This article covers general requirements, applications, and construction specifications for flexible cords and flexible cables.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall comply with this article and with the applicable provisions of other articles of this Code.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall conform to the description in Table 400.4. The use of flexible cords and flexible cables other than those in Table 400.4 shall require permission by the authority having jurisdiction. smoke, sunlight resistance, and so forth.
|Trade Name||Type Letter||Voltage||AWG or kcmil||Number of Conductors||Insulation||AWG or kcmil||Nominal Insulation Thickness||Braid on Each Conductor||Outer Covering||Use|
|Lamp cord||C||300||18—16||2 or more||Thermoset or thermoplastic||18—16||0.76||30||Cotton||None||Pendant or portable||Dry locations||Not hard usage|
|Elevator cable||E1,2,3,4||300 or 600||20—2||2 or more||Thermoset||20—16||0.51||20||Cotton||Three cotton; outer one flame-retardant and moisture- resistant||Elevator lighting and control||Unclassified locations|
|20—16||0.51||20||Flexible nylon jacket|
|Elevator cable||EO1,2,4||300 or 600||20—2||2 or more||Thermoset||20—16||0.51||20||Cotton||Three cotton; outer one flame-retardant and moisture- resistant||Elevator lighting and control||Unclassified locations|
|One cotton and a neoprene jacket||Hazardous (classified) locations|
|Elevator cable||ETP2,4||300 or 600||Rayon||Thermoplastic||Hazardous (classified) locations|
|ETT2,4||300 or 600||None||One cotton or equivalent and a thermoplastic jacket|
|Electric vehicle cable||EV5,6||600||18—500||2 or more plus grounding conductor(s), plus optional hybrid data, signal communications, and optical fiber cables||Thermoset with optional nylon||18—15||0.76
|Optional||Oil-resistant thermoset||Electric vehicle charging||Wet locations||Extra- hard usage|
|EVE5,6||600||18—500||2 or more plus grounding conductor(s), plus optional hybrid data, signal communications, and optical fiber cables||Thermoplastic elastomer with optional nylon||18—15||0.76
|Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer||Extra-hard usage|
|EVT5,6||600||18—500||2 or more plus grounding conductor(s), plus optional hybrid data, signal communications, and optical fiber cables||Thermoplastic with optional nylon||18—15||0.76
|Oil-resistant thermoplastic||Extra-hard usage|
|Portable power cable||G||2000||12—500||2—6 plus grounding conductor(s)||Thermoset||12—2
|Oil-resistant thermoset||Portable and extra-hard usage|
|G-GC7||2000||12—500||3—6 plus grounding conductors and 1 ground check conductor||Thermoset||12—2
|Heater cord||HPD||300||18—12||2, 3, or 4||Thermoset||18—16
|None||Cotton or rayon||Portable heaters||Dry locations||Not hard usage|
|Parallel heater cord||HPN8||300||18—12||2 or 3||Oil-resistant thermoset||18—16
|None||Oil-resistant thermoset||Portable||Damp locations||Not hard usage|
|Thermoset jacketed heater cords||HSJ||300||18—12||2, 3, or 4||Thermoset||18—16
|None||Cotton and thermoset||Portable or portable heater||Damp locations||Hard usage|
|HSJO||300||18—12||Cotton and oil-resistant thermoset||Damp and wet Locations|
|HSJOOW9||300||18—12||Damp and wet Locations|
|Non-integral parallel cords||NISP-1||300||20—18||2 or 3||Thermoset||20—18||0.38||15||None||Thermoset||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Not hard usage|
|NISPE-18||300||20—18||Thermoplastic elastomer||20—18||0.38||15||Thermoplastic elastomer|
|Twisted portable cord||PD||300||18—16||2 or more||Thermoset or thermoplastic||18—16||0.76||30||Cotton||Cotton or rayon||Pendant or portable||Dry locations||Not hard usage|
|Portable power cable||PPE7||2000||12—500||1—6 plus optional grounding conductor(s)||Thermoplastic elastomer||12—2||1.52||60||Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer||Portable, extra-hard usage|
|Hard service cord||S7||600||18—2||2 or more||Thermoset||18—15||0.76||30||None||Thermoset||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Extra-hard usage|
|Flexible stage and lighting power cable||SC7,10||600||8—250||1 or more||Thermoset||8—2
|Thermoset||Portable, extra-hard usage|
|SCE7,10||600||Thermoplastic elastomer||Thermoplastic elastomer|
|Hard service cord||SE7||600||18—2||2 or more||Thermoplastic elastomer||18—15
|None||Thermoplastic elastomer||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Extra-hard usage|
|SEW7,9||600||Damp and wet Locations|
|SEO7||600||Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer||Damp locations|
|SEOW7,9||600||Damp and wet Locations|
|SEOO7||600||Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer||Damp locations|
|SEOOW7,9||600||Damp and wet Locations|
|Junior hard service cord||SJ||300||18—10||2—6||Thermoset||18—11
|None||Thermoset||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Hard usage|
|SJE||300||Thermoplastic elastomer||Thermoplastic elastomer|
|SJEW9||300||Damp and wet Locations|
|SJEO||300||Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer||Damp locations|
|SJEOW9||300||Damp and wet Locations|
|SJEOO||300||Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer||Damp locations|
|SJEOOW9||300||Damp and wet Locations|
|SJO||300||Thermoset||Oil-resistant thermoset||Damp locations|
|SJOW9||300||Damp and wet Locations|
|SJOO||300||Oil-resistant thermoset||Damp locations|
|SJOOW9||300||Damp and wet Locations|
|SJTW9||300||Damp and wet locations|
|Oil-resistant thermo-lastic||Damp locations|
|SJTOW9||300||Damp and wet locations|
|SJTOO||300||Oil-resistant thermoplastic||Damp locations|
|SJTOOW9||300||Damp and wet locations|
|Hard service cord||SO7||600||18—2||2 or more||Thermoset||18—15||0.76||30||None||Oil-resistant thermoset||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Extra- hard usage|
|SOW7,9||600||Damp and wet locations|
|SOOW7,9||600||Damp and wet locations|
|All thermoset parallel cord||SP-1||300||20—18||2 or 3||Thermoset||20—18||0.76||30||None||None||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Not hard usage|
|Refrigerators, room air conditioners, and as permitted in 422.16(B)|
|All elastomer (thermoplastic) parallel cord||SPE-18||300||20—18||2 or 3||Thermoplastic elastomer||20—18||0.76||30||None||None||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Not hard usage|
|Refrigerators, room air conditioners, and as permitted in 422.16(B)|
|All thermoplastic parallel cord||SPT-1||300||20—18||2 or 3||Thermoplastic||20—18||0.76||30||None||None||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Not hard usage|
|SPT-1W9||300||2||Damp and wet locations|
|SPT-2||300||18—16||2 or 3||18—16||1.14||45||Damp locations|
|SPT-2W9||300||2||Damp and wet locations|
|SPT-3||300||18—10||2 or 3||18—16
|Refrigerators, room air conditioners, and as permitted in 422.16(B)||Damp locations||Not hard usage|
|Range, dryer cable||SRD||300||10—4||3 or 4||Thermoset||10—4||1.14||45||None||Thermoset||Portable||Damp locations||Ranges, dryers|
|SRDE||300||10—4||3 or 4||Thermoplastic elastomer||None||Thermoplastic elastomer|
|SRDT||300||10—4||3 or 4||Thermoplastic||None||Thermoplastic|
|Hard service cord||ST7||600||18—2||2 or more||Thermoplastic||18—15
|None||Thermoplastic||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Extra- hard usage|
|STW7,9||600||Damp and wet locations|
|STO7||600||Oil-resistant thermo- lastic||Damp locations|
|STOW7, 9||600||Damp and wet locations|
|STOO7||600||Oil-resistant thermoplastic||Damp locations|
|STOOW7||600||Damp and wet locations|
|Vacuum cleaner cord||SV||300||18—16||2 or 3||Thermoset||18—16||0.38||15||None||Thermoset||Pendant or portable||Damp locations||Not hard usage|
|SVE||300||Thermoplastic elastomer||Thermoplastic elastomer|
|SVEO||300||Oil-resistant Thermoplastic elastomer|
|SVEOO||300||Oil-resistant thermoplastic elastomer|
|SVOO||300||Oil-resistant thermoset||Oil-resistant thermoset|
|Parallel tinsel cord||TPT11||300||27||2||Thermoplastic||27||0.76||30||None||Thermoplastic||Attached to an appliance||Damp locations||Not hard usage|
|Jacketed tinsel cord||TST11||300||27||2||Thermoplastic||27||0.38||15||None||Thermoplastic||Attached to an appliance||Damp locations||Not hard usage|
|Portable power cable||W7||2000||12—500
|Oil-resistant thermoset||Portable, extra-hard usage|
All types listed in Table 400.4 shall have individual conductors twisted together, except for Types HPN, SP-1, SP-2, SP-3, SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-2, SPT-3, SPT-1W, SPT-2W, TPT, NISP-1, NISP-2, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, NISPE-1, NISPE-2, and three-conductor parallel versions of SRD, SRDE, and SRDT.
|The individual conductors of all cords, except those of heat-resistant cords, shall have a thermoset or thermoplastic insulation, except that the equipment grounding conductor, where used, shall be in accordance with 400.23(B).|
|1Rubber-filled or varnished cambric tapes shall be permitted as a substitute for the inner braids.|
|2Elevator traveling cables for operating control and signal circuits shall contain nonmetallic fillers as necessary to maintain concentricity. Cables shall have steel supporting members as required for suspension by 620.41. In locations subject to excessive moisture or corrosive vapors or gases, supporting members of other materials shall be permitted. Where steel supporting members are used, they shall run straight through the center of the cable assembly and shall not be cabled with the copper strands of any conductor.
In addition to conductors used for control and signaling circuits, Types E, EO, ETP, and ETT elevator cables shall be permitted to incorporate in the construction one or more 20 AWG telephone conductor pairs, one or more coaxial cables, or one or more optical fibers. The 20 AWG conductor pairs shall be permitted to be covered with suitable shielding for telephone, audio, or higher frequency communications circuits; the coaxial cables shall consist of a center conductor, insulation, and a shield for use in video or other radio frequency communications circuits. The optical fiber shall be suitably covered with flame-retardant thermoplastic. The insulation of the conductors shall be rubber or thermoplastic of a thickness not less than specified for the other conductors of the particular type of cable. Metallic shields shall have their own protective covering. Where used, these components shall be permitted to be incorporated in any layer of the cable assembly but shall not run straight through the center.
|3Insulations and outer coverings that meet the requirements as flame retardant, limited smoke, and are so listed, shall be permitted to be marked for limited smoke after the Code type designation.|
|4Elevator cables in sizes 20 AWG through 14 AWG are rated 300 volts, and sizes 10 AWG through 2 AWG are rated 600 volts. 12 AWG is rated 300 volts with a 0.76 mm (30 mil) insulation thickness and 600 volts with a 1.14 mm (45 mil) insulation thickness.|
|5Conductor size for Types EV, EVJ, EVE, EVJE, EVT, and EVJT cables apply to nonpower-limited circuits only. Conductors of power-limited (data, signal, or communications) circuits may extend beyond the stated AWG size range. All conductors shall be insulated for the same cable voltage rating.|
|6Insulation thickness for Types EV, EVJ, EVEJE, EVT, and EVJT cables of nylon construction is indicated in parentheses.|
|7Types G, G-GC, S, SC, SCE, SCT, SE, SEO, SEOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SO, SOO, SOW, SOOW, ST, STO, STOO, STW, STOW, STOOW, PPE, and W shall be permitted for use on theater stages, in garages, and elsewhere where flexible cords are permitted by this Code.|
|8The third conductor in Type HPN shall be used as an equipment grounding conductor only. The insulation of the equipment grounding conductor for Types SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-2, SPT-3, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, NISPE-1, and NISPE-2 shall be permitted to be thermoset polymer.|
|9Cords that comply with the requirements for outdoor cords and are so listed shall be permitted to be designated as weather and water resistant with the suffix "W" after the Code type designation. Cords with the "W" suffix are suitable for use in wet locations and are sunlight resistant.|
|10The required outer covering on some single-conductor cables may be integral with the insulation.|
|11Types TPT and TST shall be permitted in lengths not exceeding 2.5 m (8 ft) where attached directly, or by means of a special type of plug, to a portable appliance rated at 50 watts or less and of such nature that extreme flexibility of the cord is essential.|
Table 400.5(A)(1) provides the allowable ampacities, and Table 400.5(A)(2) provides the ampacities for flexible cords and flexible cables with not more than three current-carrying conductors. These tables shall be used in conjunction with applicable end-use product standards to ensure selection of the proper size and type. Where cords and cables are used in ambient temperatures other than 30°C (86°F), the temperature correction factors from Table 310.15(B)(2)(a) that correspond to the temperature rating of the cord or cable shall be applied to the ampacity in Table 400.5(A)(1) and Table 400.5(A)(2). Cords and cables rated 105°C shall use correction factors in the 90°C column of Table 310.15(B)(2)(a) for temperature correction. Where the number of current-carrying conductors exceeds three, the allowable ampacity or the ampacity of each conductor shall be reduced from the three-conductor rating as shown in Table 400.5(A)(3).
