24 in. on center horizontally and 16 in. on center vertically.

**A3.1.2.3**

Where other framing, including metal and wood studs, is used, compliance shall be based on the maximum assembly

*U-factor*.

**A3.1.2.4**

Where

*rated R-value of insulation*is used for concrete sandwich panels, the insulation shall be continuous throughout the entire panel.

**A3.1.3 Mass Wall U-Factor**

**A3.1.3.1**

*U-factors*for

*mass walls*shall be taken from Table A3.1A or determined by the procedure in this subsection. It is acceptable to use the

*U-factors*in Table A3.1A for all

*mass walls*, provided that the grouting is equal to or less than that specified.

*HC*for

*mass walls*shall be taken from Table A3.1B or A3.1C.

**Exception:**For

*mass walls*, where the requirement in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8 is for a maximum assembly U-0.151 followed by footnote “b,” ASTM C90 concrete block

*walls*, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 in. or less on center vertically and 48 in. or less on center horizontally, shall have ungrouted cores filled with material having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btu•in./h•ft

^{2}•°F. Other

*mass walls*with integral insulation shall meet the criteria when their

*U-factors*are equal to or less than those for the appropriate thickness and density in the “Partly Grouted Cells Insulated” column of Table A3.1C

**A3.1.3.2 Determination of Mass Wall U-Factors.**

If not taken from Table A3.1A,

*mass wall U-factors*shall be determined from Tables A3.1B, A3.1C, or A3.1D using the following procedure:

1. If the *mass wall *is uninsulated or only the cells are insulated:

a. For concrete *walls*, determine the *U-factor *from Table A3.1B based on the concrete density and *wall *thickness.

b. For concrete block *walls*, determine the *U-factor *from Table A3.1C based on the block size, concrete density, degree of grouting in the cells, and whether the cells are insulated.

2. If the *mass wall *has additional insulation:

a. For concrete *walls*, determine the *R _{u }*from Table A3.1B based on the concrete density and

*wall*thickness. Next, determine the effective R-value for the insulation/framing layer from Table A3.1D based on the

*rated R-value of insulation*installed, the thickness of the insulation, and whether it is installed between wood or metal framing or with no framing. Then, determine the

*U-factor*by adding the

*R*and the effective R-value together and taking the inverse of the total.

_{u }b. For concrete block *walls*, determine the *R _{u }*from Table A3.1C based on the block size, concrete density, degree of grouting in the cells, and whether the cells are insulated. Next, determine the effective R-value for the insulation/framing layer from Table A3.1D based on the

*rated R-value of insulation*installed, the thickness of the insulation, and whether it is installed between wood or metal framing or with no framing. Then, determine the

*U-factor*by adding the

*R*and the effective R-value together and taking the inverse of the total.

_{u }**A3.2 Metal Building Walls**

TABLE A3.2 Assembly U-Factors for Metal Building

Walls

Insulation System | Rated R-Value of Insulation | Total Rated R-Value of Insulation | Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Wall Assembly | Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Wall Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing) | |||||

Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation | |||||||||

R-5.6 | R-11.2 | R-16.8 | R-22.4 | R-28.0 | R-33.6 | ||||

Single Layer of Mineral Fiber | |||||||||

None | 0 | 1.180 | 0.161 | 0.086 | 0.059 | 0.045 | 0.036 | 0.030 | |

R-6 | 6 | 0.184 | 0.091 | 0.060 | 0.045 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | |

R-10 | 10 | 0.134 | 0.077 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.024 | |

R-11 | 11 | 0.123 | 0.073 | 0.052 | 0.040 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.024 | |

R-13 | 13 | 0.113 | 0.069 | 0.050 | 0.039 | 0.032 | 0.027 | 0.024 | |

R-16 | 16 | 0.093 | 0.061 | 0.046 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | |

R-19 | 19 | 0.084 | 0.057 | 0.043 | 0.035 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | |

Double Layer of Mineral Fiber | |||||||||

(Second layer inside of girts) | |||||||||

(Multiple layers are listed in order from inside to outside) | |||||||||

R-6 + R-13 | 19 | 0.070 | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | |

R-10 + R-13 | 23 | 0.061 | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | |

R-13 + R-13 | 26 | 0.057 | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | |

R-19 + R-13 | 32 | 0.048 | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A | N/A |

**A3.2.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is a

*wall*where the insulation is compressed between metal

*wall*panels and the metal structure. Additional assemblies include

*continuous insulation*, uncompressed and uninterrupted by framing.

**A3.2.2 Rated R-Value of Insulation for Metal Building Walls**

**A3.2.2.1**

The first

*rated R-Value of insulation*is for insulation compressed between metal

*wall*panels and the steel structure.

**A3.2.2.2**

For double-layer installations, the second

*rated R-value of insulation*is for insulation installed from the inside, covering the girts.

**A3.2.2.3**

For

*continuous insulation*(e.g., insulation boards) it is assumed that the insulation boards are installed on the inside of the girts and uninterrupted by the framing members.

**A3.2.2.4**

Insulation exposed to the

*conditioned space*or

*semiheated space*shall have a facing, and all insulation seams shall be continuously sealed to provide a

*continuous air barrier*.

**A3.2.3**

*U-Factors*for*Metal Building Walls**.*

U-factorsfor

U-factors

*metal building walls*shall be taken from Table A3.2. It is not acceptable to use these

*U-factors*if additional insulation is not continuous.

**A3.3 Steel-Framed Walls**

TABLE A3.3 Assembly U-Factors for Steel-Frame Walls

Framing Type and Spacing Width (Actual Depth) | Cavity Insulation R-Value: Rated (Effective Installed [see Table A9.2B]) | Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Wall Assembly | Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Wall Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing), | |||||||||||||||||||

Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation | ||||||||||||||||||||||

R-1.00 | R-2.00 | R-3.00 | R-4.00 | R-5.00 | R-6.00 | R-7.00 | R-8.00 | R-9.00 | R-10.00 | R-11.00 | R-12.00 | R-13.00 | R-14.00 | R-15.00 | R-20.00 | R-25.00 | R-30.00 | R-35.00 | R-40.00 | |||

Steel Framing at 16 in. on center | ||||||||||||||||||||||

3.5 in. depth | None (0.0) | 0.352 | 0.260 | 0.207 | 0.171 | 0.146 | 0.128 | 0.113 | 0.102 | 0.092 | 0.084 | 0.078 | 0.072 | 0.067 | 0.063 | 0.059 | 0.056 | 0.044 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 |

R-11 (5.5) | 0.132 | 0.117 | 0.105 | 0.095 | 0.087 | 0.080 | 0.074 | 0.069 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.049 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.036 | 0.031 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | |

R-13 (6.0) | 0.124 | 0.111 | 0.100 | 0.091 | 0.083 | 0.077 | 0.071 | 0.066 | 0.062 | 0.059 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.048 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | |

R-15 (6.4) | 0.118 | 0.106 | 0.096 | 0.087 | 0.080 | 0.074 | 0.069 | 0.065 | 0.061 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.035 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | |

6.0 in. depth | R-19 (7.1) | 0.109 | 0.099 | 0.090 | 0.082 | 0.076 | 0.071 | 0.066 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.034 | 0.029 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 |

R-21 (7.4) | 0.106 | 0.096 | 0.087 | 0.080 | 0.074 | 0.069 | 0.065 | 0.061 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.034 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | |

Steel Framing at 24 in. on center | ||||||||||||||||||||||

3.5 in. depth | None (0.0) | 0.338 | 0.253 | 0.202 | 0.168 | 0.144 | 0.126 | 0.112 | 0.100 | 0.091 | 0.084 | 0.077 | 0.072 | 0.067 | 0.063 | 0.059 | 0.056 | 0.044 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 |

R-11 (6.6) | 0.116 | 0.104 | 0.094 | 0.086 | 0.079 | 0.073 | 0.068 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.035 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | |

R-13 (7.2) | 0.108 | 0.098 | 0.089 | 0.082 | 0.075 | 0.070 | 0.066 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.034 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.023 | 0.020 | |

R-15 (7.8) | 0.102 | 0.092 | 0.084 | 0.078 | 0.072 | 0.067 | 0.063 | 0.059 | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.050 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.034 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | |

6.0 in. depth | R-19 (8.6) | 0.094 | 0.086 | 0.079 | 0.073 | 0.068 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 |

R-21 (9.0) | 0.090 | 0.083 | 0.077 | 0.071 | 0.066 | 0.062 | 0.059 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.048 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.032 | 0.028 | 0.024 | 0.022 | 0.020 |

**A3.3.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is a

*wall*where the insulation is installed within the cavity of the steel stud framing but where there is not a metal exterior surface spanning member. The steel stud framing is a minimum uncoated thickness of 0.043 in. for 18 gauge or 0.054 in. for 16 gauge. The

*U-factors*include R-0.17 for exterior air film, R-0.08 for stucco, R-0.56 for 0.625 in. gypsum board on the exterior, R-0.56 for 0.625 in. gypsum board on the interior, and R-0.68 for interior vertical surfaces air film. The performance of the insulation/framing layer is calculated using the values in Table A9.2B. Additional assemblies include

*continuous insulation*, uncompressed and uninterrupted by framing.

