CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2012 (IBC 2012)

Copyright

Important Disclaimer

Preface

Effective Use of the International Building Code

2015 Minnesota Building Code Administration

2015 Minnesota Provisions to the Minnesota State Building Code (Including Radon)

Minnesota Rules, Chapter 1305

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Icc 300 Bleachers, Folding and Telescopic Seating, and Grandstands

Chapter 1 Application and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Construction

Chapter 4 Egress

Chapter 5 Existing Bleachers, Folding and Telescopic Seating, and Grandstands

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Elevators and Related Devices (Minnesota Rule Chapter 1307)

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems (Minnesota Rule 1307.0095)

Minnesota Amendments to Asme A18.1—2011 (Minnesota Rule 1307.0110)

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Existing Structures

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation and operation of fire protection systems.
Fire protection systems shall be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance with this code and the International Fire Code.

Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduction to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.

Exception: Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of this code.

No person shall remove or modify any fire protection system installed or maintained under the provisions of this code or the International Fire Code without approval by the building official.
Threads provided for fire department connections to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or any other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connections used by the local fire department.
Fire protection systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this code and the International Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the building official. Tests required by this code, the International Fire Code and the standards listed in this code shall be conducted at the expense of the owner or the owner's representative. It shall be unlawful to occupy portions of a structure until the required fire protection systems within that portion of the structure have been tested and approved.
Where required, fire protection systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station.
Exceptions:

1. A supervising station is not required for automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.

Deleted.
Supervision and monitoring of emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems in Group H occupancies shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707.or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10.
Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working room around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
[F] ALARM SIGNAL.
[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.
[F] ANNUNCIATOR.
[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
[F] AUTOMATIC.
[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.
[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.
[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.
[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS.
[F] CEILING LIMIT.
[F] CLEAN AGENT.
[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.
[F] DELUGE SYSTEM.
[F] DETECTOR, HEAT.
[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.
[F] ELEVATOR GROUP.
[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.
[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.
[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.
[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.
[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.
[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.
FIRE AREA.
[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER.
[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.
[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.
[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.
[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
[F] INITIATING DEVICE.
[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.
[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.
[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.
[F] NOTIFICATION ZONE.
[F] NUISANCE ALARM.
[F] RECORD DRAWINGS.
[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.
[F] SMOKE ALARM.
[F] SMOKE DETECTOR.
[F] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE.
[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.
Class I system.
Class II system.
Class III system.
[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.
Automatic dry.
Automatic wet.
Manual dry.
Manual wet.
Semiautomatic dry.
[F] SUPERVISING STATION.
[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE.
[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.
[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.
[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.
[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL.
[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.
[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.
[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.
[F] ZONE.
[F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904.shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1.through 903.2.12.
Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707.or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor area where the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and in all floors from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the nearest level of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more;

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies; or

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464.5 m2);

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more; or

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; or

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; or

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time:

1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.

2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.

In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:

1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has at least one exterior exit door at ground level.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area which generate finely divided combustible waste or use finely divided combustible materials.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1.through 903.2.5.3.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that required by this code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2. Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

[F] TABLE 903.2.5.2
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

LOCATIONOCCUPANCY HAZARD
CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areasOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensingOrdinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensingExtra Hazard Group 2
CorridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.
Exceptions:

1. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.shall be permitted in Group I-1 facilities.

2. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.shall be allowed in Group I-1 facilities when in compliance with all of the following:

2.1. A hydraulic design information sign is located on the system riser;

2.2. Exception 1 of Section 903.4.is not applied; and

2.3. Systems shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of Section 903.3.1.2.

3. An automatic sprinkler system is not required where day care facilities are at the level of exit discharge and where every room where care is provided has at least one exterior exit door.

4. In buildings where Group I-4 day care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.shall be installed on the entire floor where care is provided and all floors between the level of care and the level of exit discharge, all floors below the level of exit discharge, other than areas classified as an open parking garage.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area. For the purposes of this provision, fire walls, party walls, or attached multiple fire resistive exterior walls shall only create separate buildings where providing separation from occupancies other than Group R.
Exceptions:

1. A Group R-1 or R-2 fire area or combined fire areas less than 4,500 square feet of building area.

2. Group R-3 and R-4 dwelling units with less than 4,500 square feet of building area, excluding garages.

3. An automatic fire sprinkler system shall not be required if additions or alterations are made to existing Group R-3 or R-4 buildings or a portion thereof that do not have an automatic sprinkler system installed, unless required by a Minnesota license.

4. Group R-1 multiunit resort buildings, as defined in Minnesota Statute 157.15 and licensed by the Minnesota Department of Health, with less than 9,250 square feet of building area.

An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.shall be permitted in Group R-3 or R-4 congregate residences with 16 or fewer residents.
Group R-3 or R-4 occupancies containing facilities licensed by the state of Minnesota shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system as required by applicable licensing provisions or this section, whichever is more restrictive.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R-3 or R-4 fire area containing a residential hospice facility.
Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.or 903.3.1.3.shall be allowed, provided that all habitable spaces and closets are sprinklered.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

5. A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406, as shown:

1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).

2. Buildings no more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.4.as follows:

1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); or

2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1.through 903.2.11.6.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided at least one of the following types of exterior wall openings:

1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009.or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.

Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall be provided on at least two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors, beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor above the discharge. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
Exceptions:

1. Airport control towers.

2. Open parking structures.

3. Occupancies in Group F-2.

Where required by the International Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts having a cross-sectional area of 75 square inches (480 cm2) or more and that convey flammable or combustible components or that have the potential for combustible residue buildup on the inside. When sprinkler protection is installed, and where the application of water constitutes a serious life or fire hazard, a means shall be provided to prevent water accumulation in the duct or the flow of water back to equipment, appliances, machinery, or any apparatus.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.
In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6.also require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

[F] TABLE 903.2.11.6
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTIONSUBJECT
402.10Covered and open mall buildings
403.3High-rise buildings
404.3Atriums
405.3Underground structures
407.6Group I-2
410.7Stages
411.4Special amusement buildings
412.4.6,412.4.6.1,
412.6.5
Aircraft hangars
415.10.11Group H-5 HPM exhaust ducts
416.5Flammable finishes
417.4Drying rooms
507Unlimited area buildings
509.4Incidental uses
1028.6.2.3Smoke-protected assembly seating
IFCSprinkler system requirements as set forth in
Section903.2.11.6.f the International Fire
Code
Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 33.f the International Fire Code.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.through 903.3.6.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2.and 903.3.1.3.and other chapters of this code, as applicable. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in state-licensed or state-registered facilities shall be installed in accordance with this code and by the appropriate licensing or registration provisions of other Minnesota state agencies.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1.
Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from any room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

1. Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, when approved by the fire code official.

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.

5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.

6. Machine rooms and machinery spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008.

7. Sprinkler protection shall not be installed in elevator shafts, elevator pits, or elevator machine rooms.

Exception: Health care occupancies that are licensed by the Minnesota Department of Health or that participate in Title XVIII (Medicare) or Title XIX (Medicaid) of the Social Security Act.

Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.
Decks and balconies greater than 6 feet (1.8 m) above grade, greater than 4 feet (1.2 m) deep, and with an area greater than 40 square feet (3.72 m2) attached to new Group R-1 and R-2 occupancy buildings protected in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.that are three or more stories in height and with 30 or more units shall be protected with sprinklers under the balcony or deck framing and under attic eaves when both of the following two conditions exist:

1. The building has an unsprinklered attic; and

2. The building has combustible siding.

Automatic sprinkler systems installed in Group R-3 and R-4 occupancies shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.
When fire sprinkler systems are required in buildings of undetermined use, they shall be designed and installed to have a sprinkler density of not less than that required for an Ordinary Hazard Group 2 use with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Use is considered undetermined if not specified at the time a permit is issued. Where a subsequent occupancy requires a system with greater capability, it shall be the responsibility of the owner to upgrade the system to the required density for the new hazard, use, or occupancy.
When fire sprinkler systems are required in areas containing the following uses, they shall be designed and installed to have a sprinkler density of not less than that required for an Ordinary Hazard Group 2 use:

1. Chemistry labs; or

2. Wrestling rooms or gymnastic rooms.

The sprinkler installation standards as referenced in Sections 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2, and 903.3.1.3.are modified as follows:
When, in the opinion of the fire chief, an adequate alternate water supply for hose stream requirements is provided or available, the water supply requirements for the sprinkler system hose stream demands may be modified.
(Repealed).
Sprinkler protection need not be provided on the ceiling of rooms containing swimming pools when the pool area is used exclusively for swimming purposes and when sprinklers are provided around the perimeter of the pool area.
8.15.8.2 Linen closets and pantries.
Sprinklers are not required in linen closets and pantries within dwelling units that meet the following conditions:

1. The area of the space does not exceed 12 square feet (1.1 m2);

2. the least dimension does not exceed 3 feet (0.9 m);

3. the walls and materials are surfaced with noncombustible or limited combustible materials; and

4. the closet or pantry contains no mechanical equipment, electrical equipment, or electrical appliances.

8.17.2.5 Valves.
8.17.2.5.1 Fire department connection.
A listed check valve shall be installed in each fire department connection.
8.17.2.5.1.1 Maximum pipe length.
There shall be a maximum of 25 feet (7.6 m) of pipe between the check valve and the fire department connection inlet.

Exception: This maximum shall not apply to the check valve serving a free-standing fire department connection.

8.17.2.5.1.2 Check valve location.
The check valve shall be located to minimize freezing potential.
Sprinkler protection is not required in vestibules that meet all of the following conditions:

1. The vestibule is 225 square feet or less in floor area;

2. The vestibule is of noncombustible or limited combustible construction;

3. The vestibule has glazing allowing vision into vestibule;

4. The vestibule’s only purpose is ingress and egress; and

5. The vestibule contains no fueled equipment, flammable or combustible liquids, or furniture. Incidental combustible storage in the vestibule is limited to 5 ft3 of material.

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.and their listings:

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with this code.

2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.

4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.

Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.
Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.
Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to be connected to the domestic service where a wet automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area sprinkler systems connected to domestic water supplies shall comply with each of the following requirements:

1. Valves shall not be installed between the domestic water riser control valve and the sprinklers.

Exception: An approved indicating control valve supervised in the open position in accordance with Section 903.4.

2. The domestic service shall be capable of supplying the simultaneous domestic demand and the sprinkler demand required to be hydraulically calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13D or NFPA 13R.

A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.
An automatic secondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by the International Building Code. An additional fire pump shall not be required for the secondary water supply unless needed to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occupancy hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 13.
Exception: Existing buildings.
Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.
For new sprinkler systems or additions to existing sprinkler systems, the available water supply shall exceed the sprinkler system demand, including hose stream requirements, by 5 psi (0.34 bars) or more.
All valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.
Exceptions:

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

8. For existing sprinkler systems, monitoring is required when the number of sprinklers is 100 or more.

Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.
Exceptions:

1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.

An approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.
All valves controlling water supplies for automatic sprinklers shall be locked or secured in the open position.
Exception: Valves located in a room or space when access is limited to essential personnel only.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903.shall be approved by the fire code official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609.f the International Fire Code or Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.
Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.
Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.
Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, the following items shall be inspected:

1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.

4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.

5. Identification of devices with proper designations.

6. Operating instructions.

Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907.to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing.
The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.

3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1.of the International Mechanical Code.

A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) or less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.
Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.
The actuation of the fire suppression system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
When carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect against all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.
Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14.
In buildings other than high rise that are protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1.and 903.3.1.2, a Class I or III standpipe system need only meet the pressure requirements for the sprinkler system when such systems comply with Sections 905.2.1.1.through 905.2.1.5:
A municipal water supply capable of supplying the required standpipe flow rate with a residual pressure not less than 20 psi (1.4 bars) through a fire hydrant shall be provided. A fire hydrant shall be located within 300 feet (91 m) of the building’s fire department connection.
The standpipe system shall be able to provide the pressure and flow rate required by NFPA 14 when the standpipe system is supported by local fire department apparatus through the fire department connection as verified with hydraulic calculations. The hydraulic calculations are to be performed between the hydraulically most demanding standpipe hose connection and the fire department connection. Pipe sizes shall not be less than the minimum requirements in NFPA 14.
A maximum design pressure of 150 psi (10.3 bars) is permitted at the fire department connection when the standpipe is supported by local fire department apparatus.
At least one 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connection shall be provided on the exterior of the building at the fire department connection for each 250 gpm (980 L/min) of required standpipe flow.
The automatic sprinkler system demand, including the inside hose stream demand from NFPA 13, is to be provided by the municipal water supply system without requiring fire department pumping into the system.
Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1.through 905.3.8. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.
Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.
Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.
Exceptions:

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.or 903.3.1.2.

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.

5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider:

5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less; and

5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.

Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.
Exceptions:

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.

2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.

Class III automatic standpipes shall be provided in Group A-3 occupancies where the floor area used for exhibition exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1.shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed to not exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways opening directly on the mall.

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building.

4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.

5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.

Deleted.
Deleted.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5.f the International Fire Code.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36.f the International Fire Code.
Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.
Regardless of the height of the building or number of stories, every building in a Group I-3 detention and correctional facility, where 50 or more persons are under restraint or security under Occupancy Condition 3, 4, or 5, shall be provided with a Class III automatic wet or semiautomatic dry standpipe system.
Exception: Combined systems meeting the provisions of Section 905.2.may be used.
When acceptable to the fire chief, fire department connections may be located inside all security walls or fences on the property. Standpipes shall be located in accordance with Section 905. In addition, standpipes shall be located so that it will not be necessary to extend hose lines through smoke barriers. When located in cell complexes, standpipes may be located in secured pipe chases.
Small hose connections shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies three or more stories in height where any portion of the building’s interior area is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) of travel, vertically or horizontally, from the nearest point of fire department vehicle access. Small hose connections required by this section shall comply with the following:

1. Supply one 11/2-inch (38 mm) fire hose valve at each floor level or intermediate stair landing in each required and enclosed stairway.

2. The water for the small hose connections shall be supplied separately from the sprinkler system protecting that area so that the small hose connections are still functional if the water supply to the sprinkler system is shut down following fire extinguishment.

3. The piping shall be a minimum of 11/2 inch (38 mm).

4. The water shall be supplied from a wet-pipe sprinkler system only.

5. The piping shall be comprised of metallic piping and hose valve connections.

Permanent signage shall be required which reads “Fire Department Overhaul Hose Connection” at each connection in the building. If a separate standpipe system is provided, a sign shall also be provided at the exterior FD connection.
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.

5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with stair access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1009.16.

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.

Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.
Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.
In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.
Deleted.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be permitted to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4.and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment such as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or fire department valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.
Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.
Exceptions:

1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.

Cabinets shall be unlocked.
Exceptions:

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.

2. Approved locking arrangements.

3. Group I-3.

Dry standpipes shall not be installed.
Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.
Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted to the control unit.
Exceptions:

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.

Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3311.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in occupancies and locations as required by the Minnesota State Fire Code.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected and installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.
Exceptions:

1. The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.

2. In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.

The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1.through 906.3.4.

[F]TABLE 906.3(1)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

LIGHT
(Low)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
ORDINARY
(Moderate)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
EXTRA
(High)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
Minimum Rated Single Extinguisher2-Ac2-A4-Aa
Maximum Floor Area
Per Unit of A
3,000
square feet
1,500
square feet
1,000
square feet
Maximum Floor Area
for Extinguisherb
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
Maximum Travel
Distance to Extinguisher
75 feet75 feet75 feet
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Two 21/ 2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

[F] TABLE 906.3(2)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE
LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS
LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25 INCH

TYPE OF HAZARDBASIC MINIMUM
EXTINGUISHER RATING
MAXIMUM TRAVEL
DISTANCE TO
EXTINGUISHERS (feet)
Light (Low)5-B30
10-B50
Ordinary (Moderate)10-B30
20-B50
Extra (High)40-B30
80-B50
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Note: For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.
The minimum sizes and distribution of portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards shall comply with Table 906.3(1).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.11.5.f the International Fire Code.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.
Exceptions:

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.

2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.

The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1.through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International Fire Code, and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.
Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following:

1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.