Informational Note: See Informative Annex B, Table B.310.15(B)(2)(11), for adjustment factors for more than three current-carrying conductors in a raceway or cable with load diversity.
A neutral conductor that carries only the unbalanced current from other conductors of the same circuit shall not be required to meet the requirements of a current-carrying conductor.
In a 3-wire circuit consisting of two phase conductors and the neutral conductor of a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye-connected system, a common conductor carries approximately the same current as the line-to-neutral currents of the other conductors and shall be considered to be a current-carrying conductor.
On a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye circuit where more than 50 percent of the load consists of nonlinear loads, there are harmonic currents present in the neutral conductor and the neutral conductor shall be considered to be a current-carrying conductor.
An equipment grounding conductor shall not be considered a current-carrying conductor.
Where a single conductor is used for both equipment grounding and to carry unbalanced current from other conductors, as provided for in 250.140 for electric ranges and electric clothes dryers, it shall not be considered as a current-carrying conductor.
Table 400.5(A)(1) Allowable Ampacity for Flexible Cords and Flexible Cables [Based on Ambient Temperature of 30°C (86°F). See 400.13 and Table 400.4.]
|Copper Conductor Size (AWG)||Thermoplastic Types TPT, TST||Thermoset Types C, E, EO, PD, S, SJ, SJO, SJOW, SJOO, SJOOW, SO, SOW, SOO, SOOW, SP-1, SP-2, SP-3, SRD, SV, SVO, SVOO, NISP-1, NISP-2||Types HPD, HPN, HSJ, HSJO, HSJOW, HSJOO, HSJOOW|
|Thermoplastic Types ETP, ETT, NISPE-1, NISPE-2, NISPT-1, NISPT-2, SE, SEW, SEO, SEOO, SEOW, SEOOW, SJE, SJEW, SJEO, SJEOO, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJT, SJTW, SJTO, SJTOW, SJTOO, SJTOOW, SPE-1, SPE-2, SPE-3, SPT-1, SPT-1W, SPT-2, SPT-2W, SPT-3, ST, STW, SRDE, SRDT, STO, STOW, STOO, STOOW, SVE, SVEO, SVEOO, SVT, SVTO, SVTOO|
|Column Aa||Column Bb|
|aThe allowable currents under Column A apply to three-conductor cords and other multiconductor cords connected to utilization equipment so that only three-conductors are current-carrying.|
|bThe allowable currents under Column B apply to two-conductor cords and other multiconductor cords connected to utilization equipment so that only two conductors are current-carrying.|
|dElevator cables only.|
|e7 amperes for elevator cables only; 2 amperes for other types.|
Table 400.5(A)(2) Ampacity of Cable Types SC, SCE, SCT, PPE, G, G-GC, and W [Based on Ambient Temperature of 30°C (86°F). See Table 400.4.]
|Copper Conductor Size (AWG or kcmil)||Temperature Rating of Cable|
|60°C (140°F)||75°C (167°F)||90°C (194°F)|
|1The ampacities under subheading D shall be permitted for single-conductor Types SC, SCE, SCT, PPE, and W cable only where the individual conductors are not installed in raceways and are not in physical contact with each other except in lengths not to exceed 600 mm (24 in.) where passing through the wall of an enclosure.|
|2The ampacities under subheading E apply to two-conductor cables and other multiconductor cables connected to utilization equipment so that only two conductors are current-carrying.|
|3The ampacities under subheading F apply to three-conductor cables and other multiconductor cables connected to utilization equipment so that only three conductors are current-carrying.|
Table 400.5(A)(3) Adjustment Factors for More Than Three Current-Carrying Conductors in a Flexible Cord or Flexible Cable
|Number of Conductors||Percent of Value in Table 400.5(A)(1) and Table 400.5(A)(2)|
|41 and above||35|
In no case shall conductors be associated together in such a way with respect to the kind of circuit, the wiring method used, or the number of conductors such that the limiting temperature of the conductors is exceeded.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be marked by means of a printed tag attached to the coil reel or carton. The tag shall contain the information required in 310.120(A). Types S, SC, SCE, SCT, SE, SEO, SEOO, SJ, SJE, SJEO, SJEOO, SJO, SJT, SJTO, SJTOO, SO, SOO, ST, STO, STOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SJEW, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJOW, SJTW, SJTOW, SJTOOW, SOW, SOOW, STW, STOW, and STOOW flexible cords and G, G-GC, PPE, and W flexible cables shall be durably marked on the surface at intervals not exceeding 610 mm (24 in.) with the type designation, size, and number of conductors. Required markings on tags, cords, and cables shall also include the maximum operating temperature of the flexible cord or flexible cable.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be used only for the following:
- Wiring of luminaires.
- Connection of portable luminaires, portable and mobile signs, or appliances.
- Elevator cables.
- Wiring of cranes and hoists.
- Connection of utilization equipment to facilitate frequent interchange.
- Prevention of the transmission of noise or vibration.
- Appliances where the fastening means and mechanical connections are specifically designed to permit ready removal for maintenance and repair, and the appliance is intended or identified for flexible cord connection.
- Connection of moving parts.
- Where specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code.
- Between an existing receptacle outlet and an inlet, where the inlet provides power to an additional single receptacle outlet. The wiring interconnecting the inlet to the single receptacle outlet shall be a Chapter 3 wiring method. The inlet, receptacle outlet, and Chapter 3 wiring method, including the flexible cord and fittings, shall be a listed assembly specific for this application.
Unless specifically permitted in 400.10, flexible cables, flexible cord sets, and power supply cords shall not be used for the following:
- As a substitute for the fixed wiring of a structure
- Where run through holes in walls, structural ceilings, suspended ceilings, dropped ceilings, or floors
- Where run through doorways, windows, or similar openings
- Where attached to building surfaces
- Where concealed by walls, floors, or ceilings or located above suspended or dropped ceilings
- Where installed in raceways, except as otherwise permitted in this Code
- Where subject to physical damage
Flexible cord shall be used only in continuous lengths without splice or tap where initially installed in applications permitted by 400.10(A). The repair of hard-service cord and junior hard-service cord (see Trade Name column in Table 400.4) 14 AWG and larger shall be permitted if conductors are spliced in accordance with 110.14(B) and the completed splice retains the insulation, outer sheath properties, and usage characteristics of the cord being spliced.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be connected to devices and to fittings so that tension is not transmitted to joints or terminals.
Exception: Listed portable single-pole devices that are intended to accommodate such tension at their terminals shall be permitted to be used with single-conductor flexible cable.
Flexible cords used in show windows and showcases shall be Types S, SE, SEO, SEOO, SJ, SJE, SJEO, SJEOO, SJO, SJOO, SJT, SJTO, SJTOO, SO, SOO, ST, STO, STOO, SEW, SEOW, SEOOW, SJEW, SJEOW, SJEOOW, SJOW, SJOOW, SJTW, SJTOW, SJTOOW, SOW, SOOW, STW, STOW, or STOOW.
Exception No. 1: For the wiring of chain-supported luminaires.
Flexible cords and flexible cables shall be protected by bushings or fittings where passing through holes in covers, outlet boxes, or similar enclosures.
In industrial establishments where the conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that only qualified persons service the installation, flexible cords and flexible cables shall be permitted to be installed in aboveground raceways that are no longer than 15 m (50 ft) to protect the flexible cord or flexible cable from physical damage. Where more than three current-carrying conductors are installed within the raceway, the allowable ampacity shall be reduced in accordance with Table 400.5(A)(3).
Flexible cords shall be examined and tested at the factory and labeled before shipment.
A braid finished to show a white or gray color and the braid on the other conductor or conductors finished to show a readily distinguishable solid color or colors.
A tracer in a braid of any color contrasting with that of the braid and no tracer in the braid of the other conductor or conductors. No tracer shall be used in the braid of any conductor of a flexible cord that contains a conductor having a braid finished to show white or gray.
Exception: In the case of Types C and PD and cords having the braids on the individual conductors finished to show white or gray. In such cords, the identifying marker shall be permitted to consist of the solid white or gray finish on one conductor, provided there is a colored tracer in the braid of each other conductor.
A white or gray insulation on one conductor and insulation of a readily distinguishable color or colors on the other conductor or conductors for cords having no braids on the individual conductors.
For jacketed cords furnished with appliances, one conductor having its insulation colored light blue, with the other conductors having their insulation of a readily distinguishable color other than white or gray.
Exception: Cords that have insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
The insulation shall be permitted to be covered with an outer finish to provide the desired color.
A white or gray separator on one conductor and a separator of a readily distinguishable solid color on the other conductor or conductors of cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
One conductor having the individual strands tinned and the other conductor or conductors having the individual strands untinned for cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
One or more ridges, grooves, or white stripes located on the exterior of the cord so as to identify one conductor for cords having insulation on the individual conductors integral with the jacket.
A conductor intended to be used as an equipment grounding conductor shall have a continuous identifying marker readily distinguishing it from the other conductor or conductors. Conductors having a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes shall not be used for other than equipment grounding conductors. Cords or cables consisting of integral insulation and a jacket without a nonintegral grounding conductor shall be permitted to be green. The identifying marker shall consist of one of the methods in 400.23(A) or (B).
A braid finished to show a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes.
For cords having no braids on the individual conductors, an insulation of a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes.
The conductors shall be 12 AWG copper or larger and shall employ flexible stranding.
This article covers general requirements and construction specifications for fixture wires.
Fixture wires shall be of a type listed in Table 402.3, and they shall comply with all requirements of that table. The fixture wires listed in Table 402.3 are all suitable for service at 600 volts, nominal, unless otherwise specified.
Informational Note: Thermoplastic insulation may stiffen at temperatures lower than —10°C (+14°F). Thermoplastic insulation may also be deformed at normal temperatures where subjected to pressure, such as at points of support.
