Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The definitions contained in this chapter shall apply to the terms used in this standard. Where terms are not defined in this chapter or within another chapter, they shall be defined using their ordinarily accepted meanings within the context in which they are used. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, shall be the source for the ordinarily accepted meaning.
An organization, office, or individual responsible for enforcing the requirements of a code or standard, or for approving equipment, materials, an installation, or a procedure.
Equipment, materials, or services included in a list published by an organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services, and whose listing states that either the equipment, material, or service meets appropriate designated standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
Indicates a mandatory requirement.
Indicates a recommendation or that which is advised but not required.
A document, the main text of which contains only mandatory provisions using the word "shall" to indicate requirements and which is in a form generally suitable for mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adoption into law. Nonmandatory provisions are not to be considered a part of the requirements of a standard and shall be located in an appendix, annex, footnote, informational note, or other means as permitted in the Manual of Style for NFPA Technical Committee Documents.
A fire suppression or control device that operates automatically when its heat-activated element is heated to its thermal rating or above, allowing water to discharge over a specified area.
The distance between the floor and the underside of the ceiling above (or roof deck) within the area.
An architectural ceiling feature that consists of a bounded area of ceiling located at a higher elevation than the attached lower ceiling.
A continuous ceiling in a single plane.
A ceiling with a slope not exceeding 2 in 12.
A ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 12.
A continuous ceiling free from significant irregularities, lumps, or indentations.
A space completely enclosed by walls and a ceiling. Each wall in the compartment is permitted to have openings to an adjoining space if the openings have a minimum lintel depth of 8 in. (200 mm) from the ceiling and the total width of the openings in each wall does not exceed 8 ft (2.4 m). A single opening of 36 in. (900 mm) or less in width without a lintel is permitted when there are no other openings to adjoining spaces.
A continuous material protruding downward from the ceiling to create a reservoir for collecting smoke and heat.
A suspended ceiling system, which is installed below the sprinklers, with listed translucent or opaque panels that are heat sensitive and fall from their setting when exposed to heat.
One or more rooms arranged for the use of one or more individuals living together, as in a single housekeeping unit normally having cooking, living, sanitary, and sleeping facilities that include, but are not limited to, hotel rooms, dormitory rooms, apartments, condominiums, sleeping rooms in nursing homes, and similar living units.
Limiting the size of a fire by distribution of water so as to decrease the heat release rate and pre-wet adjacent combustibles, while controlling ceiling gas temperatures to avoid structural damage.
Sharply reducing the heat release rate of a fire and preventing its regrowth by means of direct and sufficient application of water through the fire plume to the burning fuel surface.
An appliance that produces heat by burning fuel.
A ceiling fan that is approximately 6 ft to 24 ft in diameter with a rotational speed of approximately 30 to 70 revolutions per minute.
A calculated sprinkler system in which pipe sizes are selected on a pressure loss basis to provide a prescribed water density, in gallons per minute per square foot (mm/min), or a prescribed minimum discharge pressure or flow per sprinkler, distributed with a reasonable degree of uniformity over a specified area.
Refers to a building construction material not complying with the definition of noncombustible material that, in the form in which it is used, has a potential heat value not exceeding 3500 Btu/lb (8141 kJ/kg), where tested in accordance with NFPA 259, and includes either of the following: (1) materials having a structural base of noncombustible material, with a surfacing not exceeding a thickness of 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) that has a flame spread index not greater than 50; or (2) materials, in the form and thickness used, having neither a flame spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion, and of such composition that surfaces that would be exposed by cutting through the material on any plane would have neither a flame spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84, Standard Test Method of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or ANSI/UL 723, Standard Test Method of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials.
A material that, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors, when subjected to fire or heat; materials that are reported as passing ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, shall be considered noncombustible materials.
An obstruction located at or below the level of sprinkler deflectors that affect the discharge pattern of two or more adjacent sprinklers.
An obstruction at or below the level of the sprinkler deflector that affects the discharge pattern of a single sprinkler.
A water supply that has not been treated and could contain foreign material that could enter the sprinkler system.
As used in this standard, shop in the term shop-welded means either (1) a sprinkler contractor's or fabricator's premise or (2) an area specifically designed or authorized for welding, such as a detached outside location, maintenance shop, or other area (either temporary or permanent) of noncombustible or fire-resistive construction free of combustible and flammable contents and suitably segregated from adjacent areas.