*U-factors*are provided for the following configurations:

a. *Standard framing*: steel stud framing at 16 in. on center with cavities filled with 16 in. wide insulation for both 3.5 in. deep and 6.0 in. deep *wall *cavities.

b. *Advanced framing*: steel stud framing at 24 in. on center with cavities filled with 24 in. wide insulation for both 3.5 in. deep and 6.0 in. deep *wall *cavities.

**A3.3.2**

*Rated R-Value of Insulation*for Steel-Framed Walls**A3.3.2.1**

The first

*rated R-value of insulation*is for uncompressed insulation installed in the cavity between steel studs. It is acceptable for this insulation to also be

*continuous insulation*uninterrupted by framing.

**A3.3.2.2**

If there are two values, the second

*rated R-value of insulation*is for

*continuous insulation*uninterrupted by framing, etc., to be installed in addition to the first insulation.

**A3.3.2.3**

*Opaque*mullions in spandrel glass shall be covered with insulation complying with the

*steel-framed wall*requirements.

**A3.3.3 U-Factors for Steel-Framed Walls**

**A3.3.3.1**

*U-factors*for

*steel-framed walls*shall be taken from Table A3.3.

**A3.3.3.2**

For

*steel-framed walls*with framing at less than 24 in. on center, use the standard framing values as described in Section A3.3.1(a).

**A3.3.3.3**

For

*steel-framed walls*with framing from 24 to 32 in. on center, use the advanced framing values as described in Section A3.3.1(b).

**A3.3.3.4**

For

*steel-framed walls*with framing greater than 32 in. on center, use the

*metal building wall*values in Table A3.2.

**A3.4 Wood-Framed Walls**

TABLE A3.4 Assembly U-Factors for Wood-Frame Walls

Framing Type and Spacing Width (Actual Depth) | Cavity Insulation R-Value: Rated (Effective Installed [see Table A9.4C]) | Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Wall Assembly | Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Wall Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing) | |||||||||||||||||||

Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation | ||||||||||||||||||||||

R-1.00 | R-2.00 | R-3.00 | R-4.00 | R-5.00 | R-6.00 | R-7.00 | R-8.00 | R-9.00 | R-10.00 | R-11.00 | R-12.00 | R-13.00 | R-14.00 | R-15.00 | R-20.00 | R-25.00 | R-30.00 | R-35.00 | R-40.00 | |||

Wood Studs at 16 in. on center | ||||||||||||||||||||||

3.5 in. depth | None (0.0) | 0.292 | 0.223 | 0.181 | 0.152 | 0.132 | 0.116 | 0.104 | 0.094 | 0.086 | 0.079 | 0.073 | 0.068 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.042 | 0.035 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 |

R-11 (11.0) | 0.096 | 0.087 | 0.079 | 0.073 | 0.068 | 0.063 | 0.059 | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.050 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.032 | 0.028 | 0.024 | 0.022 | 0.020 | |

R-13 (13.0) | 0.089 | 0.080 | 0.074 | 0.068 | 0.063 | 0.059 | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.031 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | |

R-15 (15.0) | 0.083 | 0.075 | 0.069 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.019 | |

5.5 in. depth | R-19 (18.0) | 0.067 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.018 |

R-21 (21.0) | 0.063 | 0.058 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 | |

+ R-10 headers | R-19 (18.0) | 0.063 | 0.059 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.031 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 |

R-21 (21.0) | 0.059 | 0.055 | 0.051 | 0.049 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.017 | |

Wood Studs at 24 in. on center | ||||||||||||||||||||||

3.5 in. depth | None (0.0) | 0.298 | 0.227 | 0.183 | 0.154 | 0.133 | 0.117 | 0.105 | 0.095 | 0.086 | 0.079 | 0.074 | 0.068 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.042 | 0.035 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 |

R-11 (11.0) | 0.094 | 0.085 | 0.078 | 0.072 | 0.067 | 0.062 | 0.059 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.032 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.022 | 0.019 | |

R-13 (13.0) | 0.086 | 0.078 | 0.072 | 0.067 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.031 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 | |

R-15 (15.0) | 0.080 | 0.073 | 0.067 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.049 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.029 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.018 | |

5.5 in. depth | R-19 (18.0) | 0.065 | 0.060 | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.018 |

R-21 (21.0) | 0.060 | 0.056 | 0.052 | 0.049 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.017 | |

+ R-10 headers | R-19 (18.0) | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 |

R-21 (21.0) | 0.057 | 0.053 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.017 |

**A3.4.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is a

*wall*where the insulation is installed between 2 in. nominal wood framing. Cavity insulation is full depth, but values are taken from Table A9.4C for R-19 insulation, which is compressed when installed in a 5.5 in. cavity. Headers are double 2 in. nominal wood framing. The

*U-factors*include R-0.17 for exterior air film, R-0.08 for stucco, R-0.56 for 0.625 in. gypsum board on the exterior, R-0.56 for 0.625 in. gypsum board on the interior, and R-0.68 for interior air film, vertical surfaces. Additional assemblies include

*continuous insulation*, uncompressed and uninterrupted by framing.

*U-factors*are provided for the following configurations:

a. *Standard framing: *wood framing at 16 in. on center with cavities filled with 14.5 in. wide insulation for both 3.5 in. deep and 5.5 in. deep *wall *cavities. Double headers leave no cavity. Weighting factors are 75% insulated cavity, 21% studs, plates, and sills, and 4% headers.

b. *Advanced framing: *wood framing at 24 in. on center with cavities filled with 22.5 in. wide insulation for both 3.5 in. deep and 5.5 in. deep *wall *cavities. Double headers leave uninsulated cavities. Weighting factors are 78% insulated cavity, 18% studs, plates, and sills, and 4% headers.

c. *Advanced framing with insulated headers: *wood framing at 24 in. on center with cavities filled with 22.5 in. wide insulation for both 3.5 in. deep and 5.5 in. deep *wall *cavities. Double header cavities are insulated. Weighting factors are 78% insulated cavity, 18% studs, plates, and sills, and 4% headers.

**A3.4.2 Rated R-value of Insulation for Wood-Framed and Other Walls**

**A3.4.2.1**

The first

*rated R-value of insulation*is for uncompressed insulation installed in the cavity between wood studs. It is acceptable for this insulation to also be

*continuous insulation*uninterrupted by framing.

**A3.4.2.2**

If there are two values, the second

*rated R-value of insulation*is for

*continuous insulation*uninterrupted by framing, etc., to be installed in addition to the first insulation.

**A3.4.3 U-Factors for Wood-Framed Walls**

**A3.4.3.1**

*U-factors*for

*wood-framed walls*shall be taken from Table A3.4.

**A3.4.3.2**

For

*wood-framed walls*with framing at less than 24 in. on center, use the standard framing values as described in Section A3.4.1(a).

**A3.4.3.3**

For

*wood-framed walls*with framing from 24 to 32 in. on center, use the advanced framing values as described in Section A3.4.1(b) if the headers are uninsulated or the advanced framing with insulated header values as described in Section A3.4.1(c) if the headers are insulated.

**A3.4.3.4**

For

*wood-framed walls*with framing greater than 32 in. on center,

*U-factors*shall be determined in accordance with Section A9.

**A4. BELOW-GRADE WALLS**

**A4.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, The base assembly is 8 in. medium-weight concrete block with a density of 115 lb/ft

^{3}and solid grouted cores.

*Continuous insulation*is installed on the interior or exterior. In contrast to the

*U-factor*for

*above-grade walls*, the

*C-factor*for

*below-grade walls*does not include R-values for exterior or interior air films or for soil. For insulated

*walls*, the

*C-factor*does include R-0.45 for 0.5 in. gypsum board.