Table 402.3 Fixture Wires
|Name||Type Letter||Insulation||AWG||Thickness of Insulation||Outer Covering||Maximum Operating Temperature||Application Provisions|
|Heat-resistant rubber-covered fixture wire — flexible stranding||FFH-2||Heat-resistant rubber||18—16||0.76||30||Nonmetallic covering||75°C||Fixture wiring|
|Cross-linked synthetic polymer||18—16||0.76||30||(167°F)|
|ECTFE — solid or 7-strand||HF||Ethylene chloro-trifluoroethylene||18—14||0.38||15||None||150°C |
|ECTFE — flexible stranding||HFF||Ethylene chlorotrifluo-roethylene||18—14||0.38||15||None||150°C |
|Tape insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand||KF-1||Aromatic polyimide tape||18—10||0.14||5.5||None||200°C |
|Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts|
|KF-2||Aromatic polyimide tape||18—10||0.21||8.4||None||200°C |
|Tape insulated fixture wire — flexible stranding||KFF-1||Aromatic polyimide tape||18—10||0.14||5.5||None||200°C |
|Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts|
|KFF-2||Aromatic polyimide tape||18—10||0.21||8.4||None||200°C |
|Perfluoro-alkoxy — solid or 7-strand (nickel or nickel-coated copper)||PAF||Perfluoro-alkoxy||18—14||0.51||20||None||250°C |
|Fixture wiring (nickel or nickel-coated copper)|
|Perfluoro-alkoxy — flexible stranding||PAFF||Perfluoro-alkoxy||18—14||0.51||20||None||150°C |
|Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — solid or 7-strand||PF||Fluorinated ethylene propylene||18—14||0.51||20||None||200°C |
|Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — flexible stranding||PFF||Fluorinated ethylene propylene||18—14||0.51||20||None||150°C |
|Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — solid or 7-strand||PGF||Fluorinated ethylene propylene||18—14||0.36||14||Glass braid||200°C |
|Fluorinated ethylene propylene fixture wire — flexible stranding||PGFF||Fluorinated ethylene propylene||18—14||0.36||14||Glass braid||150°C |
|Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene — solid or 7-strand (nickel or nickel-coated copper)||PTF||Extruded polytetrafluo-roethylene||18—14||0.51||20||None||250°C |
|Fixture wiring (nickel or nickel-coated copper)|
|Extruded polytetrafluoroethylene — flexible stranding 26—36 (AWG silver or nickel-coated copper)||PTFF||Extruded polytetrafluo-roethylene||18—14||0.51||20||None||150°C |
|Fixture wiring (silver or nickel-coated copper)|
|Heat-resistant rubber-covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand||RFH-1||Heat-resistant rubber||18||0.38||15||Nonmetallic covering||75°C |
|Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts|
|RFH-2||Heat-resistant rubber Cross-linked synthetic polymer||18—16||0.76||30||None or non-metallic covering||75°C |
|Heat-resistant cross-linked synthetic polymer-insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand||RFHH-2*||Cross-linked synthetic polymer||18—16||0.76||30||None or nonmetallic covering||90°C |
|Silicone insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand||SF-1||Silicone rubber||18||0.38||15||Nonmetallic covering||200°C |
|Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts|
|SF-2||Silicone rubber||18—12||0.76||30||Nonmetallic covering||200°C||Fixture wiring|
|Silicone insulated fixture wire — flexible stranding||SFF-1||Silicone rubber||18||0.38||15||Nonmetallic covering||150°C |
|Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts|
|SFF-2||Silicone rubber||18—12||0.76||30||Nonmetallic covering||150°C||Fixture wiring|
|Thermoplastic covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand||TF*||Thermoplastic||18—16||0.76||30||None||60°C |
|Thermoplastic covered fixture wire — flexible stranding||TFF*||Thermoplastic||18—16||0.76||30||None||60°C |
|Heat-resistant thermoplastic covered fixture wire — solid or 7-strand||TFN*||Thermoplastic||18—16||0.38||15||Nylon-jacketed or equivalent||90°C |
|Heat-resistant thermoplastic covered fixture wire — flexible stranded||TFFN*||Thermoplastic||18—16||0.38||15||Nylon-jacketed or equivalent||90°C |
|Cross-linked polyolefin insulated fixture wire — solid or 7-strand||XF*||Cross-linked polyolefin||18—14||0.76||30||None||150°C |
|Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts|
|Cross-linked polyolefin insulated fixture wire — flexible stranded||XFF*||Cross-linked polyolefin||18—14||0.76||30||None||150°C |
|Fixture wiring — limited to 300 volts|
|Modified ETFE — solid or 7-strand||ZF||Modified ethylene tetrafluoro-ethylene||18—14||0.38||15||None||150°C |
|Flexible stranding||ZFF||Modified ethylene tetrafluoro-ethylene||18—14||0.38||15||None||150°C |
|High temp. modified ETFE — solid or 7-strand||ZHF||Modified ethylene tetrafluoro-ethylene||18—14||0.38||15||None||200°C |
|*Insulations and outer coverings that meet the requirements of flame retardant, limited smoke, and are so listed, shall be permitted to be marked for limited smoke after the Code type designation.|
The allowable ampacity of fixture wire shall be as specified in Table 402.5.
No conductor shall be used under such conditions that its operating temperature exceeds the temperature specified in Table 402.3 for the type of insulation involved.
Informational Note: See 310.15(A)(3) for temperature limitation of conductors.
|Size (AWG)||Allowable Ampacity|
Three-way and four-way switches shall be wired so that all switching is done only in the ungrounded circuit conductor. Where in metal raceways or metal-armored cables, wiring between switches and outlets shall be in accordance with 300.20(A).
Exception: Switch loops shall not require a grounded conductor.
Switches or circuit breakers shall not disconnect the grounded conductor of a circuit.
Exception: A switch or circuit breaker shall be permitted to disconnect a grounded circuit conductor where all circuit conductors are disconnected simultaneously, or where the device is arranged so that the grounded conductor cannot be disconnected until all the ungrounded conductors of the circuit have been disconnected.
The grounded circuit conductor for the controlled lighting circuit shall be installed at the location where switches control lighting loads that are supplied by a grounded general-purpose branch circuit serving bathrooms, hallways, stairways, or rooms suitable for human habitation or occupancy as defined in the applicable building code. Where multiple switch locations control the same lighting load such that the entire floor area of the room or space is visible from the single or combined switch locations, the grounded circuit conductor shall only be required at one location. A grounded conductor shall not be required to be installed at lighting switch locations under any of the following conditions:
- Where conductors enter the box enclosing the switch through a raceway, provided that the raceway is large enough for all contained conductors, including a grounded conductor
- Where the box enclosing the switch is accessible for the installation of an additional or replacement cable without removing finish materials
- Where snap switches with integral enclosures comply with 300.15(E)
- Where lighting in the area is controlled by automatic means
- Where a switch controls a receptacle load
The grounded conductor shall be extended to any switch location as necessary and shall be connected to switching devices that require line-to-neutral voltage to operate the electronics of the switch in the standby mode and shall meet the requirements of 404.22.
Exception: The connection requirement shall become effective on January 1, 2020. It shall not apply to replacement or retrofit switches installed in locations prior to local adoption of 404.2(C) and where the grounded conductor cannot be extended without removing finish materials. The number of electronic lighting control switches on a branch circuit shall not exceed five, and the number connected to any feeder on the load side of a system or main bonding jumper shall not exceed 25. For the purpose of this exception, a neutral busbar, in compliance with 200.2(B) and to which a main or system bonding jumper is connected shall not be limited as to the number of electronic lighting control switches connected.
Switches and circuit breakers shall be of the externally operable type mounted in an enclosure listed for the intended use. The minimum wire-bending space at terminals and minimum gutter space provided in switch enclosures shall be as required in 312.6.
Exception No. 1: Pendant- and surface-type snap switches and knife switches mounted on an open-face switchboard or panelboard shall be permitted without enclosures.
Switches shall not be installed within tubs or shower spaces unless installed as part of a listed tub or shower assembly.
Time switches, flashers, and similar devices shall be of the enclosed type or shall be mounted in cabinets or boxes or equipment enclosures. Energized parts shall be barriered to prevent operator exposure when making manual adjustments or switching.
Single-throw knife switches shall be placed so that gravity will not tend to close them. Single-throw knife switches, approved for use in the inverted position, shall be provided with an integral mechanical means that ensures that the blades remain in the open position when so set.
Double-throw knife switches shall be permitted to be mounted so that the throw is either vertical or horizontal. Where the throw is vertical, integral mechanical means shall be provided to hold the blades in the open position when so set.
Single-throw knife switches and switches with butt contacts shall be connected such that their blades are de-energized when the switch is in the open position. Bolted pressure contact switches shall have barriers that prevent inadvertent contact with energized blades. Single-throw knife switches, bolted pressure contact switches, molded case switches, switches with butt contacts, and circuit breakers used as switches shall be connected so that the terminals supplying the load are de-energized when the switch is in the open position.
Exception: The blades and terminals supplying the load of a switch shall be permitted to be energized when the switch is in the open position where the switch is connected to circuits or equipment inherently capable of providing a backfeed source of power. For such installations, a permanent sign shall be installed on the switch enclosure or immediately adjacent to open switches with the following words or equivalent: WARNING — LOAD SIDE TERMINALS MAY BE ENERGIZED BY BACKFEED. The warning sign or label shall comply with 110.21(B).
General-use and motor-circuit switches, circuit breakers, and molded case switches, where mounted in an enclosure as described in 404.3, shall clearly indicate whether they are in the open (off) or closed (on) position.
Where these switch or circuit breaker handles are operated vertically rather than rotationally or horizontally, the up position of the handle shall be the closed (on) position.
Exception No. 1: Vertically operated double-throw switches shall be permitted to be in the closed (on) position with the handle in either the up or down position.
Exception No. 2: On busway installations, tap switches employing a center-pivoting handle shall be permitted to be open or closed with either end of the handle in the up or down position. The switch position shall be clearly indicating and shall be visible from the floor or from the usual point of operation.
All switches and circuit breakers used as switches shall be located so that they may be operated from a readily accessible place. They shall be installed such that the center of the grip of the operating handle of the switch or circuit breaker, when in its highest position, is not more than 2.0 m (6 ft 7 in.) above the floor or working platform.
Exception No. 1: On busway installations, fused switches and circuit breakers shall be permitted to be located at the same level as the busway. Suitable means shall be provided to operate the handle of the device from the floor.
Exception No. 2: Switches and circuit breakers installed adjacent to motors, appliances, or other equipment that they supply shall be permitted to be located higher than 2.0 m (6 ft 7 in.) and to be accessible by portable means.
Exception No. 3: Hookstick operable isolating switches shall be permitted at greater heights.
A snap switch shall not be grouped or ganged in enclosures with other snap switches, receptacles, or similar devices, unless they are arranged so that the voltage between adjacent devices does not exceed 300 volts, or unless they are installed in enclosures equipped with identified, securely installed barriers between adjacent devices.
Faceplates provided for snap switches mounted in boxes and other enclosures shall be installed so as to completely cover the opening and, where the switch is flush mounted, seat against the finished surface.
Snap switches, including dimmer and similar control switches, shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor and shall provide a means to connect metal faceplates to the equipment grounding conductor, whether or not a metal faceplate is installed. Metal faceplates shall be grounded. Snap switches shall be considered to be part of an effective ground-fault current path if either of the following conditions is met:
- The switch is mounted with metal screws to a metal box or metal cover that is connected to an equipment grounding conductor or to a nonmetallic box with integral means for connecting to an equipment grounding conductor.
- An equipment grounding conductor or equipment bonding jumper is connected to an equipment grounding termination of the snap switch.
Exception No. 1 to (B): Where no means exists within the snap-switch enclosure for connecting to the equipment grounding conductor, or where the wiring method does not include or provide an equipment grounding conductor, a snap switch without a connection to an equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for replacement purposes only. A snap switch wired under the provisions of this exception and located within 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically, or 1.5 m (5 ft) horizontally, of ground or exposed grounded metal objects shall be provided with a faceplate of nonconducting noncombustible material with nonmetallic attachment screws, unless the switch mounting strap or yoke is nonmetallic or the circuit is protected by a ground-fault circuit interrupter.
