CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2015 (IRC 2015)

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Building Planning

Chapter 4 Foundations

Chapter 5 Floors

Chapter 6 Wall Construction

Chapter 7 Wall Covering

Chapter 8 Roof-Ceiling Construction

Chapter 9 Roof Assemblies

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces

Chapter 11 [RE] Energy Efficiency

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment and Appliances

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems

Chapter 16 Duct Systems

Chapter 17 Combustion Air

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents

Chapter 19 Special Appliances, Equipment and Systems

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems

Chapter 23 Solar Thermal Energy Systems

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures

Chapter 28 Water Heaters

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage

Chapter 31 Vents

Chapter 32 Traps

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage

Chapter 34 General Requirements

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions

Chapter 36 Services

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaries

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-Control, Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems serving Appliances Equipped with Draft Hoods, Category I Appliances, and Appliances Listed for Use with Type B Vents

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-Vent Venting Systems

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance Installation

Appendix E Manufactured Housing used as Dwellings

Appendix F Passive Radon Gas Controls

Appendix G Piping Standards for Various Applications

Appendix J Existing Building and Structures

Appendix K Sound Transmission

Appendix N VENTING METHODS

Appendix O Automatic Vehicular Gates

Appendix P Sizing of Water Piping System

Appendix R Light Straw-Clay Construction

Appendix S Strawbale Construction

The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of walls and partitions for buildings.
Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed in accordance with Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.
Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 132 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than 18 inch (3.2 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor.
Class I or II vapor retarders shall be provided on the interior side of frame walls in zones 5, 6, 7, 8 and marine 4.

Exceptions:
  1. As permitted in Table R702.7.1.
  2. Class III or no vapor retarder shall be permitted on the interior side of below grade wall assemblies. Class I or II vapor retarders shall be permitted on the interior side of the wall assembly when no air permeable insulation is installed in the below grade wall assemblies.
  3. Construction where moisture or its freezing will not damage the materials.


R 408.30522a
Wood and wood-based products used for load-supporting purposes shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.
Sawn lumber shall be identified by a grade mark of an accredited lumber grading or inspection agency and have design values certified by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.
Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R602.1 shall be permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation "Heat Resistant Adhesive" or "HRA" included in its grade mark.
Glued-laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D3737.
Structural log members shall comply with the provisions of ICC 400.
Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D5456.
Cross-laminated timber shall be manufactured and identified as required by ANSI/APA PRG 320.
Engineered wood rim boards shall conform to ANSI/APA PRR 410 or shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM D7672. Structural capacities shall be in accordance with either ANSI/APA PRR 410 or established in accordance with ASTM D7672. Rim boards conforming to ANSI/APA PRR 410 shall be marked in accordance with that standard.
Wood structural panel sheathing shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA O437 or CSA O325. Panels shall be identified for grade, bond classification, and performance category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1. Particleboard shall be identified by the grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
Fiberboard shall conform to ASTM C208. Fiberboard sheathing, where used structurally, shall be identified by an approved agency as conforming to ASTM C208.
Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or stud grade lumber.

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and nonbearing studs shall be permitted to be utility grade lumber, provided the studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5).


TABLE R602.3(5)
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDSa
STUD SIZE
(inches)
BEARING WALLS NONBEARING WALLS
Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum spacing
when supporting a
roof-ceiling assembly
or a habitable attic
assembly, only
(inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting one
floor, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacing
when supporting two
floors, plus a roof-
ceiling assembly or a
habitable attic
assembly (inches)
Maximum spacingwhen supportingone floor heighta(inches) Laterally
unsupported
stud heighta(feet)
Maximum
spacing
(inches)








2 x 3b - - - - - 10 16
2 x 4 10 24c 16c - 24 14 24
3 x 4 10 24 24 16 24 14 24
2 x 5 10 24 24 - 24 16 24
2 x 6 10 24 24 16 24 20 24
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Bearing walls shall be sheathed on not less than one side or bridging shall be installed not greater than 4 feet apart measured vertically from either end of the stud. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where in compliance with Exception 2 of Section R602.3.1 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  2. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
  3. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 × 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 × 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
Exterior walls of woodframe construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3(2), or in accordance with AWC NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to framing members and, where placed on the exterior side of an exterior wall, shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3) and shall conform to the requirements of Table R602.3(3). Wall sheathing used only for exterior wall covering purposes shall comply with Section R703.

     Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables R602.7(1) and R602.7(2).



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.3(1)
TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.3(2)
FRAMING DETAILS


TABLE R602.3(1)
FASTENING SCHEDULE
ITEM DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS NUMBER AND TYPE
OF FASTENERa,b,c
SPACING AND LOCATION
Roof
1 Blocking between ceiling joists or rafters to top plate 4-8d box (212" x 0.113 ")or
3-8d common (212" x 0.131 ''); or
3-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3-3" x 0.131" nails
Toe nail
2 Ceiling joists to top plate 4-8d box (212" x 0.113 ''); or
3-8d common (212 " x 0.131 "); or
3-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3-3" x 0.131" nails
Per joist, toe nail
3 Ceiling joist not attached to parallel rafter, laps over
partitions [see Sections R802.3.1, R802.3.2 and Table
R802.5.1(9)]
4-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3-16d common (312" x 0.162"); or
4-3" x 0.131" nails
Face nail
4 Ceiling joist attached to parallel rafter (heel joint)
[see Sections R802.3.1 and R802.3.2 and Table
R802.5.1(9)]
Table R802.5.1(9) Face nail
5 Collar tie to rafter, face nail or 114" x 20 ga. ridge strap to
rafter
4-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3-10d common (3" x 0.148''); or
4-3" x 0.131" nails
Face nail each rafter
6 Rafter or roof truss to plate 3-16d box nails (312" x 0.135"); or
3-10d common nails (3" x 0.148 ''); or
4-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
4-3" x 0.131" nails
2 toe nails on one side and 1 toe
nail on opposite side of each rafter
or trussi
7 Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters or roof rafter
to minimum 2" ridge beam
4-16d (312" x 0.135"); or
3-10d common (312" x 0.148"); or
4-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
4-3" x 0.131" nails
Toe nail
3-16d box (312" x 0.135"); or
2-16d common (312" x 0.162''); or
3-10d box (3" x 0.128''); or
3-3" x 0.131" nails
End nail
Wall
8 Stud to stud (not at braced wall panels) 16d common (312" x 0.162'') 24" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3" x 0.131" nails
16" o.c. face nail
9 Stud to stud and abutting studs at intersecting wall comers
(at braced wall panels)
16d box (312" x 0.135"); or
3" x 0.131" nails
12" o.c. face nail
16d common (312" x 0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
10 Built-up header (2" to 2" header with 12" spacer) 16d common (312" x 0.162") 16" o.c. each edge face nail
16d box (312" x 0.135") 12" o.c. each edge face nail
11 Continuous header to stud 5-8d box (212" x 0.113"); or
4-8d common (212" x 0.131"); or
4-10d box (3" x 0.128")
Toe nail
12 Top plate to top plate 16d common (312" x 0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3" x 0.131" nails
12" o.c. face nail
13 Double top plate splice for SDCs A-D2 with seismic braced
wall line spacing < 25'
8-16d common (312" x 0.162''); or
12-16d box (312" x 0.135"); or
12-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
12-3" x 0.131" nails
Face nail on each side of end joint
(minimum 24" lap splice length
each side of end joint)
Double top plate splice SDCs D0, D1, or D2; and braced wall
line spacing = 25'
12-16d (312" x 0.135")
14 Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or
blocking (not at braced wall panels)
16d common (312" x 0.162") 16" o.c. face nail
16d box (312" x 0.135"); or
3" x 0.131" nails
12" o.c. face nail
15 Bottom plate to joist, rim joist, band joist or
blocking (at braced wall panel)
3-16d box (312" x 0.135"); or
2-16d common (312" x 0.162"); or
4-3" x 0.131" nails
3 each 16" o.c. face nail
2 each 16" o.c. face nail
4 each 16" o.c. face nail
16 Top or bottom plate to stud 4-8d box (212" x 0.113 "); or
3-16d box (312" x 0.135''); or
4-8d common (212" x 0.131"); or
4-10d box (3" x 0.128''); or
4-3" x 0.131" nails
Toe nail
3-16d box (312" x 0.135"); or
2-16d common (312" x 0.162"); or
3-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3-3" x 0.131" nails
End nail
17 Top plates, laps at corners and intersections 3-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
2-16d common (312" x 0.162"); or
3-3" x 0.131" nails
Face nail
18 1" brace to each stud and plate 3-8d box (212" x 0.113 "); or
2-8d common (212" x 0.131"); or
2-10d box (3" x 0.128''); or
2 staples 134"
Face nail
19 1" x 6" sheathing to each bearing 3-8d box (212" x 0.113"); or
2-8d common (212" x 0.131"); or
2-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 134" long
Face nail
20 1" x 8" and wider sheathing to each bearing 3-8d box (212" x 0.113"); or
3-8d common (212" x 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 134" long
Face nail
Wider than 1" x 8"
4-8d box (212" x 0.113"); or
3-8d common (212" x 0.131 "); or
3-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
4 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 134" long
Floor
21 Joist to sill, top plate or girder 4-8d box (212" x 0.113"); or
3-8d common (212" x 0.131 "); or
3-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3-3" x 0.131" nails
Toe nail
22 Rim joist, band joist or blocking to sill or top
plate (roof applications also)
8d box (212" x 0.113") 4" o.c. toe nail
8d common (212" x 0.131''); or
10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3" x 0.131" nails
6" o.c. toe nail
23 1" x 6" subfloor or less to each joist 3-8d box (212" x 0.113 "); or
2-8d common (212" x 0.131"); or
3-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
2 staples, 1" crown, 16 ga., 134" long
Face nail
24 2" subfloor to joist or girder 3-16d box (312" x 0.135"); or
2-16d common (312" x 0.162")
Blind and face nail
25 2" planks (plank & beam-floor & roof) 3-16d box (312" x 0.135"); or
2-16d common (312" x 0.162")
At each bearing, face nail
26 Band or rim joist to joist 3-16d common (312" x 0.162")
4-10 box (3" x 0.128"), or
4-3" x 0.131" nails; or
4-3" x 14 ga. staples, 716" crown
End nail
27 Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber
layers
20d common (4" x 0.192''); or Nail each layer as follows: 32" o.c.
at top and bottom and staggered.
10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
3" x 0.131" nails
24" o.c. face nail at top and bottom
staggered on opposite sides
And:
2-20d common (4" x 0.192''); or
3-10d box (3" x 0.128''); or
3-3" x 0.131" nails
Face nail at ends and at each splice
28 Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters 4-16d box (312" x 0.135"); or
3-16d common (312" x 0.162") ; or
4-10d box (3" x 0.128"); or
4-3" x 0.131" nails
At each joist or rafter, face nail
29 Bridging to joist 2-10d (3" x 0.128") Each end, toe nail
ITEM DESCRIPTION
OF BUILDING ELEMENTS
NUMBER AND
TYPE OF FASTENERa,b,c
SPACING OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)h
Intermediate
supportsc,e
(inches)
Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing
[see Table R602.3(3) for wood structural panel exterior wall sheathing to wall framing]
30 38"-12" 6d common (2" x 0.113'') nail (subfloor, wall)i
8d common (212" x 0.131'') nail (roof)
6 12f
31 1932"-1" 8d common nail (212" x 0.131") 6 12f
32 118"-114" 10d common (3" x 0.148") nail; or
8d (212" x 0.131") deformed nail
6 12
Other wall sheathingg
33 12" structural cellulosic fiberboard
sheathing
112" galvanized roofing nail, 716 head
diameter, or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 114" long
3 6
34 2532" structural cellulosic
fiberboard sheathing
134" galvanized roofing nail, 716" head diameter, or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 114" long 3 6
35 12" gypsum sheathingd 112" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
112" long; 114" screws, Type W or S
7 7
36 58" gypsum sheathingd 134" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized,
158" long; 158" screws, Type W or S
7 7
Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing
37 34" and less 6d deformed (2" x 0.120'') nail; or
8d common (212" x 0.131") nail
6 12
38 78"- 1" 8d common (212" x 0.131") nail; or
8d deformed (212" x 0.120") nail
6 12
39 118"- 114" 10d common (3" x 0.148") nail; or
8d deformed (212" x 0.120") nail
6 12
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less.
  2. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 716-inch on diameter crown width.
  3. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.
  4. Four-foot by 8-foot or 4-foot by 9-foot panels shall be applied vertically.
  5. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2).
  6. Where the ultimate design wind speed is 130 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches on center. Where the ultimate design wind speed is greater than 130 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing.
  7. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C208.
  8. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking.
  9. Where a rafter is fastened to an adjacent parallel ceiling joist in accordance with this schedule, provide two toe nails on one side of the rafter and toe nails from the ceiling joist to top plate in accordance with this schedule. The toe nail on the opposite side of the rafter shall not be required.


TABLE R602.3(2)
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS TO TABLE R602.3(1)
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa,b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Intermediate supports
(inches)
Wood structural panels subfloor, roofg and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framingf
Up to 12 Staple 15 ga. 134 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 214 3 6
Staple 16 ga. 1 34 3 6
1932 and 58 0.113 Nail 2 3 6
Staple 15 and 16 ga. 2 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 214 4 8
2332 and 34 Staple 14 ga. 2 4 8
Staple 15 ga. 134 3 6
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 214 4 8
Staple 16 ga. 2 4 8
1 Staple 14 ga. 214 4 8
0.113 Nail 214 3 6
Staple 15 ga. 214 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2 12 4 8
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa,bOF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACING"OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Body of paneld
(inches)
Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboardf-fiber-cementh
Fiber-cement
14 3d, corrosion-resistant, ring shank nails
(finished flooring other than tile)
3 6
Staple 18 ga.,78long, 14 crown
(finished flooring other than tile)
3 6
114 long x .121 shank x .375 head diameter corrosion-resistant
(galvanized or stainless steel) roofing nails (for tile finish)
8 8
114 long, No. 8 x .375 head diameter, ribbed wafer-head screws
(for tile finish)
8 8
Plywood
14 and 516 1 14 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
1212 ga. (0.099") shank diameter
3 6
Staple 18 ga., 78, 316 crown width         2                     5
1132, 38, 1532, and 12 114 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
12 12 ga. (0.099") shank diameter
6 8e
1932, 58, 2332 and 34 112 ring or screw shank nail-minimum
1212 ga. (0.099") shank diameter
6 8
Staple 16 ga. 112 6 8
Hardboardf
0.200 112 long ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 6
4d cement-coated sinker nail 6 6
Staple 18 ga., 78 long (plastic coated) 3 6
Particleboard
14 4d ring-grooved underlayment nail 3 6
Staple 18 ga.,7 \8 long, 34 crown 3 6
38 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 118 long,38 crown 3 6
12, 58 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 158 long, 38 crown 3 6
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. Nail is a general description and shall be permitted to be T-head, modified round head or round head.
  2. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 716-inch on diameter except as noted.
  3. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.
  4. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.
  5. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way.
  6. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to CPNANSI A135.4
  7. Specified alternate attachments for roof sheathing shall be permitted where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 130 mph. Fasteners attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be installed using the spacing listed for panel edges.
  8. Fiber-cement underlayment shall conform to ASTM C1288 or ISO 8336, Category C.


TABLE R602.3(4)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa
THICKNESS
(inch)
GRADE STUD SPACING
(inches)
When siding is nailed to studs When siding is nailed to sheathing
38 M-1 Exterior glue 16 -
12 M-2 Exterior glue 16 16
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panel corners will not meet. All panel edges must be supported. Leave a 116 inch gap between panels and nail not less than 38 inch from panel edges.


TABLE R602.3(3)
REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL
SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa,b,c
MINIMUM NAIL MINIMUM WOOD
STRUCTURAL
PANEL SPAN
RATING
MINIMUM
NOMINAL
PANEL
THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM WALL
STUD SPACING
(inches)
PANEL NAIL SPACING ULTIMATE DESIGN
WIND SPEED Vult
(mph)
Size Penetration
(inches)
Edges
(inches o.c.)
Field
(inches o.c.)
Wind exposure category
B C D
6d Common
(2.0" x 0.113")
1.5 24/0 38 16 6 12 140 115 110
8d Common
(2.5" x 0.131")
1.75 24/16 716 16 6 12 170 140 135
24 6 12 140 115 110
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
  1. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
  2. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces in accordance with Section R301.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.
  3. Wood structural panels with span ratings of Wall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 o.c. or 24 o.c. shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 o.c. shall be used with studs spaced not more than 16 inches on center.