**A4.2 C-Factors for Below-Grade Walls**

TABLE A4.2 Assembly C-Factors for Below-Grade

Walls

Framing Type and Depth | Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone | Specified C-Factors (Wall Only, without Soil and Air Films) |

No Framing | R-0 | C-1.140 |

Exterior Insulation, Continuous and Uninterrupted by Framing | ||

No Framing | R-5.0 | C-0.170 |

No Framing | R-7.5 | C-0.119 |

No Framing | R-10.0 | C-0.092 |

No Framing | R-12.5 | C-0.075 |

No Framing | R-15.0 | C-0.063 |

No Framing | R-17.5 | C-0.054 |

No Framing | R-20.0 | C-0.048 |

No Framing | R-25.0 | C-0.039 |

No Framing | R-30.0 | C-0.032 |

No Framing | R-35.0 | C-0.028 |

No Framing | R-40.0 | C-0.025 |

No Framing | R-45.0 | C-0.022 |

No Framing | R-50.0 | C-0.020 |

Continuous Metal Framing at 24 in. on Center Horizontally | ||

3.5 in. | R-11.0 | C-0.182 |

3.5 in. | R-13.0 | C-0.174 |

3.5 in. | R-15.0 | C-0.168 |

5.5 in. | R-19.0 | C-0.125 |

5.5 in. | R-21.0 | C-0.120 |

1 in. Metal Clips at 24 in. on Center Horizontally and 16 in. Vertically | ||

1.0 in. | R-3.8 | C-0.233 |

1.0 in. | R-5.0 | C-0.201 |

TABLE A4.2 Assembly C-Factors for Below-Grade

Walls* (continued)*

Framing Type and Depth | Rated R-Value of Insulation Alone | Specified C-Factors (Wall Only, without Soil and Air Films) |

1.0 in. | R-5.6 | C-0.189 |

1.5 in. | R-5.7 | C-0.173 |

1.5 in. | R-7.5 | C-0.147 |

1.5 in. | R-8.4 | C-0.138 |

2.0 in. | R-7.6 | C-0.138 |

2.0 in. | R-10.0 | C-0.116 |

2.0 in. | R-11.2 | C-0.108 |

2.5 in. | R-9.5 | C-0.114 |

2.5 in. | R-12.5 | C-0.096 |

2.5 in. | R-14.0 | C-0.089 |

3.0 in. | R-11.4 | C-0.098 |

3.0 in. | R-15.0 | C-0.082 |

3.0 in. | R-16.8 | C-0.076 |

3.5 in. | R-13.3 | C-0.085 |

3.5 in. | R-17.5 | C-0.071 |

3.5 in. | R-19.6 | C-0.066 |

4.0 in. | R-15.2 | C-0.076 |

4.0 in. | R-20.0 | C-0.063 |

4.0 in. | R-22.4 | C-0.058 |

**A4.2.1**

C-factors for

*below-grade walls*shall be taken from Table A4.2 or determined by the procedure described in this subsection.

**A4.2.2**

It is acceptable to use the

*C-factors*in Table A4.2 for all

*below-grade walls*.

**A4.2.3**

If not taken from Table A4.2,

*below-grade wall C-factors*shall be determined from Tables A3.1B, A3.1C, or A3.1D using the following procedure:

a. If the *below-grade wall *is uninsulated or only the cells are insulated:

1. For concrete *walls*, determine the *C-factor *from Table A3.1B based on the concrete density and *wall *thickness.

2. For concrete block *walls*, determine the *C-factor *from Table A3.1C based on the block size, concrete density, degree of grouting in the cells, and whether the cells are insulated.

b. If the *mass wall *has additional insulation:

1. For concrete *walls*, determine the *R _{c }*from Table A3.1B based on the concrete density and

*wall*thickness. Next, determine the effective R-value for the insulation/framing layer from Table A3.1D based on the

*rated R-value of insulation*installed, the thickness of the insulation, and whether it is installed between wood or metal framing or with no framing. Then, determine the

*C-factor*by adding the

*R*and the effective R-value together and taking the inverse of the total.

_{c }2. For concrete block *walls*, determine the *R _{c }*from Table A3.1C based on the block size, concrete density, degree of grouting in the cells, and whether the cells are insulated. Next, determine the effective R-value for the insulation/framing layer from Table A3.1D based on the

*rated R-value of insulation*installed, the thickness of the insulation, and whether it is installed between wood or metal framing or with no framing. Then, determine the

*C-factor*by adding the

*R*and the effective R-value together and taking the inverse of the total.

_{c }**A5. FLOORS**

**A5.1 General.**

The buffering effect of crawlspaces or parking garages shall not be included in

*U-factor*calculations. See Section A6 for

*slab-on-grade floors.*

**A5.2 Mass Floors**

TABLE A5.2 Assembly U-Factors for Mass

Floors

Framing Type and Spacing Width (Actual Depth) | Cavity Insu- lation R- Value: Rated (Effective Installed) | Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Floor Assembly | Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Floor Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing) | |||||||||||||||||||

Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation | ||||||||||||||||||||||

R-1.00 | R-2.00 | R-3.00 | R-4.00 | R-5.00 | R-6.00 | R-7.00 | R-8.00 | R-9.00 | R-10.00 | R-11.00 | R-12.00 | R-13.00 | R-14.00 | R-15.00 | R-20.00 | R-25.00 | R-30.00 | R-35.00 | R-40.00 | |||

Concrete Floor with Rigid Foam | ||||||||||||||||||||||

None (0.0) | 0.322 | 0.243 | 0.196 | 0.164 | 0.141 | 0.123 | 0.110 | 0.099 | 0.090 | 0.083 | 0.076 | 0.071 | 0.066 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.043 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | |

Concrete Floor with Pinned Boards | ||||||||||||||||||||||

R-4.2 (4.2) | 0.137 | 0.121 | 0.108 | 0.097 | 0.089 | 0.081 | 0.075 | 0.070 | 0.065 | 0.061 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.037 | 0.031 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | |

R-6.3 (6.3) | 0.107 | 0.096 | 0.088 | 0.081 | 0.075 | 0.070 | 0.065 | 0.061 | 0.058 | 0.054 | 0.052 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.034 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.023 | 0.020 | |

R-8.3 (8.3) | 0.087 | 0.080 | 0.074 | 0.069 | 0.065 | 0.061 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.032 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.022 | 0.019 | |

R-10.4 (10.4) | 0.074 | 0.069 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.049 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 | |

R-12.5 (12.5) | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | |

R-14.6 (14.6) | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.027 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 | |

R-16.7 (16.7) | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.017 | |

Concrete Floor with Spray-On Insulation | ||||||||||||||||||||||

1 in. | R-4 (4.0) | 0.141 | 0.123 | 0.110 | 0.099 | 0.090 | 0.083 | 0.076 | 0.071 | 0.066 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.037 | 0.031 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 |

2 in. | R-8 (8.0) | 0.090 | 0.083 | 0.076 | 0.071 | 0.066 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.032 | 0.028 | 0.024 | 0.022 | 0.020 |

3 in. | R-12 (12.0) | 0.066 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 |

4 in. | R-16 (16.0) | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.017 |

5 in. | R-20 (20.0) | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 | 0.016 |

6 in. | R-24 (24.0) | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.018 | 0.016 | 0.015 |

**A5.2.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is

*continuous insulation*over or under a solid concrete

*floor*. The

*U-factors*include R-0.92 for interior air film-heat flow down, R-1.23 for carpet and rubber pad, R-0.50 for 8 in. concrete, and R-0.46 for semi-exterior air film. Added insulation is continuous and uninterrupted by framing. Framing factor is zero.

**A5.2.2 Rated R-Value of Insulation for Mass Floors**

**A5.2.2.1**

The

*rated R-value of insulation*is for

*continuous insulation*uninterrupted by framing.

**A5.2.2.2**

Where framing, including metal and wood joists, is used, compliance shall be based on the maximum assembly

*U-factor*rather than the minimum

*rated R-value of insulation*.

**A5.2.2.3**

For waffle-slab

*floors*, the

*floor*shall be insulated either on the interior above the slab or on all exposed surfaces of the waffle.

**A5.2.2.4**

For

*floors*with beams that extend below the floor slab, the

*floor*shall be insulated either on the interior above the slab or on the exposed floor and all exposed surfaces of the beams that extend 24 in. and less below the exposed floor.

**A5.2.3 U-Factors for Mass Floors**

**A5.2.3.1**

The

*U-factors*for

*mass walls*shall be taken from Table A5.2.

**A5.2.3.2**

It is not acceptable to use the

*U-factors*in Table A5.2 if the insulation is not continuous.