Exception No. 2 to (B): Listed kits or listed assemblies shall not be required to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor if all of the following conditions are met:
- The device is provided with a nonmetallic faceplate that cannot be installed on any other type of device,
- The device does not have mounting means to accept other configurations of faceplates,
- The device is equipped with a nonmetallic yoke, and
- All parts of the device that are accessible after installation of the faceplate are manufactured of nonmetallic materials.
Metal faceplates shall be of ferrous metal not less than 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) in thickness or of nonferrous metal not less than 1.02 mm (0.040 in.) in thickness. Faceplates of insulating material shall be noncombustible and not less than 2.54 mm (0.100 in.) in thickness, but they shall be permitted to be less than 2.54 mm (0.100 in.) in thickness if formed or reinforced to provide adequate mechanical strength.
Snap switches used with open wiring on insulators shall be mounted on insulating material that separates the conductors at least 13 mm (1/2 in.) from the surface wired over.
Flush-type snap switches mounted in boxes that are set back of the finished surface as permitted in 314.20 shall be installed so that the extension plaster ears are seated against the surface. Flush-type snap switches mounted in boxes that are flush with the finished surface or project from it shall be installed so that the mounting yoke or strap of the switch is seated against the box. Screws used for the purpose of attaching a snap switch to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed snap switch, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
A hand-operable circuit breaker equipped with a lever or handle, or a power-operated circuit breaker capable of being opened by hand in the event of a power failure, shall be permitted to serve as a switch if it has the required number of poles.
Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor as specified in Part IV of Article 250. Metal enclosures for switches or circuit breakers used as service equipment shall comply with the provisions of Part V of Article 250. Where nonmetallic enclosures are used with metal raceways or metal-armored cables, provision shall be made for connecting the equipment grounding conductor(s).
Knife switches rated at over 1200 amperes at 250 volts or less, and at over 1000 amperes at 251 to 1000 volts, shall be used only as isolating switches and shall not be opened under load.
To interrupt currents over 1200 amperes at 250 volts, nominal, or less, or over 600 amperes at 251 to 1000 volts, nominal, a circuit breaker or a switch listed for such purpose shall be used.
A form of general-use snap switch suitable only for use on ac circuits for controlling the following:
A form of general-use snap switch suitable for use on either ac or dc circuits for controlling the following:
- Resistive loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the voltage applied.
- Inductive loads not exceeding 50 percent of the ampere rating of the switch at the applied voltage. Switches rated in horsepower are suitable for controlling motor loads within their rating at the voltage applied.
- Tungsten-filament lamp loads not exceeding the ampere rating of the switch at the applied voltage if T-rated.
Snap switches rated 20 amperes or less directly connected to aluminum conductors shall be listed and marked CO/ALR.
Snap switches rated 347 volts ac shall be listed and shall be used only for controlling the loads permitted by (D)(1) and (D)(2).
Noninductive loads other than tungsten-filament lamps not exceeding the ampere and voltage ratings of the switch.
Inductive loads not exceeding the ampere and voltage ratings of the switch. Where particular load characteristics or limitations are specified as a condition of the listing, those restrictions shall be observed regardless of the ampere rating of the load.
Where a snap switch or control device is used to control cord- and plug-connected equipment on a general-purpose branch circuit, each snap switch or control device controlling receptacle outlets or cord connectors that are supplied by permanently connected cord pendants shall be rated at not less than the rating of the maximum permitted ampere rating or setting of the overcurrent device protecting the receptacles or cord connectors, as provided in 210.21(B).
Informational Note: See 210.50(A) and 400.10(A)(1) for equivalency to a receptacle outlet of a cord connector that is supplied by a permanently connected cord pendant.
Switches shall be marked with the current, voltage, and, if horsepower rated, the maximum rating for which they are designed.
Electronic lighting control switches shall be listed. Electronic lighting control switches shall not introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor during normal operation. The requirement to not introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor shall take effect on January 1, 2020.
Exception: Electronic lighting control switches that introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted for applications covered by 404.2(C), Exception. Electronic lighting control switches that introduce current on the equipment grounding conductor shall be listed and marked for use in replacement or retrofit applications only.
Auxiliary contacts of a renewable or quick-break type or the equivalent shall be provided on all knife switches rated 600 to 1000 volts and designed for use in breaking current over 200 amperes.
Child Care Facility. A building or structure, or portion thereof, for educational, supervisory, or personal care services for more than four children 7 years old or less.
Outlet Box Hood. A housing shield intended to fit over a faceplate for flush-mounted wiring devices, or an integral component of an outlet box or of a faceplate for flush-mounted wiring devices. The hood does not serve to complete the electrical enclosure; it reduces the risk of water coming in contact with electrical components within the hood, such as attachment plugs, current taps, surge protective devices, direct plug-in transformer units, or wiring devices.
Receptacles rated 20 amperes or less and designed for the direct connection of aluminum conductors shall be marked CO/ALR.
Isolated ground receptacles installed in nonmetallic boxes shall be covered with a nonmetallic faceplate.
All nonlocking-type, 125-volt, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles that are controlled by an automatic control device, or that incorporate control features that remove power from the receptacle for the purpose of energy management or building automation, shall be permanently marked with the symbol shown in Figure 406.3(E) and the word "controlled."
FIGURE 406.3(E) Controlled Receptacle Marking Symbol.
For receptacles controlled by an automatic control device, the marking shall be located on the receptacle face and visible after installation.
In both cases where a multiple receptacle device is used, the required marking of the word "controlled" and symbol shall denote which contact device(s) are controlled.
Except as provided in 406.4(D), receptacles installed on 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits shall be of the grounding type. Grounding-type receptacles shall be installed only on circuits of the voltage class and current for which they are rated, except as provided in Table 210.21(B)(2) and Table 210.21(B)(3).
Receptacles and cord connectors that have equipment grounding conductor contacts shall have those contacts connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
Exception No. 1: Receptacles mounted on portable and vehicle-mounted generator sets and generators in accordance with 250.34.
The equipment grounding conductor contacts of receptacles and cord connectors shall be grounded by connection to the equipment grounding conductor of the circuit supplying the receptacle or cord connector.
Informational Note: For installation requirements for the reduction of electrical noise, see 250.146(D).
The branch-circuit wiring method shall include or provide an equipment grounding conductor to which the equipment grounding conductor contacts of the receptacle or cord connector are connected.
Where attachment to an equipment grounding conductor does not exist in the receptacle enclosure, the installation shall comply with (D)(2)(a), (D)(2)(b), or (D)(2)(c).
(a) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with another non-grounding-type receptacle(s).
(b) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with a ground-fault circuit interrupter-type of receptacle(s). These receptacles or their cover plates shall be marked "No Equipment Ground." An equipment grounding conductor shall not be connected from the ground-fault circuit-interrupter-type receptacle to any outlet supplied from the ground-fault circuit-interrupter receptacle.
(c) A non-grounding-type receptacle(s) shall be permitted to be replaced with a grounding-type receptacle(s) where supplied through a ground-fault circuit interrupter. Where grounding-type receptacles are supplied through the ground-fault circuit interrupter, grounding-type receptacles or their cover plates shall be marked "GFCI Protected" and "No Equipment Ground," visible after installation. An equipment grounding conductor shall not be connected between the grounding-type receptacles.
Informational Note No. 1: Some equipment or appliance manufacturers require that the branch circuit to the equipment or appliance includes an equipment grounding conductor.
Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protected receptacles shall be provided where replacements are made at receptacle outlets that are required to be so protected elsewhere in this Code.
Exception: Where replacement of the receptacle type is impracticable, such as where the outlet box size will not permit the installation of the GFCI receptacle, the receptacle shall be permitted to be replaced with a new receptacle of the existing type, where GFCI protection is provided and the receptacle is marked "GFCI Protected" and "No Equipment Ground," in accordance with 406.4(D)(2)(a), (b), or (c), as applicable.
Where a receptacle outlet is located in any areas specified in 210.12(A) or (B), a replacement receptacle at this outlet shall be one of the following:
- A listed outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit-interrupter receptacle
- A receptacle protected by a listed outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit-interrupter type receptacle
- A receptacle protected by a listed combination type arc-fault circuit-interrupter type circuit breaker
Exception No. 1: Arc-fault circuit-interrupter protection shall not be required where all of the following apply:
- The replacement complies with 406.4(D)(2)(b).
- It is impracticable to provide an equipment grounding conductor as provided by 250.130(C).
- A listed combination type arc-fault circuit-interrupter circuit breaker is not commercially available.
- GFCI/AFCI dual function receptacles are not commercially available.
Receptacles shall be mounted in identified boxes or assemblies. The boxes or assemblies shall be securely fastened in place unless otherwise permitted elsewhere in this Code. Screws used for the purpose of attaching receptacles to a box shall be of the type provided with a listed receptacle, or shall be machine screws having 32 threads per inch or part of listed assemblies or systems, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
After installation, receptacle faces shall be flush with or project from faceplates of insulating material and shall project a minimum of 0.4 mm (0.015 in.) from metal faceplates.
Receptacle assemblies for installation in countertop surfaces shall be listed for countertop applications. Where receptacle assemblies for countertop applications are required to provide ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel in accordance with 210.8, such assemblies shall be permitted to be listed as GFCI receptacle assemblies for countertop applications.
Receptacles shall not be installed in a face-up position in or on countertop surfaces or work surfaces unless listed for countertop or work surface applications.
In seating areas or similar surfaces, receptacles shall not be installed in a face-up position unless the receptacle is any of the following:
- Part of an assembly listed as a furniture power distribution unit
- Part of an assembly listed either as household furnishings or as commercial furnishings
- Listed either as a receptacle assembly for countertop applications or as a GFCI receptacle assembly for countertop applications
- Installed in a listed floor box
A receptacle shall not be grouped or ganged in enclosures with other receptacles, snap switches, or similar devices, unless they are arranged so that the voltage between adjacent devices does not exceed 300 volts, or unless they are installed in enclosures equipped with identified, securely installed barriers between adjacent devices.
Metal faceplates shall be of ferrous metal not less than 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) in thickness or of nonferrous metal not less than 1.02 mm (0.040 in.) in thickness.
Faceplates of insulating material shall be noncombustible and not less than 2.54 mm (0.10 in.) in thickness but shall be permitted to be less than 2.54 mm (0.10 in.) in thickness if formed or reinforced to provide adequate mechanical strength.
Receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs shall be constructed such that receptacle or cord connectors do not accept an attachment plug with a different voltage or current rating from that for which the device is intended. However, a 20-ampere T-slot receptacle or cord connector shall be permitted to accept a 15-ampere attachment plug of the same voltage rating. Non-grounding-type receptacles and connectors shall not accept grounding-type attachment plugs.
A receptacle installed outdoors in a location protected from the weather or in other damp locations shall have an enclosure for the receptacle that is weatherproof when the receptacle is covered (attachment plug cap not inserted and receptacle covers closed).
A receptacle shall be considered to be in a location protected from the weather where located under roofed open porches, canopies, marquees, and the like, and will not be subjected to a beating rain or water runoff. All 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking receptacles shall be a listed weather-resistant type.
Receptacles of 15 and 20 amperes, 125 and 250 volts installed in a wet location shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof whether or not the attachment plug cap is inserted. An outlet box hood installed for this purpose shall be listed and shall be identified as "extra-duty." Other listed products, enclosures, or assemblies providing weatherproof protection that do not utilize an outlet box hood need not be marked "extra duty."
Informational Note No. 1: Requirements for extra-duty outlet box hoods are found in ANSI/UL 514D—2013, Cover Plates for Flush-Mounted Wiring Devices. "Extra duty" identification and requirements are not applicable to listed receptacles, faceplates, outlet boxes, enclosures, or assemblies that are identified as either being suitable for wet locations or rated as one of the outdoor enclosure-type numbers of Table 110.28 that does not utilize an outlet box hood.