TABLE R602.7(1)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)
GIRDERS AND
HEADERS
SUPPORTING
SIZE GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
30 50 70
Building widthc (feet)
20 28 36 20 28 36 20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
Roof and ceiling 1-2 X 8 4-6 1 3-10 1 3-5 1 3-9 1 3-2 1 2-10 2 - - - - - -
1-2 X 10 5-8 1 4-11 1 4-4 1 4-9 1 4-1 1 3-7 2 - - - - - -
1-2 X 12 6-11 1 5-11 2 5-3 2 5-9 2 4-8 2 3-8 2 - - - - - -
2-2 X 4 3-6 1 3-2 1 2- 10 1 3-2 1 2-9 1 2-6 1 2-10 1 2-6 1 2-3 1
2-2 X 6 5-5 1 4-8 1 4-2 1 4-8 1 4-1 1 3-8 2 4-2 1 3-8 2 3-3 2
2-2 X 8 6-10 1 5-11 2 5-4 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-7 2 5-4 2 4-7 2 4-1 2
2-2 X 10 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-3 2 6-3 2 5-7 2 6-6 2 5-7 2 5-0 2
2-2 X 12 9-9 2 8-5 2 7-6 2 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-6 2 6-6 2 5-10 3
3-2 X 8 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-5 1 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-8 1 5-9 2 5-2 2
3-2 X 10 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-1 2 7-10 2 7-0 2 8-2 2 7-0 2 6-4 2
3-2 X 12 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-7 2 9-2 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-4 2
4-2 X 8 9-2 1 8-4 1 7-8 1 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-8 1 6-8 1 5-11 2
4-2 X 10 11-8 1 10-6 1 9-5 2 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-3 2
4-2 X 12 14-1 1 12-2 2 10-11 2 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-11 2 9-5 2 8-5 2
Roof, ceiling
and one center-
bearing floor
1-2 X 8 3-11 1 3-5 1 3-0 1 3-7 1 3-0 2 2-8 2 - - - - - -
1-2 X I0 5-0 2 4-4 2 3-10 2 4-6 2 3-11 2 3-4 2 - - - - - -
1-2 X 12 5-10 2 4-9 2 4-2 2 5-5 2 4-2 2 3-4 2 - - - - - -
2-2 X 4 3-1 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-2 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1
2-2 X 6 4-6 1 4-0 1 3-7 2 4-1 1 3-7 2 3-3 2 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-1 2
2-2 X 8 5-9 2 5-0 2 4-6 2 5-2 2 4-6 2 4-1 2 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2
2-2 x 10 7-0 2 6-2 2 5-6 2 6-4 2 5-6 2 5-0 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3
2-2 X 12 8-1 2 7-1 2 6-5 2 7-4 2 6-5 2 5-9 3 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3
3-2 X 8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-8 2 6-5 2 5-8 2 5-1 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2
3-2 X I0 8-9 2 7-8 2 6-11 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2
3-2 X 12 10-2 2 8-11 2 8-0 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-3 2 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2 X 8 8-1 1 7-3 1 6-7 1 7-5 1 6-6 1 5-11 2 6-l0 1 6-0 2 5-5 2
4-2 X I0 10-1 1 8-10 2 8-0 2 9-1 2 8-0 2 7-2 2 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2 X12 11-9 2 10-3 2 9-3 2 10-7 2 9-3 2 8-4 2 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-7 2
Roof, ceiling
and one clear
span floor
1-2 X 8 3-6 1 3-0 1 2-8 1 3-5 1 2-11 1 2-7 2 - - - - - -
1-2 x 10 4-6 1 3-l0 1 3-3 1 4-4 1 3-9 1 3-1 2 - - - - - -
1-2 X 12 5-6 1 4-2 2 3-3 2 5-4 2 3-11 2 3-1 2 - - - - - -
2-2 x 4 2-8 1 2-4 1 2-1 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-5 1 2-1 1 1-10 1
2-2 X 6 3-11 1 3-5 2 3-0 2 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 2 3-6 2 3-1 2 2-9 2
2-2 X 8 5-0 2 4-4 2 3-10 2 4-l0 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-6 2 3-11 2 3-6 2
2-2 x I0 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 3
2-2 X 12 7-1 2 6-1 3 5-5 3 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-4 2 5-6 3 5-0 3
3-2 X 8 6-3 2 5-5 2 4-10 2 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-7 2 4-11 2 4-5 2
3-2 X I0 7-7 2 6-7 2 5-11 2 7-5 2 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-10 2 6-0 2 5-4 2
3-2 X 12 8-10 2 7-8 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-8 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2
4-2 X 8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-7 2 7-0 1 6-1 2 5-5 2 6-6 1 5-8 2 5-1 2
4-2 x l0 8-9 2 7-7 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-7 2 7-11 2 6-1 2 6-2 2
4-2 X 12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-11 2 9-11 2 8-7 2 7-8 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-2 2
Roof, ceiling
and two center-bearing floors
2-2 X 4 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-6 1 2-2 1 1-11 1 2-4 1 2-0 1 1-9 1
2-2 X 6 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 2 3-8 2 3-2 2 2-10 2 3-5 2 3-0 2 2-8 2
2-2 X 8 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-7 2 4-0 2 3-8 2 4-4 2 3-9 2 3-5 2
2-2 X 10 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-8 2 4-11 2 4-5 3 5-3 2 4-7 3 4-2 3
2-2 X 12 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-6 2 5-9 3 5-2 3 6-1 3 5-4 3 4-10 3
3-2 X 8 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 2 5-5 2 4-9 2 4-3 2
3-2 X I0 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2 7-1 2 6-2 2 5-7 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-3 2
3-2 X 12 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 3 7-8 2 6-9 2 6-1 3
4-2 X 8 6-10 1 6-0 2 5-5 2 6-8 1 5-10 2 5-3 2 6-3 2 5-6 2 4-11 2
4-2 X I0 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 2 7-7 2 6-8 2 6-0 2
4-2 X 12 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-8 2 9-5 2 8-3 2 7-5 2 8-10 2 7-9 2 7-0 2
Roof, ceiling,
and two clear-span floors
2-2 X 4 2-1 1 1-8 1 1-6 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2
2-2 X 6 3-1 2 2-8 2 2-4 2 3-0 2 2-7 2 2-3 2 2-11 2 2-7 2 2-3 2
2-2 X 8 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 3 3-10 2 3-4 2 2-11 3 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 3
2-2 X 10 4-9 2 4-1 3 3-8 3 4-8 2 4-0 3 3-7 3 4-7 3 4-0 3 3-6 3
2-2 X 12 5-6 3 4-9 3 4-3 3 5-5 3 4-8 3 4-2 3 5-4 3 4-7 3 4-1 4
3-2 X 8 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-9 2 4-1 2 3-8 2 4-8 2 4-1 2 3-8 2
3-2 X 10 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-10 2 5-10 2 5-0 2 4-6 3 5-9 2 4-11 2 4-5 3
3-2 X 12 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-9 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-8 2 5-9 3 5-2 3
4-2 X 8 5-7 2 4-10 2 4-4 2 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 2 5-5 2 4-8 2 4-2 2
4-2 x 10 6-10 2 5-11 2 5-3 2 6-9 2 5-10 2 5-2 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-1 2
4-2 X 12 7-11 2 6-10 2 6-2 3 7-9 2 6-9 2 6-0 3 7-8 2 6-8 2 5-11 3
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for southern pine. Other tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
  5. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.


TABLE R602.7(2)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number of jack studs)
HEADERS AND
GIRDERS
SUPPORTING
SIZE BUILDING Widthc (feet)
20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
One floor only 2-2 x 4 3-1 1 2-8 1 2-5 1
2-2 x 6 4-6 1 3-11 1 3-6 1
2-2 x 8 5-9 1 5-0 2 4-5 2
2-2 x 10 7-0 2 6-1 2 5-5 2
2-2 x 12 8-1 2 7-0 2 6-3 2
3-2 x 8 7-2 1 6-3 1 5-7 2
3-2 x 10 8-9 1 7-7 2 6-9 2
3-2 x 12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-10 2
4-2 x 8 9-0 1 7-8 1 6-9 1
4-2 x 10 10-1 1 8-9 1 7-10 2
4-2 x 12 11-9 1 10-2 2 9-1 2
Two floors 2-2 x 4 2-2 1 1-10 1 1-7 1
2-2 x 6 3-2 2 2-9 2 2-5 2
2-2 x 8 4-1 2 3-6 2 3-2 2
2-2 x 10 4-11 2 4-3 2 3-10 3
2-2 x 12 5-9 2 5-0 3 4-5 3
3-2 x 8 5-1 2 4-5 2 3-11 2
3-2 x 10 6-2 2 5-4 2 4-10 2
3-2 x 12 7-2 2 6-3 2 5-7 3
4-2 x 8 6-1 1 5-3 2 4-8 2
4-2 x 10 7-2 2 6-2 2 5-6 2
4-2 x 12 8-4 2 7-2 2 6-5 2
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. No. 1 or better grade lumber shall be used for southern pine. Other tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
  3. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
  4. NJ = Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
The size, height and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3.(5).

Exceptions:
  1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.
  2. Where snow loads are less than or equal to 25 pounds per square foot (1.2 kPa), and the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58.1 m/s), 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 14 mm) studs supporting a roof load with not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) of tributary length shall have a maximum height of 18 feet (5486 mm) where spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center, or 20 feet (6096 mm) where spaced at 12 inches (304.8 mm) on center. Studs shall be minimum No. 2 grade lumber.
Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset not less than 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width not less than the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate used as an alternative to a double top plate shall comply with the following:
  1. The single top plate shall be tied at comers, intersecting walls, and at in-line splices in straight wall lines in accordance with Table R602.3.2.
  2. The rafters or joists shall be centered over the studs with a tolerance of not more than 1 inch (25 mm).
  3. Omission of the top plate is permitted over headers where the headers are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections in accordance with Table R602.3.2.


TABLE R602.3.2
SINGLE TOP-PLATE SPLICE CONNECTION DETAILS
CONDITION TOP-PLATE SPLICE LOCATION
Corners and intersecting walls Butt joints in straight walls
Splice plate size Minimum nails
each side of joint
Splice plate size Minimum nails
each side of joint
Structures in SDC A-C; and in SDC
D0, D1 and D2 with braced wall line
spacing less than 25 feet
3" X 6" X 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(6) 8d box
(2 12" x 0.113") nails
3' X 12"X 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(12) 8d box
(212" x 0.113") nails
Structures in SDC D0, D1 and D2, with
braced wall line spacing greater than
or equal to 25 feet
3" X 8" X 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(9) 8d box
(2 12" x 0.113") nails
3' X 16" X 0.036"
galvanized steel plate
or equivalent
(18) 8d box
(2 12" x 0.113") nails
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Where joists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.

Exceptions:
  1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.
  2. A third top plate is installed.
  3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.
Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width not less than to the width of the studs.
Braced wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following :
  1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(1) where :

    1. The ultimate design wind speed does not exceed 115 mph (51 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5: 12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less.
    2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf (146 N/mm). The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.
  2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top of the wall to the foundation or to a point where the uplift force is 100 plf (146 N/ mm) or less. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2.
  3. Wall sheathing and fasteners designed to resist combined uplift and shear forces in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls.
Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch by 3-inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, where not part of a braced wall line, 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with not less than a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8.
Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:
  1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition shall be permitted to be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions shall be permitted to be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width.
  2. Drilling. Any stud shall be permitted to be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is not more than 60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is not more than 58 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or notch. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall be doubled with not more than two successive doubled studs bored. See Figures R602.6(1) and R602.6(2).


Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted where they are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
Note: Condition for exterior and bearing walls.
FIGURE R602.6(1)
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R602.6(2)
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS
When piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 112 inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) nails having a minimum length of 112 inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1.

Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.

For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R602.6.1
TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING
For header spans, see Tables R602.7(1), R602.7(2) and R602.7(3).

TABLE R602.7(3)
GIRDER AND HEADER SPANSa FOR OPEN PORCHES
(Maximum span for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb)
SIZE SUPPORTING ROOF SUPPORTING FLOOR
GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)
30 50 70
DEPTH OF PORCHc (feet)
8 14 8 14 8 14 8 14
2-2 X 6 7-6 5-8 6-2 4-8 5-4 4-0 6-4 4-9
2-2 X 8 10-1 7-7 8-3 6-2 7-1 5-4 8-5 6-4
2-2 X 10 12-4 9-4 10-1 7-7 8-9 6-7 10-4 7-9
2-2 X 12 14-4 10-10 11-8 8-10 10-1 7-8 11-11 9-0
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot= 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Spans are given in feet and inches.
  2. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber, wet service and incising for refractory species. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
  3. Porch depth is measured horizontally from building face to centerline of the header. For depths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
Single headers shall be framed with a single flat 2-inch-nominal (51 mm) member or wall plate not less in width than the wall studs on the top and bottom of the header in accordance with Figures R602.7.1(1) and R602.7.1(2) and face nailed to the top and bottom of the header with 10d box nails (3 inches × 0.128 inches) spaced 12 inches on center.

FIGURE R602.7.1(1)
SINGLE MEMBER HEADER IN EXTERIOR BEARING WALL


FIGURE R602.7.1(2)
ALTERNATIVE SINGLE MEMBER HEADER WITHOUT CRIPPLE
Rim board header size, material and span shall be in accordance with Table R602.7(1). Rim board headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.2 and shall be supported at each end by full-height studs. The number of full-height studs at each end shall be not less than the number of studs displaced by half of the header span based on the maximum stud spacing in accordance with Table R602.3(5). Rim board headers supporting concentrated loads shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

For SI: 25.4 mm = 1 inch.
FIGURE R602.7.2
RIM BOARD HEADER CONSTRUCTION
Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.3 and Table R602.7.3.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NOTES:
  1. The top and bottom plates shall be continuous at header location.
  2. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet.
  3. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs.
  4. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of 1532-inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the header.
  5. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 12 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled.
FIGURE R602.7.3
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION


TABLE R602.7.3
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa
HEADER CONSTRUCTIONb HEADER DEPTH
(inches)
HOUSE DEPTH (feet)
24 26 28 30 32
Wood structural panel-one side 9 4 4 3 3 -
15 5 5 4 3 3
Wood structural panel-both sides 9 7 5 5 4 3
15 8 8 7 7 6
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.
  2. See Figure R602.7.3 for construction details.
Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member shall be permitted to be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, cripples or blocking are not required above the header.
Headers shall be supported on each end with one or more jack studs or with approved framing anchors in accordance with Table R602.7(1) or R602.7(2). The full-height stud adjacent to each end of the header shall be end nailed to each end of the header with four-16d nails (3.5 inches × 0.135 inches). The minimum number of full-height studs at each end of a header shall be in accordance with Table R602.7.5.

TABLE R602.7.5
MINIMUM NUMBER OF FULL HEIGHT STUDS
AT EACH END OF HEADERS IN EXTERIOR WALLS
HEADER SPAN
(feet)
MAXIMUM STUD SPACING (inches)
[per Table R602.3(5)]
16 24
≤ 3' 1 1
4' 2 1
8' 3 2
12' 5 3
16' 6 4
Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.
Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size required for an additional story.

     Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be continuously sheathed on one side with wood structural panels fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table R602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking.

     Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.
Buildings shall be braced in accordance with this section or, when applicable, Section R602.12. Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R301.1.
For the purpose of determining the amount and location of bracing required in each story level of a building, braced wall lines shall be designated as straight lines in the building plan placed in accordance with this section.
The length of a braced wall line shall be the distance between its ends. The end of a braced wall line shall be the intersection with a perpendicular braced wall line, an angled braced wall line as permitted in Section R602.10.1.4 or an exterior wall as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.1.1
BRACED WALL LINES
Exterior walls parallel to a braced wall line shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line location as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1. Interior walls used as bracing shall be offset not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from a braced wall line through the interior of the building as shown in Figure R602.10.1.1.
The spacing between parallel braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Table R602.10. l.3. Intermediate braced wall lines through the interior of the building shall be permitted.

