About this chapter: Chapter 3 provides general requirements for asphalt kettles, combustible waste material, ignition sources, motion picture projection rooms and film, open burning, recreational fires, portable outdoor fireplaces, open flames, powered industrial trucks and equipment, smoking, vacant premises, vehicle impact protection, fueled equipment, indoor displays, miscellaneous storage, outdoor pallet storage, hazards to fire fighters, roof gardens and landscaped roofs, laundry carts and mobile food preparation vehicles. These are intended to improve premises safety for everyone, including construction workers, tenants, operations and maintenance personnel, and emergency response personnel.
Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be transported over any highway, road or street when the heat source for the kettle is operating.
Exception: Asphalt (tar) kettles in the process of patching road surfaces.
- Dumpsters or containers that are placed inside buildings in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.
- Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or container storage.
- Dumpsters or containers that are located adjacent to buildings where the exterior area is protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
Hot ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a combustible receptacle, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other combustible material including combustible walls and partitions or within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings.
Exception: The minimum required separation distance to other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) where the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground surface or stand.
Torches and other devices, machines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not be operated or used in or on wildfire risk areas, except by a permit in accordance with Section 105.6 secured from the fire code official.
Exception: Use within inhabited premises or designated campsites that are not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from grass-, grain-, brush- or forest-covered areas.
Portable open-flame devices fueled by flammable or combustible gases or liquids shall be enclosed or installed in such a manner as to prevent the flame from contacting combustible material.
- LP-gas-fueled devices used for sweating pipe joints or removing paint in accordance with Chapter 61.
- Cutting and welding operations in accordance with Chapter 35.
- Torches or flame-producing devices in accordance with Section 308.4.
- Candles and open-flame decorative devices in accordance with Section 308.3.
Flammable or combustible liquids used in the preparation of flaming foods or beverages shall be dispensed from one of the following:
Open-flame devices shall not be used in a Group A occupancy.
- 1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial or religious purposes in accordance with Section 308.1.7.
- 1.2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part of a performance in accordance with Section 308.3.2.
- 1.3. Where candles on tables are securely supported on substantial noncombustible bases and the candle flames are protected.
- Heat-producing equipment complying with Chapter 6 and the International Mechanical Code.
- Gas lights are allowed to be used provided that adequate precautions satisfactory to the fire code official are taken to prevent ignition of combustible materials.
Open-flame decorative devices shall comply with all of the following restrictions:
- Class I and Class II liquids and LP-gas shall not be used.
- Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing more than 8 ounces (237 ml) of fuel must self-extinguish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over.
- The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) when the device or holder is not in an upright position.
- The flame shall be enclosed except where openings on the side are not more than 0.375-inch (9.5 mm) diameter or where openings are on the top and the distance to the top is such that a piece of tissue paper placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds.
- Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage.
- Storage and handling of combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57.
- Shades, where used, shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely attached to the open-flame device holder or chimney.
- Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be securely fastened in place to prevent overturning, and shall be located away from occupants using the area and away from possible contact with drapes, curtains or other combustibles.
The fire code official is authorized to order the posting of "No Smoking" signs in a conspicuous location in each structure or location in which smoking is prohibited. The content, lettering, size, color and location of required "No Smoking" signs shall be approved.
Exception: In Group I-2 occupancies where smoking is prohibited, "No Smoking" signs are not required in interior locations of the facility where signs are displayed at all major entrances into the facility.
- Where the premises have been cleared of all combustible materials and debris and, in the opinion of the fire code official, the type of construction, fire separation distance and security of the premises do not create a fire hazard.
- Where approved by the fire code official, buildings that will not be heated and where fire protection systems will be exposed to freezing temperatures, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are permitted to be placed out of service and standpipes are permitted to be maintained as dry systems (without an automatic water supply), provided that the building does not have contents or storage, and windows, doors and other openings are secured to prohibit entry by unauthorized persons.
- Where approved by the fire code official, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are permitted to be placed out of service in seasonally occupied buildings: that will not be heated; where fire protection systems will be exposed to freezing temperatures; where fire areas do not exceed 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); and that do not store motor vehicles or hazardous materials.
Persons owning, or in charge or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, shall remove therefrom all accumulations of combustible materials, flammable or combustible waste or rubbish and shall securely lock or otherwise secure doors, windows and other openings to prevent entry by unauthorized persons. The premises shall be maintained clear of waste or hazardous materials.
The design of the placards shall use the following symbols:
- This symbol shall mean that the structure had normal structural conditions at the time of marking.
- This symbol shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist and interior fire-fighting or rescue operations should be conducted with extreme caution.
- This symbol shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist to a degree that consideration should be given to limit fire fighting to exterior operations only, with entry only occurring for known life hazards.
- 4.1. R/O—Roof open.
- 4.2. S/M—Stairs, steps and landing missing.
- 4.3. F/E—Avoid fire escapes.
- 4.4. H/F—Holes in floor.
Unoccupied tenant spaces in covered and open mall buildings shall be:
- Kept free from the storage of any materials.