Exception: 15- and 20-ampere, 125- through 250-volt receptacles installed in a wet location and subject to routine high-pressure spray washing shall be permitted to have an enclosure that is weatherproof when the attachment plug is removed. All 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking-type receptacles shall be listed and so identified as the weather-resistant type.
All other receptacles installed in a wet location shall comply with (B)(2)(a) or (B)(2)(b).
(a) A receptacle installed in a wet location, where the product intended to be plugged into it is not attended while in use, shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof with the attachment plug cap inserted or removed.
Receptacles shall not be installed within or directly over a bathtub or shower stall.
Grounding-type receptacles, cord connectors, and attachment plugs shall be provided with one fixed grounding pole in addition to the circuit poles. The grounding contacting pole of grounding-type plug-in ground-fault circuit interrupters shall be permitted to be of the movable, self-restoring type on circuits operating at not over 150 volts between any two conductors or any conductor and ground.
Grounding-type receptacles, adapters, cord connections, and attachment plugs shall have a means for connection of an equipment grounding conductor to the grounding pole.
- A green-colored hexagonal-headed or -shaped terminal screw or nut, not readily removable.
- A green-colored pressure wire connector body (a wire barrel).
- A similar green-colored connection device, in the case of adapters. The grounding terminal of a grounding adapter shall be a green-colored rigid ear, lug, or similar device. The equipment grounding connection shall be so designed that it cannot make contact with current-carrying parts of the receptacle, adapter, or attachment plug. The adapter shall be polarized.
- If the terminal for the equipment grounding conductor is not visible, the conductor entrance hole shall be marked with the word green or ground, the letters G or GR, a grounding symbol, or otherwise identified by a distinctive green color. If the terminal for the equipment grounding conductor is readily removable, the area adjacent to the terminal shall be similarly marked.
Informational Note: See Informational Note Figure 406.10(B)(4).
Grounding-type attachment plugs and mating cord connectors and receptacles shall be designed such that the equipment grounding connection is made before the current-carrying connections. Grounding-type devices shall be so designed that grounding poles of attachment plugs cannot be brought into contact with current-carrying parts of receptacles or cord connectors.
All 15- and 20-ampere, 125- and 250-volt nonlocking-type receptacles in the areas specified in 406.12(1) through (7) shall be listed tamper-resistant receptacles.
- Dwelling units in all areas specified in 210.52 and 550.13
- Guest rooms and guest suites of hotels and motels
- Child care facilities
- Preschools and elementary education facilities
- Business offices, corridors, waiting rooms and the like in clinics, medical and dental offices and outpatient facilities
- Subset of assembly occupancies described in 518.2 to include places of waiting transportation, gymnasiums, skating rinks, and auditoriums
Informational Note: This requirement would include receptacles identified as 5—15, 5—20, 6—15, and 6—20 in ANSI/NEMA WD 6-2016, Wiring Devices — Dimensional Specifications.
Exception to (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), and (7): Receptacles in the following locations shall not be required to be tamper resistant:
- Receptacles located more than 1.7 m (51/2 ft) above the floor
Informational Note Figure 406.10(B)(4) One Example of a Symbol Used to Identify the Termination Point for an Equipment Grounding Conductor.
- Receptacles that are part of a luminaire or appliance
- A single receptacle or a duplex receptacle for two appliances located within the dedicated space for each appliance that, in normal use, is not easily moved from one place to another and that is cord-and-plug-connected in accordance with 400.10(A)(6), (A)(7), or (A)(8)
- Nongrounding receptacles used for replacements as permitted in 406.4(D)(2)(a)
Switches, circuit breakers, and overcurrent devices used on switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards and their enclosures shall comply with this article and also with the requirements of Articles 240, 250, 312, 404, and other articles that apply. Switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards in hazardous (classified) locations shall comply with the applicable provisions of Articles 500 through 517.
Conductors and busbars shall be located so as to be free from physical damage and shall be held firmly in place.
Barriers shall be placed in all service panelboards, switchboards, and switchgear such that no uninsulated, ungrounded service busbar or service terminal is exposed to inadvertent contact by persons or maintenance equipment while servicing load terminations.
Other than the required interconnections and control wiring, only those conductors that are intended for termination in a vertical section of a switchboard or switchgear shall be located in that section.
The arrangement of busbars and conductors shall be such as to avoid overheating due to inductive effects.
Each switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard, if used as service equipment, shall be provided with a main bonding jumper sized in accordance with 250.28(D) or the equivalent placed within the panelboard or one of the sections of the switchboard or switchgear for connecting the grounded service conductor on its supply side to the switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard frame. All sections of a switchboard or switchgear shall be bonded together using an equipment-bonding jumper or a supply-side bonding jumper sized in accordance with 250.122 or 250.102(C)(1) as applicable.
In switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards, load terminals for field wiring, including grounded circuit conductor load terminals and connections to the equipment grounding conductor bus for load equipment grounding conductors, shall be so located that it is not necessary to reach across or beyond an uninsulated ungrounded bus in order to make connections.
Alternating-current phase arrangement on 3-phase buses shall be A, B, C from front to back, top to bottom, or left to right, as viewed from the front of the switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard. The B phase shall be that phase having the higher voltage to ground on 3-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected systems. Other busbar arrangements shall be permitted for additions to existing installations and shall be marked.
Exception: Equipment within the same single section or multisection switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard as the meter on 3-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected systems shall be permitted to have the same phase configuration as the metering equipment.
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing a high-impedance grounded neutral ac system in accordance with 250.36 shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
A switchboard, switchgear, or panelboard containing a resistive connection between current-carrying conductors and the grounding system to stabilize voltage to ground shall be legibly and permanently field marked as follows:
Every circuit and circuit modification shall be legibly identified as to its clear, evident, and specific purpose or use. The identification shall include an approved degree of detail that allows each circuit to be distinguished from all others. Spare positions that contain unused overcurrent devices or switches shall be described accordingly. The identification shall be included in a circuit directory that is located on the face or inside of the panel door in the case of a panelboard and at each switch or circuit breaker in a switchboard or switchgear. No circuit shall be described in a manner that depends on transient conditions of occupancy.
All switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards supplied by a feeder(s) in other than one- or two-family dwellings shall be permanently marked to indicate each device or equipment where the power originates. The label shall be permanently affixed, of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved, and not handwritten.
Where conduits or other raceways enter a switchboard, switchgear, floor-standing panelboard, or similar enclosure at the bottom, approved space shall be provided to permit installation of conductors in the enclosure. The wiring space shall not be less than shown in Table 408.5 where the conduit or raceways enter or leave the enclosure below the busbars, their supports, or other obstructions. The conduit or raceways, including their end fittings, shall not rise more than 75 mm (3 in.) above the bottom of the enclosure.
Table 408.5 Clearance for Conductors Entering Bus Enclosures
|Conductor||Minimum Spacing Between Bottom of Enclosure and Busbars, Their Supports, or Other Obstructions|
|Insulated busbars, their supports, or other obstructions||200||8|
Switchboards and switchgear that have any exposed live parts shall be located in permanently dry locations and then only where under competent supervision and accessible only to qualified persons. Switchboards and switchgear shall be located such that the probability of damage from equipment or processes is reduced to a minimum.
In addition to the requirement of 408.30, a panelboard shall be protected by an overcurrent protective device having a rating not greater than that of the panelboard. This overcurrent protective device shall be located within or at any point on the supply side of the panelboard.
Exception No. 1: Individual protection shall not be required for a panelboard used as service equipment with multiple disconnecting means in accordance with 230.71. In panelboards protected by three or more main circuit breakers or sets of fuses, the circuit breakers or sets of fuses shall not supply a second bus structure within the same panelboard assembly.
Exception No. 2: Individual protection shall not be required for a panelboard protected on its supply side by two main circuit breakers or two sets of fuses having a combined rating not greater than that of the panelboard. A panelboard constructed or wired under this exception shall not contain more than 42 overcurrent devices. For the purposes of determining the maximum of 42 overcurrent devices, a 2-pole or a 3-pole circuit breaker shall be considered as two or three overcurrent devices, respectively.
Where a panelboard is supplied through a transformer, the overcurrent protection required by 408.36 shall be located on the secondary side of the transformer.
Plug-in-type overcurrent protection devices or plug-in type main lug assemblies that are backfed and used to terminate field-installed ungrounded supply conductors shall be secured in place by an additional fastener that requires other than a pull to release the device from the mounting means on the panel.
Panelboard cabinets and panelboard frames, if of metal, shall be in physical contact with each other and shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor. Where the panelboard is used with nonmetallic raceway or cable or where separate equipment grounding conductors are provided, a terminal bar for the equipment grounding conductors shall be secured inside the cabinet. The terminal bar shall be bonded to the cabinet and panelboard frame, if of metal; otherwise it shall be connected to the equipment grounding conductor that is run with the conductors feeding the panelboard.
Exception: Where an isolated equipment grounding conductor is provided as permitted by 250.146(D), the insulated equipment grounding conductor that is run with the circuit conductors shall be permitted to pass through the panelboard without being connected to the panelboard's equipment grounding terminal bar.
Equipment grounding conductors shall not be connected to a terminal bar provided for grounded conductors or neutral conductors unless the bar is identified for the purpose and is located where interconnection between equipment grounding conductors and grounded circuit conductors is permitted or required by Article 250.
Each grounded conductor shall terminate within the panelboard in an individual terminal that is not also used for another conductor.
Instruments, pilot lights, voltage (potential) transformers, and other switchboard or switchgear devices with potential coils shall be supplied by a circuit that is protected by standard overcurrent devices rated 15 amperes or less.
Exception No. 1: Overcurrent devices rated more than 15 amperes shall be permitted where the interruption of the circuit could create a hazard. Short-circuit protection shall be provided.
Exception No. 2: For ratings of 2 amperes or less, special types of enclosed fuses shall be permitted.
A panelboard shall be provided with physical means to prevent the installation of more overcurrent devices than that number for which the panelboard was designed, rated, and listed.
The enclosure for a panelboard shall have the top and bottom wire-bending space sized in accordance with Table 312.6(B) for the largest conductor entering or leaving the enclosure.
Exception No. 1: Either the top or bottom wire-bending space shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) for a panelboard rated 225 amperes or less and designed to contain not over 42 overcurrent devices. For the purposes of this exception, a 2-pole or a 3-pole circuit breaker shall be considered as two or three overcurrent devices, respectively.
Exception No. 2: Either the top or bottom wire-bending space for any panelboard shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) where at least one side wire-bending space is sized in accordance with Table 312.6(B) for the largest conductor to be terminated in any side wire-bending space.
Exception No. 3: The top and bottom wire-bending space shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) spacings if the panelboard is designed and constructed for wiring using only a single 90-degree bend for each conductor, including the grounded circuit conductor, and the wiring diagram shows and specifies the method of wiring that shall be used.
Exception No. 4: Either the top or the bottom wire-bending space, but not both, shall be permitted to be sized in accordance with Table 312.6(A) where there are no conductors terminated in that space.
Side wire-bending space shall be in accordance with Table 312.6(A) for the largest conductor to be terminated in that space.
Where a raceway or cable entry is in the wall of the enclosure opposite a removable cover, the distance from that wall to the cover shall be permitted to comply with the distance required for one wire per terminal in Table 312.6(A). The distance between the center of the rear entry and the nearest termination for the entering conductors shall not be less than the distance given in Table 312.6(B).
The distance between bare metal parts, busbars, and so forth shall not be less than specified in Table 408.56.
Where close proximity does not cause excessive heating, parts of the same polarity at switches, enclosed fuses, and so forth shall be permitted to be placed as close together as convenience in handling will allow.
Exception: The distance shall be permitted to be less than that specified in Table 408.56 at circuit breakers and switches and in listed components installed in switchboards, switchgear, and panelboards.
