User note: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC - Plumbing and Mechanical Code Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page xvii.
This chapter shall govern the selection and installation of piping, tubing and fittings for vent systems. This chapter shall control the minimum diameter of vent pipes, circuit vents, branch vents and individual vents, and the size and length of vents and various aspects of vent stacks and stack vents. Additionally, this chapter regulates vent grades and connections, height above fixtures and relief vents for stacks and fixture traps, and the venting of sumps and sewers.
In climates where the 97.5-percent value for outside design temperature is 0°F (-18°C) or less (ASHRAE 97.5-percent column, winter, see Chapter 3), vent pipes installed on the exterior of the structure shall be protected against freezing by insulation, heat or both. Vent terminals shall be protected from frost closure in accordance with Section P3103.2.
An open vent terminal from a drainage system shall not be located less than 4 feet (1219 mm) directly beneath any door, openable window, or other air intake opening of the building or of an adjacent building, nor shall any such vent terminal be within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such an opening unless it is not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above the top of such opening.
Vent terminals extending through the wall shall terminate not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the lot line and 10 feet (3048 mm) above the highest adjacent grade within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of the vent terminal. Vent terminals shall not terminate under the overhang of a structure with soffit vents. Side wall vent terminals shall be protected to prevent birds or rodents from entering or blocking the vent opening.
A connection between a vent pipe and a vent stack or stack vent shall be made not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture served by the vent. Horizontal vent pipes forming branch vents shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture served.
Where the drainage piping has been roughed-in for future fixtures, a rough-in connection for a vent, not less than one-half the diameter of the drain, shall be installed. The vent rough-in shall connect to the vent system or shall be vented by other means as provided in this chapter. The connection shall be identified to indicate that the connection is a vent.
Each fixture trap shall have a protecting vent located so that the slope and the developed length in the fixture drain from the trap weir to the vent fitting are within the requirements in Table P3105.1 of the code.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m.
|SIZE OF TRAP
(inch per foot)
vertical leg (see Figure P3105.4) is permitted within a fixture drain of a waste fixture in accordance with the following criteria:
- Minimum trap diameter shall be in accordance with Table P3201.7 of the code.
- The diameter of section A shall be equal to the diameter of the trap.
- The length of Section A shall not be less than 8 inches (2032 mm) and in accordance with Table P3105.1 of the code.
- The diameter of Section B shall be 1 pipe size larger than the diameter of Section A.
- The length of Section B shall not be more than 36 inches (9144 mm).
- The diameter of section C shall be 1 pipe size larger than the diameter of Section B.
- The total length of Section A and Section C shall not exceed the distance allowed in Table P3105.1 of the code.
- Bends shall be the diameter of the largest connected section.
Where the fixture drains connect at different levels, the vent shall connect as a vertical extension of the vertical drain. The vertical drain pipe connecting the two fixture drains shall be considered the vent for the lower fixture drain, and shall be sized in accordance with Table P3107.3. The upper fixture shall not be a water closet.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
|MAXIMUM DISCHARGE FROM
UPPER FIXTURE DRAIN (d.f.u.)
|2½ to 3||6|
Any combination of fixtures within two bathroom groups located on the same floor level shall be permitted to be vented by a horizontal wet vent. The wet vent shall be considered the vent for the fixtures and shall extend from the connection of the dry vent along the direction of the flow in the drain pipe to the most downstream fixture drain connection. Each fixture drain shall connect horizontally to the horizontal branch being wet vented or shall have a dry vent. Each wet-vented fixture drain shall connect independently to the horizontal wet vent. Only the fixtures within the bathroom groups shall connect to the wet-vented horizontal branch drain. Any additional fixtures shall discharge downstream of the horizontal wet vent.
The dry-vent connection for a horizontal wet-vent system shall be an individual vent or a common vent for any bathroom group fixture, except an emergency floor drain. Where the dry vent connects to a water closet fixture drain, the drain shall connect horizontally to the horizontal wet vent system. Not more than one wet-vented fixture drain shall discharge upstream of the dry-vented fixture drain connection.
Horizontal and vertical wet vents shall be not less than the size as specified in Table P3108.3, based on the fixture unit discharge to the wet vent. The dry vent serving the wet vent shall be sized based on the largest required diameter of pipe within the wet-vent system served by the dry vent.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
|WET VENT PIPE SIZE
|FIXTURE UNIT LOAD
combination of fixtures located on the same floor level shall be permitted to be vented by a vertical wet vent. The vertical wet vent shall be considered the vent for the fixtures and shall extend from the connection of the dry vent down to the lowest fixture drain connection. Each wet-vented fixture shall connect independently to the vertical wet vent. All water closet drains shall connect at the same elevation. Other fixture drains shall connect above or at the same elevation as the water closet fixture drains. The dry vent connection to the vertical wet vent shall be an individual or common vent serving one or two fixtures.