TABLE R602.10.1.3
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING
APPLICATION CONDITION BUILDING TYPE BRACED WALL LINE SPACING CRITERIA
Maximum
Spacing
Exception to Maximum Spacing
Wind
bracing
Ultimate design
wind speed 100 mph
to< 140 mph
Detached,
townhouse
60 feet None
Seismic
bracing
SDC A-C Detached Use wind bracing
SDC A - B Townhouse Use wind bracing
SDC C Townhouse 35 feet Up to 50 feet when length of required bracing per Table
R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).
SDC D0, D1, D2 Detached,
townhouses, one-
and two-story only
25 feet Up to 35 feet to allow for a single room not to exceed 900 square
feet. Spacing of all other braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet.
SDC D0, D1, D2 Detached,
townhouse
25 feet Up to 35 feet when length of required bracing per Table
R602.10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with Table R602.10.3(4).
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

TABLE R602.10.3(3)
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY
  • SOIL CLASSD
  • WALL HEIGHT = 10 FEET
  • 10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
  • 15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
  • BRACED WALL LINE SPACING ≤ 25 FEET
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Seismic Design
Category
Story Location Braced Wall Line
Length
(feet)c
Method LIBd Method GB Methods
DWB, SFB, PBS,
PCP, HPS, CS-SFBe
Method
WSP
Methods
CS-WSP,
CS-G
C
(townhouses only)
10 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.6 1.4
20 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.2 2.7
30 7.5 7.5 7.5 4.8 4.1
40 10.0 10.0 10.0 6.4 5.4
50 12.5 12.5 12.5 8.0 6.8
10 NP 4.5 4.5 3.0 2.6
20 NP 9.0 9.0 6.0 5.1
30 NP 13.5 13.5 9.0 7.7
40 NP 18.0 18.0 12.0 10.2
50 NP 22.5 22.5 15.0 12.8
10 NP 6.0 6.0 4.5 3.8
20 NP 12.0 12.0 9.0 7.7
30 NP 18.0 18.0 13.5 11.5
40 NP 24.0 24.0 18.0 15.3
50 NP 30.0 30.0 22.5 19.1
D0 10 NP 2.8 2.8 1.8 1.6
20 NP 5.5 5.5 3.6 3.1
30 NP 8.3 8.3 5.4 4.6
40 NP 11.0 11.0 7.2 6.1
50 NP 13.8 13.8 9.0 7.7
10 NP 5.3 5.3 3.8 3.2
20 NP 10.5 10.5 7.5 6.4
30 NP 15.8 15.8 11.3 9.6
40 NP 21.0 21.0 15.0 12.8
50 NP 26.3 26.3 18.8 16.0
10 NP 7.3 7.3 5.3 4.5
20 NP 14.5 14.5 10.5 9.0
30 NP 21.8 21.8 15.8 13.4
40 NP 29.0 29.0 21.0 17.9
50 NP 36.3 36.3 26.3 22.3
D1 10 NP 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.7
20 NP 6.0 6.0 4.0 3.4
30 NP 9.0 9.0 6.0 5.1
40 NP 12.0 12.0 8.0 6.8
50 NP 15.0 15.0 10.0 8.5
10 NP 6.0 6.0 4.5 3.8
20 NP 12.0 12.0 9.0 7.7
30 NP 18.0 18.0 13.5 11.5
40 NP 24.0 24.0 18.0 15.3
50 NP 30.0 30.0 22.5 19.1
10 NP 8.5 8.5 6.0 5.1
20 NP 17.0 17.0 12.0 10.2
30 NP 25.5 25.5 18.0 15.3
40 NP 34.0 34.0 24.0 20.4
50 NP 42.5 42.5 30.0 25.5
D2 10 NP 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.1
20 NP 8.0 8.0 5.0 4.3
30 NP 12.0 12.0 7.5 6.4
40 NP 16.0 16.0 10.0 8.5
50 NP 20.0 20.0 12.5 10.6
10 NP 7.5 7.5 5.5 4.7
20 NP 15.0 15.0 11.0 9.4
30 NP 22.5 22.5 16.5 14.0
40 NP 30.0 30.0 22.0 18.7
50 NP 37.5 37.5 27.5 23.4
10 NP NP NP NP NP
20 NP NP NP NP NP
30 NP NP NP NP NP
40 NP NP NP NP NP
50 NP NP NP NP NP
Cripple wall below
one- or two-story dwelling
10 NP NP NP 7.5 6.4
20 NP NP NP 15.0 12.8
30 NP NP NP 22.5 19.1
40 NP NP NP 30.0 25.5
50 NP NP NP 37.5 31.9
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Wall bracing lengths are based on a soil site class "D." Interpolation of bracing length between the Sds, values associated with the seismic design categories shall be permitted when a site-specific Sds, value is determined in accordance with Section 1613.3 of the International Building Code.
  3. Where the braced wall line length is greater than 50 feet, braced wall lines shall be permitted to be divided into shorter segments having lengths of 50 feet or less, and the amount of bracing within each segment shall be in accordance with this table.
  4. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to not less than one side with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches.
  5. Method CS-SFB does not apply in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, and D2.


TABLE R602.10.3(4)
SEISMIC ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING
ITEM
NUMBER
ADJUSTMENT
BASED ON:
STORY CONDITION ADJUSTMENT
FACTORa,b
[Multiply length
from Table
R602.10.3(3) by this
factor]
APPLICABLE
METHODS
1 Story height
(Section 301.3)
Any story ≤ 10feet

> 10 feet and ≤ 12feet
1.0

1.2
All methods
2 Braced wall line
     spacing, townhouses
     in SDC C
Any story ≤ 35feet

> 35 feet and ≤ 50 feet
1.0

1.43
3 Braced wall line
spacing, in
SDC D0, D1, D2c
Any story > 25 feet and ≤ 30feet

> 30 feet and ≤ 35 feet
1.2

1.4
4 Wall dead load Any story > 8 psf and< 15psf

< 8 psf
1.0

0.85
5 Roof/ceiling dead load
     for wall supporting
1-, 2- or 3-story building ≤ 15 psf 1.0
2- or 3-story building > 15 psf and ≤ 25 psf

> 15 psf and ≤ 25 psf
1.1

1.2
1-story building
6 Walls with stone or
     masonry veneer,
     townhouses in
     SDC C d,e
1.0 All methods
1.5
1.5
7 Walls with stone or
     masonry veneer,
     detached one- and
     two-family dwellings
     in SDC D0 -D2f
Any story See Table R602.10.6.5 BV-WSP
8 Interior gypsum board
     finish (or equivalent)
Any story Omitted from
inside face of braced
wall panels
1.5 DWB, WSP,
SFB, PBS,PCP,
HPS,
CS-WSP, CS-G,
CS-SFB
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. The total length of bracing required for a given wall line is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
  3. The length-to-width ratio for the floor/roof diaphragm shall not exceed 3:1. The top plate lap splice nailing shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1), Item 13.
  4. Applies to stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first story height.
  5. The adjustment factor for stone or masonry veneer shall be applied to all exterior braced wall lines and all braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supported veneered walls.
  6. See Section R602.10.6.5 for requirements where stone or masonry veneer does not exceed the first-story height.


TABLE R602.10.6.5
METHOD BV-WSP WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS
SEISMIC DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORY BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH (FEET) SINGLE-STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)a
CUMULATIVE
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)b
10 20 30 40 50
Minimum Total Length (feet) of Braced Wall Panels
Required Along each Braced Wall Line
D0 4.0 7.0 10.5 14.0 17.5 N/A -
4.0 7.0 10.5 14.0 17.5 1900 -
4.5 9.0 13.5 18.0 22.5 3500 5400
6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 3500 8900
D1 4.5 9.0 13.5 18.0 22.5 2100 -
4.5 9.0 13.5 18.0 22.5 3700 5800
6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 30.0 3700 9500
D2 5.5 11.0 16.5 22.0 27.5 2300 -
5.5 11.0 16.5 22.0 27.5 3900 6200
NP NP NP NP NP N/A N/A
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479 kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N.
NP = Not Permitted.
N/A = Not Applicable.
  1. Hold-down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story to wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single-story hold-down force where edges of braced wall panels do not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained.
  2. Where hold-down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold-down force to size middle- and bottom-story hold-down connectors.
Any portion of a wall along a braced wall line shall be permitted to angle out of plane for a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 mm). Where the angled wall occurs at a corner, the length of the braced wall line shall be measured from the projected corner as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Where the diagonal length is greater than 8 feet (2438 mm), it shall be considered a separate braced wall line and shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.1.


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.1.4
ANGLED WALLS
Braced wall panels shall be full-height sections of wall that shall not have vertical or horizontal offsets. Braced wall panels shall be constructed and placed along a braced wall line in accordance with this section and the bracing methods specified in Section R602.10.4.
The bracing lengths in Table R602.10.3(1) apply only when uplift loads are resisted in accordance with Section R602.3.5.

TABLE R602.10.3(1)
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED
  • EXPOSURE CATEGORY B
  • 30-FOOT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT
  • 10-FOOT WALL HEIGHT
  • 2 BRACED WALL LINES
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINEa
Ultimate
Design Wind
Speed
(mph)
Story Location Braced Wall Line
Spacing
(feet)
Method LIBb Method GB Methods
DWB WSP, SFB,
PBS, PCP, HPS
BV-WSP, ABW, PFH,
PFC, CS-SFBc
Methods
CS-WSP,CS-G,
CS-PF
≤110 10 3.5 3.5 2.0 1.5
20 6.0 6.0 3.5 3.0
30 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.5
40 11.5 11.5 6.5 5.5
50 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
60 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
10 6.5 6.5 3.5 3.0
20 11.5 11.5 6.5 5.5
30 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
40 21.5 21.5 12.5 10.5
50 26.5 26.5 15.5 13.0
60 31.5 31.5 18.0 15.5
10 NP 9.5 5.5 4.5
20 NP 17.0 10.0 8.5
30 NP 24.5 14.0 12.0
40 NP 32.0 18.5 15.5
50 NP 39.5 22.5 19.0
60 NP 46.5 26.5 23.0
≤115 10 3.5 3.5 2.0 2.0
20 6.5 6.5 3.5 3.5
30 9.5 9.5 5.5 4.5
40 12.5 12.5 7.0 6.0
50 15.0 15.0 9.0 7.5
60 18.0 18.0 10.5 9.0
10 7.0 7.0 4.0 3.5
20 12.5 12.5 7.5 6.5
30 18.0 18.0 10.5 9.0
40 23.5 23.5 13.5 11.5
50 29.0 29.0 16.5 14.0
60 34.5 34.5 20.0 17.0
10 NP 10.0 6.0 5.0
20 NP 18.5 11.0 9.0
30 NP 27.0 15.5 13.0
40 NP 35.0 20.0 17.0
50 NP 43.0 24.5 21.0
60 NP 51.0 29.0 25.0
≤120 10 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.0
20 7.0 7.0 4.0 3.5
30 10.5 10.5 6.0 5.0
40 13.5 13.5 8.0 6.5
50 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
60 19.5 19.5 11.5 9.5
10 7.5 7.5 4.5 3.5
20 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
30 20.0 20.0 11.5 9.5
40 25.5 25.5 15.0 12.5
50 31.5 31.5 18.0 15.5
60 37.5 37.5 21.5 18.5
10 NP 11.0 6.5 5.5
20 NP 20.5 11.5 10.0
30 NP 29.0 17.0 14.5
40 NP 38.0 22.0 18.5
50 NP 47.0 27.0 23.0
60 NP 55.5 32.0 27.0
≤130 10 4.5 4.5 2.5 2.5
20 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.0
30 12.0 12.0 7.0 6.0
40 15.5 15.5 9.0 7.5
50 19.5 19.5 11.0 9.5
60 23.0 23.0 13.0 11.0
10 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.5
20 16.0 16.0 9.5 8.0
30 23.0 23.0 13.5 11.5
40 30.0 30.0 17.5 15.0
50 37.0 37.0 21.5 18.0
60 44.0 44.0 25.0 21.5
10 NP 13.0 7.5 6.5
20 NP 24.0 13.5 11.5
30 NP 34.5 19.5 17.0
40 NP 44.5 25.5 22.0
50 NP 55.0 31.5 26.5
60 NP 65.0 37.5 31.5
≤140 10 5.5 5.5 3.0 2.5
20 10.0 10.0 5.5 5.0
30 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
40 18.0 18.0 10.5 9.0
50 22.5 22.5 13.0 11.0
60 26.5 26.5 15.0 13.0
10 10.0 10.0 6.0 5.0
20 18.5 18.5 11.0 9.0
30 27.0 27.0 15.5 13.0
40 35.0 35.0 20.0 17.0
50 43.0 43.0 24.5 21.0
60 51.0 51.0 29.0 25.0
10 NP 15.0 8.5 7.5
20 NP 27.5 16.0 13.5
30 NP 39.5 23.0 19.5
40 NP 51.5 29.5 25.0
50 NP 63.5 36.5 31.0
60 NP 75.5 43.0 36.5
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to not less than one side with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches.
  3. Where a braced wall line has parallel braced wall lines on one or both sides of differing dimensions, the average dimension shall be permitted to be used for braced wall line spacing.
A braced wall panel shall begin within 10 feet (3810 mm) from each end of a braced wall line as determined in Section R602.10.1.1. The distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels along a braced wall line shall be not greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) as shown in Figure R602.10.2.2.


For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.2.2
LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS
Braced wall panels shall be located at each end of a braced wall line.

Exception: Braced wall panels constructed of Method WSP or BV-WSP and continuous sheathing methods as specified in Section R602.10.4 shall be permitted to begin not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) from each end of a braced wall line provided each end complies with one of the following:
  1. A minimum 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panel for Methods WSP, CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF is applied to each side of the building corner as shown in End Condition 4 of Figure R602.10.7.
  2. The end of each braced wall panel closest to the end of the braced wall line shall have an 1,800 lb (8 kN) hold-down device fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below as shown in End Condition 5 of Figure R602.10.7.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.
FIGURE R602.10.7
END CONDITIONS FOR BRACED WALL LINES WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING
Braced wall lines with a length of 16 feet (4877 mm) or less shall have not less than two braced wall panels of any length or one braced wall panel equal to 48 inches (1219 mm) or more. Braced wall lines greater than 16 feet (4877 mm) shall have not less than two braced wall panels.
The required length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be determined as follows:

  1. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories A and B shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
  2. Detached buildings in Seismic Design Category C shall use Table R602.10.3(1) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2).
  3. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively.
  4. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall use the greater value determined from Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively.
Only braced wall panels parallel to the braced wall line shall contribute toward the required length of bracing of that braced wall line. Braced wall panels along an angled wall meeting the minimum length requirements of Tables R602.10.5 and R602.10.5.2 shall be permitted to contribute its projected length toward the minimum required length of bracing for the braced wall line as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. Any braced wall panel on an angled wall at the end of a braced wall line shall contribute its projected length for only one of the braced wall lines at the projected comer.

Exception: The length of wall bracing for dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, and D2 with stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.8 and exceeding the first-story height shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.6.5.


TABLE R602.10.3(2)
WIND ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING
ITEM
NUMBER
ADJUSTMENT
BASED ON
STORY/
SUPPORTING
CONDITION ADJUSTMENT
FACTORa,b
[multiply length from
Table R602.10.3(1) by
this factor]
APPLICABLE
METHODS
1 Exposure category One-story
structure
B 1.00 All methods
C 1.20
D 1.50
Two-story
structure
B 1.00
C 1.30
D 1.60
Three-story
structure
B 1.00
C 1.40
D 1.70
2 Roof eave-to-ridge
  height
Roof only ≤ 5 feet 0.70
10 feet 1.00
15 feet 1.30
20 feet 1.60
Roof + 1 floor ≤ 5 feet 0.85
10 feet 1.00
15 feet 1.15
20 feet 1.30
Roof + 2 floors ≤ 5 feet 0.90
10 feet 1.00
15 feet 1.10
20 feet Not permitted
3 Wall height
  adjustment
Any story 8 feet 0.90
9 feet 0.95
10 feet 1.00
11 feet 1.05
12 feet 1.10
4 Number of braced
  wall lines (per plan
  direction)c
Any story 2 1.00
3 1.30
4 1.45
≥ 5 1.60
5 Additional 800-pound
  hold-down device
Top story only Fastened to the end
  studs of each braced
  wall panel and to the
  foundation or framing
  below
0.80 DWB, WSP, SFB,
PBS, PCP, HPS
6 Interior gypsum board
  finish(or equivalent)
Any story Omitted from inside
  face of braced wall
  panels
1.40 DWB, WSP, SFB,
PBS, PCP, HPS, CS-WSP,CS-G, CS-SFB
7 Gypsum board
  fastening
Any story 4 inches o.c. at panel
 edges, including top
 and bottom plates, and
 all horizontal joints
 blocked
0.7 GB
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.48 N.
  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. The total adjustment factor is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
  3. The adjustment factor is permitted to be 1.0 when determining bracing amounts for intermediate braced wall lines provided the bracing amounts on adjacent braced wall lines are based on a spacing and number that neglects the intermediate braced wall line.


TABLE R602.10.5
MINIMUM LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANELS
METHOD
(See Table R602.10.4)
MINIMUM LENGTHa
(inches)
CONTRIBUTING LENGTH
(inches)
Wall Height
8 feet 9 feet 10 feet 11 feet 12 feet
DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS, BV-WSP 48 48 48 53 58 Actualb
GB 48 48 48 53 58 Double sided =Actual
Single sided = 0.5 x Actual
LIB 55 62 69 NP NP Actualb
ABW SDC A, B and C, ultimate
design
wind speed < 140 mph
28 32 34 38 42 48
SDC D0, D1 and D2, ultimate
design
wind speed < 140 mph
32 32 34 NP NP
PFH Supporting roof only 16 16 16 18c 20c 48
Supporting one story and roof 24 24 24 27c 29c 48
PFG 24 27 30 33d 36d 1.5 x Actualb
CS-G 24 27 30 33 36 Actualb
CS-PF SDC A, B and C 16 18 20 22e 24e 1.5 x Actualb
SDC D0, D1 and D2 16 18 20 22e 24e Actualb
CS-WSP, CS-SFB Adjacent clear opening height
(inches)
= 64 24 27 30 33 36 Actualb
68 26 27 30 33 36
72 27 27 30 33 36
76 30 29 30 33 36
80 32 30 30 33 36
84 35 32 32 33 36
88 38 35 33 33 36
92 43 37 35 35 36
96 48 41 38 36 36
100 - 44 40 38 38
104 - 49 43 40 39
108 - 54 46 43 41
112 - - 50 45 43
116 - - 55 48 45
120 - - 60 52 48
124 - - - 56 51
128 - - - 61 54
132 - - - 66 58
136 - - - - 62
140 - - - - 66
144 - - - - 72
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
NP = Not Permitted.
  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
  2. Use the actual length where it is greater than or equal to the minimum length.
  3. Maximum header height for PFH is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2, but wall height shall be permitted to be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
  4. Maximum opening height for PFG is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.3, but wall height shall be permitted to be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.
  5. Maximum opening height for CS-PF is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.4, but wall height shall be permitted to be increased to 12 feet with pony wall.