Table 408.56 Minimum Spacings Between Bare Metal Parts
|AC or DC Voltage||Opposite Polarity Where Mounted on the Same Surface||Opposite Polarity Where Held Free in Air||Live Parts to Ground*|
|Not over 125 volts, nominal||19.1||3/4||12.7||1/2||12.7||1/2|
|Not over 250 volts, nominal||31.8||11/4||19.1||3/4||12.7||1/2|
|Not over 1000 volts, nominal||50.8||2||25.4||1||25.4||1|
|*For spacing between live parts and doors of cabinets, see 312.11(A)(1), (2), and (3).|
Panelboards shall be durably marked by the manufacturer with the voltage and the current rating and the number of ac phases or dc buses for which they are designed and with the manufacturer's name or trademark in such a manner so as to be visible after installation, without disturbing the interior parts or wiring.
In addition to the requirements of Article 409, industrial control panels that contain branch circuits for specific loads or components, or are for control of specific types of equipment addressed in other articles of this Code, shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the applicable requirements from the specific articles in Table 409.3.
Table 409.3 Other Articles
|Motors, motor circuits, and controllers||430|
|Air-conditioning and refrigerating equipment||440|
|Hazardous (classified) locations||500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505|
|Commercial garages; aircraft hangars; motor fuel dispensing facilities; bulk storage plants; spray application, dipping, and coating processes; and inhalation anesthetizing locations||511, 513, 514, 515, 516, and 517 Part IV|
|Cranes and hoists||610|
|Electrically driven or controlled irrigation machines||675|
|Elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators, moving walks, wheelchair lifts, and stairway chair lifts||620|
|Resistors and reactors||470|
|Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 remote-control, signaling, and power-limited circuits||725|
The size of the industrial control panel supply conductor shall have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the full-load current rating of all heating loads plus 125 percent of the full-load current rating of the highest rated motor plus the sum of the full-load current ratings of all other connected motors and apparatus based on their duty cycle that may be in operation at the same time.
This protection shall be provided for each incoming supply circuit by either of the following:
- An overcurrent protective device located ahead of the industrial control panel.
- A single main overcurrent protective device located within the industrial control panel. Where overcurrent protection is provided as part of the industrial control panel, the supply conductors shall be considered as either feeders or taps as covered by 240.21.
The rating or setting of the overcurrent protective device for the circuit supplying the industrial control panel shall not be greater than the sum of the largest rating or setting of the branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protective device provided with the industrial control panel, plus 125 percent of the full-load current rating of all resistance heating loads, plus the sum of the full-load currents of all other motors and apparatus that could be in operation at the same time.
Exception: Where one or more instantaneous trip circuit breakers or motor short-circuit protectors are used for motor branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protection as permitted by 430.52(C), the procedure specified above for determining the maximum rating of the protective device for the circuit supplying the industrial control panel shall apply with the following provision: For the purpose of the calculation, each instantaneous trip circuit breaker or motor short-circuit protector shall be assumed to have a rating not exceeding the maximum percentage of motor full-load current permitted by Table 430.52 for the type of control panel supply circuit protective device employed.
If an industrial control panel is required to be marked with a short-circuit current rating in accordance with 409.110(4), the available short-circuit current at the industrial control panel and the date the short-circuit current calculation was performed shall be documented and made available to those authorized to inspect the installation.
Multisection industrial control panels shall be bonded together with an equipment grounding conductor or an equivalent equipment grounding bus sized in accordance with Table 250.122. Equipment grounding conductors shall be connected to this equipment grounding bus or to an equipment grounding termination point provided in a single-section industrial control panel.
Table 110.28 shall be used as the basis for selecting industrial control panel enclosures for use in specific locations other than hazardous (classified) locations. The enclosures are not intended to protect against conditions such as condensation, icing, corrosion, or contamination that may occur within the enclosure or enter via the conduit or unsealed openings.
Busbars shall be protected from physical damage and be held firmly in place.
The phase arrangement on 3-phase horizontal common power and vertical buses shall be A, B, C from front to back, top to bottom, or left to right, as viewed from the front of the industrial control panel. The B phase shall be that phase having the higher voltage to ground on 3-phase, 4-wire, delta-connected systems. Other busbar arrangements shall be permitted for additions to existing installations, and the phases shall be permanently marked.
Industrial control panel enclosures shall not be used as junction boxes, auxiliary gutters, or raceways for conductors feeding through or tapping off to other switches or overcurrent devices or other equipment, unless the conductors fill less than 40 percent of the cross-sectional area of the wiring space. In addition, the conductors, splices, and taps shall not fill the wiring space at any cross section to more than 75 percent of the cross-sectional area of that space.
Spacings in feeder circuits between uninsulated live parts of adjacent components, between uninsulated live parts of components and grounded or accessible non-current-carrying metal parts, between uninsulated live parts of components and the enclosure, and at field wiring terminals shall be as shown in Table 430.97(D).
Where used as service equipment, each industrial control panel shall be of the type that is suitable for use as service equipment.
An industrial control panel shall be marked with the following information that is plainly visible after installation:
- Manufacturer's name, trademark, or other descriptive marking by which the organization responsible for the product can be identified.
- Supply voltage, number of phases, frequency, and full-load current for each incoming supply circuit.
- Industrial control panels supplied by more than one electrical source where more than one disconnecting means is required to disconnect all circuits 50-volts or more within the control panel shall be marked to indicate that more than one disconnecting means is required to de-energize the equipment. The location of the means necessary to disconnect all circuits 50-volts or more shall be documented and available.
- Short-circuit current rating of the industrial control panel based on one of the following:
- If the industrial control panel is intended as service equipment, it shall be marked to identify it as being suitable for use as service equipment.
- Electrical wiring diagram or the identification number of a separate electrical wiring diagram or a designation referenced in a separate wiring diagram.
- An enclosure type number shall be marked on the industrial control panel enclosure.
This article covers luminaires, portable luminaires, lampholders, pendants, incandescent filament lamps, arc lamps, electric-discharge lamps, decorative lighting products, lighting accessories for temporary seasonal and holiday use, portable flexible lighting products, and the wiring and equipment forming part of such products and lighting installations.
Closet Storage Space. The volume bounded by the sides and back closet walls and planes extending from the closet floor vertically to a height of 1.8 m (6 ft) or to the highest clothes-hanging rod and parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 600 mm (24 in.) from the sides and back of the closet walls, respectively, and continuing vertically to the closet ceiling parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 300 mm (12 in.) or the width of the shelf, whichever is greater; for a closet that permits access to both sides of a hanging rod, this space includes the volume below the highest rod extending 300 mm (12 in.) on either side of the rod on a plane horizontal to the floor extending the entire length of the rod. See Figure 410.2.
Luminaires, portable luminaires, lampholders, and lamps shall have no live parts normally exposed to contact. Exposed accessible terminals in lampholders and switches shall not be installed in metal luminaire canopies or in open bases of portable table or floor luminaires.
Luminaires installed in wet or damp locations shall be installed such that water cannot enter or accumulate in wiring compartments, lampholders, or other electrical parts. All luminaires installed in wet locations shall be marked, "Suitable for Wet Locations." All luminaires installed in damp locations shall be marked "Suitable for Wet Locations" or "Suitable for Damp Locations."
Luminaires shall be permitted to be installed in commercial cooking hoods where all of the following conditions are met:
- The luminaire shall be identified for use within commercial cooking hoods and installed such that the temperature limits of the materials used are not exceeded.
- The luminaire shall be constructed so that all exhaust vapors, grease, oil, or cooking vapors are excluded from the lamp and wiring compartment. Diffusers shall be resistant to thermal shock.
- Parts of the luminaire exposed within the hood shall be corrosion resistant or protected against corrosion, and the surface shall be smooth so as not to collect deposits and to facilitate cleaning.
- Wiring methods and materials supplying the luminaire(s) shall not be exposed within the cooking hood.
No parts of cord-connected luminaires, chain-, cable-, or cord-suspended luminaires, lighting track, pendants, or ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans shall be located within a zone measured 900 mm (3 ft) horizontally and 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold. This zone is all encompassing and includes the space directly over the tub or shower stall. Luminaires located within the actual outside dimension of the bathtub or shower to a height of 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower threshold shall be marked for damp locations, or marked for wet locations where subject to shower spray.
Luminaires subject to physical damage, using a mercury vapor or metal halide lamp, installed in playing and spectator seating areas of indoor sports, mixed-use, or all-purpose facilities shall be of the type that protects the lamp with a glass or plastic lens. Such luminaires shall be permitted to have an additional guard.
Luminaires shall be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material is not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Lampholders installed over highly combustible material shall be of the unswitched type. Unless an individual switch is provided for each luminaire, lampholders shall be located at least 2.5 m (8 ft) above the floor or shall be located or guarded so that the lamps cannot be readily removed or damaged.
Only luminaires of the following types shall be permitted in a closet:
The minimum clearance between luminaires installed in clothes closets and the nearest point of a closet storage space shall be as follows:
- 300 mm (12 in.) for surface-mounted incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling.
- 150 mm (6 in.) for surface-mounted fluorescent luminaires installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling.
- 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source installed in the wall or the ceiling.
- 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed fluorescent luminaires installed in the wall or the ceiling.
- Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires shall be permitted to be installed within the closet storage space where identified for this use.
Coves shall have adequate space and shall be located so that lamps and equipment can be properly installed and maintained.
Luminaires shall be of such construction or installed so that the conductors in outlet boxes shall not be subjected to temperatures greater than that for which the conductors are rated.
Branch-circuit wiring, other than 2-wire or multiwire branch circuits supplying power to luminaires connected together, shall not be passed through an outlet box that is an integral part of a luminaire unless the luminaire is identified for through-wiring.
Metal or nonmetallic poles shall be permitted to be used to support luminaires and as a raceway to enclose supply conductors, provided the following conditions are met:
- A pole shall have a handhole not less than 50 mm × 100 mm (2 in. × 4 in.) with a cover suitable for use in wet locations to provide access to the supply terminations within the pole or pole base. Exception No. 1: No handhole shall be required in a pole 2.5 m (8 ft) or less in height abovegrade where the supply wiring method continues without splice or pull point, and where the interior of the pole and any splices are accessible by removing the luminaire.Exception No. 2: No handhole shall be required in a pole 6.0 m (20 ft) or less in height abovegrade that is provided with a hinged base.
- Where raceway risers or cable is not installed within the pole, a threaded fitting or nipple shall be brazed, welded, or attached to the pole opposite the handhole for the supply connection.
- A metal pole shall be provided with an equipment grounding terminal as follows:
- A metal pole with a hinged base shall have the hinged base and pole bonded together.
- Metal raceways or other equipment grounding conductors shall be bonded to the metal pole with an equipment grounding conductor recognized by 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
- Conductors in vertical poles used as raceway shall be supported as provided in 300.19.
Framing members of suspended ceiling systems used to support luminaires shall be securely fastened to each other and shall be securely attached to the building structure at appropriate intervals. Luminaires shall be securely fastened to the ceiling framing member by mechanical means such as bolts, screws, or rivets. Listed clips identified for use with the type of ceiling framing member(s) and luminaire(s) shall also be permitted.
Insulating joints that are not designed to be mounted with screws or bolts shall have an exterior metal casing, insulated from both screw connections.
Exposed metal parts shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor or insulated from the equipment grounding conductor and other conducting surfaces or be inaccessible to unqualified personnel. Lamp tie wires, mounting screws, clips, and decorative bands on glass spaced at least 38 mm (11/2 in.) from lamp terminals shall not be required to be grounded.
Luminaires and equipment shall be mechanically connected to an equipment grounding conductor as specified in 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
Exception No. 1: Luminaires made of insulating material that is directly wired or attached to outlets supplied by a wiring method that does not provide a ready means for grounding attachment to an equipment grounding conductor shall be made of insulating material and shall have no exposed conductive parts.
