1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.
2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section where they totally comply with other applicable provisions of this code.
1. Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers complying with Section 707.
1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.
4. Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall.
5. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.
1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.
1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source.
4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have an area not greater than 300 square feet (28 m2).
|OLF = (0.00007) (GLA) + 25||(Equation 4-1)|
|OLF||=||The occupant load factor (square feet per |
|GLA||=||The gross leasable area (square feet).|
Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or open mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the open mall of an open mall building or of a covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the mall building.
1. They shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.
2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.
3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.
1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.3.
3. Buildings with a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.6.
4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.
5. Buildings with a Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.
1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IA construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resistance ratings for the building elements in Type IB.
2. In other than Group F-1, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA.
3. The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.
1. The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
2. The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.
MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
|HEIGHT OF BUILDINGa||SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH|
|Up to 420 feet||430 psf|
|Greater than 420 feet||1,000 psf|
|For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kW/m2.|
|a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.|
2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707.or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
1. Easily identifiable, manually operable windows or panels shall be distributed around the perimeter of each floor at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) intervals. The area of operable windows or panels shall be not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) per 50 linear feet (15 240 mm) of perimeter.
1. In Group R-1 occupancies, each sleeping unit or suite having an exterior wall shall be permitted to be provided with 2 square feet (0.19 m2) of venting area in lieu of the area specified in Item 1.
2. Windows shall be permitted to be fixed provided that glazing can be cleared by fire fighters.
2. Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recirculation to other portions of the building.
3. Any other approved design that will produce equivalent results.
3. Passenger elevators serving occupied floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
2. Elevator car lighting;
3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems;
4. Automatic fire detection systems;
5. Fire alarm systems; and
6. Electrically powered fire pumps.
1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707.or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
1. Automatic sprinklers are provided along both sides of the separation wall and doors, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side. The sprinklers shall be located between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and at intervals along the glass not greater than 6 feet (1829 mm). The sprinkler system shall be designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction;
1.1. The glass wall shall be installed in a gasketed frame in a manner that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates; and
3. Fixed guideway transit systems.
5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.
6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.
1. For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall and opening protection for the Group U portion of the building shall be as required for the major occupancy of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, the allowable floor area of the building shall be as permitted for the major occupancy contained therein.
2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, the exterior wall shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating and the area of openings shall not be limited where the fire separation distance is 5 feet (1524 mm) or more.
1. The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of gypsum board, not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to structures supporting the separation from habitable rooms above the garage. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 13/8 inches (34.9 mm) in thickness, or doors in compliance with Section 716.5.3.with a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.
2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit, including its attic area, from the garage shall be constructed of sheet steel of not less than 0.019 inches (0.48 mm), in thickness, and shall have no openings into the garage.
3. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.
1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level.
2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.
3. Unoccupied portions of nonpublic parking garages shall not be required to be nonabsorbent.
OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION||AREA PER TIER |
|HEIGHT (in tiers)|
|Ramp access||Mechanical access|
|Automatic sprinkler system|
|IB||Unlimited||12 tiers||12 tiers||18 tiers|
|IIA||50,000||10 tiers||10 tiers||15 tiers|
|IIB||50,000||8 tiers||8 tiers||12 tiers|
|IV||50,000||4 tiers||4 tiers||4 tiers|
|For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.|
2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a thickness of not less than 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of not less than 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D1929; or
3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall be not greater than 100 square feet (9.3 m2).
2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited to refueling only.
3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.
2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.
3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.
3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.
4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.
1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).
3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.
5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke compartment.
1. This section shall not apply to rooms in psychiatric treatment and similar care areas.
2. Locking arrangements in accordance with Section 1008.1.9.6.
2. The arrangement of the care suite allows for direct and constant visual supervision by care providers.
1. Not less than 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for each care recipient confined to bed or litter.
2. Not less than 6 square feet (0.56 m2) for each ambulatory care recipient not confined to bed or litter and for other occupants.
1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping rooms are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping room and an audible and visual alarm at the care provider’s station attending each unit.
2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping room doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.
3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches (3.2 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).
4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated.
5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.
1. The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation of the areas by supervisory personnel;
3. The height difference between the floor levels of the highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm); and
1. A public way.
2. A building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet (15 240 mm) of open space.
3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or more of refuge area per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors.
1. Individual panels of glazing in door assemblies shall not exceed 1296 square inches (0.84 m2).
2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire.
3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
4. Obstructions such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes, or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.
The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.
2. In buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construction, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, provided the space below the stage is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system or fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 903.or 904.
3. In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved noncombustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks.
1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by not Type X gypsum board not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) in thickness.
2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop.
3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.
For flammable decorative materials, see the International Fire Code.
1. Airport traffic control cab.
2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.
3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.
4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.
5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.
HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT TRAFFIC
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION||HEIGHTa |
|MAXIMUM AREA |
|For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.|
|a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor.|
1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and lighting.