TABLE R602.10.4
BRACING METHODS
METHODS, MATERIAL MINIMUM THICKNESS FIGURE CONNECTION CRITERIAa
Fasteners Spacing
LIB
Let-in-bracing
1 x 4 wood or
approved metal straps
at 45° to 60° angles for
maximum 16"
stud spacing
Wood: 2-8d common nails
or
3-8d (212" long x 0.113" dia.) nails
Wood: per stud and
top and bottom plates
Metal strap: per manufacturer Metal:
per manufacturer
DWB
Diagonal
wood boards
34"(1" nominal) for
maximum 24"
stud spacing
2-8d (212" long x 0.113" dia.) nails
or
2-134" long staples
Per stud
WSP
Wood
structural panel
(See Section R604)
38" Exterior sheathing per
Table R602.3(3)
6" edges 12" field
Interior sheathing per
Table R602.3(1) or R602.3(2)
Varies by fastener
BV-WSPe
Wood structural
panels with stone
or masonry veneer
(See Section
R602.10.6.5)
716" See Figure R602.10.6.5 8d common (212" x 0.131) nails 4" at panel edges
12" at intermediate
supports 4" at braced
wall panel end posts
SFB
Structural
fiberboard
sheathing
12" or 2532" for
maximum 16"
stud spacing
112" long x 0.12" dia. (for 12" thick
sheathing) 134" long x 0.12" dia.
(for 2532" thick sheathing)
galvanized roofing nails or 8d common
(212" long x 0.131"dia.) nails
3" edges 6" field
GB
Gypsum board
12" Nails or screws per Table R602.3(1) for
exterior locations
For all braced wall
panel locations: 7"
edges (including top
and bottom plates) 7"
field
Nails or screws per Table R702.3.5 for
interior locations
PBS
Particleboard
sheathing
(See Section R605)
38" or 12" for
maximum 16"
stud spacing
For 38", 6d common
(2" long x 0.113" dia.) nails
For 12", 8d common
(212" long x 0.131" dia.) nails
3" edges 6" field
PCP
Portland
cement plaster
See Section R703.6 for
maximum 16"
stud spacing
112" long, 11 gage, 716" dia. head nails
or
78" long, 16 gage staples
6" o.c. on all framing
members
HPS
Hardboard
panel siding
716" for maximum 16"
stud spacing
0.092" dia., 0.225" dia. head nails with
length to accommodate 112"
penetration into studs
4" edges 8" field
ABW
Alternate
braced wall
38" See Section R602.10.6.1 See
Section R602.10.6.1
PFH
Portal frame with
hold-downs
38" See Section R602.10.6.2 See Section R602.10.6.2
PFG
Portal frame at garage
716" See Section R602.10.6.3 See Section R602.10.6.3
CS-WSP
Continuously sheathed
wood structural panel
38" Exterior sheathing per
Table R602.3(3)
6" edges 12" field
Interior sheathing per
Table R602.3(1) or R602.3(2)
Varies by fastener
CS-Gb,c
Continuously sheathed
wood structural panel
adjacent to garage
openings
38" See Method CS-WSP See Method CS-WSP
CS-PF
Continuously sheathed
portal frame
716" See Section R602.10.6.4 See Section R602.10.6.4
CS-SFBd
Continuously sheathed
structural fiberboard
12" or 2532" for
maximum 16"
stud spacing
112" long x 0.12" dia.
(for 12" thick sheathing)
134" long x 0.12" dia.
(for 2532" thick sheathing)
galvanized roofing nails or
8d common
(212" long x 0.131" dia.) nails
3" edges 6" field
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad, 1 pound per square foot = 47.8 N/m2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
  1. Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing, including Method GB, shall not be permitted in Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2.
  2. Applies to panels next to garage door opening where supporting gable end wall or roof load only. Shall only be used on one wall of the garage. In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 roof covering dead load shall not exceed 3 psf.
  3. Garage openings adjacent to a Method CS-G panel shall be provided with a header in accordance with Table R502.5(1). A full-height clear opening shall not be permitted adjacent to a Method CS-G panel.
  4. Method CS-SFB does not apply in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.
  5. Method applies to detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0 through D2 only.
TABLE R602.10.5.2
PARTIAL CREDIT FOR BRACED WALL PANELS LESS THAN 48 INCHES IN ACTUAL LENGTH
ACTUAL LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL
(inches)
CONTRIBUTING LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL
(inches)a
8-foot Wall Height 9-foot Wall Height
48 48 48
42 36 36
36 27 N/A
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
N/A = Not Applicable.
  1. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
TABLE R602.10.6.4
TENSION STRAP CAPACITY FOR RESISTING WIND PRESSURES PERPENDICULAR TO METHODS PFH, PFG AND CS-PF BRACED WALL PANELS
MINIMUM WALL STUD
FRAMING NOMINAL
SIZE AND GRADE
MAXIMUM PONY
WALL HEIGHT
(feet)
MAXIMUM
TOTAL WALL
HEIGHT
(feet)
MAXIMUM
OPENING
WIDTH
(feet)
TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED (pounds)a,b
Ultimate Design Wind Speed Vult (mph)
110 115 130 110 115 130
Exposure B Exposure C
2 x 4 No. 2 Grade 0 10 18 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,050
1 10 9 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,750
16 1,000 1,025 2,050 2,075 2,500 3,950
18 1,000 1,275 2,375 2,400 2,850 DR
2 10 9 1,000 1,000 1,475 1,500 1,875 3,125
16 1,775 2,175 3,525 3,550 4,125 DR
18 2,075 2,500 3,950 3,975 DR DR
2 12 9 1,150 1,500 2,650 2,675 3,175 DR
16 2,875 3,375 DR DR DR DR
18 3,425 3,975 DR DR DR DR
4 12 9 2,275 2,750 DR DR DR DR
12 3,225 3,775 DR DR DR DR
2 x 6 Stud Grade 2 12 9 1,000 1,000 1,700 1,700 2,025 3,050
16 1,825 2,150 3,225 3,225 3,675 DR
18 2,200 2,550 3,725 3,750 DR DR
4 12 9 1,450 1,750 2,700 2,725 3,125 DR
16 2,050 2,400 DR DR DR DR
18 3,350 3,800 DR DR DR DR
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
  1. DR = Design Required.
  2. Straps shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.6.2
METHOD PFH-PORT AL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.6.3
METHOD PFG-PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, BAND C



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.6.4
METHOD CS-PF-CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION



Note: Hold downs should be strap fies, tension ties, or other approved hold-down devices and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
FIGURE R602.10.6.5
METHOD BV-WSP-WALL BRACING FOR DWELLINGS WITH STONE AND MASONRY VENEER IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D0, D1 and D2
Intermittent and continuously sheathed braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with this section and the methods listed in Table R602.10.4.
Mixing of bracing methods shall be permitted as follows:

  1. Mixing intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from story to story shall be permitted.
  2. Mixing intermittent bracing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted. In regions within Seismic Design Categories A, B and C or where the ultimate design wind speed is less than or equal to 130 mph (58m/s), mixing of intermittent bracing and continuous sheathing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a story shall be permitted.
  3. Mixing intermittent bracing methods along a braced wall line shall be permitted in Seismic Design Categories A and B, and detached dwellings in Seismic Design Category C, provided the length of required bracing in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) is the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used.
  4. Mixing of continuous sheathing methods CSWSP, CS-G and CS-PF along a braced wall line shall be permitted. Intermittent methods ABW, PFH and PFG shall be permitted to be used along a braced wall line with continuous sheathed methods.
  5. In Seismic Design Categories A and B, and for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category C, mixing of intermittent bracing methods along the interior portion of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing methods CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along the exterior portion of the same braced wall line shall be permitted. The length of required bracing shall be the highest value of all intermittent bracing methods used in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) or R602.10.3(3) as adjusted by Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4), respectively. The requirements of Section R602.10.7 shall apply to each end of the continuously sheathed portion of the braced wall line.
Continuous sheathing methods require structural panel sheathing to be used on all sheathable surfaces on one side of a braced wall line including areas above and below openings and gable end walls and shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.7.
Braced wall panels shall have gypsum wall board installed on the side of the wall opposite the bracing material. Gypsum wall board shall be not less than 12 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and be fastened with nails or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(1) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum wall board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges for gypsum wall board opposite Method LIB bracing shall not exceed 8 inches (203 mm). Interior finish material shall not be glued in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2.

Exceptions:
  1. Interior finish material is not required opposite wall panels that are braced in accordance with Methods GB, BV-WSP, ABW, PFH, PFG and CS-PF, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
  2. An approved interior finish material with an in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gypsum board shall be permitted to be substituted, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
  3. Except for Method LIB, gypsum wall board is permitted to be omitted provided the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3) is multiplied by the appropriate adjustment factor in Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4), respectively, unless otherwise required by Section R302.6.
The minimum length of a braced wall panel shall comply with Table R602.10.5. For Methods CS-WSP and CS-SFB, the minimum panel length shall be based on the adjacent clear opening height in accordance with Table R602.10.5 and Figure R602.10.5. Where a panel has an opening on either side of differing heights, the taller opening height shall be used to determine the panel length.

FIGURE R602.10.5
BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING
For purposes of computing the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), the contributing length of each braced wall panel shall be as specified in Table R602.10.5.
For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, panels between 36 inches and 48 inches (914 mm and 1219 mm)) in length shall be considered a braced wall panel and shall be permitted to partially contribute toward the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), and the contributing length shall be determined from Table R602.10.5.2.
Methods ABW, PFH, PFG, CS-PF and BV-WSP shall be constructed as specified in Sections R602.10.6.1 through R602.10.6.5.
Method ABW braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.1. The hold-down force shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.6.1.

TABLE R602.10.6.1
MINIMUM HOLD-DOWN FORCES FOR METHOD ABW BRACED WALL PANELS
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY AND WIND SPEED SUPPORTING/STORY HOLD-DOWN FORCE (pounds)
Height of Braced Wall Panel
8 feet 9 feet 10 feet 11 feet 12 feet
SDC A, B and C
Ultimate design wind speed < 140 mph
One story 1,800 1,800 1,800 2,000 2,200
First of two stories 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,300 3,600
SDC D0, D1 and D2
Ultimate design wind speed < 140 mph
One story 1,800 1,800 1,800 NP NP
First of two stories 3,000 3,000 3,000 NP NP
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
NP = Not Permitted.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.6.1
METHOD ABW-ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL
Method PFH braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2.
Where supporting a roof or one story and a roof, a Method PFG braced wall panel constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.3 shall be permitted on either side of garage door openings.
Continuously sheathed portal frame braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.4 and Table R602.10.6.4. The number of continuously sheathed portal frame panels in a single braced wall line shall not exceed four.
Where stone and masonry veneer are installed in accordance with Section R703.8, wall braeing on exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular to and laterally supporting veneered walls shall comply with this section.

     Where dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.7, and the veneer does not exceed the first-story height, wall bracing shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.3.

     Where detached one- or two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, and D2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section R703.7, and the veneer exceeds the first-story height, wall bracing at exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines on the interior of the building shall be constructed using Method BV-WSP in accordance with this section and Figure R602.10.6.5. Cripple walls shall not be permitted, and required interior braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous foundations.

     Townhouses in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, and D2 with stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first-story height shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
The length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be the greater of that required by the ultimate design wind speed and braced wall line spacing in accordance with Table R602.10.3(1) as adjusted by the factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or the seismic design category and braced wall line length in accordance with Table R602.10.6.5. Angled walls shall be permitted to be counted in accordance with Section R602.10.1.4, and braced wall panel location shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.2.2. Spacing between braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3. The seismic adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(4) shall not be applied to the length of bracing determined using Table R602.10.6.5, except that the bracing amount increase for braced wall line spacing greater than 25 feet (7620 mm) in accordance with Table R602.10.1.3 shall be required. The minimum total length of bracing in a braced wall line, after all adjustments have been taken, shall not be less than 48 inches (1219 mm) total.
Each end of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing shall have one of the conditions shown in Figure R602.10.7.
Braced wall panels shall be connected to floor framing or foundations as follows:

  1. Where joists are perpendicular to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, band joist or blocking shall be provided along the entire length of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(1). Fastening of top and bottom wall plates to framing, rim joist, band joist and/or blocking shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
  2. Where joists are parallel to a braced wall panel above or below, a rim joist, end joist or other parallel framing member shall be provided directly above and below the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(2). Where a parallel framing member cannot be located directly above and below the panel, full-depth blocking at 16-inch (406 mm) spacing shall be provided between the parallel framing members to each side of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8(2). Fastening of blocking and wall plates shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and Figure R602.10.8(2).
  3. Connections of braced wall panels to concrete or masonry shall be in accordance with Section R403.1.6.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.8(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.8(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING
Braced wall panels shall be fastened to required foundations in accordance with Section R602.11.1, and top plate lap splices shall be face-nailed with not less than eight 16d nails on each side of the splice.
Top plates of exterior braced wall panels shall be attached to rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and this section. Where required by this section, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be attached to top plates of braced wall panels and to rafters and roof trusses in accordance with Table R602.3(1). A continuous band, rim or header joist or roof truss parallel to the braced wall panels shall be permitted to replace the blocking required by this section. Blocking shall not be required over openings in continuously sheathed braced wall lines. In addition to the requirements of this section, lateral support shall be provided for rafters and ceiling joists in accordance with Section R802.8 and for trusses in accordance with Section R802.10.3. Roof ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section R806.1.

  1. For Seismic Design Categories A, B and C where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is 914 inches (235 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall not be required. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is between 914 inches (235 mm) and 1514 inches (387 mm), blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(1).

    Exception: Where the outside edge of truss vertical web members aligns with the outside face of the wall studs below, wood structural panel sheathing extending above the top plate as shown in Figure R602.10.8.2(3) shall be permitted to be fastened to each truss web with three- 8d nails (212 inches x 0.131 inch) and blocking between the trusses shall not be required.
  2. For Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and, where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses is 1514 inches (387 mm) or less, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided above the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(1).
  3. Where the distance from the top of the braced wall panel to the top of rafters or roof trusses exceeds 1514 inches (387 mm), the top plates of the braced wall panel shall be connected to perpendicular rafters or roof trusses above in accordance with one or more of the following methods:

    1. Soffit blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(2).
    2. Vertical blocking panels constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(3).
    3. Blocking panels provided by the roof truss manufacturer and designed in accordance with Section R802.
    4. Blocking, blocking panels or other methods of lateral load transfer designed in accordance with the AWC WFCM or accepted engineering practice.



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.8.2(1)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.4.
FIGURE R602.10.8.2(2)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO
PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES


FIGURE R602.10.8.2(3)
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES
Braced wall panel support shall be provided as follows:

  1. Cantilevered floor joists complying with Section R502.3.3 shall be permitted to support braced wall panels.
  2. Raised floor system post or pier foundations supporting braced wall panels shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  3. Masonry stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. Masonry stem walls with a length greater than 48 inches (1219 mm) supporting braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with section R403. l. Methods ABW and PFH shall not be permitted to attach to masonry stem walls.
  4. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall shall have reinforcement sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9.

R 408.30525a


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R602.10.9
MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS
In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, braced wall panel footings shall be as specified in Section R403.1.2.
Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over, and be fastened to, common studs. Horizontal joints in braced wall panels shall occur over, and be fastened to, common blocking of a minimum 112 inch (38 mm) thickness.

Exceptions:
  1. Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall be permitted to occur over double studs, where adjoining panel edges are attached to separate studs with the required panel edge fastening schedule, and the adjacent studs are attached together with two rows of 10d box nails [3 inches by 0.128 inch (76.2 mm by 3.25 mm)] at 10 inches o.c. (254 mm).
  2. Blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in wall segments that are not counted as braced wall panels.
  3. Where the bracing length provided is not less than twice the minimum length required by Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in braced wall panels constructed using Methods WSP, SFB, GB, PBS or HPS.
  4. Where Method GB panels are installed horizontally, blocking of horizontal joints is not required.
Cripple walls shall be constructed in accordance with Section R602.9 and braced in accordance with this section. Cripple walls shall be braced with the length and method of bracing used for the wall above in accordance with Tables R602.10.3(1) and R602.10.3(3), and the applicable adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), respectively, except that the length of cripple wall bracing shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.15. Where gypsum wall board is not used on the inside of the cripple wall bracing, the length adjustments for the elimination of the gypsum wallboard, or equivalent, shall be applied as directed in Tables R602.10.3(2) and R602.10.3(4) to the length of cripple wall bracing required. This adjustment shall be ta.ken in addition to the 1.15 increase.
In addition to the requirements in Section R602.10.11, the distance between adjacent edges of braced wall panels for cripple walls along a braced wall line shall be 14 feet (4267 mm) maximum.