Exception No. 2: Replacement luminaires shall be permitted to connect an equipment grounding conductor from the outlet in compliance with 250.130(C). The luminaire shall then comply with 410.42.
Luminaires shall be wired with conductors having insulation suitable for the environmental conditions, current, voltage, and temperature to which the conductors will be subjected.
Pendant lampholders with permanently attached leads, where used for other than festoon wiring, shall be hung from separate stranded rubber-covered conductors that are soldered directly to the circuit conductors but supported independently thereof.
Unless part of listed decorative lighting assemblies, pendant conductors shall not be smaller than 14 AWG for mogul-base or medium-base screw shell lampholders or smaller than 18 AWG for intermediate or candelabra-base lampholders.
Pendant conductors longer than 900 mm (3 ft) shall be twisted together where not cabled in a listed assembly.
Conductors shall be secured in a manner that does not tend to cut or abrade the insulation.
Conductor insulation shall be protected from abrasion where it passes through metal.
Stranded conductors shall be used for wiring on luminaire chains and on other movable or flexible parts.
Individual showcases, other than fixed, shall be permitted to be connected by flexible cord to permanently installed receptacles, and groups of not more than six such showcases shall be permitted to be coupled together by flexible cord and separable locking-type connectors with one of the group connected by flexible cord to a permanently installed receptacle.
The installation shall comply with 410.59(A) through (E).
Flexible cord shall be of the hard-service type, having conductors not smaller than the branch-circuit conductors, having ampacity at least equal to the branch-circuit overcurrent device, and having an equipment grounding conductor.
Informational Note: See Table 250.122 for size of equipment grounding conductor.
Flexible cords shall be secured to the undersides of showcases such that all of the following conditions are ensured:
Where a metal lampholder is attached to a flexible cord, the inlet shall be equipped with an insulating bushing that, if threaded, is not smaller than metric designator 12 (trade size 3/8) pipe size. The cord hole shall be of a size appropriate for the cord, and all burrs and fins shall be removed in order to provide a smooth bearing surface for the cord.
Bushing having holes 7 mm (9/32 in.) in diameter shall be permitted for use with plain pendant cord and holes 11 mm (13/32 in.) in diameter with reinforced cord.
Luminaires that require adjusting or aiming after installation shall not be required to be equipped with an attachment plug or cord connector, provided the exposed cord is suitable for hard-usage or extra-hard-usage and is not longer than that required for maximum adjustment. The cord shall not be subject to strain or physical damage.
Informational Note: For application provisions, see Table 400.4, "Use" column.
Electric-discharge and LED luminaires shall comply with (1), (2), and (3) as applicable.
A luminaire or a listed assembly in compliance with any of the conditions in (a) through (c) shall be permitted to be cord connected provided the luminaire is located directly below the outlet or busway, the cord is not subject to strain or physical damage, and the cord is visible over its entire length except at terminations.
(a) A luminaire shall be permitted to be connected with a cord terminating in a grounding-type attachment plug or busway plug.
(b) A luminaire assembly equipped with a strain relief and canopy shall be permitted to use a cord connection between the luminaire assembly and the canopy. The canopy shall be permitted to include a section of raceway not over 150 mm (6 in.) in length and intended to facilitate the connection to an outlet box mounted above a suspended ceiling.
Electric-discharge luminaires provided with mogul-base, screw shell lampholders shall be permitted to be connected to branch circuits of 50 amperes or less by cords complying with 240.5. Receptacles and attachment plugs shall be permitted to be of a lower ampere rating than the branch circuit but not less than 125 percent of the luminaire full-load current.
Electric-discharge luminaires equipped with a flanged surface inlet shall be permitted to be supplied by cord pendants equipped with cord connectors. Inlets and connectors shall be permitted to be of a lower ampere rating than the branch circuit but not less than 125 percent of the luminaire load current.
Luminaires designed for end-to-end connection to form a continuous assembly, or luminaires connected together by recognized wiring methods, shall be permitted to contain the conductors of a 2-wire branch circuit, or one multiwire branch circuit, supplying the connected luminaires and shall not be required to be listed as a raceway. One additional 2-wire branch circuit separately supplying one or more of the connected luminaires shall also be permitted.
Adequate airspace shall be provided between lamps and shades or other enclosures of combustible material.
All luminaires shall be marked with the maximum lamp wattage or electrical rating, manufacturer's name, trademark, or other suitable means of identification. A luminaire requiring supply wire rated higher than 60°C (140°F) shall be marked with the minimum supply wire temperature rating on the luminaire and shipping carton or equivalent.
In addition to the provisions of 410.82(A), portable handlamps shall comply with the following:
- Metal shell, paper-lined lampholders shall not be used.
- Handlamps shall be equipped with a handle of molded composition or other insulating material.
- Handlamps shall be equipped with a substantial guard attached to the lampholder or handle.
- Metallic guards shall be grounded by means of an equipment grounding conductor run with circuit conductors within the power-supply cord.
- Portable handlamps shall not be required to be grounded where supplied through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary of not over 50 volts.
Lampholders shall be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material is not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Luminaires shall be installed so that adjacent combustible material will not be subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Incandescent luminaires shall have thermal protection and shall be identified as thermally protected.
Exception No. 1: Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed luminaire identified for use and installed in poured concrete.
A recessed luminaire that is not identified for contact with insulation shall have all recessed parts spaced not less than 13 mm (1/2 in.) from combustible materials. The points of support and the trim finishing off the openings in the ceiling, wall, or other finished surface shall be permitted to be in contact with combustible materials.
Conductors that have insulation suitable for the temperature encountered shall be used.
Tap conductors of a type suitable for the temperature encountered shall be permitted to run from the luminaire terminal connection to an outlet box placed at least 300 mm (1 ft) from the luminaire. Such tap conductors shall be in suitable raceway or Type AC or MC cable of at least 450 mm (18 in.) but not more than 1.8 m (6 ft) in length.
Luminaires shall be constructed such that adjacent combustible material is not subject to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Incandescent lamp luminaires shall be marked to indicate the maximum allowable wattage of lamps. The markings shall be permanently installed, in letters at least 6 mm (1/4 in.) high, and shall be located where visible during relamping.
No solder shall be used in the construction of a luminaire recessed housing.
Lampholders of the screw shell type shall be of porcelain or other suitable insulating materials.
Transformers of the oil-filled type shall not be used.
The ballast of a fluorescent luminaire installed indoors shall have integral thermal protection. Replacement ballasts shall also have thermal protection integral with the ballast.
Luminaires that use a metal halide lamp other than a thick-glass parabolic reflector lamp (PAR) shall be provided with a containment barrier that encloses the lamp, or shall be provided with a physical means that only allows the use of a lamp that is Type O.
Informational Note: See ANSI Standard C78.389, American National Standard for Electric Lamps — High Intensity Discharge, Methods of Measuring Characteristics.
In indoor locations other than dwellings and associated accessory structures, fluorescent luminaires that utilize double-ended lamps and contain ballast(s) that can be serviced in place shall have a disconnecting means either internal or external to each luminaire. For existing installed luminaires without disconnecting means, at the time a ballast is replaced, a disconnecting means shall be installed. The line side terminals of the disconnecting means shall be guarded.
Exception No. 1: A disconnecting means shall not be required for luminaires installed in hazardous (classified) location(s).
Exception No. 2: A disconnecting means shall not be required for luminaires that provide emergency illumination required in 700.16.
Exception No. 3: For cord-and-plug-connected luminaires, an accessible separable connector or an accessible plug and receptacle shall be permitted to serve as the disconnecting means.
Exception No. 4: Where more than one luminaire is installed and supplied by other than a multiwire branch circuit, a disconnecting means shall not be required for every luminaire when the design of the installation includes disconnecting means, such that the illuminated space cannot be left in total darkness.
The disconnecting means shall be located so as to be accessible to qualified persons before servicing or maintaining the ballast. Where the disconnecting means is external to the luminaire, it shall be a single device, and shall be attached to the luminaire or the luminaire shall be located within sight of the disconnecting means.
Where a surface-mounted luminaire containing a ballast, transformer, LED driver, or power supply is to be installed on combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard, it shall be marked for this condition or shall be spaced not less than 38 mm (11/2 in.) from the surface of the fiberboard. Where such luminaires are partially or wholly recessed, the provisions of 410.110 through 410.122 shall apply.
Informational Note: Combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard includes sheets, panels, and tiles that have a density of 320 kg/m3 (20 lb/ft3) or less and that are formed of bonded plant fiber material but does not include solid or laminated wood or fiberboard that has a density in excess of 320 kg/m3 (20 lb/ft3) or is a material that has been integrally treated with fire-retarding chemicals to the degree that the flame spread index in any plane of the material will not exceed 25, determined in accordance with tests for surface burning characteristics of building materials. See ANSI/ASTM E84-2015a, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials or ANSI/UL 723—2013, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.
Wired luminaire sections are paired, with a ballast(s) supplying a lamp or lamps in both. For interconnection between paired units, it shall be permissible to use metric designator 12 (trade size 3/8) flexible metal conduit in lengths not exceeding 7.5 m (25 ft), in conformance with Article 348. Luminaire wire operating at line voltage, supplying only the ballast(s) of one of the paired luminaires shall be permitted in the same raceway as the lamp supply wires of the paired luminaires.
Secondary circuit outputs shall not be connected in parallel or in series.
Transformers shall be installed as near to the lamps as practicable to keep the secondary conductors as short as possible.
Transformers shall be located so that adjacent combustible materials are not subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Each luminaire or each secondary circuit of tubing having an open-circuit voltage of over 1000 volts shall have a clearly legible marking in letters not less than 6 mm (1/4 in.) high reading "Caution _____ volts." The voltage indicated shall be the rated open-circuit voltage. The caution sign(s) or label(s) shall comply with 110.21(B).
The connected load on lighting track shall not exceed the rating of the track. Lighting track shall be supplied by a branch circuit having a rating not more than that of the track. The load calculation in 220.43(B) shall not be required to limit the length of track on a single branch circuit, and it shall not be required to limit the number of luminaires on a single track.
Lighting track shall not be installed in the following locations:
- Where likely to be subjected to physical damage
- In wet or damp locations
- Where subject to corrosive vapors
- In storage battery rooms
- In hazardous (classified) locations
- Where concealed
- Where extended through walls or partitions
- Less than 1.5 m (5 ft) above the finished floor except where protected from physical damage or track operating at less than 30 volts rms open-circuit voltage
- Where prohibited by 410.10(D)
Fittings identified for use on lighting track shall be designed specifically for the track on which they are to be installed. They shall be securely fastened to the track, shall maintain polarization and connections to the equipment grounding conductor, and shall be designed to be suspended directly from the track.
Lighting track shall be securely mounted so that each fastening is suitable for supporting the maximum weight of luminaires that can be installed. Unless identified for supports at greater intervals, a single section 1.2 m (4 ft) or shorter in length shall have two supports, and, where installed in a continuous row, each individual section of not more than 1.2 m (4 ft) in length shall have one additional support.
The housing for the lighting track system shall be of substantial construction to maintain rigidity. The conductors shall be installed within the track housing, permitting insertion of a luminaire, and designed to prevent tampering and accidental contact with live parts. Components of lighting track systems of different voltages shall not be interchangeable. The track conductors shall be a minimum 12 AWG or equal and shall be copper. The track system ends shall be insulated and capped.
The secondary circuit shall be insulated from the branch circuit by an isolating transformer.
Insulated secondary circuit conductors shall be of the type, and installed as, described in (1), (2), or (3):
- Class 2 cable supplied by a Class 2 power source and installed in accordance with Parts I and III of Article 725.
- Conductors, cord, or cable of the listed system and installed not less than 2.1 m (7 ft) above the finished floor unless the system is specifically listed for a lower installation height.
- Wiring methods described in Chapter 3.