2. Elevator operating equipment.
3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems.
1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating equipment suspended not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be housed in the hangar need not be located in a separate room provided they are mounted not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in shops, offices and other sections of the hangar communicating with storage or service areas.
2. Entrance to the separated room shall be permitted by a single interior door provided the sources of ignition in the appliances are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
[F] TABLE 412.4.6
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c
|TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION|
|≥ 40,001||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I||Group I|
|40,000||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|30,000||Group III||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|20,000||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II||Group II|
|15,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group III||Group II||Group III||Group II||Group II|
|12,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II||Group II|
|8,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group II|
|5,000||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III||Group III|
|For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.|
|a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.|
|b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.|
|c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102.shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.|
2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.
3. Fuel transfer.
4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.
5. Spray finishing operations.
6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).
1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.
2. Group R-3 and U occupancies.
[F] TABLE 414.2.2
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS
|FLOOR LEVEL||PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE|
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa
|NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS|
|FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR |
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
|Above grade |
|Higher than 9||5||1||2|
|Below grade |
|Lower than 2||Not Allowed||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
|a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.|
|b. Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.|
|CONDITION||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA|
|A. Health-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Corrosivesb,c||Not Applicable||9,750||975|
|2. Highly toxics||Not Applicable||20b,c||2b,c|
|3. Toxicsb,c||Not Applicable||1,000||100|
|B. Physical-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids|
|1. Oxidizersb,c||4||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
|1||18,000 i, j||1,800 i, j|
|2. Unstable (reactives)b,c||4||Not Allowed||Not Allowed|
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|3. Water reactives||3b,c||550||55|
|1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.|
|a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code.|
|b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.|
|c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.|
|d. See Table 414.2.2.for design and number of control areas.|
|e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.|
|f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.|
|g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.|
|h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.|
|i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.|
|j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.|
|TYPE OF LIQUID||MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)|
|Sprinklered in accordance with note |
b densities and arrangements
|Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) |
through 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of the
International Fire Code
|Class IB, IC, II and IIIA||7,500c||15,000c||1,600|
|For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.|
|a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.|
|b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:|
|1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.|
|2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.|
|c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.|
2. Control areas containing laboratories located above the third floor are separated from each other and other portions of the building by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating of not less than two hours;
3. The maximum amount of hazardous materials in storage and in use in control areas containing laboratories does not exceed ten percent of the maximum allowable quantities listed in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).with all increases allowed in the footnotes of those tables; and
4. The maximum number of control areas containing laboratories shall not exceed 5 per floor.
Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building without entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or through ducts and plenums.
Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the area in which they are generated as specified in the International Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code.
The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accordance with the International Fire Code.
A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.
[F] TABLE 414.5.1
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTSa
|MATERIAL||CLASS||EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS|
|Barricade construction||Explosion (deflagration) venting |
or explosion (deflagration)
|Combustible dustsc||—||Not Required||Required|
|Cryogenic flammables||—||Not Required||Required|
|Explosives||Division 1.1||Required||Not Required|
|Division 1.2||Required||Not Required|
|Division 1.3||Not Required||Required|
|Division 1.4||Not Required||Required|
|Division 1.5||Required||Not Required|
|Division 1.6||Required||Not Required|
|Flammable gas||Gaseous||Not Required||Required|
|Flammable liquid||IAd||Not Required||Required|
|Organic peroxides||U||Required||Not Permitted|
|Oxidizer liquids and solids||4||Required||Not Permitted|
|Pyrophoric gas||—||Not Required||Required|
|Unstable (reactive)||4||Required||Not Permitted|
|3 Detonable||Required||Not Permitted|
|3 Nondetonable||Not Required||Required|
|Water-reactive liquids and solids||3||Not Required||Required|
|Acetylene generator rooms||—||Not Required||Required|
|Grain processing||—||Not Required||Required|
|Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities||—||Not Required||Required|
|Where explosion hazards existf||Detonation||Required||Not Permitted|
|a. See Section 414.1.3.|
|b. See the International Fire Code.|
|c. As generated during manufacturing or processing.|
|d. Storage or use.|
|e. In open use or dispensing.|
|f. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.|
|g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.|
1. Emergency or standby power are not required for the following storage areas:
1.2. Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.
1.3. Storage areas for Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.
1.4. Storage, use and handling areas for asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.
2. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter of the building where they are in accordance with the International Fire Code and NFPA 30.
2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with the International Fire Code and NFPA 30.