     Where braced wall lines at interior walls are not supported on a continuous foundation below, the adjacent parallel cripple walls, where provided, shall be braced with Method WSP or Method CS-WSP in accordance with Section R602.10.4. The length of bracing required in accordance with Table R602.10.3(3) for the cripple walls shall be multiplied by 1.5. Where the cripple walls do not have sufficient length to provide the required bracing, the spacing of panel edge fasteners shall be reduced to 4 inches (102 mm) on center and the required bracing length adjusted by 0.7. If the required length can still not be provided, the cripple wall shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
In Seismic Design Category D2, cripple walls shall be braced in accordance with Tables R602.10.3(3) and R602.10.3(4).
Where all cripple wall segments along a braced wall line do not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the cripple walls shall be permitted to be redesignated as a firststory wall for purposes of determining wall bracing requirements. Where any cripple wall segment in a braced wall line exceeds 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the entire cripple wall shall be counted as an additional story. If the cripple walls are redesignated, the stories above the redesignated story shall be counted as the second and third stories, respectively.
Plate washers, not less than 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut except where approved anchor straps are used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 316 inch (5 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 134 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut.
In all buildings located in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 or D2, where the height of a required braced wall line that extends from foundation to floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the braced wall line shall be constructed in accordance with the following:
  1. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the upper top plate not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) along the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the step in the foundation. See Figure R602.11.2.
  2. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing requirements of Sections R602.10.11, R602.10.11.1 and R602.10.11.2 shall apply.
  3. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1 shall apply.



For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm.
Note: Where footing Section "A" is less than 8 feet long in a 25-foot-long wall, install bracing at cripple stud wall.
PUT_FIG_CAPTION_TEXT_HERE
The bracing required for each building shall be determined by circumscribing a rectangle around the entire building on each floor as shown in Figure R602.12.1. The rectangle shall surround all enclosed offsets and projections such as sunrooms and attached garages. Open structures, such as carports and decks, shall be permitted to be excluded. The rectangle shall not have a side greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm), and the ratio between the long side and short side shall be not greater than 3: 1

FIGURE R602.12.1
RECTANGLE CIRCUMSCRIBING AN ENCLOSED BUILDING
The following sheathing materials installed on the exterior side of exterior walls shall be used to construct a bracing unit as defined in Section R602.12.3. Mixing materials is prohibited.
  1. Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 38 inch (9.5 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(3).
  2. Structural fiberboard sheathing with a minimum thickness of 12 inch (12.7 mm) fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
A bracing unit shall be a fullheight sheathed segment of the exterior wall without openings or vertical or horizontal offsets and a minimum length as specified herein. Interior walls shall not contribute toward the amount of required bracing. Mixing of Items 1 and 2 is prohibited on the same story.
  1. Where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed in accordance with Section R602.12.2, including wall areas between bracing units, above and below openings and on gable end walls, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 3 feet (914 mm).
  2. Where the exterior walls are braced with sheathing panels in accordance with Section R602.12.2 and areas between bracing units are covered with other materials, the minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 4 feet (1219 mm).
Segments of wall compliant with Section R602.12.3 and longer than the minimum bracing unit length shall be considered as multiple bracing units. The number of bracing units shall be determined by dividing the wall segment length by the minimum bracing unit length. Full-height sheathed segments of wall narrower than the minimum bracing unit length shall not contribute toward a bracing unit except as specified in Section R602.12.6.
Each side of the circumscribed rectangle, as shown in Figure R602.12.1, shall have, at a minimum, the number of bracing units in accordance with Table R602.12.4 placed on the parallel exterior walls facing the side of the rectangle. Bracing units shall then be placed using the distribution requirements specified in Section R602.12.5.

TABLE R602.12.4
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING UNITS ON EACH SIDE OF THE CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLE
ULTIMATE
DESIGN WIND
SPEED
(mph)
STORY LEVEL EAVE-TO-RIDGE
HEIGHT
(FEET)
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING
UNITS ON EACH LONG SIDEa,b,d
MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING
UNITS ON EACH SHORT SIDEa,b,d
Length of short side (feet)c Length of long side (feet)c
10 20 30 40 50 60 10 20 30 40 50 60
115 10 I 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3
2 3 3 4 5 6 2 3 3 4 5 6
2 3 4 6 7 8 2 3 4 6 7 8
15 1 2 3 3 4 4 1 2 3 3 4 4
2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 4 5 6 7 9 2 4 5 6 7 9
130 10 1 2 2 3 3 4 1 2 2 3 3 4
2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7
2 4 5 7 8 10 2 4 5 7 8 10
15 2 3 3 4 4 6 2 3 3 4 4 6
3 4 6 7 8 10 3 4 6 7 8 10
3 6 7 10 11 13 3 6 7 10 11 13
For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm.
  1. Interpolation shall not be permitted.
  2. Cripple walls or wood-framed basement walls in a walk-out condition shall be designated as the first story and the stories above shall be redesignated as the second and third stories, respectively, and shall be prohibited in a three-story structure.
  3. Actual lengths of the sides of the circumscribed rectangle shall be rounded to the next highest unit of 10 when using this table.
  4. For Exposure Category C, multiply bracing units by a factor of 1.20 for a one-story building, 1.30 for a two-story building and 1.40 for a three-story building.
The placement of bracing units on exterior walls shall meet all of the following requirements as shown in Figure R602.12.5.
  1. A bracing unit shall begin not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) from any wall comer.
  2. The distance between adjacent edges of bracing units shall be not greater than 20 feet (6096 mm).
  3. Segments of wall greater than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length shall have not less than one bracing unit.
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R602.12.5
BRACING UNIT DISTRIBUTION
The bracing methods referenced in Section R602.10 and specified in Sections R602.12.6.1 through R602.12.6.3 shall be permitted when using simplified wall bracing.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-G in accordance with Tables R602.10.4 and R602.10.5 shall be permitted for onestory garages where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-G panel shall be equivalent to 0.5 of a bracing unit. Segments of wall that include a Method CS-G panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method CS-PF in accordance with Section R602.10.6.4 shall be permitted where all framed portions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each CS-PF panel shall equal 0.75 bracing units. Not more than four CS-PF panels shall be permitted on all segments of walls parallel to each side of the circumscribed rectangle. Segments of wall that include a Method CS-PF panel shall meet the requirements of Section R602.10.4.2.
Braced wall panels constructed as Method ABW, PFH and PFG shall be permitted where bracing units are constructed using wood structural panels applied either continuously or intermittently. Each ABW and PFH panel shall equal one bracing unit and each PFG panel shall be equal to 0.75 bracing unit.
For bracing units located along the eaves, the vertical distance from the outside edge of the top wall plate to the roof sheathing above shall not exceed 9.25 inches (235 mm) at the location of a bracing unit unless lateral support is provided in accordance with Section R602.10.8.2.
Masonry stem walls with a height and length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting a bracing unit or a Method CS-G, CS-PF or PFG braced wall panel shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall be reinforced sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9.
Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall be in accordance with the requirements of this section.
The provisions of this section shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. Exterior walls installed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as load-bearing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 139 miles per hour (62 m/s), Exposure Category B or C, and the ground snow load is less than or equal to 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).
Load-bearing cold-formed steel studs constructed in accordance with Section R603 shall be located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in accordance with Figure R603.1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows:
  1. The maximum tolerance shall be 34 inch (19 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.
  2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener is located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be 18 inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.



For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm,
FIGURE R603.1.2
IN-LINE FRAMING
Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall be in accordance with this section.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold formed to shape from structural- quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of ASTM A1003: Structural Grades 33 Type Hand 50 Type H.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following:
  1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A653.
  2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A792.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with Figure R603.2.3(1) and with the dimensional and thickness requirements specified in Table R603.2.3. Additionally, C-shaped sections shall have a minimum flange width of 158 inches (41 mm) and a maximum flange width of 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum lip size for C-shaped sections shall be 12 inch (12.7 mm). Track sections shall comply with Figure R603.2.3(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 114 inches (32 mm). Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used wherever 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses are specified. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used wherever 54 and 68 mil thicknesses are specified.

FIGURE R603.2.3(1)
C-SHAPED SECTION


FIGURE R603.2.3(2)
TRACK SECTION


TABLE R603.2.3
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES AND THICKNESSES
MEMBER
DESIGNATIONa
WEB DEPTH
(inches)
MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS
mil (inches)
350S162-t 3.5 33 (0.0329), 43 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538)
550S162-t 5.5 33 (0.0329), 43 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538), 68 (0.0677)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
  1. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch, "S" representing a stud or joist member, the second number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils.
Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:
  1. Manufacturer's identification.
  2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).
  3. Minimum coating designation.
  4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).
Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of 12 inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to ASTM C1513. Structural sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C1513. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to cold-formed steel wall framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 38 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board shall be attached to coldformed steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C954 or ASTM C1513 with a bugle-head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. Fasteners shall have rust-inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.
Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.
Web holes in wall studs and other structural members shall comply with all of the following conditions:
  1. Holes shall conform to Figure R603.2.6.1.
  2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member.
  3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm).
  4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or 112 inches (38 mm).
  5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 414 inches (114 mm).
  6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).
     Framing members with web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R603.2.6.2, patched in accordance with Section R603.2.6.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.2.6.1
WALL STUD WEB HOLES
Web holes in gable endwall studs not conforming to the requirements of Section R603.2.6.1 shall be permitted to be reinforced if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section R603.2.6.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend not less than 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced not more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of 12 inch (12.7 mm).
Web holes in wall studs and other structural members not conforming to the requirements in Section R603.2.6.1 shall be permitted to be patched in accordance with either of the following methods:
  1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice where web holes exceed the following size limits:
    1. The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of the web.
    2. The length of the hole measured along the web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.
  2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section R603.2.6.3, Item 1, shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or track section in accordance with Figure R603.2.6.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend not less thanl inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced not more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with a minimum edge distance of 12 inch (12.7 mm).



For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.2.6.3
WALL STUD WEB HOLE PATCH
Exterior cold-formed steel framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.
Coldformed steel framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2), R603.3.1(3) or R603.3.1(4). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts shall extend not less than 15 inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete. Foundation anchor straps shall be permitted, in lieu of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.

FIGURE R603.3.1(1)
WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.3.1(2)
WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.3.1(3)
WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION


FIGURE R603.3.1(4)
WIND UPLIFT CONNECTOR


TABLE R603.3.1
WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b
FRAMING
CONDITION
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE CATEGORY (mph)
115 B 126 B
or 110 C
< 139 B
or 115 C
126 C < 139 C
Wall bottom track to floor per Figure
     R603.3.1(1)
1-No. 8 screw at
12" o.c.
1-No. 8 screw at
12" o.c.
1-No. 8 screw at
12" o.c.
2-No. 8 screws at
12" o.c.
2-No. 8 screws at
12" o.c.
Wall bottom track to foundation per
     Figure R603.3.1(2)d
12"minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 6' o.c.
12"minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
12"minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
12"minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
12"minimum
diameter anchor
bolt at 4' o.c.
Wall bottom track to wood sill per
     Figure R603.3.1(3)
Steel plate spaced
at 4' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d common
nails
Steel plate spaced
at 3' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d common nails
Steel plate spaced
at 3' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8dcommon
nails
Steel plate spaced
at 2' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d common
nails
Steel plate spaced
at 2' o.c., with 4-
No. 8 screws and
4-10d or 6-8d common
nails
Stud
Spacing
(inches)
Roof
Span
(feet)
Windup lift
connector
strength
(lbs)c,e
16 24 NR NR NR 124 209
28 NR NR 62 151 249
32 NR NR 79 179 289
36 NR NR 94 206 329
40 NR 61 117 239 374
24 24 NR NR 69 186 314
28 NR NR 93 227 374
32 NR NR 117 268 434
36 NR 64 141 309 494
40 NR 92 176 359 562
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N.
  1. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks such as, at door openings or corners. Bolts are to extend not less than 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete.
  2. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  3. NR = Uplift connector not required.
  4. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.
  5. See Figure R603.3.1(4) for details.
Gable endwalls with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1.1(1) or R603.3.1.1(2).

TABLE R603.3.1.1(1)
GABLE ENDWALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS a,b,c
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED
(mph)
WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION
Exposure
Category
Stud height, h (feet)
B C 10 < h ≤ 14 14 < h ≤ 18 18 < h ≤ 22
115 - 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.
126 110 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c.
< 139 115 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c.
- 126 1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c.
- < 139 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c. 1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 8" o.c.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections.
  2. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
  3. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.


TABLE R603.3.1.1 (2)
GABLE ENDWALL BOTIOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED
(mph)
MINIMUM SPACING FOR #1/2-INCH-DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTS#d
Exposure Category Stud height, h (feet)
B C 10 < h ≤ 14 14 < h ≤ 18 18 < h ≤ 22
115 - 6'- 0" o.c. 5'- 7" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
126 110 5'- 10" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
< 139 115 4'- 10" o.c. 5'- 6" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
- 126 4'- 1" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c.
- < 139 5'- 1" o.c. 6'- 0" o.c. 5'- 2" o.c.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections.
  2. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
  3. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height.
  4. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.
Cold-formed steel walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R603.3.1(1), R603.3.1(2) or R603.3.1(3), as applicable. Exterior wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16). Interior load-bearing wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16) based upon an ultimate design wind speed of 115 miles per hour (51 mis), Exposure Category B, and the building width, stud spacing and snow load, as appropriate. Fastening requirements shall be in accordance with Section R603.2.5 and Table R603.3.2(1). Top and bottom tracks shall have the same minimum thickness as the wall studs.

     Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where both of the following conditions exist:

  1. Minimum of 12-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened on the interior surface in accordance with Section R702.
  2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 716-inch-thick (11.1 mm) oriented strand board or 1532-inch-thick (12 mm) plywood are installed and fastened in accordance with Section R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(1) on the outside surface.


     Interior load-bearing walls shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where not less than 12-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on both sides of the wall. The tabulated stud thickness for load-bearing walls shall be used when the attic load is 10 pounds per square foot (480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 pounds per square foot (960 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(16).

     For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be used when the second-floor live load is 30 pounds per square foot (1440 Pa). Second-floor live loads of 40 psf (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(11).

For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one or two floors, roof and ceiling shall be used when the third-floor live load is 30 pounds per square foot (1440 Pa). Third-floor live loads of 40 pounds per square foot (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(12) through R603.3.2(16).

TABLE R603.3.2(1)
WALL FASTENING SCHEDULEa
DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING
ELEMENT
NUMBER AND SIZE OF
FASTENERSa
SPACING OF FASTENERS
Wall stud to top or bottom track 2-No. 8 screws Each end of stud, one per flange
Structural sheathing to wall studs No. 8 screwsb 6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at intermediate supports
12 " gypsum board to framing No. 6 screws 12" o.c.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
  1. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  2. Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels are to be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head styles with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch.


TABLE R603.3.2(2)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLYa,b,c,d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp.B Exp.C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 - 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 33 43 43 43 43
- 126 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
- < 139 350S162 16 33 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33
24 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 k.Pa,
1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.


TABLE R603.3.2(11)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c,d
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp. B Exp. C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 - 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54
- 126 350S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
- < 139 350S162 16 43 43 43 54 43 43 43 54 54 54 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 43 33 33 43 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 54 43 43 54 54
For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm, 1 mil= 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour= 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot= 0.0479 k:Pa,
1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    Second-floor live load is 30 psf.
    Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.


TABLE R603.3.2(12)
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c,d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp.B Exp.C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 - 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
126 110 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 33 33 33 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
- 126 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
- < 139 350S162 16 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 54 54
24 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 68
550S162 16 33 33 43 43 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 43
24 43 43 54 54 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    Top- and middle-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    Top-floor live load is 30 psf.
    Middle-floor live load is 40 psf.
    Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.


TABLE R603.3.2(16)
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILINGa,b,c,d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
Ground Snow Load (psf)
Exp.B Exp.C 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70 20 30 50 70
115 - 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
126 110 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
< 139 115 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
- 126 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
- < 139 350S162 16 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
24 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 -
550S162 16 54 54 54 54 43 43 54 54 43 43 54 54
24 54 54 54 68 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot= 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    Top- and middle-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    Top-floor live load is 30 psf.
    Middle-floor live load is 40 psf.
    Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
The size and thickness of gable endwall studs with heights less than or equal to 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be permitted in accordance with the limits set forth in Table R603.3.2.1(1). The size and thickness of gable endwall studs with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Table R603.3.2.1(2).

TABLE R603.3.2.1(1)
ALL BUILDING WIDTHS GABLE ENDWALLS 8, 9 OR 10 FEET IN HEIGHTa,b,c,d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
Exp.B Exp.C 8-foot Studs 9-foot Studs 10-foot Studs
115 - 350S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
126 110 350S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 43
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
< 139 115 350S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 43
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
- 126 350S162 16 33 33 43
24 43 43 54
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 33
- < 139 350S162 16 33 43 43
24 43 54 54
550S162 16 33 33 33
24 33 33 43
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    Top- and middle-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    Top-floor live load is 30 psf.
    Middle-floor live load is 40 psf.
    Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.