The waste stack shall be vertical, and both horizontal and vertical offsets shall be prohibited between the lowest fixture drain connection and the highest fixture drain connection to the stack. Every fixture drain shall connect separately to the waste stack. The stack shall not receive the discharge of water closets or urinals.
A stack vent shall be installed for the waste stack. The size of the stack vent shall be not less than the size of the waste stack. Offsets shall be permitted in the stack vent and shall be located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level of the highest fixture, and shall be in accordance with Section P3104.5. The stack vent shall be permitted to connect with other stack vents and vent stacks in accordance with Section P3113.3.
The waste stack shall be sized based on the total discharge to the stack and the discharge within a branch interval in accordance with Table P3109.4. The waste stack shall be the same size throughout the length of the waste stack.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
|MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FIXTURE UNITS (d.f.u.)|
|Total discharge into one branch interval||Total discharge for stack|
Not greater than eight fixtures connected to a horizontal branch drain shall be permitted to be circuit vented. Each fixture drain shall connect horizontally to the horizontal branch being circuit vented. The horizontal branch drain shall be classified as a vent from the most downstream fixture drain connection to the most upstream fixture drain connection to the horizontal branch.
The slope of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be not greater than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The entire length of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be sized for the total drainage discharge to the branch in accordance with Table P3005.4.1.
The combination waste and vent systems shall be provided with a dry vent connected to a point within the system or the system shall connect to a horizontal drain that is vented in accordance with one of the methods specified in this chapter. Combination waste and vent systems connecting to building drains receiving only the discharge from a stack or stacks shall be provided with a dry vent. The vent connecting the combination waste and vent pipe shall extend vertically not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture being vented before offsetting horizontally.
The size of a combination drain and vent pipe shall be not less than that specified in Table 3111.3. The horizontal length of a combination drain and vent system shall be unlimited.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
|MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FIXTURE UNITS (d.f.u.)|
|Connecting to a horizontal branch or stack||Connecting to a building drain or building sub drain|
The island fixture vent shall connect to the fixture drain as required for an individual or common vent. The vent shall rise vertically to above the drainage outlet of the fixture being vented before offsetting horizontally or vertically downward. The vent or branch vent for multiple island fixture vents shall extend not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the highest island fixture being vented before connecting to the outside vent terminal.
The vent located below the flood level rim of the fixture being vented shall be installed as required for drainage piping in accordance with Chapter 30, except for sizing. The vent shall be sized in accordance with Section P3113.1. The lowest point of the island fixture vent shall connect full size to the drainage system. The connection shall be to a vertical drain pipe or to the top half of a horizontal drain pipe. Cleanouts shall be provided in the island fixture vent to permit rodding of all vent piping located below the flood level rim of the fixtures. Rodding in both directions shall be permitted through a cleanout.
The required diameter of individual vents, branch vents, circuit vents, vent stacks and stack vents shall be not less than one-half the required diameter of the drain served. The required size of the drain shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 30. Vent pipes shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in diameter. Vents exceeding 40 feet (12 192 mm) in developed length shall be increased by one nominal pipe size for the entire developed length of the vent pipe.
Drainage piping below sewer level shall be vented in the same manner as that of a gravity system. Building sump vent sizes for sumps with sewage pumps or sewage ejectors, other than pneumatic, shall be determined in accordance with Table P3113.4.1.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute (gpm) = 3.785 L/m.
|DISCHARGE CAPACITY OF PUMP
|MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feet)a|
|Diameter of vent (inches)|
|10||No limitb||No limit||No limit||No limit||No limit|
|20||270||No limit||No limit||No limit||No limit|
|40||72||160||No limit||No limit||No limit|
|60||31||75||270||No limit||No limit|
- Developed length plus an appropriate allowance for entrance losses and friction caused by fittings, changes in direction and diameter. Suggested allowances shall be obtained from NBS Monograph 31 or other approved sources. An allowance of 50 percent of the developed length shall be assumed if a more precise value is not available.
- Actual values greater than 500 feet.
The air pressure relief pipe from a pneumatic sewage ejector shall be connected to an independent vent stack terminating as required for vent extensions through the roof. The relief pipe shall be sized to relieve air pressure inside the ejector to atmospheric pressure, but shall be not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in size.
Individual and branch air admittance valves shall be located not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the horizontal branch drain or fixture drain being vented. Stack-type air admittance valves shall be located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture being vented. The air admittance valve shall be located within the maximum developed length permitted for the vent. The air admittance valve shall be installed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above insulation materials where installed in attics.
Access shall be provided to air admittance valves. Such valves shall be installed in a location that allows air to enter the valve.