A system that consists of an integrated network of piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards that includes a water supply source, a water control valve, a waterflow alarm, and a drain and is commonly activated by heat from a fire, discharging water over the fire area. The portion of the sprinkler system above ground is a network of specifically sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a building, structure, or area, generally overhead, and to which sprinklers are attached in a systematic pattern. The system is commonly activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.
A wet pipe system using automatic sprinklers that contains a liquid solution to prevent freezing of the system, intended to discharge the solution upon sprinkler operation, followed immediately by water from a water supply.
A mixture of an antifreeze material with water that is prepared and factory-mixed by the manufacturer with a quality control procedure in place that ensures that the antifreeze solution remains homogeneous and that the concentration is as specified.
A wet pipe sprinkler system having non-fire protection connections to automatic sprinkler systems in a closed-loop piping arrangement for the purpose of utilizing sprinkler piping to conduct water for heating or cooling, where water is not removed or used from the system but only circulated through the piping system.
A sprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers attached to a piping system containing air under pressure with a supplemental detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. Operation of the detection system actuates tripping devices that open dry pipe valves simultaneously and without loss of air pressure in the system. The detection system also serves as an automatic fire alarm system.
A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers or nozzles that are attached to a piping system that is connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers or the nozzles. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers or nozzles attached thereto.
Asprinkler system employing automatic sprinklers that are attached to a piping system containing air or nitrogen under pressure, the release of which (as from the opening of a sprinkler) permits the water pressure to open a valve known as a dry pipe valve, and the water then flows into the piping system and out the opened sprinklers.
A type of sprinkler system capable of repeated on-off flow cycles in response to heat.
A sprinkler system in which the pipe sizing is selected from a schedule that is determined by the occupancy classification and in which a given number of sprinklers are allowed to be supplied from specific sizes of pipe.
A chamber that can store air at the same pressure that is in the wet pipe system piping.
A horizontal pipe that extends from the branch line to a single sprinkler or a sprinkler above and below a ceiling.
The pipes supplying sprinklers, either directly or through sprigs, drops, return bends, or arm-overs.
A listed coupling or fitting that allows axial displacement, rotation, and at least 1 degree of angular movement of the pipe without inducing harm on the pipe. For pipe diameters of 8 in. (203.2 mm) and larger, the angular movement shall be permitted to be less than 1 degree but not less than 0.5 degree.
Vertical piece of pipe between the main and branch line.
A pipe that rises vertically and supplies a single sprinkler.
A device arranged to supervise the operative condition of automatic sprinkler systems.
The following are characteristics of a sprinkler that define its ability to control or extinguish a fire.
- Thermal sensitivity. A measure of the rapidity with which the thermal element operates as installed in a specific sprinkler or sprinkler assembly. One measure of thermal sensitivity is the response time index (RTI) as measured under standardized test conditions.
- Sprinklers defined as fast response have a thermal element with an RTI of 50 (meters-seconds)1/2 or less.
- Sprinklers defined as standard response have a thermal element with an RTI of 80 (meters-seconds)1/2 or more.
- Temperature rating.
- K-factor (see Chapter 6).
- Installation orientation (see 3.6.2).
- Water distribution characteristics (i.e., application rate, wall wetting).
- Special service conditions (see 3.6.3).
The following sprinklers are defined according to orientation.
A sprinkler in which all or part of the body, including the shank thread, is mounted above the lower plane of the ceiling.
A sprinkler designed to be installed in such a way that the water stream is directed downward against the deflector.
A sprinkler in which all or part of the body, other than the shank thread, is mounted within a recessed housing.
A sprinkler having special deflectors that are designed to discharge most of the water away from the nearby wall in a pattern resembling one-quarter of a sphere, with a small portion of the discharge directed at the wall behind the sprinkler.
A sprinkler designed to be installed in such a way that the water spray is directed upwards against the deflector.
The following sprinklers are defined according to special application or environment.
Asprinkler fabricated with corrosion-resistant material, or with special coatings or platings, to be used in an atmosphere that would normally corrode sprinklers.
A sprinkler secured in an extension nipple that has a seal at the inlet end to prevent water from entering the nipple until the sprinkler operates.
A sprinkler specially designed for resistance to load-bearing purposes and with components not readily converted for use as weapons.
A sprinkler equipped with integral shields to protect its operating elements from the discharge of sprinklers installed at higher elevations.
A sprinkler that has been painted or plated by the manufacturer.
The following sprinklers are defined according to design and performance characteristics.
A device for use in applications requiring special water discharge patterns, directional spray, or other unusual discharge characteristics.
A sprinkler that directs from 40 percent to 60 percent of the total water initially in a downward direction and that is designed to be installed with the deflector either upright or pendent.