**A5.3 Steel-Joist Floors**

TABLE A5.3 Assembly U-Factors

for Steel-Joist Floors

Framing Type and Spacing Width (Actual Depth) | Cavity Insulation R-Value: Rated (Effective Installed [See Table A9.2A]) | Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Floor Assembly | Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Floor Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing) | |||||||||||||||||||

Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation | ||||||||||||||||||||||

R-1.00 | R-2.00 | R-3.00 | R-4.00 | R-5.00 | R-6.00 | R-7.00 | R-8.00 | R-9.00 | R-10.00 | R-11.00 | R-12.00 | R-13.00 | R-14.00 | R-15.00 | R-20.00 | R-25.00 | R-30.00 | R-35.00 | R-40.00 | |||

Steel Joist Floor with Rigid Foam | ||||||||||||||||||||||

None (0.0) | 0.350 | 0.259 | 0.206 | 0.171 | 0.146 | 0.127 | 0.113 | 0.101 | 0.092 | 0.084 | 0.078 | 0.072 | 0.067 | 0.063 | 0.059 | 0.056 | 0.044 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | |

Steel Joist Floor with Spray-on Insulation | ||||||||||||||||||||||

1 in. | R-4 (3.88) | 0.148 | 0.129 | 0.114 | 0.103 | 0.093 | 0.085 | 0.078 | 0.073 | 0.068 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.037 | 0.032 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 |

2 in. | R-8 (7.52) | 0.096 | 0.088 | 0.081 | 0.075 | 0.070 | 0.065 | 0.061 | 0.058 | 0.054 | 0.052 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 |

3 in. | R-12 (10.80) | 0.073 | 0.068 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 |

4 in. | R-16 (13.92) | 0.060 | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.018 |

5 in. | R-20 (17.00) | 0.050 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.017 |

6 in. | R-24 (19.68) | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 | 0.016 |

Steel Joist Floor with Batt Insulation | ||||||||||||||||||||||

None (0.0) | 0.350 | 0.259 | 0.206 | 0.171 | 0.146 | 0.127 | 0.113 | 0.101 | 0.092 | 0.084 | 0.078 | 0.072 | 0.067 | 0.063 | 0.059 | 0.056 | 0.044 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | |

R-11 (10.01) | 0.078 | 0.072 | 0.067 | 0.063 | 0.059 | 0.056 | 0.053 | 0.050 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 | |

R-13 (11.70) | 0.069 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.049 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.029 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | |

R-15 (13.20) | 0.062 | 0.059 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.028 | 0.024 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | |

R-19 (16.34) | 0.052 | 0.050 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.017 | |

R-21 (17.64) | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.044 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.017 | |

R-25 (20.25) | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 | 0.016 | |

R-30C (23.70) | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.018 | 0.016 | 0.015 | |

R-30 (23.70) | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.018 | 0.016 | 0.015 | |

R-38C (28.12) | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.024 | 0.023 | 0.023 | 0.022 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.016 | 0.015 | 0.014 | |

R-38 (28.12) | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.024 | 0.023 | 0.023 | 0.022 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.016 | 0.015 | 0.014 |

**A5.3.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is a

*floor*where the insulation is either placed between the

*steel joists*or is sprayed on the underside of the

*floor*and the joists. In both cases, the steel provides a thermal bypass to the insulation. The

*U-factors*include R-0.92 for interior air film—heat flow down, R-1.23 for carpet and pad, R-0.25 for 4 in. concrete, R-0 for metal deck, and R-0.46 for semi-exterior air film. The performance of the insulation/ framing layer is calculated using the values in Table A9.2A.

**A5.3.2 Rated R-Value of Insulation for Steel-Joist Floors**

**A5.3.2.1**

The first

*rated R-value of insulation*is for uncompressed insulation installed in the cavity between

*steel joists*or for spray-on insulation.

**A5.3.2.2**

It is acceptable for this insulation to also be

*continuous insulation*uninterrupted by framing. All

*continuous insulation*shall be installed either on the interior above the floor structure or below a framing cavity completely filled with insulation.

**A5.3.3 U-Factors for Steel-Joist Floors**

**A5.3.3.1**

The

*U-factors*for

*steel-joist floors*shall be taken from Table A5.3.

**A5.3.3.2**

It is acceptable to use these

*U-factors*for any

*steel-joist floor*.

**A5.4 Wood-Framed and Other Floors**

TABLE A5.4 Assembly U-Factors for Wood-Joist

Floors

Framing Type and Spacing Width (Actual Depth) | Cavity Insulation R-Value: Rated (Effective Installed) | Overall U-Factor for Entire Base Floor Assembly | Overall U-Factor for Assembly of Base Floor Plus Continuous Insulation (Uninterrupted by Framing) | |||||||||||||||||||

Rated R-Value of Continuous Insulation | ||||||||||||||||||||||

R-1.00 | R-2.00 | R-3.00 | R-4.00 | R-5.00 | R-6.00 | R-7.00 | R-8.00 | R-9.00 | R-10.00 | R-11.00 | R-12.00 | R-13.00 | R-14.00 | R-15.00 | R-20.00 | R-25.00 | R-30.00 | R-35.00 | R-40.00 | |||

Wood Joists | ||||||||||||||||||||||

5.5 in. | None (0.0) | 0.282 | 0.220 | 0.180 | 0.153 | 0.132 | 0.117 | 0.105 | 0.095 | 0.087 | 0.080 | 0.074 | 0.069 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.042 | 0.035 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 |

R-11 (11.0) | 0.074 | 0.069 | 0.064 | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.054 | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.030 | 0.026 | 0.023 | 0.020 | 0.019 | |

R-13 (13.0) | 0.066 | 0.062 | 0.058 | 0.055 | 0.052 | 0.049 | 0.047 | 0.045 | 0.043 | 0.041 | 0.039 | 0.038 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.028 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | |

R-15 (15.0) | 0.060 | 0.057 | 0.053 | 0.050 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.027 | 0.024 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 | |

R-19 (18.0) | 0.051 | 0.048 | 0.046 | 0.044 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.025 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.017 | |

R-21 (21.0) | 0.046 | 0.043 | 0.042 | 0.040 | 0.038 | 0.037 | 0.035 | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.027 | 0.023 | 0.021 | 0.019 | 0.017 | 0.016 | |

7.25 in. | R-25 (25.0) | 0.039 | 0.037 | 0.036 | 0.035 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.022 | 0.019 | 0.018 | 0.016 | 0.015 |

R-30C (30.0) | 0.034 | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.024 | 0.023 | 0.023 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.016 | 0.015 | 0.014 | |

9.25 in. | R-30 (30.0) | 0.033 | 0.032 | 0.031 | 0.030 | 0.029 | 0.028 | 0.027 | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.024 | 0.023 | 0.023 | 0.022 | 0.022 | 0.020 | 0.018 | 0.016 | 0.015 | 0.014 |

11.25 in. | R-38C (38.0) | 0.027 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.024 | 0.023 | 0.022 | 0.022 | 0.021 | 0.021 | 0.020 | 0.020 | 0.020 | 0.019 | 0.019 | 0.017 | 0.016 | 0.015 | 0.014 | 0.013 |

13.25 in. | R-38 (38.0) | 0.026 | 0.026 | 0.025 | 0.024 | 0.024 | 0.023 | 0.023 | 0.022 | 0.022 | 0.021 | 0.021 | 0.020 | 0.020 | 0.019 | 0.019 | 0.019 | 0.017 | 0.016 | 0.015 | 0.014 | 0.013 |

**A5.4.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is a

*floor*attached directly to the top of the wood joist with insulation located directly below the

*floor*and ventilated airspace below the insulation. The heat flow path through the joist is calculated to be the same depth as the insulation. The

*U-factors*include R-0.92 for interior air film—heat flow down, R-1.23 for carpet and pad, R-0.94 for 0.75 in. wood subfloor, and R-0.46 for semi-exterior air film. The weighting factors are 91% insulated cavity and 9% framing.

**A5.4.2 Rated R-Value of Insulation for Wood-Framed and Other Floors**

**A5.4.2.1**

The first

*rated R-value of insulation*is for uncompressed insulation installed in the cavity between wood joists.

**A5.4.2.2**

It is acceptable for this insulation to also be

*continuous insulation*uninterrupted by framing. All

*continuous insulation*shall be installed either on the interior above the floor structure or below a framing cavity completely filled with insulation.

**A5.4.3**

*U-Factors*for*Wood-Framed Floors***A5.4.3.1**

The

*U-factors*for

*wood-framed floors*shall be taken from Table A5.4.

**A5.4.3.2**

It is not acceptable to use these

*U-factors*if the framing is not wood.

**A6. SLAB-ON-GRADE FLOORS**

**A6.1 General.**

For the purpose of Section A1.2, the base assembly is a slab floor of 6 in. concrete poured directly on to the earth, the bottom of the slab is at grade line, and soil conductivity is 0.75 Btu/h•ft•°F. In contrast to the

*U-factor*for

*floors*, the

*F-factor*for

*slab-on-grade floors*is expressed per linear foot of building perimeter.

*F-factors*are provided for unheated slabs and for heated slabs.

*Unheated slab-on-grade floors*do not have heating elements, and

*heated slab-on-grade floors*do have heating elements within or beneath the slab.

*F-factors*are provided for three insulation configurations:

a. *Horizontal Insulation: continuous insulation *is applied directly to the underside of the slab and extends inward horizontally from the perimeter for the distance specified or *continuous insulation *is applied downward from the top of the slab and then extends horizontally to the interior or the exterior from the perimeter for the distance specified.

b. *Vertical Insulation: continuous insulation *is applied directly to the slab exterior, extending downward from the top of the slab for the distance specified.

c. *Fully Insulated Slab: continuous insulation *extends downward from the top of the slab and along the entire perimeter and completely covers the entire area under the slab.