TABLE R603.3.2.1(2)
ALL BUILDING WIDTHS GABLE ENDWALLS OVER 10 FEET IN HEIGHTa,b,c,d
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE
CATEGORY
(mph)
MEMBER
SIZE
STUD
SPACING
(inches)
MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils)
Stud Height, h (feet)
Exp.B Exp.C 10 < h ≤ 12 12 < h ≤ 14 14 < h ≤ 16 16 < h ≤ 18 18 < h ≤ 20 20 < h ≤ 22
115 - 350S162 16 33 43 68 - - -
24 43 68 - - - -
550S162 16 33 33 33 43 54 54
24 33 33 43 54 68 -
126 110 350S162 16 43 54 - - - -
24 54 - - - - -
550S162 16 33 33 43 54 54 68
24 33 43 54 54 - -
< 139 115 350S162 16 43 68 - - - -
24 68 - - - - -
550S162 16 33 43 43 54 68 -
24 43 54 54 68 - -
- 126 350S162 16 54 - - - - -
24 - - - - - -
550S162 16 33 43 54 54 - -
24 43 54 54 - - -
- < 139 350S162 16 54 - - - - -
24 - - - - - -
550S162 16 43 54 54 68 - -
24 54 54 68 - - -
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa,
1 ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa.
  1. Deflection criterion: L/240.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    Top- and middle-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    Top-floor live load is 30 psf.
    Middle-floor live load is 40 psf.
    Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    Attic live load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
The flanges of cold-formed steel studs shall be laterally braced in accordance with one of the following:
  1. Gypsum board on both sides, structural sheathing on both sides, or gypsum board on one side and structural sheathing on the other side of load-bearing walls with gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws in accordance with Section R702 and structural sheathing installed in accordance with Section R603.9 and Table R603.3.2(1).
  2. Horizontal steel straps fastened in accordance with Figure R603.3.3(1) on both sides at mid-height for 8-foot (2438 mm) walls, and at one-third points for 9-foot and 10-foot (2743 mm and 3048 mm) walls. Horizontal steel straps shall be not less than 112 inches in width and 33 mils in thickness (38 mm by 0.84 mm). Straps shall be attached to the flanges of studs with one No. 8 screw. In-line blocking shall be installed between studs at the termination of straps and at 12-foot (3658 mm) intervals along the strap. Straps shall be fastened to the blocking with two No. 8 screws.
  3. Sheathing on one side and strapping on the other side fastened in accordance with Figure R603.3.3(2). Sheathing shall be installed in accordance with Item 1. Steel straps shall be installed in accordance with Item 2.



For SI: 1 mil= 0.0254 mm, 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R603.3.3(1)
STUD BRACING WITH STRAPPING ONLY



For SI: 1 mil= 0.0254 mm, 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R603.3.3(2)
STUD BRACING WITH STRAPPING AND SHEATHING MATERIAL
Flanges and lips of cold-formed steel studs and headers shall not be cut or notched.
Steel studs and other structural members shall not be spliced. Tracks shall be spliced in accordance with Figure R603.3.5.


For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.3.5
TRACK SPLICE
In exterior walls, comer studs and the top tracks shall be installed in accordance with Figure R603.4.


For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.4
CORNER FRAMING
The method of attachment of exterior wall covering materials to cold-formed steel stud wall framing shall conform to the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Headers shall be installed above all wall openings in exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls. Box beam headers and back-to-back headers each shall be formed from two equal sized C-shaped members in accordance with Figures R603.6(1) and R603.6(2), respectively, and Tables R603.6(1) through R603.6(6). L-shaped headers shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with AISI S230. Alternately, headers shall be permitted to be designed and constructed in accordance with AISI S100, Section D4.


For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.6(1)
BOX BEAM HEADER

For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.6(2)
BACK-TO-BACK HEADER


TABLE R603.6(1)
BOX-BEAM AND BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Onlya,b,d
MEMBER
DESIGNATION
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(20 psf)
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(30 psf)
Building widthc(feet) Building widthc(feet)
24 28 32 36 40 24 28 32 36 40
2-350S162-33 3'-3" 2'-8" 2'-2" - - 2'-8" 2'-2" - - -
2-350S162-43 4'-2" 3'-9" 3'-4" 2'-11" 2'-7" 3'-9" 3'-4" 2'-11" 2'-7" 2'-2"
2-350S162-54 6'-2" 5'-10" 5'-8" 5'-3" 4'-10" 5'-11" 5'-8" 5'-2" 4'-10" 4'-6"
2-350S162-68 6'-7" 6'-3" 6'-0" 5'-10" 5'-8" 6'-4" 6'-1" 5'-10" 5'-8" 5'-6"
2-550S162-33 4'-8" 4'-0" 3'-6" 3'-0" 2'-6" 4'-1" 3'-6" 3'-0" 2'-6" -
2-550S162-43 6'-0" 5'-4" 4'-10" 4'-4" 3'-11" 5'-5" 4'-10" 4'-4" 3'-10" 3'-5"
2-550S162-54 8'-9" 8'-5" 8'-1" 7'-9" 7'-3" 8'-6" 8'-1" 7'-8" 7'-2" 6'-8"
2-550S162-68 9'-5" 9'-0" 8'-8" 8'-4" 8'-1" 9'-1" 8'-8" 8'-4" 8'-1" 7'-10"
2-800S162-33 4'-5" 3'-11" 3'-5" 3'-1" 2'-10" 3'-11" 3'-6" 3'-1" 2'-9" 2'-3"
2-800S162-43 7'-3" 6'-7" 5'-11" 5'-4" 4'-10" 6'-7" 5'-11" 5'-4" 4'-9" 4'-3"
2-800S162-54 10'-10" 10'-2" 9'-7" 9'-0" 8'-5" 10'-2" 9'-7" 8'-11" 8'-4" 7'-9"
2-800S162-68 12'-8" 11'-10" 11'-2" 10'-7" 10'-1" 11'-11" 11'-2" 10'-7" 10'-0" 9'-6"
2-1000S162-43 7'-10" 6'-10" 6'-1" 5'-6" 5'-0" 6'-11" 6'-1" 5'-5" 4'-11" 4'-6"
2-1000S162-54 12'-3" 11'-5" 10'-9" 10'-2" 9'-6" 11'-6" 10'-9" 10'-1" 9'-5" 8'-9"
2-1000S162-68 14'-5" 13'-5" 12'-8" 12'-0" 11'-6" 13'-6" 12'-8" 12'-0" 11'-5" 10'-10"
2-1200S162-54 12'-11" 11'-3" 10'-0" 9'-0" 8'-2" 11'-5" 10'-0" 9'-0" 8'-1" 7'-4"
2-1200S162-68 15'-11" 14'-10" 14'-0" 13'-4" 12'-8" 15'-0" 14'-0" 13'-3" 12'-7" 11'-11"
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 k:Pa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 k:Pa.
  1. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    Attic dead load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.


TABLE R603.6(6)
BOX-BEAM AND BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceilinga,b,d
MEMBER
DESIGNATION
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(20 psf)
GROUND SNOW LOAD
(30 psf)
Building widthc(feet) Building widthc(feet)
24 28 32 36 40 24 28 32 36 40
2-350S162-33 - - - - - - - - - -
2-350S162-43 - - - - - - - - - -
2-350S162-54 2'-2" - - - - - - - - -
2-350S162-68 3'-3" 2'-9" 2'-3" - - 2'-11" 2'-5" - - -
2-550S162-33 - - - - - - - - - -
2-550S162-43 - - - - - - - - - -
2-550S162-54 3'-7" 2'-11" 2'-3" - - 3'-3" 2'-7" - - -
2-550S162-68 4'-9" 2'-1" 3'-6" 3'-0" 2'-5" 4'-4" 3'-9" 3'-2" 2'-8" 2'-1"
2-800S162-33 - - - - - - - - -
2-800S162-43 - - - - - - - - - -
2-800S162-54 4'-3" 3'-5" 2'-8" - - 3'-9" 3'-0" 2'-3" - -
2-800S162-68 5'-8" 4'-11" 4'-2" 3'-7" 2'-11" 5'-3" 4'-6" 3'-10" 3'-3" 2'-7"
2-1000S162-43 - - - - - - - - - -
2-1000S162-54 4'-8" 3'-11" 3'-1" 2'-2" - 4'-3" 3'-5" 2'-7" - -
2-1000S162-68 6'-5" 5'-7" 4'-9" 4'-1" 3'-4" 5'-11" 5'-1" 4'-5" 3'-8" 2'-11"
2-1200S162-54 3'-11" 3'-5" 3'-0" 2'-4" - 3'-7" 3'-2" 2'-10" - -
2-1200S162-68 7'-1" 6'-2" 5'-3" 4'-6" 3'-8" 6'-6" 5'-8" 4'-10" 4'-0" 3'-3"
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 k:Pa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 k:Pa.
  1. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.
  2. Design load assumptions:
    Second-floor dead load is 10 psf.
    Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf.
    Second-floor live load is 40 psf.
    Third-floor live load is 30 psf.
    Attic dead load is 10 psf.
  3. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
Box beam and back-to-back headers in gable endwalls shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with Section R603.6 or with the header directly above the opening in accordance with Figures R603.6.1(1) and R603.6.1(2) and the following provisions:

  1. Two 362S162-33 for openings less than or equal to 4 feet (1219 mm).
  2. Two 600S162-43 for openings greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) but less than or equal to 6 feet (1830 mm).
  3. Two 800S162-54 for openings greater than 6 feet (1829 mm) but less than or equal to 9 feet (2743 mm).
FIGURE R603.6.1(1)
BOX BEAM HEADER IN GABLE ENDWALL



For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.6.1(2)
BACK-TO-BACK HEADER IN GABLE ENDWALL
The number of jack and king studs installed on each side of a header shall comply with Table R603.7(1). King, jack and cripple studs shall be of the same dimension and thickness as the adjacent wall studs. Headers shall be connected to king studs in accordance with Table R603.7(2) and the following provisions:
  1. For box beam headers, one-half of the total number of required screws shall be applied to the header and onehalf to the king stud by use of C-shaped or track member in accordance with Figure R603.6(1). The track or C-shaped sections shall extend the depth of the header minus 112 inch (12.7 mm) and shall have a minimum thickness not less than that of the wall studs.
  2. For back-to-back headers, one-half the total number of screws shall be applied to the header and one-half to the king stud by use of a minimum 2-inch by 2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) clip angle in accordance with Figure R603.6(2). The clip angle shall extend the depth of the header minus 112 inch (12.7 mm) and shall have a minimum thickness not less than that of the wall studs. Jack and king studs shall be interconnected with structural sheathing in accordance with Figures R603.6(1) and R603.6(2).


TABLE R603.7(1)
TOTAL NUMBER OF JACK AND KING STUDS REQUIRED AT EACH END OF AN OPENING
SIZE OF OPENING
(feet-inches)
24-INCH O.C. STUD SPACING 16-INCH O.C. STUD SPACING
No. of jack studs No. of king studs No. of jack studs No. of king studs
Up to 3'-6" 1 1 1 1
> 3'-6" to 5'-0" 1 2 1 2
> 5'-0" to 5'-6" 1 2 2 2
> 5'-6" to 8'-0" 1 2 2 2
> 8'-0" to 10'-6" 2 2 2 3
> 10'-6" to 12'-0" 2 2 3 3
> 12'-0" to 13'-0" 2 3 3 3
> 13'-0" to 14'-0" 2 3 3 4
> 14'-0" to 16'-0" 2 3 3 4
> 16'-0" to 18'-0" 3 3 4 4
For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm.

TABLE R603.7(2)
HEADER TO KING STUD CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS a,b,c,d
HEADER SPAN
(feet)
ULTIMATE WIND SPEED (mph), EXPOSURE CATEGORY
110, Exposure Category C or
less than 139, Exposure Category B
Less than 139, Exposure Category C
≤ 4' 4-No. 8 screws 6-No. 8 screws
>4' to 8' 4-No. 8 screws 8-No. 8 screws
> 8' to 12' 6-No. 8 screws 10-No. 8 screws
> 12' to 16' 8-No. 8 screws 12-No. 8 screws
For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour= 0.447 m/s, 1 pound= 4.448 N.
  1. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
  2. For headers located on the first floor of a two-story building or the first or second floor of a three-story building, the total number of screws is permitted to be reduced by 2 screws, but the total number of screws shall not be less than four.
  3. For roof slopes of 6:12 or greater, the required number of screws shall be permitted to be reduced by half, but the total number of screws shall not be less than four.
  4. Screws can be replaced by an uplift connector that has a capacity of the number of screws multiplied by 164 pounds.
Head track spans above door and window openings and sill track spans beneath window openings shall comply with Table R603.8. For openings less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in height that have both a head track and a sill track, multiplying the spans by 1.75 shall be permitted in Table R603.8. For openings less than or equal to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height that have both a head track and a sill track, multiplying the spans in Table R603.8 by 1.50 shall be permitted.

TABLE R603.8
HEAD AND SILL TRACK SPAN
ULTIMATE WIND
SPEED AND
EXPOSURE CATEGORY
(mph)
ALLOWABLE HEAD AND SILL TRACK SPANa,b,c
(feet-inches)
TRACK DESIGNATIONd
B C 350T125-33 350T125-43 350T125-54 550T125-33 550T125-43 550T125-54
115 - 4'-10" 5'-5" 6'-0" 5'-8" 6'-3" 6'-10"
126 110 4'-6" 5'-1" 5'-8" 5'-4" 5'-11" 6'-5"
<139 115 4'-2" 4'-9" 5'-4" 5'-1" 5'-7" 6'-1"
- 126 3'-11" 4'-6" 5'-0" 4'-10" 5'-4" 5'-10"
- <139 3'-8" 4'-2" 4'-9" 4'-1" 5'-1" 5'-7"
For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour= 0.447 m/s.
  1. Deflection limit: L/240.
  2. Head and sill track spans are based on components and cladding wind pressures and 48-inch tributary span.
  3. For openings less than 4 feet in height that have both a head track and sill track, the spans are permitted to be multiplied by 1.75. For openings less than or equal to 6 feet in height that have both a head track and a sill track, the spans are permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 1.5.
  4. Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thicknesses.
Structural sheathing shall be installed in accordance with Figure R603.9 and this section on all sheathable exterior wall surfaces, including areas above and below openings.

FIGURE R603.9
STRUCTURAL SHEATHING FASTENING PATIERN
Structural sheathing panels shall consist of minimum 72-inch-thick (11 mm) oriented strand board or 1532-inch-thick (12 mm) plywood.
The minimum length of full-height sheathing on each braced wall line shall be determined by multiplying the length of the braced wall line by the percentage obtained from Table R603.9.2(1) and by the plan aspect-ratio adjustment factors obtained from Table R603.9.2(2). The minimum length of full-height sheathing shall be not less than 20 percent of the braced wall line length.

     To be considered full-height sheathing, structural sheathing shall extend from the bottom to the top of the wall without interruption by openings. Only sheathed, fullheight wall sections, uninterrupted by openings, which are not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) wide, shall be counted toward meeting the minimum percentages in Table R603.9.2(1). In addition, structural sheathing shall comply with all of the following requirements:
  1. Be installed with the long dimension parallel to the stud framing and shall cover the full vertical height of wall from the bottom of the bottom track to the top of the top track of each story. Installing the long dimension perpendicular to the stud framing or using shorter segments shall be permitted provided that the horizontal joint is blocked as described in Item 2.
  2. Be blocked where the long dimension is installed perpendicular to the stud framing. Blocking shall be not less than 33 mil (0.84 mm) thickness. Each horizontal structural sheathing panel shall be fastened with No. 8 screws spaced at 6 inches (152 mm) on center to the blocking at the joint.
  3. Be applied to each end (corners) of each of the exterior walls with a minimum 48-inch-wide (1219 mm) panel.

Exception: Where stone or masonry veneer is installed, the required length of full-height sheathing and overturning anchorage required shall be determined in accordance with Section R603.9.5.

TABLE R603.9.2(1)
MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF FULL-HEIGHT STRUCTURAL SHEATHING ON EXTERIOR WALLSa,b
WALL SUPPORTING ROOF SLOPE ULTIMATE WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE
(mph)
115 B 126 B < 139 B 126 C < 139 C
110 C 115 C
Roof and ceiling only (one story or top
floor of two- or three-story building).
3:12 9 9 12 16 20
6:12 13 15 20 26 35
9:12 23 25 30 50 58
12:12 33 35 40 66 75
One story, roof and ceiling (first floor of a
two-story building or second floor of a
three-story building).
3:12 27 30 35 50 66
6:12 28 30 40 58 74
9:12 38 40 55 74 91
12:12 45 50 65 100 115
Two stories, roof and ceiling (first floor of
a three-story building).
3:12 45 51 58 84 112
6:12 43 45 60 90 113
9:12 53 55 80 98 124
12:12 57 65 90 134 155
For SI: 1 mph = 0.447 m/s.
  1. Linear interpolation is permitted.
  2. For hip-roofed homes the minimum percentage of full-height sheathing, based upon wind, is permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 0.95 for roof slopes not exceeding 7:12 and a factor of 0.9 for roof slopes greater than 7:12.