2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices.

3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.

4. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.

5. Annunciators.

6. Power connection.

7. Battery calculations.

8. Conductor type and sizes.

9. Voltage drop calculations.

10. Manufacturers’ data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.

11. Details of ceiling height and construction.

12. The interface of fire safety control functions.

13. Classification of the supervising station.

Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.
An approved manual, automatic, or manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be provided in new buildings and occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.1.through 907.2.24.and NFPA 72. For the purposes of Sections 907.2.1.through 907.2.24, fire barrier walls or fire walls shall not define separate buildings. In buildings containing mixed occupancies that are designed as separated uses in accordance with Section 508.4, fire alarm and detection systems need only be installed in those occupancies where required by this section.
Exception: In areas protected by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.or 903.3.1.2, automatic fire detectors required by Section 907.2.need not be provided. Where Section 907.2.requires smoke detectors, such protection shall be installed.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.1.through 907.2.1.3.in Group A occupancies having an occupant load of 300 or more.
Exceptions:

1. Assembly areas used solely for worship purposes.

2. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings with an occupant load of less than 1,000 when an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed throughout the building.

3. Assembly uses within Group E occupancies shall have alarms as required for the Group E occupancy.

4. Group A-5 occupancies. See also Section 907.2.11.

Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, kitchens, trash collection rooms, storage rooms, and similar areas.
The required fire alarm system shall activate an audible and visible notification appliance at a constantly attended location within the building for the purposes of initiating emergency action. A presignal feature and positive alarm sequencing in accordance with NFPA 72 are permitted.
Occupant notification shall be by means of voice announcements, either live or prerecorded, initiated by the person in the constantly attended location.
Exception: Where no constantly attended location exists, an automatic fire alarm system providing a general evacuation signal or an approved emergency voice/alarm communications system is permitted.
Activation of the fire alarm system in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall immediately initiate an approved prerecorded message announcement using an approved emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved constantly attended location.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.2.through 907.2.2.3.in Group B occupancies where:

1. The building has an occupant load of 500 or more persons;

2. The building has an occupant load of more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge; or

3. The building contains an ambulatory care facility.

When automatic sprinkler systems or automatic fire detectors are installed in ambulatory care facilities, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.
Exception: In other than ambulatory care facilities, a fire alarm system is not required when an approved automatic fire extinguishing system is installed throughout the building.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, shops, kitchens, mechanical and electrical rooms, trash collection rooms, storage rooms and similar areas. In ambulatory care facilities, initiation of the fire alarm system shall also be by manual means.
Activation of the fire alarm system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
Exception: In lieu of audible notification appliances, visible notification appliances shall be permitted to be used in patient care areas.
Corridors and rooms or spaces open to corridors within an ambulatory care facility shall be protected by an automatic smoke detection system.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.3.through 907.2.3.3.in Group E occupancies having an occupant load of 50 or more.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in laundry rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, janitors’ closets, trash collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges, and similar areas.
Exceptions:

1. In buildings protected throughout by an approved fire sprinkler system, manual fire alarm boxes are only required in the main office and in a custodial area.

2. Where all corridors are protected by an approved automatic fire alarm system having smoke detection with alarm verification, manual fire alarm boxes are only required near exits serving shops, chemistry and physics laboratories, boiler rooms, industrial technology and industrial arts rooms, kitchens, custodian’s offices, and main offices.

Where the only means of egress travel from an interior room or rooms having an aggregate occupant load of more than 10 occupants is through an adjoining or intervening room, automatic smoke detectors shall be installed throughout the common atmosphere through which the path of egress travel passes.
Exception: In buildings that are protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke detectors are not required in intervening or adjoining rooms.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.4.through 907.2.4.2.in Group F occupancies that are two or more stories in height and have an occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
Exception: A fire alarm system is not required when an approved automatic fire extinguishing system is installed throughout the building.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, trash collection rooms, kitchens, mechanical and electrical rooms, and similar areas.
Activation of the fire alarm system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.5.through 907.2.5.2.in Group H-5 occupancies, occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings, and, when required by Chapters 60, 62. and 63.of the IFC at the following locations:

1. Rooms or areas where highly toxic compressed gases are stored or used;

2. Rooms or areas where Class I, II or III organic peroxides are stored; and

3. Liquid and solid oxidizer storage areas.

Initiation of the fire alarm system in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings shall be by manual means. Initiation of fire alarm systems installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers shall be by automatic means, as specified in Chapters 60, 62, and 63 of the 2012 IFC.
Activation of the fire alarm system in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings shall initiate a general evacuation signal. Activation of the automatic detection systems installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides, and oxidizers shall sound a local alarm.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.through 907.2.6.4.2.in Group I occupancies.
A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-1 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1.through 907.2.6.1.3.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry and soiled linen rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, janitors’ closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges, gift shops, and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in corridors and areas that are open to corridors.
Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in patient sleeping areas of Group I-1 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses’ stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such fire alarm boxes are visible and continuously accessible and provided that travel distances required by Section 907.4.2.are not exceeded.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal. In addition, activation of the fire alarm system shall immediately transmit an alarm to an approved central station or remote station service.
Exceptions:

1. In lieu of audible notification appliances, visible notification appliances shall be allowed to be used in critical care areas.

2. Where occupants are incapable of evacuating themselves because of age, physical/mental disabilities, or physical restraint, only the attendants or other personnel required to evacuate occupants from a zone, area, floor, or building shall be required to be notified. This notification shall include means to readily identify the zone, area, floor, or building in need of evacuation.