3. Spray paint booths that comply with the International Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter.
[F] TABLE 415.5.2
DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED
|A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN|
|Material||Class||Solids and Liquids (tons)a, b||Gases (cubic feet)a, b|
|Explosives||Division 1.1||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Not Applicable|
|Division 1.2||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Division 1.3||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Division 1.4||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Division 1.5||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Division 1.6||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Oxidizers||Class 4||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Unstable (reactives) detonable||Class 3 or 4||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Maximum Allowable Quantity|
|Oxidizer, liquids and solids||Class 3||1,200||Not Applicable|
|Class 2||2,000||Not Applicable|
|Organic peroxides||Detonable||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Not Applicable|
|Class I||Maximum Allowable Quantity||Not Applicable|
|Class II||25||Not Applicable|
|Class III||50||Not Applicable|
|Unstable (reactives) nondetonable||Class 3||1||2,000|
|Water reactives||Class 3||1||Not Applicable|
|Class 2||25||Not Applicable|
|Pyrophoric gases||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||2,000|
|For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.|
|a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be in accordance with Chapter 33.f the International Fire Code based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 56.f the International Fire Code.|
|b. “Maximum Allowable Quantity” means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.1(1).|
|c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, provided the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.|
|HAZARD CATEGORY||SOLIDS |
(pounds per square foot)
(gallons per square foot)
(cubic feet @ NTP/square foot)
|Combustible dust||Note b||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Combustible fiber||Loose||Note b||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Baled||Notes b, c|
|Combustible liquid||II||Not Applicable||0.01||Not Applicable|
|Combination Class||I, II and IIIA||0.04|
|Cryogenic gas||Flammable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Note d|
|Explosives||Note b||Note b||Note b|
|Flammable gas||Gaseous||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Note d|
|Flammable liquid||IA||Not Applicable||0.0025||Not Applicable|
|Combination Class||IA, IB and IC||0.025|
|Combination Class||I, II and IIIA||0.04|
|Flammable solid||0.001||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Organic peroxide||Unclassified||Note b||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Class I||Note b|
|Class IV||Not Limited|
|Class V||Not Limited|
|Oxidizing gas||Gaseous||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||1.25|
|Combination of gaseous and liquefied||1.25|
|Oxidizer||Class 4||Note b||Note b||Not Applicable|
|Combination Class||1, 2, 3||0.003||0.03|
|Pyrophoric materials||0.01||0.00125||Notes d and e|
|Unstable (reactive)||Class 4||Note b||Note b||Note b|
|Class 3||0.025||0.0025||Note b|
|Class 2||0.1||0.01||Note b|
|Class 1||Not Limited||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|Water reactive||Class 3||Note b||0.00125||Not Applicable|
|Class 1||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|Corrosives||Not Limited||Not Limited||Not Limited|
|Highly toxic||Not Limited||Not Limited||Note d|
|Toxics||Not Limited||Not Limited||Note d|
|For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m2, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m3 @ NTP/m2, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.|
|a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities.|
|b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).|
|c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.|
|d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP.|
|e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.5.2.|
1. Nonproduction HPM is allowed to be transported in corridors if utilized for maintenance, lab work and testing.
2.2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or other approved alarm-initiating device within corridors at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and doorway. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or the emergency control station and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.
2.3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall separate pass-throughs from existing corridors. Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for the corridors and protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
1. Rooms greater than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) in area, shall have no fewer than one exterior door approved for fire department access.
2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707.or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 1 hour for rooms up to 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area and not less than 2 hours where the room is more than 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area.
3. Shelving, racks and wainscotting in such areas shall be of noncombustible construction or wood of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.
1. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 mm) in the least dimension.
2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour shall be provided. The space shall not be used to convey air from any other area.
3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be designed to collect any discharge or leakage and drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclosure shall not be used as part of the receptor.
4. HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic waste lines shall be separated from the corridor and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by fire barriers that have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is used, joints on the piping side of the enclosure are not required to be taped, provided the joints occur over framing members. Access openings into the enclosure shall be protected by approved fire protection-rated assemblies.
5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on piping and tubing other than waste lines at the following locations:
5.1. At branch connections into the fabrication area.
5.2. At entries into corridors.
3. For flammable gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) where the monitoring is within or outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
1. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
2. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
3. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the compressed gas container of the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring systems.
2. Manual fire alarm systems.
5. Smoke detection systems.
6. Emergency power system.
1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems.
5. HPM gas detection systems.
7. Manual fire alarm systems.
8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm systems.
11. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in this code or in the International Fire Code applicable to the use, storage or handling of HPM.
1. Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).
2. The ducts are within the building.
3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors or fumes.
1. Ducts listed or approved for applications without automatic sprinkler system protection.
2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length installed below ceiling level.
1. Floor assemblies located directly over a space protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13D, or other approved equivalent sprinkler system.
2. Floor assemblies located directly over a crawl space not intended for storage or fuel-fired appliances.
3. Portions of the floor assemblies in Group R-3 can be unprotected when complying with the following:
b. Fire blocking in accordance with Section 717.2.shall be installed along the perimeter of the unprotected portion to separate the unprotected portion from the remainder of the floor assembly.
4. Wood floor assemblies in Group R-3 occupancies using dimension lumber or structural composite lumber equal to or greater than 2-inch by 10-inch (50.8 mm by 254 mm) nominal dimension, or other approved floor assemblies demonstrating equivalent fire performance.