**A6.2 Rated R-Value of Insulation for Slab-on-Grade Floors**

**A6.2.1**

The

*rated R-value of insulation*shall be installed around the perimeter of the

*slab-on-grade floor*to the distance specified.

**Exception:**For a monolithic

*slab-on-grade floor*, the insulation shall extend from the top of the slab-on-

*grade*to the bottom of the footing.

**A6.2.2**

Insulation installed inside the foundation

*wall*shall extend downward from the top of the slab a minimum of the distance specified or to the top of the footing, whichever is less.

**A6.2.3**

Insulation installed outside the foundation

*wall*shall extend from the top of the slab or downward to at least the bottom of the slab and then horizontally to a minimum of the distance specified. In all climates, the horizontal insulation extending outside of the foundation shall be covered by pavement or by soil a minimum of 10 in. thick.

**A6.3 F-Factors for Slab-on-Grade Floors**

TABLE A6.3 Assembly F-Factors for Slab-on-Grade Floors

Insulation Description | Rated R-Value of Insulation | ||||||||||||

R-0 | R-5 | R-7.5 | R-10 | R-15 | R-20 | R-25 | R-30 | R-35 | R-40 | R-45 | R-50 | R-55 | |

Unheated Slabs | |||||||||||||

None | 0.73 | ||||||||||||

12 in. horizontal | 0.72 | 0.71 | 0.71 | 0.71 | |||||||||

24 in. horizontal | 0.70 | 0.70 | 0.70 | 0.69 | |||||||||

36 in. horizontal | 0.68 | 0.67 | 0.66 | 0.66 | |||||||||

48 in. horizontal | 0.67 | 0.65 | 0.64 | 0.63 | |||||||||

12 in.vertical | 0.61 | 0.60 | 0.58 | 0.57 | 0.567 | 0.565 | 0.564 | ||||||

24 in. vertical | 0.58 | 0.56 | 0.54 | 0.52 | 0.510 | 0.505 | 0.502 | ||||||

36 in. vertical | 0.56 | 0.53 | 0.51 | 0.48 | 0.472 | 0.464 | 0.460 | ||||||

48 in. vertical | 0.54 | 0.51 | 0.48 | 0.45 | 0.434 | 0.424 | 0.419 | ||||||

Fully insulated slab | 0.46 | 0.41 | 0.36 | 0.30 | 0.261 | 0.233 | 0.213 | 0.198 | 0.186 | 0.176 | 0.168 | 0.161 | |

Heated Slabs | |||||||||||||

None | 1.35 | ||||||||||||

12 in. horizontal | 1.31 | 1.31 | 1.30 | 1.30 | |||||||||

24 in. horizontal | 1.28 | 1.27 | 1.26 | 1.25 | |||||||||

36 in. horizontal | 1.24 | 1.21 | 1.20 | 1.18 | |||||||||

48 in. horizontal | 1.20 | 1.17 | 1.13 | 1.11 | |||||||||

12 in. vertical | 1.06 | 1.02 | 1.00 | 0.98 | 0.968 | 0.964 | 0.961 | ||||||

24 in. vertical | 0.99 | 0.95 | 0.90 | 0.86 | 0.843 | 0.832 | 0.827 | ||||||

36 in. vertical | 0.95 | 0.89 | 0.84 | 0.79 | 0.762 | 0.747 | 0.740 | ||||||

48 in. vertical | 0.91 | 0.85 | 0.78 | 0.72 | 0.688 | 0.671 | 0.659 | ||||||

Fully insulated slab | 0.74 | 0.64 | 0.55 | 0.44 | 0.373 | 0.326 | 0.296 | 0.273 | 0.255 | 0.239 | 0.227 | 0.217 |

**A6.3.1**

*F-factors*for

*slab-on-grade floor*s shall be taken from Table A6.3.

**A6.3.2**

These

*F-factors*are acceptable for all

*slab-on-grade floors*.

**A7. OPAQUE DOORS**

All *opaque doors *with *U-factors *determined, certified, and *labeled *in accordance with NFRC 100 shall be assigned those *U-factors*.

**A7.1 Unlabeled Opaque Doors.**

Unlabeled

*opaque doors*shall be assigned the following

*U-factors*:

a. Uninsulated single-layer metal *swinging doors *or *non-swinging doors*, including single-layer uninsulated *access hatches *and uninsulated smoke vents: 1.45

b. Uninsulated double-layer metal *swinging doors *or *non-swinging doors*, including double-layer uninsulated *access hatches *and uninsulated smoke vents: 0.70

c. Insulated metal *swinging doors*, including fire-rated *doors*, insulated *access hatches*, and insulated smoke vents: 0.50

d. Wood *doors*, minimum nominal thickness of 1.75 in., including panel *doors *with minimum panel thickness of 1.125 in., solid core flush *doors*, and hollow core flush *doors*: 0.50

e. Any other wood *door*: 0.60

**A8. FENESTRATION**

All *fenestration *with *U-factors, SHGC, *or *visible transmittance *determined, certified, and *labeled *in accordance with NFRC 100, 200, and 300, respectively, shall be assigned those values.

**A8.1 Unlabeled Skylights.**

Unlabeled

*skylights*shall be assigned the

*U-factors*in Table A8.1A and are allowed to use the

*SHGC*s and VTs in Table A8.1B. The metal with thermal break frame category shall not be used unless all frame members have a thermal break equal to or greater than 0.25 in.

TABLE A8.1A Assembly U-Factors for Unlabeled Skylights

Product Type | Sloped Installation | |||||||

Unlabeled Skylight with Curb (Includes glass/plastic, flat/domed, fixed/operable) | Unlabeled Skylight without Curb (Includes glass/plastic, flat/domed, fixed/operable) | |||||||

Frame Type | Aluminum without Thermal Break | Aluminum with Thermal Break | Reinforced Vinyl/ Aluminum Clad Wood | Wood/ Vinyl | Aluminum without Thermal Break | Aluminum with Thermal Break | Structural Glazing | |

ID | Glazing Type | |||||||

Single Glazing | ||||||||

1 | 1/8 in. glass | 1.98 | 1.89 | 1.75 | 1.47 | 1.36 | 1.25 | 1.25 |

2 | 1/4 in. acrylic/polycarb | 1.82 | 1.73 | 1.60 | 1.31 | 1.21 | 1.10 | 1.10 |

3 | 1/8 in. acrylic/polycarb | 1.90 | 1.81 | 1.68 | 1.39 | 1.29 | 1.18 | 1.18 |

Double Glazing | ||||||||

4 | 1/4 in. airspace | 1.31 | 1.11 | 1.05 | 0.84 | 0.82 | 0.70 | 0.66 |

5 | 1/2 in. airspace | 1.30 | 1.10 | 1.04 | 0.84 | 0.81 | 0.69 | 0.65 |

6 | 1/4 in. argon space | 1.27 | 1.07 | 1.00 | 0.80 | 0.77 | 0.66 | 0.62 |

7 | 1/2 in. argon space | 1.27 | 1.07 | 1.00 | 0.80 | 0.77 | 0.66 | 0.62 |

Double Glazing, e = 0.60 on surface 2 or 3 | ||||||||

8 | 1/4 in. airspace | 1.27 | 1.08 | 1.01 | 0.81 | 0.78 | 0.67 | 0.63 |

9 | 1/2 in. airspace | 1.27 | 1.07 | 1.00 | 0.80 | 0.77 | 0.66 | 0.62 |

TABLE A8.1A

Assembly U-Factors for Unlabeled Skylights (*continued*)

Product Type | Sloped Installation | |||||||

Unlabeled Skylight with Curb (Includes glass/plastic, flat/domed, fixed/operable) | Unlabeled Skylight without Curb (Includes glass/plastic, flat/domed, fixed/operable) | |||||||

Frame Type | Aluminum without Thermal Break | Aluminum with Thermal Break | Reinforced Vinyl/ Aluminum Clad Wood | Wood/ Vinyl | Aluminum without Thermal Break | Aluminum with Thermal Break | Structural Glazing | |