Smoke alarms shall be installed in resident sleeping rooms in accordance with Section 907.2.11.1.
A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-2 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.2.through 907.2.6.2.4.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry and soiled linen rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, janitors’ closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges, gift shops, and similar areas. Hospitals, nursing homes (both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), board and care homes, and detoxification facilities shall be provided with smoke detection throughout the corridor and areas open to the corridors, other than nurses’ stations.
Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection shall not be required where the sleeping room smoke detectors required in Section 907.2.6.3.are connected to an approved fire alarm system and activate a general evacuation signal.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required at exits from patient sleeping areas if located at all nurses’ stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such fire alarm boxes are visible and continuously accessible and provided that travel distances horizontally on the same floor shall not exceed 200 feet to reach a manual fire alarm box.

Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a signal that is distinctive from audible signals used for other purposes in the same building. Such signal is intended to notify staff and need not meet the minimum sound pressure levels required for general evacuation fire alarm notification. In addition, activation of the fire alarm system shall immediately transmit an alarm to an approved central station or remote station service.
Exceptions:

1. In lieu of audible notification appliances, visible notification appliances shall be allowed to be used in critical care areas.

2. Where occupants are incapable of evacuating themselves because of age, physical/mental disabilities, or physical restraint, only the attendants or other personnel required to evacuate occupants from a zone, area, floor, or building shall be required to be notified. This notification shall include means to readily identify the zone, area, floor, or building in need of evacuation.

3. Where total evacuation of occupants is impractical due to building configuration, only the occupants in the affected zones shall be initially notified. Provisions shall be made to selectively notify occupants in other zones to afford orderly evacuation of the entire building.

Smoke detectors shall be installed in patient sleeping rooms of hospitals and nursing homes. Such detectors’ primary power shall be other than battery power. Actuation of such detectors shall cause a visual display on the corridor side of the room where the detector is located and shall cause a distinct audible and visual alarm at the nurses’ station attending the room. Such detectors may be part of the facility’s fire alarm system, nurses’ call system, or a standalone system.
Integral smoke detectors for automatic door-closing devices on sleeping room doors can be installed only if they also meet all of the requirements in Section 907.2.6.2.3.
For Group I-2 facilities other than hospitals and nursing homes, single station smoke alarms shall be installed in resident sleeping rooms.
A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-3 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.3.through 907.2.6.3.4.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry and soiled linen rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, janitors’ closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges, gift shops, commissaries, and similar areas. Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarm box, or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal, which automatically notifies staff. Presignal systems shall not be used.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted. Manual fire alarm boxes are permitted to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.
An approved automatic smoke-detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping areas and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces, and other common spaces normally accessible to residents.
Exceptions:

1. Other approved smoke-detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, such as placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective grills, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.

2. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping rooms with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a signal that is distinctive from audible signals used for other purposes in the same building. Such signal is intended to notify staff and need not meet the minimum sound pressure levels required for general evacuation fire alarm notification. In addition, activation of the fire alarm system shall immediately transmit an alarm to an approved central station or remote station service.
A manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in Group I-4 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.4.1.through 907.2.6.4.2.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be installed in laundry and soiled linen rooms, boiler and furnace rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, shops, laboratories, kitchens, locker rooms, janitors’ closets, trash-collection rooms, storage rooms, lounges, gift shops, and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in corridors and areas that are open to corridors.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal. In addition, activation of the fire alarm system shall immediately transmit an alarm signal to an approved central station or remote station service.
Deleted.
Deleted.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.8.through 907.2.8.3.in Group R-1 occupancies.
Exceptions:

1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not over two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least one-hour fire partitions and each sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.

2. Buildings containing five or fewer sleeping units shall be allowed to be equipped with approved multiple-station smoke detectors installed as required for Group R-3 occupancies. Installation shall be in accordance with Section 907.2.1 1.

Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, shops, laundry rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, trash collection rooms, storage rooms, gift shops, locker rooms and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in all common areas and interior corridors serving as required means of egress.
Exception: System fire and smoke detectors are not required when an approved automatic fire extinguishing system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.or 903.3.1.2.and a manual fire alarm box is provided at a constantly attended location. When a constantly attended location is not provided, the manual fire alarm box shall be provided at the main exit.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
Sleeping unit smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.shall not be connected to a fire alarm system.
Exception: Connection of such alarms for annunciation only.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.9.through 907.2.9.2.in Group R-2 occupancies where:

1. Any sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located three or more stories above the story containing the lowest level of exit discharge;

2. Any sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit;

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units; or

4. The building is used as a congregate living facility; dormitory, convent, monastery, fraternity, sorority, group home, or shelter and has an occupant load of 20 or more.

Exception: A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not over two stories in height where all dwelling units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least one-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, trash-collection rooms, shops, laundry rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, storage rooms, and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in all common areas and interior corridors serving as required means of egress.
Exception: System fire and smoke detectors are not required when an approved automatic fire extinguishing system is installed throughout the building.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
Dwelling unit smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.shall not be connected to the building fire alarm system.
Exception: Connection of such alarms for annunciation only.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.10.through 907.2.10.3.in Group R-4 occupancies.
Exceptions:

1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings two stories or less in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least one-hour fire partitions and each sleeping unit room has an exit directly to a public way, exit court, or yard.