Lighting systems covered by this article shall be supplied from a maximum 20-ampere branch circuit.
Appliances identified in 422.5(A)(1) through (5) rated 250 volts or less and 60 amperes or less, single- or 3-phase, shall be provided with GFCI protection for personnel. Multiple GFCI protective devices shall be permitted but shall not be required.
- Automotive vacuum machines provided for public use
- Drinking water coolers
- High-pressure spray washing machines — cord-and-plug-connected
- Tire inflation machines provided for public use
- Vending machines
The GFCI shall be readily accessible, listed, and located in one or more of the following locations:
The rating of an individual branch circuit shall not be less than the marked rating of the appliance or the marked rating of an appliance having combined loads as provided in 422.62.
The rating of an individual branch circuit for motor-operated appliances not having a marked rating shall be in accordance with Part II of Article 430.
The branch-circuit rating for an appliance that is a continuous load, other than a motor-operated appliance, shall not be less than 125 percent of the marked rating, or not less than 100 percent of the marked rating if the branch-circuit device and its assembly are listed for continuous loading at 100 percent of its rating.
Household-type appliances with surface heating elements having a maximum demand of more than 60 amperes calculated in accordance with Table 220.55 shall have their power supply subdivided into two or more circuits, each of which shall be provided with overcurrent protection rated at not over 50 amperes.
If the branch circuit supplies a single non-motor-operated appliance, the rating of overcurrent protection shall comply with the following:
- Not exceed that marked on the appliance.
- Not exceed 20 amperes if the overcurrent protection rating is not marked and the appliance is rated 13.3 amperes or less; or
- Not exceed 150 percent of the appliance rated current if the overcurrent protection rating is not marked and the appliance is rated over 13.3 amperes. Where 150 percent of the appliance rating does not correspond to a standard overcurrent device ampere rating, the next higher standard rating shall be permitted.
Electric heating appliances employing resistance-type heating elements rated more than 48 amperes, other than household appliances with surface heating elements covered by 422.11(B), and commercial-type heating appliances covered by 422.11(D), shall have the heating elements subdivided. Each subdivided load shall not exceed 48 amperes and shall be protected at not more than 60 amperes.
These supplementary overcurrent protective devices shall be (1) factory-installed within or on the heater enclosure or provided as a separate assembly by the heater manufacturer; (2) accessible; and (3) suitable for branch-circuit protection.
Commercial kitchen and cooking appliances using sheathed-type heating elements not covered in 422.11(D) shall be permitted to be subdivided into circuits not exceeding 120 amperes and protected at not more than 150 amperes where one of the following is met:
Resistance-type immersion electric heating elements shall be permitted to be subdivided into circuits not exceeding 120 amperes and protected at not more than 150 amperes as follows:
Motors of motor-operated appliances shall be provided with overload protection in accordance with Part III of Article 430. Hermetic refrigerant motor-compressors in air-conditioning or refrigerating equipment shall be provided with overload protection in accordance with Part VI of Article 440. Where appliance overcurrent protective devices that are separate from the appliance are required, data for selection of these devices shall be marked on the appliance. The minimum marking shall be that specified in 430.7 and 440.4.
Central heating equipment other than fixed electric space-heating equipment shall be supplied by an individual branch circuit.
Exception No. 1: Auxiliary equipment, such as a pump, valve, humidifier, or electrostatic air cleaner directly associated with the heating equipment, shall be permitted to be connected to the same branch circuit.
Accessible non-current-carrying metal parts of the central vacuum outlet assembly likely to become energized shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor in accordance with 250.110. Incidental metal parts such as screws or rivets installed into or on insulating material shall not be considered likely to become energized.
Flexible cord shall be permitted (1) for the connection of appliances to facilitate their frequent interchange or to prevent the transmission of noise or vibration or (2) to facilitate the removal or disconnection of appliances that are fastened in place, where the fastening means and mechanical connections are specifically designed to permit ready removal for maintenance or repair and the appliance is intended or identified for flexible cord connection.
Electrically operated in-sink waste disposers shall be permitted to be cord-and-plug-connected with a flexible cord identified as suitable in the installation instructions of the appliance manufacturer where all of the following conditions are met:
Built-in dishwashers and trash compactors shall be permitted to be cord-and-plug-connected with a flexible cord identified as suitable for the purpose in the installation instructions of the appliance manufacturer where all of the following conditions are met:
- The flexible cord shall be terminated with a grounding-type attachment plug.
- For a trash compactor, the length of the cord shall be 0.9 m to 1.2 m (3 ft to 4 ft) measured from the face of the attachment plug to the plane of the rear of the appliance.
- For a built-in dishwasher, the length of the cord shall be 0.9 m to 2.0 m (3 ft to 6.5 ft) measured from the face of the attachment plug to the plane of the rear of the appliance.
- Receptacles shall be located to protect against physical damage to the flexible cord.
- The receptacle for a trash compactor shall be located in the space occupied by the appliance or adjacent thereto.
- The receptacle for a built-in dishwasher shall be located in the space adjacent to the space occupied by the dishwasher.
- The receptacle shall be accessible.
Wall-mounted ovens and counter-mounted cooking units complete with provisions for mounting and for making electrical connections shall be permitted to be permanently connected or, only for ease in servicing or for installation, cord-and-plug-connected.
Range hoods shall be permitted to be cord-and-plug-connected with a flexible cord identified as suitable for use on range hoods in the installation instructions of the appliance manufacturer, where all of the following conditions are met:
- The flexible cord is terminated with a grounding-type attachment plug.
- The length of the cord is not less than 450 mm (18 in.) and not over 1.2 m (4 ft).
- Receptacles are located to protect against physical damage to the flexible cord.
- The receptacle is accessible.
- The receptacle is supplied by an individual branch circuit.
Ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans shall be supported independently of an outlet box or by one of the following:
- A listed outlet box or listed outlet box system identified for the use and installed in accordance with 314.27(C)
- A listed outlet box system, a listed locking support and mounting receptacle, and a compatible factory installed attachment fitting designed for support, identified for the use and installed in accordance with 314.27(E)
In a completed installation, each outlet box shall be provided with a cover unless covered by means of a ceiling-suspended (paddle) fan canopy.
A means shall be provided to simultaneously disconnect each appliance from all ungrounded conductors in accordance with the following sections of Part III. If an appliance is supplied by more than one branch circuit or feeder, these disconnecting means shall be grouped and identified as being the multiple disconnecting means for the appliance. Each disconnecting means shall simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded conductors that it controls.
For permanently connected appliances rated over 300 volt-amperes, the branch-circuit switch or circuit breaker shall be permitted to serve as the disconnecting means where the switch or circuit breaker is within sight from the appliance or is lockable in accordance with 110.25.
The disconnecting means shall comply with 430.109 and 430.110. For permanently connected motor-operated appliances with motors rated over 1/8 hp, the disconnecting means shall be within sight from the appliance or be capable of being locked in the open position in compliance with 110.25.
For cord-and-plug-(or attachment fitting-) connected appliances, an accessible separable connector or an accessible plug (or attachment fitting) and receptacle combination shall be permitted to serve as the disconnecting means. The attachment fitting shall be a factory installed part of the appliance and suitable for disconnection of the appliance. Where the separable connector or plug (or attachment fitting) and receptacle combination are not accessible, cord-and-plug-connected or attachment fitting-and-plug-connected appliances shall be provided with disconnecting means in accordance with 422.31.
In two-family dwellings, the other disconnecting means shall be permitted either inside or outside of the dwelling unit in which the appliance is installed. In this case, an individual switch or circuit breaker for the dwelling unit shall be permitted and shall also be permitted to control lamps and other appliances.
If the appliance is provided with a manually operated, line-connected, single-pole switch for appliance on-off operation, an Edison-base lampholder, or a 15- or 20-ampere receptacle, the attachment plug shall be of the polarized or grounding type.
A 2-wire, nonpolarized attachment plug shall be permitted to be used on a listed double-insulated shaver.
Informational Note: For polarity of Edison-base lampholders, see 410.82(A).
Cord-and plug-connected portable, freestanding hydromassage units and hand-held hair dryers shall be constructed to provide protection for personnel against electrocution when immersed while in the "on" or "off" position.
All cord-and plug-connected smoothing irons and electrically heated appliances that are rated at more than 50 watts and produce temperatures in excess of 121°C (250°F) on surfaces with which the cord is likely to be in contact shall be provided with one of the types of approved heater cords listed in Table 400.4.
Electric heaters of the cord-and plug-connected immersion type shall be constructed and installed so that current-carrying parts are effectively insulated from electrical contact with the substance in which they are immersed.
Electrically heated smoothing irons shall be equipped with an identified temperature-limiting means.
All storage or instantaneous-type water heaters shall be equipped with a temperature-limiting means in addition to its control thermostat to disconnect all ungrounded conductors. Such means shall comply with both of the following:
- Installed to sense maximum water temperature.
- Be either a trip-free, manually reset type or a type having a replacement element. Such water heaters shall be marked to require the installation of a temperature and pressure relief valve.
Exception No. 1: Storage water heaters that are identified as being suitable for use with a supply water temperature of 82°C (180°F) or above and a capacity of 60 kW or above.
Exception No. 2: Instantaneous-type water heaters that are identified as being suitable for such use, with a capacity of 4 L (1 gal) or less.
Informational Note: See ANSI Z21.22-1999/CSA 4.4-M99, Relief Valves for Hot Water Supply Systems.
Infrared heating lamps rated at 300 watts or less shall be permitted with lampholders of the medium-base, unswitched porcelain type or other types identified as suitable for use with infrared heating lamps rated 300 watts or less.
Cord-and-plug-connected pipe heating assemblies intended to prevent freezing of piping shall be listed.
Each electrical appliance shall be provided with a nameplate giving the identifying name and the rating in volts and amperes, or in volts and watts. If the appliance is to be used on a specific frequency or frequencies, it shall be so marked.
Where motor overload protection external to the appliance is required, the appliance shall be so marked.
All heating elements that are rated over one ampere, replaceable in the field, and a part of an appliance shall be legibly marked with the ratings in volts and amperes, or in volts and watts, or with the manufacturer's part number.
Where a motor-operated appliance nameplate includes a horsepower rating, that rating shall not be less than the horsepower rating on the motor nameplate. Where an appliance consists of multiple motors, or one or more motors and other loads, the nameplate value shall not be less than the equivalent horsepower of the combined loads, calculated in accordance with 430.110(C)(1).
In addition to the marking required in 422.60, the marking on an appliance consisting of a motor with other load(s) or motors with or without other load(s) shall specify the minimum supply circuit conductor ampacity and the maximum rating of the circuit overcurrent protective device. This requirement shall not apply to an appliance with a nameplate in compliance with 422.60 where both the minimum supply circuit conductor ampacity and maximum rating of the circuit overcurrent protective device are not more than 15 amperes.
An alternative marking method shall be permitted to specify the rating of the largest motor in volts and amperes, and the additional load(s) in volts and amperes, or volts and watts in addition to the marking required in 422.60. The ampere rating of a motor 1/8 horsepower or less or a nonmotor load 1 ampere or less shall be permitted to be omitted unless such loads constitute the principal load.
This article covers fixed electric equipment used for space heating. For the purpose of this article, heating equipment shall include heating cable, unit heaters, boilers, central systems, or other approved fixed electric space-heating equipment. This article shall not apply to process heating and room air conditioning.
Individual branch circuits shall be permitted to supply any volt-ampere or wattage rating of fixed electric space-heating equipment for which they are rated.
Permanently installed electric baseboard heaters equipped with factory-installed receptacle outlets, or outlets provided as a separate listed assembly, shall be permitted in lieu of a receptacle outlet(s) that is required by 210.50(B). Such receptacle outlets shall not be connected to the heater circuits.
Informational Note: Listed baseboard heaters include instructions that may not permit their installation below receptacle outlets.