A sprinkler that does not have actuators or heat-responsive elements.
A type of spray sprinkler that has a thermal element with an RTI of 50 (meter-seconds)1/2 or less and is listed as a quick-response sprinkler for its intended use.
A type of fast-response sprinkler having a thermal element with an RTI of 50 (meters-seconds)1/2 or less, that has been specifically investigated for its ability to enhance survivability in the room of fire origin, and that is listed for use in the protection of dwelling units.
A type of sprinkler listed for its capability to provide fire control for a wide range of fire hazards.
Panel construction and other construction where beams, trusses, or other members impede heat flow or water distribution in a manner that materially affects the ability of sprinklers to control or suppress a fire.
Construction where beams, trusses, or other members do not impede heat flow or water distribution in a manner that materially affects the ability of sprinklers to control or suppress a fire. Unobstructed construction has horizontal structural members that are not solid, where the openings are at least 70 percent of the cross-section area and the depth of the member does not exceed the least dimension of the openings, or all construction types where the spacing of structural members exceeds 71/2 ft (2.3 m) on center.
An accessory or attachment that enables the private fire service main to perform its intended function. [24, 2013]
Piping that has the property of being able to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when exposed to its environment. [24, 2013]
A lining or coating material that when applied to piping or appurtenances has the property of reducing or slowing the deterioration of the object's surface or properties when exposed to its environment. [24, 2013]
A connection through which the fire department can pump supplemental water into the sprinkler system, standpipe, or other system, furnishing water for fire extinguishment to supplement existing water supplies. [24, 2013]
A pump that is a provider of liquid flow and pressure dedicated to fire protection. [20, 2013]
The waterflow rate for a system or hose stream that has been calculated using accepted engineering practices. [24, 2013]
A device designed for the purpose of reducing, regulating, controlling, or restricting water pressure. [24, 2013]
Private fire service main, as used in this standard, is that pipe and its appurtenances on private property (1) between a source of water and the base of the system riser for water-based fire protection systems, (2) between a source of water and inlets to foam-making systems, (3) between a source of water and the base elbow of private hydrants or monitor nozzles, and (4) used as fire pump suction and discharge piping, (5) beginning at the inlet side of the check valve on a gravity or pressure tank. [24, 2013]
A test of a piping system using high velocity flows to remove debris from the piping system prior to it being placed in service. [24, 2013]
An exterior valved connection to a water supply system that provides hose connections. [24, 2013]
A valved connection on a water supply system having one or more outlets and that is used to supply hose and fire department pumpers with water on private property. [24, 2013]
A valved connection on a water supply system having one or more outlets and that is used to supply hose and fire department pumpers with water. [24,2013]
A type of hydrant that sometimes is used where there is no danger of freezing weather. Each outlet on a wet barrel hydrant is provided with a valved outlet threaded for fire hose. [24, 2013]
The maximum height at which commodities can be stored above the floor and still maintain necessary clearance from structural members and the required clearance below sprinklers.
For the purposes of carton records storage, a storage aid consisting of either open metal grating or solid horizontal barriers supported from a rack storage system that is utilized as a walkway for access to storage at elevated levels. Catwalks are accessed using stairs and are not separate floors of a building.
The distance from the top of storage to the ceiling above.
The combination of products, packing material, and container that determines commodity classification.
Storage on solid shelves not exceeding 36 in. (0.9 m) in total depth, arranged as part of a compact storage module, with no more than 30 in. (0.76 m) between shelves vertically and with no internal vertical flue spaces other than those between individual shelving sections.
A type of shelving unit consisting of compact storage whereby the units move to allow for storage to be pushed together creating a storage unit with no flues or minimal spaces between units. Aisles are created by moving the shelving unit. Compact storage modules can be manual or electric in operation.
The rigid separation of the products in a container by dividers that form a stable unit under fire conditions.
A receptacle strong enough, by reason of material, design, and construction, to be shipped safely without further packaging.
A material-handling aid designed to support a unit load with openings to provide access for material-handling devices. (See Figure A.126.96.36.199.)
A method of packaging that either consists of a plastic sheet completely enclosing the sides and top of a pallet load containing a combustible commodity, a combustible package, or a group of combustible commodities or combustible packages, or consists of combustible commodities individually wrapped in plastic sheeting and stored exposed in a pallet load.
Those plastics, the density of which is reduced by the presence of numerous small cavities (cells), interconnecting or not, dispersed throughout their mass.