TABLE R603.9.2(2)
FULL-HEIGHT SHEATHING LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS
PLAN ASPECT RATIO LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS
Short wall Long wall
1:1 1.0 1.0
1.5:1 1.5 0.67
2:1 2.0 0.50
3:1 3.0 0.33
4:1 4.0 0.25
The minimum percentage of full-height structural sheathing shall be multiplied by 1.10 for 9-foot-high (2743 mm) walls and multiplied by 1.20 for 10-foot-high (3048 mm) walls.
In the lowest story of a dwelling, multiplying the percentage of full-height sheathing required in Table R603.9.2(1) by 0.6 shall be permitted provided holddown anchors are provided in accordance with Section R603.9.4.2.
Edges and interior areas of structural sheathing panels shall be fastened to framing members and tracks in accordance with Figure R603.9 and Table R603.3.2(1). Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels shall be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head style with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch (8 mm).

     For continuously sheathed braced wall lines using wood structural panels installed with No. 8 screws spaced 4 inches (102 mm) on center at all panel edges and 12 inches (304.8 mm) on center on intermediate framing members, the following shall apply:
  1. Multiplying the percentages of full-height sheathing in Table R603.9.2(1) by 0.72 shall be permitted.
  2. For bottom track attached to foundations or framing below, the bottom track anchor or screw connection spacing in Tables R505.3.1(1) and R603.3.1 shall be multiplied by two-thirds
Uplift connections shall be provided in accordance with this section.
Where ultimate design wind speeds exceed 126 miles per hour (56 m/s), Exposure Category C walls shall be provided with direct uplift connections in accordance with AISI S230, Section E13.3, and AISI S230, Section F7.2, as required for 39 miles per hour (62 m/s), Exposure Category C.
Where the percentage of full-height sheathing is adjusted in accordance with Section R603.9.2.2, a hold-down anchor, with a strength of 4,300 pounds (19 kN), shall be provided at each end of each full-height sheathed wall section used to meet the minimum percent sheathing requirements of Section R603.9.2. Hold-down anchors shall be attached to back-to-back studs; structural sheathing panels shall have edge fastening to the studs, in accordance with Section R603.9.3 and AISI S230, Table E11-1.

     A single hold-down anchor, installed in accordance with Figure R603.9.4.2, shall be permitted at the corners of buildings.


For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm.
FIGURE R603.9.4.2
CORNER STUD HOLD-DOWN DETAIL
Where stone and masonry veneer are installed in accordance with Section R703.8, the length of full-height sheathing for exterior and interior wall lines backing or perpendicular to and laterally supporting walls with veneer shall comply with this section.
In Seismic Design Category C, the length of structural sheathing for walls supporting one story, roof and ceiling shall be the greater of the amounts required by Section R603.9.2, except Section R603.9.2.2 shall be permitted.
In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, the required length of structural sheathing and overturning anchorage shall be determined in accordance with Tables R603.9.5(1), R603.9.5(2), R603.9.5(3), and R603.9.5(4). Overturning anchorage shall be installed on the doubled studs at the end of each full-height wall segment.

TABLE R603.9.5(1)
REQUIRED LENGTH OF FULL-HEIGHT SHEATHING AND ASSOCIATED OVERTURNING ANCHORAGE FOR WALLS SUPPORTING WALLS WITH STONE OR MASONRY VENEER AND USING 33-MIL COLD-FORMED STEEL FRAMING AND 6-INCH SCREW SPACING ON THE PERIMETER OF EACH PANEL OF STRUCTURAL SHEATHING
SEISMIC
DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORY BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH
(feet)
SINGLE-STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
CUMULATIVE
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
10 20 30 40 50 60
Minimum total length of braced wall panels required
along each braced wall line
(feet)
D0 3.3 4.7 6.1 7.4 8.8 10.2 3,360 -
5.3 8.7 12.1 15.4 18.8 22.2 3,360 6,720
7.3 12.7 18.0 23.4 28.8 34.2 3,360 10,080
D1 4.1 5.8 7.5 9.2 10.9 12.7 3,360 -
6.6 10.7 14.9 19.1 23.3 27.5 3,360 6,720
9.0 15.7 22.4 29.0 35.7 42.2 3,360 10,080
D2 5.7 8.2 10.6 13.0 15.4 17.8 3,360 -
9.2 15.1 21.1 27.0 32.9 38.8 3,360 6,720
12.7 22.1 31.5 40.9 50.3 59.7 3,360 10,080


TABLE R603.9.5(2)
REQUIRED LENGTH OF FULL-HEIGHT SHEATHING AND ASSOCIATED OVERTURNING ANCHORAGE FOR WALLS SUPPORTING WALLS WITH STONE OR MASONRY VENEER AND USING 43-MIL COLD-FORMED STEEL FRAMING AND 6-INCH SCREW SPACING ON THE PERIMETER OF EACH PANEL OF STRUCTURAL SHEATHING
SEISMIC
DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORY BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH
(feet)
SINGLE-STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
CUMULATIVE
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
10 20 30 40 50 60
Minimum total length of braced wall panels required
along each braced wall line
(feet)
D0 2.8 4.0 5.1 6.3 7.5 8.7 3,960 -
4.5 7.4 10.2 13.1 16.0 18.8 3,960 7,920
6.2 10.7 15.3 19.9 24.4 29.0 3,960 11,880
D1 3.5 4.9 6.4 7.8 9.3 10.7 3,960 -
5.6 9.1 12.7 16.2 19.8 23.3 3,960 7,920
7.7 13.3 19.0 24.6 30.3 35.9 3,960 11,880
D2 4.9 6.9 9.0 11.0 13.1 15.1 3,960 -
7.8 12.9 17.9 22.9 27.9 32.9 3,960 7,920
10.8 18.8 26.7 34.7 42.7 50.7 3,960 11,880


TABLE R603.9.5(3)
REQUIRED LENGTH OF FULL-HEIGHT SHEATHING AND ASSOCIATED OVERTURNING ANCHORAGE FOR WALLS SUPPORTING WALLS WITH STONE OR MASONRY VENEER AND USING 33-MIL COLD-FORMED STEEL FRAMING AND 4-INCH SCREW SPACING ON THE PERIMETER OF EACH PANEL OF STRUCTURAL SHEATHING
SEISMIC
DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORY BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH
(feet)
SINGLE-STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
CUMULATIVE
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
10 20 30 40 50 60
Minimum total length of braced wall panels required
along each braced wall line
(feet)
D0 2.5 3.6 4.6 5.7 6.8 7.8 4,392 -
4.0 6.6 9.2 11.8 14.4 17.0 4,392 8,784
5.6 9.7 13.8 17.9 22.0 26.2 4,392 13,176
D1 3.1 4.4 5.7 7.1 8.4 9.7 4,392 -
5.0 8.2 11.4 14.6 17.8 21.0 4,392 8,784
6.9 12.0 17.1 22.2 27.3 32.4 4,392 13,176
D2 4.4 6.2 8.1 10.0 11.8 13.7 4,392 -
7.1 11.6 16.1 20.6 25.1 29.7 4,392 8,784
9.7 16.9 24.1 31.3 38.5 45.7 4,392 13,176


TABLE R603.9.5(4)
REQUIRED LENGTH OF FULL-HEIGHT SHEATHING AND ASSOCIATED OVERTURNING ANCHORAGE FOR WALLS SUPPORTING WALLS WITH STONE OR MASONRY VENEER AND USING 43-MIL COLD-FORMED STEEL FRAMING AND 4-INCH SCREW SPACING ON THE PERIMETER OF EACH PANEL OF STRUCTURAL SHEATHING
SEISMIC
DESIGN
CATEGORY
STORY BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH
(feet)
SINGLE-STORY
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
CUMULATIVE
HOLD-DOWN
FORCE
(pounds)
10 20 30 40 50 60
Minimum total length of braced wall panels required
along each braced wall line
(feet)
D0 1.9 2.7 3.4 4.2 5.0 5.8 5,928 -
3.0 4.9 6.8 8.8 10.7 12.6 5,928 11,856
D1 2.3 3.3 4.3 5.2 6.2 7.2 5,928 -
3.7 6.1 8.5 10.8 13.2 15.6 5,928 11,856
D2 3.3 4.6 6.0 7.4 8.7 10.1 5,928 -
5.2 8.6 11.9 15.3 18.6 22.0 5,928 11,856
Wood structural panels shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or ANSI/APA PRP 210, CSA O437 or CSA O325. Panels shall be identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.
The maximum allowable spans for wood structural panel wall sheathing shall not exceed the values set forth in Table R602.3(3).
Wood structural panel wall sheathing shall be attached to framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1) or R602.3(3).
Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. Particleboard shall comply with the grades specified in Table R602.3(4).
Masonry construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section. TMS 403 or in accordance with the provisions of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5.
When the empirical design provisions of Appendix A of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, the provisions of TMS 403, or the provisions of this section are used to design masonry, project drawings, typical details and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the architect or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority.
Concrete masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C55 for concrete brick; ASTM C73 for calcium silicate face brick; ASTM C90 for load-bearing concrete masonry units; ASTM C744 for prefaced concrete and calcium silicate masonry units; or ASTM C1634 for concrete facing brick.
Clay or shale masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C34 for structural clay load-bearing wall tile; ASTM C56 for structural clay nonload-bearing wall tile; ASTM C62 for building brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C1088 for solid units of thin veneer brick; ASTM C126 for ceramic-glazed structural clay facing tile, facing brick and solid masonry units; ASTM C212 for structural clay facing tile; ASTM C216 for facing brick (solid masonry units made from clay or shale); ASTM C652 for hollow brick (hollow masonry units made from clay or shale); or ASTM C1405 for glazed brick (single-fired solid brick units).

Exception: Structural clay tile for nonstructural use in fireproofing of structural members and in wall furring shall not be required to meet the compressive strength specifications. The fire-resistance rating shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E119 or UL 263 and shall comply with the requirements of Section R302.
AAC masonry units shall conform to ASTM C1386 for the strength class specified.
Stone masonry units shall conform to the following standards: ASTM C503 for marble building stone (exterior); ASTM C568 for limestone building stone; ASTM C615 for granite building stone; ASTM C616 for sandstone building stone; or ASTM C629 for slate building stone.
Architectural cast stone shall conform to ASTM C1364.
Second hand masonry units shall not be reused unless they conform to the requirements of new units. The units shall be of whole, sound materials and free from cracks and other defects that will interfere with proper laying or use. Old mortar shall be cleaned from the unit before reuse.
Except for mortars listed in Sections R606.2.8, R606.2.9 and R606.2.10, mortar for use in masonry construction shall meet the proportion specifications of Table R606.2.7 or the property specifications of ASTM C270. The type of mortar shall be in accordance with Sections R606.2.7.1, R606.2.7.2 and R606.2.7.3.

TABLE R606.2.7
MORTAR PROPORTIONSa, b
PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME (cementitious materials)
MORTAR TYPE Portland cement or
blended cement
Mortar cement Masonry cement Hydrated limec or
lime putty
Aggregate ratio
(measured in damp,
loose conditions)
M S N M S N
Cement-lime M 1 - - - - - - 14
over 14 to 12
over 12 to 114
over 114 to 212
Not less than 214 and
not more than 3 times
the sum of separate
volumes of lime, if
used, and cement
S 1 - - - - - -
N 1 - - - - - -
O 1 - - - - - -
Mortar cement M 1 - - 1 - - - -
M - 1 - - - - -
S 12 - - 1 - - -
S - - 1 - - - -
N - - - 1 - - -
O - - - 1 - - -
Masonry cement M 1 - - 1 -
M - 1 - -
S 12 - - 1
S - - 1 -
N - - - 1
O - - - 1
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
  1. For the purpose of these specifications, the weight of 1 cubic foot of the respective materials shall be considered to be as follows:

    Portland Cement 94 pounds Masonry Cement Weight printed on bag
    Mortar Cement Weight printed on bag Hydrated Lime 40 pounds
    Lime Putty (Quicklime) 80 pounds Sand, damp and loose 80 pounds of dry sand
  2. Two air-entraining materials shall not be combined in mortar.
  3. Hydrated lime conforming to the requirements of ASTM C207.
Mortar for masonry foundation walls constructed as set forth in Tables R404.1.1(1) through R404.1.1(4) shall be Type Mor S mortar.
Mortar for masonry serving as the lateralforce- resisting system in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C shall be Type M, S or N mortar.
Mortar for masonry serving as the lateral- force-resisting system in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall be Type M or S Portland cement-lime or mortar cement mortar.
Surface-bonding mortar shall comply with ASTM C887. Surface bonding of concrete masonry units shall comply with ASTM C946.
Thin-bed mortar for AAC masonry shall comply with Article 2.1 C.1 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6. Mortar used for the leveling courses of AAC masonry shall comply with Article 2.1 C.2 ofTMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.
Mortar for use with adhered masonry veneer shall conform to ASTM C270 Type S or Type N or shall comply with ANSI A118.4 for latex-modified portland cement mortar.
Grout shall consist of cementitious material and aggregate in accordance with ASTM C476 or the proportion specifications of Table R606.2.11. Type M or Type S mortar to which sufficient water has been added to produce pouring consistency shall be permitted to be used as grout.

TABLE R606.2.11
GROUT PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME FOR MASONRY CONSTRUCTION
TYPE PORTLAND CEMENT
OR BLENDED CEMENT
SLAG CEMENT
HYDRATED LIME
OR LIME PUTTY
AGGREGATE MEASURED IN A DAMP, LOOSE CONDITION
Fine Coarse
Fine 1 0 to 1/10 214 to 3 times the sum of the volume
of the cementitious materials
-
Coarse 1 0 to 1/10 214 to 3 times the sum of the volume
of the cementitious materials
1 to 2 times the sum of the volumes
of the cementitious materials
Metal reinforcement and accessories shall conform to Article 2.4 of TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6.
Unless otherwise required or indicated on the project drawings, head and bed joints shall be 38 inch (9.5 mm) thick, except that the thickness of the bed joint of the starting course placed over foundations shall be not less than 14 inch (6.4 mm) and not more than 34 inch (19.1 mm). Mortar joint thickness for loadbearing masonry shall be within the following tolerances from the specified dimensions:
  1. Bed joint: + 18 inch (3.2 mm).
  2. Head joint: - 14 inch (6.4 mm), + 38 inch (9.5 mm).
  3. Collar joints: - 14 inch (6.4 mm), + 38 inch (9.5 mm).
The mortar shall be sufficiently plastic and units shall be placed with sufficient pressure to extrude mortar from the joint and produce a tight joint. Deep furrowing of bed joints that produces voids shall not be permitted. Any units disturbed to the extent that initial bond is broken after initial placement shall be removed and relaid in fresh mortar. Surfaces to be in contact with mortar shall be clean and free of deleterious materials.
Solid masonry units shall be laid with full head and bed joints and all interior vertical joints that are designed to receive mortar shall be filled.
For hollow masonry units, head and bed joints shall be filled solidly with mortar for a distance in from the face of the unit not less than the thickness of the face shell.
The installation of wall ties shall be as follows:
  1. The ends of wall ties shall be embedded in mortar joints. Wall ties shall have not less than 58-inch (15.9 mm) mortar coverage from the exposed face.
  2. Wall ties shall not be bent after being embedded in grout or mortar.
  3. For solid masonry units, solid grouted hollow units, or hollow units in anchored masonry veneer, wall ties shall be embedded in mortar bed not less than 112 inches (38 mm).
  4. For hollow masonry units in other than anchored masonry veneer, wall ties shall engage outer face shells by not less than 12 inch (13 mm).
Bars shall be completely embedded in mortar or grout. Joint reinforcement embedded in horizontal mortar joints shall not have less than 58-inch (15.9 mm) mortar coverage from the exposed face. Other reinforcement shall have a minimum coverage of one bar diameter over all bars, but not less than 34 inch (19 mm), except where exposed to weather or soil, in which case the minimum coverage shall be 2 inches (51 mm).
Minimum corrosion protection of joint reinforcement, anchor ties and wire fabric for use in masonry wall construction shall conform to Table R606.3.4.1.

TABLE R606.3.4.1
MINIMUM CORROSION PROTECTION
MASONRY METAL
ACCESSORY
STANDARD
Joint reinforcement, interior walls ASTM A641, Class 1
Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls
completely embedded in mortar or grout
ASTM A641, Class 3
Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls not
completely embedded in mortar or grout
ASTM A153, Class B-2
Joint reinforcement in exterior walls or
interior walls exposed to moist environment
ASTM A153, Class B-2
Sheet metal ties or anchors exposed to
weather
ASTM A153, Class B-2
Sheet metal ties or anchors completely
embedded in mortar or grout
ASTM A653, Coating
Designation G60
Stainless steel hardware for any exposure ASTM A167, Type 304
Grout shall be a plastic mix suitable for pumping without segregation of the constituents and shall be mixed thoroughly. Grout shall be placed by pumping or by an approved alternate method and shall be placed before any initial set occurs and not more than 112 hours after water has been added. Grout shall be consolidated by puddling or mechanical vibrating during placing and reconsolidated after excess moisture has been absorbed but before plasticity is lost. Grout shall not be pumped through aluminum pipes.