ID | Glazing Type | |||||||

10 | 1/4 in. argon space | 1.23 | 1.03 | 0.97 | 0.76 | 0.74 | 0.63 | 0.58 |

11 | 1/2 in. argon space | 1.23 | 1.03 | 0.97 | 0.76 | 0.74 | 0.63 | 0.58 |

Double Glazing, e = 0.40 on surface 2 or 3 | ||||||||

12 | 1/4 in. airspace | 1.25 | 1.05 | 0.99 | 0.78 | 0.76 | 0.64 | 0.60 |

13 | 1/2 in. airspace | 1.24 | 1.04 | 0.98 | 0.77 | 0.75 | 0.64 | 0.59 |

14 | 1/4 in. argon space | 1.18 | 0.99 | 0.92 | 0.72 | 0.70 | 0.58 | 0.54 |

15 | 1/2 in. argon space | 1.20 | 1.00 | 0.94 | 0.74 | 0.71 | 0.60 | 0.56 |

Double Glazing, e = 0.20 on surface 2 or 3 | ||||||||

16 | 1/4 in. airspace | 1.20 | 1.00 | 0.94 | 0.74 | 0.71 | 0.60 | 0.56 |

17 | 1/2 in. airspace | 1.20 | 1.00 | 0.94 | 0.74 | 0.71 | 0.60 | 0.56 |

18 | 1/4 in. argon space | 1.14 | 0.94 | 0.88 | 0.68 | 0.65 | 0.54 | 0.50 |

19 | 1/2 in. argon space | 1.15 | 0.95 | 0.89 | 0.68 | 0.66 | 0.55 | 0.51 |

Double Glazing, e = 0.10 on surface 2 or 3 | ||||||||

20 | 1/4 in. airspace | 1.18 | 0.99 | 0.92 | 0.72 | 0.70 | 0.58 | 0.54 |

21 | 1/2 in. airspace | 1.18 | 0.99 | 0.92 | 0.72 | 0.70 | 0.58 | 0.54 |

22 | 1/4 in. argon space | 1.11 | 0.91 | 0.85 | 0.65 | 0.63 | 0.52 | 0.47 |

23 | 1/2 in. argon space | 1.13 | 0.93 | 0.87 | 0.67 | 0.65 | 0.53 | 0.49 |

Double Glazing, e = 0.05 on surface 2 or 3 | ||||||||

24 | 1/4 in. airspace | 1.17 | 0.97 | 0.91 | 0.70 | 0.68 | 0.57 | 0.52 |

25 | 1/2 in. airspace | 1.17 | 0.98 | 0.91 | 0.71 | 0.69 | 0.58 | 0.53 |

26 | 1/4 in. argon space | 1.09 | 0.89 | 0.83 | 0.63 | 0.61 | 0.50 | 0.45 |

27 | 1/2 in. argon space | 1.11 | 0.91 | 0.85 | 0.65 | 0.63 | 0.52 | 0.47 |

Triple Glazing | ||||||||

28 | 1/4 in. airspaces | 1.12 | 0.89 | 0.84 | 0.64 | 0.64 | 0.53 | 0.48 |

29 | 1/2 in. airspaces | 1.10 | 0.87 | 0.81 | 0.61 | 0.62 | 0.51 | 0.45 |

30 | 1/4 in. argon spaces | 1.09 | 0.86 | 0.80 | 0.60 | 0.61 | 0.50 | 0.44 |

31 | 1/2 in. argon spaces | 1.07 | 0.84 | 0.79 | 0.59 | 0.59 | 0.48 | 0.42 |

Triple Glazing, e = 0.20 on surface 2,3,4, or 5 | ||||||||

32 | 1/4 in. airspace | 1.08 | 0.85 | 0.79 | 0.59 | 0.60 | 0.49 | 0.43 |

33 | 1/2 in. airspace | 1.05 | 0.82 | 0.77 | 0.57 | 0.57 | 0.46 | 0.41 |

34 | 1/4 in. argon space | 1.02 | 0.79 | 0.74 | 0.54 | 0.55 | 0.44 | 0.38 |

35 | 1/2 in. argon space | 1.01 | 0.78 | 0.73 | 0.53 | 0.54 | 0.43 | 0.37 |

Triple Glazing, e = 0.20 on surfaces 2 or 3 and 4 or 5 | ||||||||

36 | 1/4 in. airspace | 1.03 | 0.80 | 0.75 | 0.55 | 0.56 | 0.45 | 0.39 |

37 | 1/2 in. airspace | 1.01 | 0.78 | 0.73 | 0.53 | 0.54 | 0.43 | 0.37 |

38 | 1/4 in. argon space | 0.99 | 0.75 | 0.70 | 0.50 | 0.51 | 0.40 | 0.35 |

39 | 1/2 in. argon space | 0.97 | 0.74 | 0.69 | 0.49 | 0.50 | 0.39 | 0.33 |

Triple Glazing, e = 0.10 on surfaces 2 or 3 and 4 or 5 | ||||||||

40 | 1/4 in. airspace | 1.01 | 0.78 | 0.73 | 0.53 | 0.54 | 0.43 | 0.37 |

41 | 1/2 in. airspace | 0.99 | 0.76 | 0.71 | 0.51 | 0.52 | 0.41 | 0.36 |

TABLE A8.1A

Assembly U-Factors for Unlabeled Skylights (*continued*)

Product Type | Sloped Installation | |||||||

Unlabeled Skylight with Curb (Includes glass/plastic, flat/domed, fixed/operable) | Unlabeled Skylight without Curb (Includes glass/plastic, flat/domed, fixed/operable) | |||||||

Frame Type | Aluminum without Thermal Break | Aluminum with Thermal Break | Reinforced Vinyl/ Aluminum Clad Wood | Wood/ Vinyl | Aluminum without Thermal Break | Aluminum with Thermal Break | Structural Glazing | |

ID | Glazing Type | |||||||

42 | 1/4 in. argon space | 0.96 | 0.73 | 0.68 | 0.48 | 0.49 | 0.38 | 0.32 |

43 | 1/2 in. argon space | 0.95 | 0.72 | 0.67 | 0.47 | 0.48 | 0.37 | 0.31 |

Quadruple Glazing, e = 0.10 on surfaces 2 or 3 and 4 or 5 | ||||||||

44 | 1/4 in. airspace | 0.97 | 0.74 | 0.69 | 0.49 | 0.50 | 0.39 | 0.33 |

45 | 1/2 in. airspace | 0.94 | 0.71 | 0.66 | 0.46 | 0.47 | 0.36 | 0.30 |

46 | 1/4 in. argon space | 0.93 | 0.70 | 0.65 | 0.45 | 0.46 | 0.35 | 0.30 |

47 | 1/2 in. argon space | 0.91 | 0.68 | 0.63 | 0.43 | 0.44 | 0.33 | 0.28 |

48 | 1/4 in. krypton spaces | 0.88 | 0.65 | 0.60 | 0.40 | 0.42 | 0.31 | 0.25 |

TABLE A8.1B Assembly SHGCs and

Assembly Visible Transmittances (VTs) for Unlabeled Skylights

Glass Type | Glazing Type: Number of glazing layers Number and emissivity of coatings (Glazing is glass except where noted) | Unlabeled Skylights (Includes glass/plastic, flat/domed, fixed/operable) | ||||||

Frame: | Metal without Thermal Break | Metal with Thermal Break | Wood/Vinyl/ Fiberglass | |||||

Characteristic: | SHGC | VT | SHGC | VT | SHGC | VT | ||

Clear | Single glazing, 1/8 in. glass | 0.82 | 0.76 | 0.78 | 0.76 | 0.73 | 0.73 | |

Single glazing, 1/4 in. glass | 0.78 | 0.75 | 0.74 | 0.75 | 0.69 | 0.72 | ||

Single glazing, acrylic/polycarbonate | 0.83 | 0.92 | 0.83 | 0.92 | 0.83 | 0.92 | ||

Double glazing | 0.68 | 0.66 | 0.64 | 0.66 | 0.59 | 0.64 | ||

Double glazing, E = 0.40 on surface 2 or 3 | 0.71 | 0.65 | 0.67 | 0.65 | 0.62 | 0.63 | ||

Double glazing, E = 0.20 on surface 2 or 3 | 0.66 | 0.61 | 0.62 | 0.61 | 0.57 | 0.59 | ||

Double glazing, E = 0.10 on surface 2 or 3 | 0.59 | 0.63 | 0.55 | 0.63 | 0.51 | 0.61 | ||

Double glazing, acrylic/polycarbonate | 0.77 | 0.89 | 0.77 | 0.89 | 0.77 | 0.89 | ||

Triple glazing | 0.60 | 0.59 | 0.56 | 0.59 | 0.52 | 0.57 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.40 on surface 2, 3, 4, or 5 | 0.64 | 0.60 | 0.60 | 0.60 | 0.56 | 0.57 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.20 on surface 2, 3, 4, or 5 | 0.59 | 0.55 | 0.55 | 0.55 | 0.51 | 0.53 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.10 on surface 2, 3, 4, or 5 | 0.54 | 0.56 | 0.50 | 0.56 | 0.46 | 0.54 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.40 on surfaces 3 and 5 | 0.62 | 0.57 | 0.58 | 0.57 | 0.53 | 0.55 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.20 on surfaces 3 and 5 | 0.56 | 0.51 | 0.52 | 0.51 | 0.48 | 0.49 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.10 on surfaces 3 and 5 | 0.47 | 0.54 | 0.43 | 0.54 | 0.40 | 0.52 | ||

Triple glazing, acrylic/polycarbonate | 0.71 | 0.85 | 0.71 | 0.85 | 0.71 | 0.85 | ||