- Separated from the remainder of the building by partitions of not less than 0.5-inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum board or an approved equivalent to the underside of the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces.
- Without doors or other access openings other than one door that shall be kept key locked in the closed position except during that time when opened for inspection.
- Kept free from combustible waste and be broomswept clean.
Guard posts shall comply with all of the following requirements:
- Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter and concrete filled.
- Spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) between posts on center.
- Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete footing of not less than a 15-inch (381 mm) diameter.
- Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above ground.
- Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected object.
Fueled equipment including, but not limited to, motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment, portable generators and portable cooking equipment, shall not be stored, operated or repaired within a building.
- Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in accordance with the International Building Code.
- Where allowed by Section 314.
- Storage of equipment utilized for maintenance purposes is allowed in approved locations where the aggregate fuel capacity of the stored equipment does not exceed 10 gallons (38 L) and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler systeminstalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
- Batteries are disconnected except where the fire code official requires that the batteries remain connected to maintain safety features.
- Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 gallons (19 L) (whichever is least).
- Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to prevent tampering.
- Vehicles, boats or other motorcraft equipment are not fueled or defueled within the building.
- The 2-foot (610 mm) ceiling clearance is not required for storage along walls in nonsprinklered areas of buildings.
- The 18-inch (457 mm) ceiling clearance is not required for storage along walls in areas of buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2, or 903.3.1.3.
Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 13/4 inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Storage shall not be placed on exposed joists.
Outside storage of combustible materials shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a lot line.
- The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 3 feet (914 mm) for storage not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.
- The separation distance is allowed to be reduced where the fire code official determines that hazard to the adjoining property does not exist.
SEPARATION DISTANCE BETWEEN WOOD PALLET STACKS AND BUILDINGS
|WALL CONSTRUCTION||OPENING TYPE||WOOD PALLET SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet)|
|51 to 200
|Masonry||Fire-rated glazing with open sprinklers||2||5||20|
|Masonry||Plain glass with open sprinklers||5||10||20|
|Wood with open sprinklers||—||5||10||20|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
SEPARATION DISTANCE BETWEEN PLASTIC PALLET STACKS AND BUILDINGS
|WALL CONSTRUCTION||OPENING TYPE||PLASTIC PALLET SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet)|
|51 to 200
|Masonry||Fire-rated glazing with open sprinklers||10||20||50|
|Masonry||Plain glass with open sprinklers||15||40||100|
|Wood with open sprinklers||—||15||40||100|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
SEPARATION FROM OTHER PALLET PILES AND ON-SITE STORAGE (WOOD PALLETS)
|WOOD PALLET SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet)|
|51 to 200
|> 200 Pallets
|Between pallet piles||7.5||15||45|
|Other on-site storage||7.5||15||45|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible.
Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway openings that are readily discernible as openings onto a shaftway by the construction or arrangement.
Wires, cables, ropes, antennas, or other suspended obstructions installed on the roof of a building having a roof slope of less than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) shall not create an obstruction that is less than 7 feet (2133 mm) high above the surface of the roof.
- Such obstruction shall be permitted where the wire, cable, rope, antenna or suspended obstruction is encased in a white, 2-inch (51 mm) minimum diameter plastic pipe or an approved equivalent.
- Such obstruction shall be permitted where there is a solid obstruction below such that accidentally walking into the wire, cable, rope, antenna or suspended obstruction is not possible.
Structures shall not be constructed within the utility easement beneath high-voltage transmission lines.
Exception: Restrooms and unoccupied telecommunication structures of noncombustible construction less than 15 feet (4572 mm) in height.
Outdoor storage within the utility easement underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall be limited to noncombustible material. Storage of hazardous materials including, but not limited to, flammable and combustible liquids is prohibited.
Exception: Combustible storage, including vehicles and fuel storage for backup power equipment serving public utility equipment, is allowed, provided that a plan indicating the storage configuration is submitted and approved.
- Maintain an effective fire break by removing and clearing away flammable vegetation and combustible growth from areas within 30 feet (9,144 mm) of such buildings or structures.
Exception: Single specimens of trees, ornamental shrubbery, or similar plants used as ground covers, provided they do not form a means of rapidly transmitting fire from the native growth to any structure.
- Maintain additional fire protection or firebreak by removing brush, flammable vegetation, and combustible growth located from 30 feet to 100 feet (9,144 mm to 30,480 mm) from such buildings or structures, when required by the fire chief because of extra hazardous conditions causing a firebreak of only 30 feet (9,144 mm) to be insufficient to provide reasonable fire safety.
Exception: Grass and other vegetation located more than 30 feet (9,144 mm) from buildings or structures and less than 18 inches (457 mm) in height above the ground need not be removed where necessary to stabilize the soil and prevent erosion.
- Remove portions of trees that extend within 10 feet (3,048 mm) of the outlet of a chimney.
- Maintain trees adjacent to or overhanging a building free of deadwood.
- Maintain the roof of a structure free of leaves, needles, or other dead vegetative growth.