2. Buildings containing five or fewer sleeping units shall be allowed to be equipped with approved multiple-station smoke alarms installed as required for Group R-3 occupancies. Installation shall be in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, shops, laundry rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, trash collection rooms, storage rooms, gift shops, locker rooms, and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in all common areas and interior corridors serving as required means of egress.
Exception: System fire and smoke detectors are not required when an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2, or 903.3.1.3.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal.
Single- and multistation smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1.through 907.2.11.4.and NFPA 72.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:

1. In sleeping areas.

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.

Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms in Group I-1 shall not be required where smoke detectors are provided in the sleeping rooms as part of an automatic smoke detection system.

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R or I-1 occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.
In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.
Exceptions:

1. Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup in Group R-1 occupancies where they are connected to an emergency electrical system.

2. Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup in Group R-2 occupancies equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.or 903.3.1.2.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special amusement buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1.through 907.2.12.3.
Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately activate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.
The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically:

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface level;

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions;

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency; and

4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.

An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
High-rise buildings shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2.and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Exceptions:

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sections 907.2.22.and 412.

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1.

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415.

6. In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.

Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1.and 907.2.13.1.2.
Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall activate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1.through 907.2.10, smoke detectors shall be located as follows:

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room which is not provided with sprinkler protection.

2. In each elevator machine room and in elevator lobbies.

Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1.shall be located as follows:

1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system.In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.

Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510.f the International Fire Code, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 911, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the enclosed exit stairway.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection installed throughout the atrium. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 3206.5 of the International Fire Code.
Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by the International Fire Code.
Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system.
Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with this code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1.
A minimum of one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in the following areas:

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.

2. Elevator lobbies.

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.

Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location.
Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Where the total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
A minimum of one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in Chapter 2.and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm which will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5.shall be provided in airport control towers in all occupiable and equipment spaces.
Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.24.in residential hospices. When automatic sprinkler systems or automatic fire detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall be by manual and automatic means. Approved automatic fire detectors shall be provided in boiler and furnace rooms, kitchens, laboratories, shops, gift shops, commissaries, laundry and soiled linen rooms, mechanical and electrical rooms, locker rooms, storage rooms, janitors’ closets, trash collection rooms, lounges, and similar areas. Automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in sleeping rooms, corridors, and spaces open to the corridors.
Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required at exits if manual fire alarm boxes are located at all nurses’ stations or other continuously attended staff locations, provided such fire alarm boxes are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required by Section 907.4.1.are not exceeded.
Activation of the fire alarm system or automatic sprinkler system shall initiate a general evacuation signal. In addition, the fire alarm system shall be monitored by an approved central station service in accordance with Section 903.4.1.
Exception: In lieu of audible notification appliances, visible notification appliances shall be allowed to be used in sleeping areas.
Automatic fire detectors required by Section 907.2.and IFC Chapter 11.re to activate notification appliances in accordance with those sections. When automatic fire detectors are installed for other fire safety functions, they shall perform the intended function upon activation. When automatic detectors are installed for fire safety functions and the building has a fire alarm system, the detectors shall activate supervisory signals at the fire alarm control panel or at a constantly attended location. When the building does not have a fire alarm system, the detectors shall activate a visual and audible supervisory signal at an approved location, which shall indicate the source of the signal.
Smoke detectors installed to shut down the air distribution or air-handling system shall, upon activation, perform the intended function. Air distribution or air-handling equipment that is part of a smoke-control system shall switch to smoke-control mode upon activation of a detector.
Smoke detectors that are installed in air distribution or air-handling systems for shutdown purposes and that are connected to a fire alarm system shall not sound a general evacuation signal.
Smoke detectors that are installed to control or recall elevators or to control doors for elevators, elevator lobbies, or elevator shafts and that are connected to a fire alarm system shall not sound a general evacuation signal. Elevator recall and firefighter’s emergency operation for elevators shall only be controlled by elevator smoke detectors and shall not initiate upon other building fire detectors or evacuation signals.
Smoke detectors that are installed to hold open fire doors under nonemergency conditions and that are connected to a fire alarm system shall sound a general evacuation signal when the doors being held open are part of the means of egress corridor or stair system. Door hold-open smoke detectors are not required to activate a visual or audible signal.
The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72.
Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1.through 907.4.3.1.
In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders, and supervising station transmitting equipment.
Exception: Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of a smoke detector, a heat detector shall be permitted.
Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.2.1.through 907.4.2.6.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.
Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.
Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.
The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, unobscured and visible at all times.
Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors shall be permitted.
For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.or 903.3.1.2.and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection.
A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the fire alarm control unit and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1.through 907.5.2.3.4. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:

1. Automatic fire detectors.

2. Automatic sprinkler system waterflow devices.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes.

4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907.to annunciate at a constantly attended location.
A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approved by the fire department, in order that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency.
Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose.
Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm.
Exceptions:

1. Visible alarm notification appliances shall be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appliances in critical care areas of Group I-2 occupancies.

2. Where provided, audible notification appliances located in each occupant evacuation elevator lobby in accordance with Section 3008.5.1 shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.

The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building.
The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.
Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building's fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404.f the International Fire Code. In high-rise buildings, the system shall operate on a minimum of the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:

1. Elevator groups.

2. Exit stairways.

3. Each floor.

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002.1.

Exception: In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.
A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall also have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.
Where stadiums, arenas and grandstands are required to caption audible public announcements in accordance with Section 1108.2.7.2, the emergency/voice alarm communication system shall also be captioned. Prerecorded or live emergency captions shall be from an approved location constantly attended by personnel trained to respond to an emergency.
Emergency voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided with an approved emergency power source.
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1.through 907.5.2.3.4.
Exceptions:

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Section 1002.1.