Quadruple glazing, E = 0.10 on surfaces 3 and 5 | 0.41 | 0.48 | 0.37 | 0.48 | 0.33 | 0.46 | ||

Quadruple glazing, acrylic/polycarbonate | 0.65 | 0.81 | 0.65 | 0.81 | 0.65 | 0.81 |

TABLE A8.1B

Assembly SHGCs and

Assembly Visible Transmittances (VTs) for Unlabeled Skylights (*continued*)

Glass Type | Glazing Type: Number of glazing layers Number and emissivity of coatings (Glazing is glass except where noted) | Unlabeled Skylights (Includes glass/plastic, flat/domed, fixed/operable) | ||||||

Frame: | Metal without Thermal Break | Metal with Thermal Break | Wood/Vinyl/ Fiberglass | |||||

Tinted | Single glazing, 1/8 in. glass | 0.70 | 0.58 | 0.66 | 0.58 | 0.62 | 0.56 | |

Single glazing, 1/4 in. glass | 0.61 | 0.45 | 0.56 | 0.45 | 0.52 | 0.44 | ||

Single glazing, acrylic/polycarbonate | 0.46 | 0.27 | 0.46 | 0.27 | 0.46 | 0.27 | ||

Double glazing | 0.50 | 0.40 | 0.46 | 0.40 | 0.42 | 0.39 | ||

Double glazing, E = 0.40 on surface 2 or 3 | 0.59 | 0.50 | 0.55 | 0.50 | 0.50 | 0.48 | ||

Double glazing, E = 0.20 on surface 2 or 3 | 0.47 | 0.37 | 0.43 | 0.37 | 0.39 | 0.36 | ||

Double glazing, E = 0.10 on surface 2 or 3 | 0.43 | 0.38 | 0.39 | 0.38 | 0.35 | 0.37 | ||

Double glazing, acrylic/polycarbonate | 0.37 | 0.25 | 0.37 | 0.25 | 0.37 | 0.25 | ||

Triple glazing | 0.42 | 0.22 | 0.37 | 0.22 | 0.34 | 0.21 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.40 on surface 2, 3, 4, or 5 | 0.53 | 0.45 | 0.49 | 0.45 | 0.45 | 0.44 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.20 on surface 2, 3, 4, or 5 | 0.42 | 0.33 | 0.38 | 0.33 | 0.35 | 0.32 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.10 on surface 2, 3, 4, or 5 | 0.39 | 0.34 | 0.35 | 0.34 | 0.31 | 0.33 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.40 on surfaces 3 and 5 | 0.51 | 0.43 | 0.47 | 0.43 | 0.43 | 0.42 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.20 on surfaces 3 and 5 | 0.40 | 0.31 | 0.36 | 0.31 | 0.32 | 0.29 | ||

Triple glazing, E = 0.10 on surfaces 3 and 5 | 0.34 | 0.32 | 0.30 | 0.32 | 0.27 | 0.31 | ||

Triple glazing, acrylic/polycarbonate | 0.30 | 0.23 | 0.30 | 0.23 | 0.30 | 0.23 | ||

Quadruple glazing, E = 0.10 on surfaces 3 and 5 | 0.30 | 0.29 | 0.26 | 0.29 | 0.23 | 0.28 | ||

Quadruple glazing, acrylic/polycarbonate | 0.27 | 0.25 | 0.27 | 0.25 | 0.27 | 0.25 |

**A8.2 Unlabeled Vertical Fenestration.**

Unlabeled

*vertical fenestration*, both operable and fixed, shall be assigned the

*U-factors, SHGC*s

*,*and VTs in Table A8.2.

TABLE A8.2 Assembly U-Factors, Assembly SHGCs,

and Assembly Visible Transmittances (VTs) for Unlabeled Vertical Fenestration

Frame Type | Glazing Type | Unlabeled Vertical Fenestration | |||||

Clear Glass | Tinted Glass | ||||||

U-Factor | SHGC | VT | U-Factor | SHGC | VT | ||

All frame types | Single glazing | 1.25 | 0.82 | 0.76 | 1.25 | 0.70 | 0.58 |

Glass block | 0.60 | 0.56 | 0.56 | n.a. | n.a. | n.a. | |

Wood, vinyl, or fiberglass frames | Double glazing | 0.60 | 0.59 | 0.64 | 0.60 | 0.42 | 0.39 |

Triple glazing | 0.45 | 0.52 | 0.57 | 0.45 | 0.34 | 0.21 | |

Metal and other frame types | Double glazing | 0.90 | 0.68 | 0.66 | 0.90 | 0.50 | 0.40 |

Triple glazing | 0.70 | 0.60 | 0.59 | 0.70 | 0.42 | 0.22 |

**A9. DETERMINATION OF ALTERNATE ASSEMBLY U-FACTORS, C-FACTORS, F-FACTORS, OR HEAT CAPACITIES**

**A9.1 General.**

Component

*U-factors*for other

*opaque*assemblies shall be determined in accordance with Section A9 only if approved by the

*building official*in accordance with Section A1.2. The procedures required for each

*class of construction*are specified in Section A9.2. Testing shall be performed in accordance with Section A9.3. Calculations shall be performed in accordance with Section A9.4.

**A9.2 Required Procedures.**

Two- or three-dimensional finite difference and finite volume computer models shall be an acceptable alternative method to calculating the thermal performance values for all assemblies and constructions listed below. The following procedures shall also be permitted to determine all alternative

*U-factors*,

*F-factors*, and

*C-factors*.

a. Roofs:

1. *Roofs with insulation entirely above deck*: testing or series calculation method.

2. *Metal building roof*s: testing.

3. *Attic roofs*, wood joists: testing or parallel path calculation method.

4. *Attic roofs*, *steel joists*: testing or parallel path calculation method using the insulation/framing layer adjustment factors in Table A9.2A or modified zone calculation method.

5. *Attic roofs*, concrete joists: testing or parallel path calculation method if concrete is solid and uniform or isothermal planes calculation method if concrete has hollow sections.

6. Other *attic roofs *and other *roofs*: testing or two-dimensional calculation method.

1. *Mass walls*: testing or isothermal planes calculation method or two-dimensional calculation method. The parallel path calculation method is not acceptable.

2. *Metal building walls*: testing.

3. *Steel-framed walls*: testing or parallel path calculation method using the insulation/framing layer adjustment factors in Table A9.2B or the modified zone method.

4. *Wood-framed walls*: testing or parallel path calculation method.

5. Other *walls*: testing or two-dimensional calculation method.

c. *Below-Grade Walls*:

1. *Mass walls*: testing or isothermal planes calculation method or two-dimensional calculation method. The parallel path calculation method is not acceptable.

2. *Other walls*: testing or two-dimensional calculation method

d. Floors:

1. *Mass floors*: testing or parallel path calculation method if concrete is solid and uniform or isothermal planes calculation method if concrete has hollow sections.

2. *Steel joist floors*: testing or modified zone calculation method.

3. *Wood joist floors*: testing or parallel path calculation method or isothermal planes calculation method.

4. Other *floors*: testing or two-dimensional calculation method.

e. Slab-on-Grade Floors:

No testing or calculations allowed. .

TABLE A9.2A Effective Insulation/Framing Layer R-Values for Roof and

Floor Insulation Installed Between Metal Framing (4 ft on Center)

Rated R-Value of Insulation | Correction Factor | Framing/Cavity R-Value | Rated R-Value of Insulation | Correction Factor | Framing/Cavity R-Value |

0.00 | 1.00 | 0.00 | 20.00 | 0.85 | 17.00 |

4.00 | 0.97 | 3.88 | 21.00 | 0.84 | 17.64 |

5.00 | 0.96 | 4.80 | 24.00 | 0.82 | 19.68 |

8.00 | 0.94 | 7.52 | 25.00 | 0.81 | 20.25 |

10.00 | 0.92 | 9.20 | 30.00 | 0.79 | 23.70 |

11.00 | 0.91 | 10.01 | 35.00 | 0.76 | 26.60 |

12.00 | 0.90 | 10.80 | 38.00 | 0.74 | 28.12 |

13.00 | 0.90 | 11.70 | 40.00 | 0.73 | 29.20 |

15.00 | 0.88 | 13.20 | 45.00 | 0.71 | 31.95 |

16.00 | 0.87 | 13.92 | 50.00 | 0.69 | 34.50 |

19.00 | 0.86 | 16.34 | 55.00 | 0.67 | 36.85 |

TABLE A9.2B Effective Insulation/Framing Layer R-Values

for Wall Insulation Installed Between Steel Framing

Nominal Depth of Cavity, in. | Actual Depth of Cavity, in. | Rated R-Value of Airspace or Insulation | Effective Framing/Cavity R-Value at 16 in. on Center | Effective Framing/Cavity R-Value at 24 in. on Center |

Empty Cavity, No Insulation | ||||

4 | 3.5 | R-0.91 | 0.79 | 0.91 |

Insulated Cavity | ||||

4 | 3.5 | R-11 | 5.5 | 6.6 |

4 | 3.5 | R-13 | 6.0 | 7.2 |

4 | 3.5 | R-15 | 6.4 | 7.8 |

6 | 6.0 | R-19 | 7.1 | 8.6 |

6 | 6.0 | R-21 | 7.4 | 9.0 |

8 | 8.0 | R-25 | 7.8 | 9.6 |

**A9.3 Testing Procedures**

**A9.3.1 Building Material Thermal Properties.**

If

*building material*R-values or thermal conductivities are determined by testing, one of the following test procedures shall be used:

a. ASTM C177

b. ASTM C518

c. ASTM C1363

**A9.3.2 Assembly U-Factors.**

If assembly

*U-factors*are determined by testing, ASTM C1363 test procedures shall be used.