Those plastics that fall out of their containers during a fire, fill flue spaces, and create a smothering effect on the fire. Examples include powder, pellets, flakes, or random-packed small objects [e.g., razor blade dispensers, 1 oz to 2 oz (28 g to 57 g) bottles].
A fire hazard typical of that produced by fires in combustible high-piled storage.
Storage that does not exceed 12 ft (3.66 m) in height, is incidental to another occupancy use group, does not constitute more than 10 percent of the building area or 4000 ft2 (372 m2) of the sprinklered area, whichever is greater, does not exceed 1000 ft2 (93 m2) in one pile or area, and is separated from other storage areas by at least 25 ft (7.62 m).
A pallet having any portion of its construction consisting of a plastic material.
A plastic pallet incorporating a secondary reinforcing material (such as steel or fiberglass) within the pallet.
The distance between the floor and the underside of the roof deck within the storage area.
A special pallet captive to a material-handling system. (See Figure A.188.8.131.52.)
A pallet load or module held together in some manner and normally transported by materialhandling equipment.
A pallet constructed entirely of wood with metal fasteners.
A storage arrangement where air movement through the pile is restricted because of 6 in. (152 mm) or less vertical flues.
A storage arrangement where air movement through the pile is enhanced because of vertical flues larger than 6 in. (152 mm).
Storage in five-sided wood, metal, or cardboard boxes with open face on the aisles in which boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure so designed that little or no horizontal or vertical space exists around boxes.
Those arrays where collapse, spillage of content, or leaning of stacks across flue spaces is not likely to occur soon after initial fire development.
Those arrays where collapse, spillage of contents, or leaning of stacks across flue spaces occurs soon after initial fire development.
Storage on structures up to and including 30 in. (0.76 m) deep and separated by aisles at least 30 in. (0.76 m) wide.
Two solid or perforated shelves up to 30 in. (0.76 m) in depth each, not exceeding a total depth of 60 in. (1.52 m), separated by a longitudinal vertical barrier such as plywood, particleboard, sheet metal, or equivalent, with a maximum 0.25 in. (6.4 mm) diameter penetrations and no longitudinal flue space and a maximum storage height of 15 ft (4.57 m).
A load that does not have voids (air) within the load and that burns only on the exterior of the load; water from sprinklers might reach most surfaces available to burn.
The horizontal dimension between the face of the loads in racks under consideration.
Automotive components on portable racks are defined as the following: instrument panels, windshields, metal and plastic gasoline tanks, heater housings, door panels, interior trim, bumper facia, wiring harnesses, sheet metal, body components, engines, driveline components, steering mechanisms, auxiliary motors, and lighting — all with or without expanded plastic donnage. This definition does not include the storage of air bags, tires, and seats on portable racks.
A solid barrier in the horizontal position covering the entire rack, including all flue spaces at certain height increments, to prevent vertical fire spread.
The space between rows of storage perpendicular to the direction of loading with a width not exceeding 24 in. (610 mm) between storage.
Any combination of vertical, horizontal, and diagonal members that supports stored materials. [1, 2012]
Racks that are not fixed in place and can be arranged in any number of configurations.
The area of the horizontal surface of a shelf in a rack defined by perimeter aisle(s) or nominal 6 in. (152 mm) flue spaces on all four sides, or by the placement of loads that block openings that would otherwise serve as the required flue spaces.
Racks without shelving or with shelving in racks that are fixed in place with shelves having a solid surface and a shelf area equal to or less than 20 ft2 (1.9 m2) or with shelves having a wire mesh, slatted surface, or other material with openings representing at least 50 percent of the shelf area including the horizontal area of rack members and where the flue spaces are maintained.
A rack where shelves are fixed in place with a series of narrow individual solid supports used as the shelf material and spaced apart with regular openings.
A rack where shelves are fixed in place with a solid, slatted, or wire mesh barrier used as the shelf material and having limited openings in the shelf area.
Shelving that is fixed in place, slatted, wire mesh, or other type of shelves located within racks. The area of a solid shelf is defined by perimeter aisle or flue space on all four sides. Solid shelves having an area equal to or less than 20 ft2 (1.9 m2) are defined as open racks. Shelves of wire mesh, slats, or other materials more than 50 percent open and where the flue spaces are maintained are defined as open racks.
The space between rows of storage parallel to the direction of loading. (See Figure A.184.108.40.206.)
A storage method in which a number of tires are strapped together.
Any uninterrupted space in excess of 5 ft (1.5 m) in length between horizontal layers of stored tires. Such channels can be formed by pallets, shelving, racks, or other storage arrangements.