3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.

Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public areas and common areas.
Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with a minimum of 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing impaired employee(s).
Group I-1 and R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.5.2.3.3.shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

[F] TABLE 907.5.2.3.3
VISIBLE ALARMS

NUMBER OF SLEEP
UNITS
SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH VISIBLE
ALARMS
6 to 252
26 to 504
51 to 757
76 to 100 9
101 to 15012
151 to 20014
201 to 30017
301 to 40020
401 to 50022
501 to 1,0005% of total
1,001 and over50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000
[[F] 907.5.2.3.4 Group R-2.
In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907.to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with Chapter 10.of ICC A117.1. Such capability shall be permitted to include the potential for future interconnection of the building fire alarm system with the unit smoke alarms, replacement of audible appliances with combination audible/visible appliances, or future extension of the existing wiring from the unit smoke alarm locations to required locations for visible appliances.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 72.
Wiring shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.
The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.
Exception: Back-up power for single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.4.
Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direction.
Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13.
A zoning indicator panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible-alarm silencing switch.
In high-rise buildings, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided:

1. Smoke detectors.

2. Sprinkler waterflow devices.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes.

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection devices or suppression systems.

Access shall be provided to each fire alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.
Deleted.
Upon completion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72.
When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72.
A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed and tested in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided.
Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings (“as-builts”) and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location.
The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Section 907.8.f the International Fire Code.
Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided in accordance with Section 414.7.
Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 415.10.3.5. A continuous gas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 415.10.7.
A gas detection system shall be provided to detect the presence of highly toxic or toxic gas at or below the permissible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit of the gas for which detection is provided. The system shall be capable of monitoring the discharge from the treatment system at or below one-half the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) limit.
Exception: A gas-detection system is not required for toxic gases when the physiological warning threshold level for the gas is at a level below the accepted PEL for the gas.
The gas detection system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to a constantly attended control station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and shall provide warning both inside and outside the area where gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms.
Exception: Signal transmission to a constantly attended control station is not required when not more than one cylinder of highly toxic or toxic gas is stored.
The gas detection system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being monitored for whichever gas is detected.
Exception: Automatic shutdown is not required for reactors utilized for the production of highly toxic or toxic compressed gases where such reactors are:

1. Operated at pressures less than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa).

2. Constantly attended.

3. Provided with readily accessible emergency shutoff valves.

The automatic closure of shutoff valves shall be in accordance with the following:

1. When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve for the compressed container of specific gas detected supplying the manifold shall automatically close.

Exception: When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas-detection system alarm is at a use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff valve in the gas valve enclosure for the branch line located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically close.
Ozone gas-generator rooms shall be equipped with a continuous gas-detection system that will shut off the generator and sound a local alarm when concentrations above the PEL occur.
A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 406.8.5.
Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values for the refrigerant classification indicated in the International Mechanical Code. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations.
Group I or R occupancies located in a building containing a fuel-burning appliance or in a building that has an attached garage shall be equipped with single-station carbon monoxide alarms. The carbon monoxide alarms shall be:

a. Listed as complying with UL 2034;

b. Installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 720 and the manufacturer’s instructions; and

c. Installed within 10 feet of each sleeping unit or sleeping room.

Exception: Individual sleeping units or dwelling units that do not contain a fuel-burning appliance or have an attached garage, but are located in a multiunit building with a fuel-burning appliance or attached garage, need not be equipped with a single-station carbon monoxide alarm if:

1. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected by duct work or ventilation shafts to any room containing a fuel-burning appliance or to an attached garage; and

2. The building is equipped with a common area carbon monoxide alarm system.

Carbon monoxide detection systems, which include carbon monoxide detectors and audible notification appliances, installed and maintained in accordance with this section for carbon monoxide alarms and NFPA 720 shall be permitted. The carbon monoxide detectors shall be listed as complying with UL 2075.
This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems for new buildings or portions of new buildings when they are required by other provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation, and acceptance testing for smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants and for fire suppression and overhaul efforts. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents or the timely restoration of operations.
Buildings, structures or parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909.and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately describe the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied by sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.
In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements which buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909.shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms in Section 1704.
A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of operation, the systems supporting them and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the submitted construction documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1.through 909.4.6.
The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.
Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9.shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities.
The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of Chapter 16.
The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the HVAC systems.
The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.
All portions of the active or passive smoke control system shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than 20 minutes. System design shall be for 20 minutes; however, fans shall continue to operate after 20 minutes and shall continue to operate automatically for smoke removal during fire suppression and overhaul efforts for a minimum of 5 minutes for every 10 feet vertically of protected space.
With any of the design methods allowed by Section 909, the door opening force, latch release, and set-in-motion force shall comply with Section 1008.1.3.requirements when the system is in smoke control mode.
Smoke barriers shall comply with Section 710, and shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:

1. Walls A/Aw = 0.00100

2. Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035

3. Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150

4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050

where:
A =Total leakage area, square feet (m2).
AF=Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).
Aw=Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be included in calculating the total leakage area.

The total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive smoke control systems tested using other approved means such as door fan testing shall be as approved by the fire code official.
Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.5.3.
Exceptions:

1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.

3. In Group I-2, where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3. Positive-latching devices are not required.

4. Group I-3.

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.

Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 717.
The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke control zone of fire origin.
The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.
In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences at least two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.
The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1008.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:
F = Fdc+ K(WAΔP)/2(W-d)(Equation 9-1)
where:
A=Door area, square feet (m2).
d=Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).
F=Total door opening force, pounds (N).
Fdc=Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N)
K=Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
W=Door width, feet (m).
ΔP=Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).
When approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects.
The minimum average velocity through a fixed opening shall not be less than:
v = 217.2[h(Tf - To)/(Tf + 460)]1/2(Equation 9-2)
For SI: = 119.9 [h (Tf - To)/Tf]1/2
where:
h=Height of opening, feet (m).
Tf=Temperature of smoke, °F (K).
To=Temperature of ambient air, °F (K).
v=Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).
This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1.requires airflow to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.
When approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B.
The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.
The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4.and this section.
The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.
Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.
The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.
A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.
Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall be suitable for its intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates and as approved by the fire code official.
Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:
Ts = (Qc/mc) + (Ta)(Equation 9-3)
where:
c=Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, Btu/lb°F (kJ/kg • K).
m=Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
Qc=Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
Ta=Ambient temperature, °F (K).
Ts=Smoke temperature, °F (K).
Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.
Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.
Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of vibration isolation) complying with the International Mechanical Code, that are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.
Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.
Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved, recognized standards.
In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty, with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16. Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.
The smoke control system shall be supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be from the normal building power systems. Secondary power shall be from an approved standby source complying with Chapter 27.of this code. The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707.or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The transfer to full standby power shall be automatic and within 60 seconds of failure of the primary power.
Elements of the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.

In addition to meeting requirements of NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.
Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.
Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.
Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.
Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire department and any smoke detectors required by engineering analysis.
Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.
Control-air tubing shall be hard-drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B42, ASTM B43, ASTM B68, ASTM B88, ASTM B251 and ASTM B280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type in accordance with ASME B16.18 or ASME B16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP-5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquids below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.
Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices provided all of the following conditions are met:

1. Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3.of the International Mechanical Code.

2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No.22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable brass compression to male barbed adapter.

3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure.Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.

Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.
Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.
The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.
Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief.
A fire-fighter’s smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command center complying with Section 911.in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire-fighter’s smoke control panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1.through 909.16.3.
Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire-fighter’s control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:

1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.

2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.

3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.

4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.

The fire-fighter’s control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke-control system equipment within the building as follows:

1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.

2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building.

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire-fighter’s control panel.

Exceptions:

1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.

2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.

The fire-fighter’s control panel actions shall be as follows:

1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter’s control panel, no automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freeze stats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire-fighter’s control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire-fighter’s control panel switch position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70.

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire-fighter’s control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described above. When directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire-fighter’s control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.
Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.
Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9.in their installed condition. When applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.
Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.
Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.
Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.
Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute (rpm) and belt tension shall be made.
Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.
Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire-fighter’s control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector.
Special inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the following:

1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.

Special inspection agencies for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers.
A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the special inspector or special inspection agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall seal, sign and date the report.
A copy of the final report shall be filed with the fire code official and an identical copy shall be maintained in an approved location at the building.
Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating each component of the smoke control system, and describing its proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.
Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system and a written maintenance program complying with the requirements of Section 909.20.1.f the International Fire Code has been submitted and approved by the fire code official.
Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code official, shall be allowed provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent buildings.
Where required by Section 1022.10, a smokeproof enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with this section. A smokeproof enclosure shall consist of an enclosed interior exit stairway that conforms to Section 1022.2.and an open exterior balcony or ventilated vestibule meeting the requirements of this section. Where access to the roof is required by the International Fire Code, such access shall be from the smokeproof enclosure where a smokeproof enclosure is required.
Access to the stair shall be by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony. The minimum dimension of the vestibule shall not be less than the required width of the corridor leading to the vestibule but shall not have a width of less than 44 inches (1118 mm) and shall not have a length of less than 72 inches (1829 mm) in the direction of egress travel.
The smokeproof enclosure shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707.or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Openings are not permitted other than the required means of egress doors. The vestibule shall be separated from the stairway by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707.or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accordance with the fire-resistance rating requirements for floor assemblies.
Doors in a smokeproof enclosure shall be self- or automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.and shall be installed at the floor-side entrance to the smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of the smoke detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all levels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
The provisions of Sections 909.20.3.1.through 909.20.3.3.shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by natural means.
Where access to the stairway is by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assembly into the enclosure shall be a fire door assembly in accordance with Section 716.5.
Where access to the stairway is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly complying with Section 715.4. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection rating complying with Section 716.5.
Each vestibule shall have a minimum net area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) of opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or public way that is at least 20 feet (6096 mm) in width.
The provisions of Sections 909.20.4.1.through 909.20.4.4.shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by mechanical means.
The door assembly from the building into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly complying with Section 716.5.3. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway shall not have less than a 20-minute fire protection rating and meet the requirements for a smoke door assembly in accordance with Section 716.5.3. The door shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 105.
The vestibule shall be supplied with not less than one air change per minute and the exhaust shall not be less than 150 percent of supply. Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter the vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor level. The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top of the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm) down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely within the smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall not obstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controlling dampers are permitted where necessary to meet the design requirements, but dampers are not otherwise required.
Where a specially engineered system is used, the system shall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90 air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emergency operation mode and shall be sized to handle three vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors shall be located at the floor-side entrance to each vestibule and shall activate the system for the affected vestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
The vestibule ceiling shall be at least 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door opening into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to provide an upward-moving air column. The height shall not be decreased unless approved and justified by design