     Maximum pour heights and the minimum dimensions of spaces provided for grout placement shall conform to Table R606.3.5.1. Grout shall be poured in lifts of 8-foot (2438 mm) maximum height. Where a total grout pour exceeds 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, the grout shall be placed in lifts not exceeding 64 inches (1626 mm) and special inspection during grouting shall be required. If the work is stopped for 1 hour or longer, the horizontal construction joints shall be formed by stopping all tiers at the same elevation and with the grout 1 inch (25 mm) below the top.

TABLE R606.3.5.1
GROUT SPACE DIMENSIONS AND POUR HEIGHTS
GROUT TYPE GROUT POUR MAXIMUM HEIGHT
(feet)
MINIMUM WIDTH OF
GROUT SPACESa, b
(inches)
MINIMUM GROUTb, c SPACE DIMENSIONS FOR
GROUTING CELLS OF HOLLOW UNITS
(inches × inches)
Fine 1 0.75 1.5 × 2
5 2 2 × 3
12 2.5 2.5 × 3
24 3 3 × 3
Coarse 1 1.5 1.5 × 3
5 2 2.5 × 3
12 2.5 3 × 3
24 3 3 × 4
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. For grouting between masonry wythes.
  2. Grout space dimension is the clear dimension between any masonry protrusion and shall be increased by the horizontal projection of the diameters of the horizontal bars within the cross section of the grout space.
  3. Area of vertical reinforcement shall not exceed 6 percent of the area of the grout space.
Provisions shall be made for cleaning the space to be grouted. Mortar that projects more than 12 inch (12.7 mm) into the grout space and any other foreign matter shall be removed from the grout space prior to inspection and grouting. Where required by the building official, cleanouts shall be provided in the bottom course of masonry for each grout pour where the grout pour height exceeds 64 inches (1626 mm). In solid grouted masonry, cleanouts shall be spaced horizontally not more than 32 inches (813 mm) on center. The cleanouts shall be sealed before grouting and after inspection.
Requirements for grouted masonry construction shall be as follows:
  1. Masonry shall be built to preserve the unobstructed vertical continuity of the cells or spaces to be filled. In partially grouted construction, cross webs forming cells to be filled shall be fullbedded in mortar to prevent leakage of grout. Head and end joints shall be solidly filled with mortar for a distance in from the face of the wall or unit not less than the thickness of the longitudinal face shells.
  2. Vertical reinforcement shall be held in position at top and bottom and at intervals not exceeding 200 diameters of the reinforcement.
  3. Cells containing reinforcement shall be filled solidly with grout.
  4. The thickness of grout or mortar between masonry units and reinforcement shall be not less than 14 inch (6.4 mm), except that 14-inch (6.4 mm) bars shall be permitted to be laid in horizontal mortar joints not less than 12 inch (12.7 mm) thick, and steel wire reinforcement shall be permitted to be laid in horizontal mortar joints not less than twice the thickness of the wire diameter.
Grouted multiple-wythe masonry shall conform to all the requirements specified in Section R606.3.5 and the requirements of this section.
Where all interior vertical spaces are filled with grout in multiplewythe construction, masonry headers shall not be permitted. Metal wall ties shall be used in accordance with Section R606.13.2 to prevent spreading of the wythes and to maintain the vertical alignment of the wall. Wall ties shall be installed in accordance with Section R606.13.2 where the backup wythe in multiple-wythe construction is fully grouted.
Vertical grout barriers or dams shall be built of solid masonry across the grout space the entire height of the wall to control the flow of the grout horizontally. Grout barriers shall be not more than 25 feet (7620 mm) apart. The grouting of any section of a wall between control barriers shall be completed in one day without interruptions greater than 1 hour.
Masonry laid in running and stack bond shall conform to Sections R606.3.7.1 and R606.3.7.2.
In each wythe of masonry laid in running bond, head joints in successive courses shall be offset by not less than onefourth the unit length, or the masonry walls shall be reinforced longitudinally as required in Section R606.3.7.2.
Where unit masonry is laid with less head joint offset than in Section R606.3.7.1, the minimum area of horizontal reinforcement placed in mortar bed joints or in bond beams spaced not more than 48 inches (1219 mm) apart shall be 0.0007 times the vertical cross-sectional area of the wall.
The nominal thickness of masonry walls shall conform to the requirements of Sections R606.4.1 through R606.4.4.
The minimum thickness of masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall be 8 inches (203 mm). Solid masonry walls of one-story dwellings and garages shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness where not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) in height, provided that where gable construction is used, an additional 6 feet (1829 mm) is permitted to the peak of the gable. Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the horizontal or vertical direction at intervals as required by Section R606.6.4.
The minimum thickness of rough, random or coursed rubble stone masonry walls shall be 16 inches (406 mm).
Where walls of masonry of hollow units or masonry-bonded hollow walls are decreased in thickness, a course of solid masonry or masonry units filled with mortar or grout shall be constructed between the wall below and the thinner wall above, or special units or construction shall be used to transmit the loads from face shells or wythes above to those below.
Unreinforced solid masonry parapet walls shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick and their height shall not exceed four times their thickness. Unreinforced hollow unit masonry parapet walls shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick, and their height shall not exceed three times their thickness. Masonry parapet walls in areas subject to wind loads of 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kPa) located in Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2, or on townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R606.12.
Corbeled masonry shall be in accordance with Sections R606.5.1 through R606.5.3.
Solid masonry units or masonry units filled with mortar or grout shall be used for corbeling.
The maximum projection of one unit shall not exceed one-half the height of the unit or one-third the thickness at right angles to the wall. The maximum corbeled projection beyond the face of the wall shall not exceed:
  1. One-half of the wall thickness for multiwythe walls bonded by mortar or grout and wall ties or masonry headers.
  2. One-half the wythe thickness for single wythe walls, masonry-bonded hollow walls, multiwythe walls with open collar joints and veneer walls.
Where corbeled masonry is used to support floor or roof-framing members, the top course of the corbel shall be a header course or the top course bed joint shall have ties to the vertical wall.
Bearing and support conditions shall be in accordance with Sections R606.6.1 through R606.6.4.
Each masonry wythe shall be supported by at least two-thirds of the wythe thickness.
Cavity wall or masonry veneer construction shall be permitted to be supported on an 8-inch (203 mm) foundation wall, provided the 8-inch (203 mm) wall is corbeled to the width of the wall system above with masonry constructed of solid masonry units or masonry units filled with mortar or grout. The total horizontal projection of the corbel shall not exceed 2 inches (51 mm) with individual corbels projecting not more than one-third the thickness of the unit or one-half the height of the unit. The hollow space behind the corbeled masonry shall be filled with mortar or grout.
Beams, girders or other concentrated loads supported by a wall or column shall have a bearing of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in length measured parallel to the beam upon solid masonry not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in thickness, or upon a metal bearing plate of adequate design and dimensions to distribute the load safely, or upon a continuous reinforced masonry member projecting not less than 4 inches (102 mm) from the face of the wall.
Joists shall have a bearing of not less than 112 inches (38 mm), except as provided in Section R606.6.3, and shall be supported in accordance with Figure R606.11(1).

LEDGER BOLT
SIZE AND SPACING
JOIST SPAN BOLT SIZE AND SPACING
ROOF FLOOR
10 FT. 12 AT 2 FT. 6 IN.
78 AT 3 FT. 6 IN.
12 AT 2 FT. 0 IN.
78 AT 2 FT. 9 IN.
10-15 FT. 12 AT 1 FT. 9 IN.
78 AT 2 FT. 6 IN.
12 AT 1 FT. 4 IN.
78 AT 2 FT. 0 IN.
15-20 FT. 12 AT 1 FT. 3 IN.
78 AT 2 FT. 0 IN.
12 AT 1 FT. 0 IN.
78 AT 1 FT. 6 IN.

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0.479 kPa.
Note: Where bolts are located in hollow masonry, the cells in the courses receiving the bolt shall be grouted solid.
FIGURE R606.11(1)
ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY WALLS LOCATED IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY A, B OR C AND WHERE WIND LOADS ARE LESS THAN 30 PSF
Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. The maximum spacing between lateral supports shall not exceed the distances in Table R606.6.4. Lateral support shall be provided by cross walls, pilasters, buttresses or structural frame members where the limiting distance is taken horizontally, or by floors or roofs where the limiting distance is taken vertically.

TABLE R606.6.4
SPACING OF LATERAL SUPPORT FOR MASONRY WALLS
CONSTRUCTION MAXIMUM WALL LENGTH TO THICKNESS
OR WALL HEIGHT TO THICKNESSa, b
Bearing walls:
  Solid or solid grouted 20
  All other 18
Nonbearing walls:
  Exterior 18
  Interior 36
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
  1. Except for cavity walls and cantilevered walls, the thickness of a wall shall be its nominal thickness measured perpendicular to the face of the wall. For cavity walls, the thickness shall be determined as the sum of the nominal thicknesses of the individual wythes. For cantilever walls, except for parapets, the ratio of height to nominal thickness shall not exceed 6 for solid masonry, or 4 for hollow masonry. For parapets, see Section R606.4.4.
  2. An additional unsupported height of 6 feet is permitted for gable end walls.
Lateral support in the horizontal direction provided by intersecting masonry walls shall be provided by one of the methods in Section R606.6.4.1.1 or R606.6.4.1.2.
Fifty percent of the units at the intersection shall be laid in an overlapping masonry bonding pattern, with alternate units having a bearing of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on the unit below.
Interior non-load-bearing walls shall be anchored at their intersections, at vertical intervals of not more than 16 inches (406 mm) with joint reinforcement of not less than 9 gage [0.148 inch (4mm)], or 14-inch (6 mm) galvanized mesh hardware cloth. Intersecting masonry walls, other than interior nonloadbearing walls, shall be anchored at vertical intervals of not more than 8 inches (203 mm) with joint reinforcement of not less than 9 gage and shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in each direction at the intersection. Other metal ties, joint reinforcement or anchors, if used, shall be spaced to provide equivalent area of anchorage to that required by this section.
Vertical lateral support of masonry walls in Seismic Design Category A, B or C shall be provided in accordance with one of the methods in Section R606.6.4.2.1 or R606.6.4.2.2.
Masonry walls shall be anchored to roof structures with metal strap anchors spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, 12-inch (13 mm) bolts spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center, or other approved anchors. Anchors shall be embedded not less than 16 inches (406 mm) into the masonry, or be hooked or welded to bond beam reinforcement placed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) from the top of the wall.
Masonry walls shall be anchored to floor diaphragm framing by metal strap anchors spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, 12-inch-diameter (13 mm) bolts spaced at intervals not to exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) and installed as shown in Figure R606.11(1), or by other approved methods.
The unsupported height of masonry piers shall not exceed 10 times their least dimension. Where structural clay tile or hollow concrete masonry units are used for isolated piers to support beams and girders, the cellular spaces shall be filled solidly with grout or Type M or S mortar, except that unfilled hollow piers shall be permitted to be used if their unsupported height is not more than four times their least dimension. Where hollow masonry units are solidly filled with grout or Type M, S or N mortar, the allowable compressive stress shall be permitted to be increased as provided in Table R606.9.
TABLE R606.9
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES FOR EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY
CONSTRUCTION;
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
OF UNIT, GROSS AREA
ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE
STRESSESa GROSS
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREAb
Type M or S mortar Type N mortar
Solid masonry of brick andother solid units of clay orshale; sand-lime or concretebrick:
  8,000 +psi
  4,500 psi
  2,500 psi
  1,500 psi



350
225
160
115



300
200
140
100
Groutedc masonry, of clay
or shale; sand-lime or concrete:
  4,500 +psi
  2,500 psi
  1,500 psi


225
160
115


200
140
100
Solid masonry of solid concrete masonry units:
  3,000 +psi
  2,000 psi
  1,200 psi


225
160
115


200
140
100
Masonry of hollow load bearing units:
  2,000 +psi
  1,500 psi
  1,000 psi
     700 psi

140
115
75
60

120
100
70
55
Hollow walls (cavity or masonry bondedd) solid units:
   2,500 +psi
  1,500 psi
   Hollow units


160
115
75


140
100
70
Stone ashlar masonry:
  Granite
  Limestone or marble
  Sandstone or cast stone

720
450
360

640
400
320
Rubble stone masonry:
   Coarse, rough or random

120

100
For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
  1. Linear interpolation shall be used for determining allowable stresses for masonry units having compressive strengths that are intermediate between those given in the table.
  2. Gross cross-sectional area shall be calculated on the actual rather than nominal dimensions.
  3. See Section R606.13.
  4. Where floor and roof loads are carried upon one wythe, the gross crosssectional area is that of the wythe under load; if both wythes are loaded, the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wall minus the area of the cavity between the wythes. Walls bonded with metal ties shall be considered as cavity walls unless the collar joints are filled with mortar or grout.
Hollow piers shall be capped with 4 inches (102 mm) of solid masonry or concrete, a masonry cap block, or shall have cavities of the top course filled with concrete or grout.
Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall not be deeper than one-third the wall thickness, and the maximum length of a horizontal chase or horizontal projection shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), and shall have not less than 8 inches (203 mm) of masonry in back of the chases and recesses and between adjacent chases or recesses and the jambs of openings. Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall be designed and constructed so as not to reduce the required strength or required fire resistance of the wall and in no case shall a chase or recess be permitted within the required area of a pier. Masonry directly above chases or recesses wider than 12 inches (305 mm) shall be supported on noncombustible lintels.
Allowable compressive stresses in masonry shall not exceed the values prescribed in Table R606.9. In determining the stresses in masonry, the effects of all loads and conditions of loading and the influence of all forces affecting the design and strength of the several parts shall be taken into account.
In walls or other structural members composed of different kinds or grades of units, materials or mortars, the maximum stress shall not exceed the allowable stress for the weakest of the combination of units, materials and mortars of which the member is composed. The net thickness of any facing unit that is used to resist stress shall be not less than 112 inches (38 mm).
Masonry over openings shall be supported by steel lintels, reinforced concrete or masonry lintels or masonry arches, designed to support load imposed.
Masonry walls shall be anchored to floor and roof systems in accordance with the details shown in Figure R606.11(1), R606.11(2) or R606.11(3). Footings shall be permitted to be considered as points of lateral support.


For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, I foot= 304.8 mm.
FIGURE R606.11(2)
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED GROUTED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C



For SI: 1 inch= 25.4 mm, 1 foot= 304.8 mm.

Note: A full bed joint must be provided . Cells containing vertical bars are to be filled to the top of wall and provide inspection opening as shown on detail "A." Horizontal bars are to be laid as shown on detail "B." Lintel bars are to be laid as shown on Section C.
FIGURE R606.11(3)
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D0, D1 OR D2
The seismic requirements of this section shall apply to the design of masonry and the construction of masonry building elements located in Seismic Design Category D0, D1 or D2. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.12.2. These requirements shall not apply to glass unit masonry conforming to Section R610, anchored masonry veneer conforming to Section R703.8 or adhered masonry veneer conforming to Section R703.12.
Masonry structures and masonry elements shall comply with the requirements of Sections R606.12.2 through R606.12.4 based on the seismic design category established in Table R301.2(1). Masonry structures and masonry elements shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.12 and Figures R606.11(1), R606.11(2) and R606.11(3) or shall be designed in accordance with TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 or TMS 403.
Floor and roof diaphragms shall be constructed of wood structural panels attached to wood framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1) or to cold-formed steel floor framing in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2) or to cold-formed steel roof framing in accordance with Table R804.3. Additionally, sheathing panel edges perpendicular to framing members shall be backed by blocking, and sheathing shall be connected to the blocking with fasteners at the edge spacing. For Seismic Design Categories C, D0, D1 and D2, where the width-to-thickness dimension of the diaphragm exceeds 2-to-1, edge spacing of fasteners shall be 4 inches (102 mm) on center.
Townhouses located in Seismic Design Category C shall comply with the requirements of this section.
Table R606.12.2.1 shall be used to determine the minimum required solid wall length without openings at each masonry exterior wall. The provided percentage of solid wall length shall include only those wall segments that are 3 feet (914 mm) or longer. The maximum clear distance between wall segments included in determining the solid wall length shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm). Shear wall segments required to meet the minimum wall length shall be in accordance with Section R606.12.2.2.3.

TABLE R606.12.2.1
MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH ALONG EXTERIOR WALL LINES
SESIMIC DESIGN
CATEGORY
MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH (percent)a
One story or
top story of two story
Wall supporting light-framed second
story and roof
Wall supporting masonry second
story and roof
Townhouses in C 20 25 35
D0 or D1 25 NP NP
D2 30 NP NP
NP = Not permitted, except with design in accordance with the International Building Code.
  1. For all walls, the minimum required length of solid walls shall be based on the table percent multiplied by the dimension, parallel to the wall direction under consideration, of a rectangle inscribing the overall building plan.
Elements not part of the lateral force-resisting system shall be analyzed to determine their effect on the response of the system. The frames or columns shall be adequate for vertical load carrying capacity and induced moment caused by the design story drift.
Masonry partition walls, masonry screen walls and other masonry elements that are not designed to resist vertical or lateral loads, other than those induced by their own weight, shall be isolated from the structure so that vertical and lateral forces are not imparted to these elements. Isolation joints and connectors between these elements and the structure shall be designed to accommodate the design story drift.
Masonry elements listed