Tires stored where the sides of the tires overlap, creating a woven or laced appearance. [See Figure A. 220.127.116.11(g).]
The storage of rubber tires that is incidental to the main use of the building; storage areas do not exceed 2000 ft2 (186 m2), and on-tread storage piles, regardless of storage method, do not exceed 25 ft (7.6 m) in the direction of the wheel holes. Acceptable storage arrangements include (a) on-floor, on-side storage up to 12 ft (3.7 m) high; (b) on-floor, on-tread storage up to 5 ft (1.5 m) high; (c) double-row or multirow fixed or portable rack storage on-side or on-tread up to 5 ft (1.5 m) high; (d) single-row fixed or portable rack storage on-side or on-tread up to 12 ft (3.7 m) high; and (e) laced tires in racks up to 5 ft (1.5 m) in height.
Tires stored horizontally or flat.
Tires stored vertically or on their treads.
Storage on portable racks of various types utilizing a conventional pallet as a base.
On-floor storage in which tires are formed into a pyramid to provide pile stability.
See Figure A.18.104.22.168(a) through Figure A.22.214.171.124(g).
Pneumatic tires for passenger automobiles, aircraft, light and heavy trucks, trailers, farm equipment, construction equipment (off-the-road), and buses.
A vertical storage arrangement in which the distances between columns in both directions are short [not more than 2 in. (50 mm) in one direction and 1 in. (25 mm) in the other].
A vertical storage arrangement in which the distance between columns in one direction is short [1 in. (25 mm) or less] and is in excess of 2 in. (50 mm) in the other direction.
Rolls provided with a circumferential steel strap [3/8 in. (9.5 mm) or wider] at each end of the roll.
A single vertical stack of rolls.
The term for all kinds of felted sheets made from natural fibrous materials, usually vegetable but sometimes mineral or animal, and formed on a fine wire screen from water suspension.
Rolls stored with the cores in the horizontal plane (on-side storage).
Rolls stored with the cores in the vertical plane (on-end storage).
Rolls provided with a complete heavy kraft covering around both sides and ends.
The maximum vertical distance above the floor at which roll paper is normally stored.
A natural seed fiber wrapped and secured in industry-accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands, or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning process). (See Table A.126.96.36.199.)
An arrangement in which bales are stored directly on the floor, two or more bales high.
A continuously manned control station from which all of the fire control equipment is monitored. If this station is not the bridge, direct communication with the bridge must be provided by means other than the ship's service telephone.
A material whose melting point is below 1700°F (926.7°C).
The inclination of a ship to one side.
The angle defined by the intersection of a vertical line through the center of a vessel and a line perpendicular to the surface of the water.
A universal connection to the vessel's fire main to which a shoreside fire-fighting water supply can be connected.
A sprinkler system installed on a ship, boat, or other floating structure that takes its supply from the water on which the vessel floats.
An assembly that is constructed of noncombustible materials and made intact with the main structure of the vessel, such as shell, structural bulkheads, and decks; meets the requirements of a B-Class boundary; and is insulated such that, if tested in accordance with ASTM E 119, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, for 15 minutes, the average temperature of the unexposed side does not rise more than 250°F (193°C) above the original temperature, nor does the temperature at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 405°F (225°C) above the original temperature.
A visual and audible alarm signal given at the central safety station to indicate when the system is in operation or when a condition that would impair the satisfactory operation of the system exists. Supervisory alarms must give a distinct indication for each individual system component that is monitored.
The maximum angle to which a vessel is permitted to heel after the assumed damage required by stability regulations is imposed.
A fully enclosed stair that serves all levels of a vessel in which persons can be employed.
The seismic coefficient that combines ground motion and seismic response factors from SEI/ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads of Buildings and Other Structures.
The horizontal force due to seismic load acting on a brace at working stress levels.
A device or assembly used to support the gravity load of the system piping.
A sway brace intended to resist differential movement perpendicular to the axis of the system piping.
A sway brace intended to resist differential movement parallel to the axis of the system piping.
The vertical reaction due to the angle of installation of sway braces on system piping resulting from earthquake motion.
A device used for fastening pipe to the building structure, installed in hardened concrete.
The maximum considered earthquake ground motion for 0.2-second spectral response acceleration (5 percent of critical damping), site Class B for a specific site.
An assembly of fittings, pipe, flexible pipe, and/or couplings that permits movement in all directions to accommodate seismic differential movement across building seismic separation joints.
An assembly intended to be attached to the system piping to resist horizontal earthquake loads in two directions.