**A9.4 Calculation Procedures and Assumptions.**

The following procedures and assumptions shall be used for all calculations. R-values for air films, insulation, and

*building materials*shall be taken from Sections A9.4.1 through A9.4.3, respectively. In addition, the appropriate assumptions listed in Sections A2 through A8, including framing factors, shall be used.

TABLE A9.4A Values for Cavity Air Spaces

Component | Airspace Thickness, in. | R-Value Effective Emissivity | ||||

0.03 | 0.05 | 0.20 | 0.50 | 0.82 | ||

Roof | 0.50 | 2.13 | 2.04 | 1.54 | 1.04 | 0.77 |

0.75 | 2.33 | 2.22 | 1.64 | 1.09 | 0.80 | |

1.50 | 2.53 | 2.41 | 1.75 | 1.13 | 0.82 | |

3.50 | 2.83 | 2.66 | 1.88 | 1.19 | 0.85 | |

Wall | 0.50 | 2.54 | 2.43 | 1.75 | 1.13 | 0.82 |

0.75 | 3.58 | 3.32 | 2.18 | 1.30 | 0.90 | |

1.50 | 3.92 | 3.62 | 2.30 | 1.34 | 0.93 | |

3.50 | 3.67 | 3.40 | 2.21 | 1.31 | 0.91 | |

Floor | 0.50 | 2.55 | 1.28 | 1.00 | 0.69 | 0.53 |

0.75 | 1.44 | 1.38 | 1.06 | 0.73 | 0.54 | |

1.50 | 2.49 | 2.38 | 1.76 | 1.15 | 0.85 | |

3.50 | 3.08 | 2.90 | 2.01 | 1.26 | 0.90 |

TABLE A9.4B Emittance Values of Various Surfaces and Effective Emittances of Air Spaces

Surface | Average Emittance e | Effective Emittance | |

e eff of Air Space | |||

One Surface e; Other, 0.9 | Both Surfaces Emittance e | ||

Aluminum foil, bright | 0.05 | 0.05 | 0.03 |

Aluminum foil, with condensate just visible (>0.7 gr/ft ^{2}) | 0.30 | 0.29 | — |

Aluminum foil, with condensate clearly visible (>2.9 gr/ft ^{2}) | 0.70 | 0.65 | — |

Aluminum sheet | 0.12 | 0.12 | 0.06 |

Aluminum coated paper, polished | 0.20 | 0.20 | 0.11 |

Steel, galv., bright | 0.25 | 0.24 | 0.15 |

Aluminum paint | 0.50 | 0.47 | 0.35 |

Building materials: wood, paper, masonry, nonmetallic paints | 0.90 | 0.82 | 0.82 |

Regular glass | 0.84 | 0.77 | 0.72 |

TABLE A9.4C Effective R-Values for Fiberglass

Insulation R-Value at Standard Thickness | |||||||||

Rated R-Value | 38 | 30 | 22 | 21 | 19 | 15 | 13 | 11 | |

Standard Thickness, in. | 12 | 9.5 | 6.5 | 5.5 | 6 | 3.5 | 3.5 | 3.5 | |

Nominal Lumber Size,in. | Actual Depth of Cavity, in. | Effective Insulation R-Values when Installed in a Confined Cavity | |||||||

2 × 12 | 11.25 | 37 | — | — | — | — | — | — | — |

2 × 10 | 9.25 | 32 | 30 | — | — | — | — | — | — |

2 × 8 | 7.25 | 27 | 26 | 22 | 21 | 19 | — | — | — |

2 × 6 | 5.5 | — | 21 | 20 | 21 | 18 | — | — | — |

2 × 4 | 3.5 | — | — | 14 | — | 13 | 15 | 13 | 11 |

2.5 | — | — | — | — | — | — | 9.8 | — | |

1.5 | — | — | — | — | — | — | 6.3 | 6 |

TABLE A9.4D R-Values for Building Materials

Material | Nominal Size, in. | Actual Size, in. | R-Value |

Carpet and rubber pad | — | – | 1.23 |

Concrete at R-0.0625/in. | — | 2 | 0.13 |

— | 4 | 0.25 | |

— | 6 | 0.38 | |

— | 8 | 0.5 | |

— | 10 | 0.63 | |

— | 12 | 0.75 | |

Flooring, wood subfloor | — | 0.75 | 0.94 |

Gypsum board | — | 0.5 | 0.45 |

— | 0.625 | 0.56 | |

Metal deck | — | — | 0 |

Roofing, built-up | — | 0.375 | 0.33 |

Sheathing, vegetable fiber board, 0.78 in. | — | 0.78 | 2.06 |

Soil at R-0.104/in. | — | 12 | 1.25 |

Steel, mild | 1 | 0.0031807 | |

Stucco | — | 0.75 | 0.08 |

Wood, 2 × 4 at R-1.25/in. | 4 | 3.5 | 4.38 |

Wood, 2 × 4 at R-1.25/in. | 6 | 5.5 | 6.88 |

Wood, 2 × 4 at R-1.25/in. | 8 | 7.25 | 9.06 |

Wood, 2 × 4 at R-1.25/in. | 10 | 9.25 | 11.56 |

Wood, 2 × 4 at R-1.25/in. | 12 | 11.25 | 14.06 |

Wood, 2 × 4 at R-1.25/in. | 14 | 13.25 | 16.56 |

TABLE A9.4E Thermal Conductivity

of Concrete Block Material

Concrete Block Density, lb/ft ^{3} | Thermal Conductivity, Btu•in./h•ft ^{2}•°F |

80 | 3.7 |

85 | 4.2 |

90 | 4.7 |

95 | 5.1 |

100 | 5.5 |

105 | 6.1 |

110 | 6.7 |

115 | 7.2 |

120 | 7.8 |

125 | 8.9 |

130 | 10.0 |

135 | 11.8 |

140 | 13.5 |

**A9.4.1 Air Films.**

Prescribed R-values for air films shall be as follows:

R-Value | Condition |

0.17 | All exterior surfaces |

0.46 | All semi-exterior surfaces |

0.61 | Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow up |

0.92 | Interior horizontal surfaces, heat flow down |

0.68 | Interior vertical surfaces |

**A9.4.1.1**

Exterior surfaces are areas exposed to the wind.

**A9.4.1.2**

Semi-exterior surfaces are protected surfaces that face attics, crawlspaces, and parking garages with natural or mechanical

*ventilation*.

**A9.4.1.3**

Interior surfaces are surfaces within

*enclosed spaces*.

**A9.4.1.4**

The R-value for cavity airspaces shall be taken from Table A9.4A based on the emissivity of the cavity from Table A9.4B. No credit shall be given for airspaces in cavities that contain any insulation or are less than 0.5 in. The values for 3.5 in. cavities shall be used for cavities of that width and greater.

**A9.4.2 Insulation R-Values.**

Insulation R-values shall be determined as follows:

a. For insulation that is not compressed, the *rated R-value of insulation *shall be used.

b. For calculation purposes, the effective R-value for insulation that is uniformly compressed in confined cavities shall be taken from Table A9.4C.

c. For calculation purposes, the effective R-value for insulation installed in cavities in attic *roofs *with *steel joists *shall be taken from Table A9.2A.

d. For calculation purposes, the effective R-value for insulation installed in cavities in *steel-framed walls *shall be taken from Table A9.2B.

**A9.4.3 Building Material Thermal Properties.**

R-values for

*building materials*shall be taken from Table A9.4D. Concrete block R-values shall be calculated using the isothermal planes method or a two-dimensional calculation program, thermal conductivities from Table A9.4E, and dimensions from ASTM C90. The parallel path calculation method is not acceptable.

**Exception:**R-values for

*building materials*or thermal conductivities determined from testing in accordance with Section A9.3.

**A9.4.4 Building Material Heat Capacities.**

The

*HC*of assemblies shall be calculated using published values for the unit weight and specific heat of all

*building material*components that make up the assembly.