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4.1* Goals and Objectives

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4.1.1* Goals

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The goals in Chapter 4 of this Code shall be used as guidance to achieve a reasonable level of safety, property protection, and public welfare from the hazards created by fire, explosion, and other hazardous conditions. The prescribed requirements are found in other Chapters of this Code and the Building Code.

4.1.2* Objectives

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4.1.3* Safety

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4.1.3.1 Safety From Fire

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4.1.3.1.1* Safety-From-Fire Goals

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4.1.3.1.2 Safety-From-Fire Objectives

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4.1.3.1.2.1

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4.1.3.1.2.2*

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4.1.3.1.2.3

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4.1.3.1.2.4

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4.1.3.1.2.5*

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4.1.3.2 Safety During Building Use

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4.1.3.2.1* Safety-During-Building-Use Goal

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4.1.3.2.2 Safety-During-Building-Use Objectives

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4.1.3.2.2.1

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4.1.3.2.2.2

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4.1.3.2.2.3

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4.1.3.2.2.4

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4.1.3.2.2.5

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4.1.3.3 Safety From Hazardous Materials

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4.1.3.3.1 Safety-From-Hazardous-Materials Goal

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4.1.3.3.2 Safety-From-Hazardous-Materials Objectives

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4.1.3.3.2.1

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4.1.3.3.2.2*

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4.1.4 Property Protection

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4.1.4.1 Property Protection Goal

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4.1.4.2 Property Protection Objectives

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4.1.4.2.1* Prevention of Ignition

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4.1.4.2.2* Fire Spread and Explosions

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4.1.4.2.3 Structural Integrity

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4.1.4.2.4 Hazardous Materials

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4.1.5 Public Welfare

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4.1.5.1* Public Welfare Goal

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4.1.5.2* Public Welfare Objective

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4.2 Assumptions

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4.2.1* Single Fire Source

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4.2.1.1

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4.2.1.2

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4.2.2* Single Hazardous Material Release

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4.2.2.1

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4.2.2.2

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4.2.3* Incidents Impinging on Hazardous Materials

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4.3 Compliance Options

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4.3.1 Prescriptive-Based Option

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4.3.1.1

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4.3.1.2

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4.3.2 Performance-Based Option

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4.3.2.1

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4.3.2.2

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4.4.1 Multiple Safeguards

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4.4.1.1

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4.4.1.2

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4.4.2 Appropriateness of Safeguards

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In every occupied building or structure, means of egress from all parts of the building shall be maintained free and unobstructed.
No lock or fastening shall be permitted that prevents free escape from the inside of any building other than in health care occupancies and detention and correctional occupancies where staff are continually on duty and effective provisions are made to remove occupants in case of fire or other emergency.

4.4.3.1.3

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4.4.3.2.1

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Every exit shall be clearly visible, or the route to reach every exit shall be conspicuously indicated in accordance with the Building Code.

4.4.3.2.2

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Each means of egress, in its entirety, shall be arranged or marked so that the way to a place of safety is indicated in a clear manner in accordance with the Building Code.

4.4.3.2.3 Lighting

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Illumination of means of egress shall be provided in accordance with the Building Code.

4.4.4* Occupant Notification

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4.4.5 Vertical Openings

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4.4.6 System Design/Installation

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The AHJ shall determine whether the provisions of this Code are met.
Where it is evident that a reasonable degree of safety is provided, any requirement shall be permitted to be modified if its application would be hazardous under normal occupancy conditions in the judgment of the AHJ.

4.5.2 Historic Structures and Cultural Resource Buildings

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Nothing in this Code shall be construed to prohibit a better type of building construction, an additional means of egress, or an otherwise more safe condition than that specified by the minimum requirements of this Code.

4.5.4 Conditions for Occupancy

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No new construction or existing building shall be occupied in whole or in part in violation of the provisions of this Code, unless the following conditions exist:
  1. A plan of correction has been approved.
  2. The occupancy classification remains the same.
  3. No serious life safety hazard exists as judged by the AHJ.
Where compliance with this Code is effected by means of a performance-based design, the owner shall annually certify compliance with the conditions and limitations of the design by submitting a warrant of fitness acceptable to the AHJ.

4.5.5.2

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The warrant of fitness shall attest that the building features, systems, and use have been inspected and confirmed to remain consistent with design specifications outlined in the documentation required by Sections 5.1.8 and 5.7.3 and that they continue to satisfy the goals and objectives specified in Section 4.1.1 (Section 5.1.11.)
Buildings or portions of buildings shall be permitted to be occupied during construction, repair, alterations, or additions only where required means of egress and required fire protection features are in place and continuously maintained for the portion occupied or where alternative life safety measures and building protection measures acceptable to the AHJ are in place.

4.5.6.2.1

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In buildings under construction, adequate escape facilities shall be maintained at all times for the use of construction workers as provided in the Building Code.

4.5.6.2.2

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Escape facilities shall consist of doors, walkways, stairs, ramps, fire escapes, ladders, or other approved means or devices arranged in accordance with the general principles of this Code and as provided in the Building Code insofar as they can reasonably be applied to buildings under construction.
Flammable, hazardous, or explosive substances or equipment for repairs or alterations shall be permitted in a building while the building is occupied if the condition of use and safeguards provided do not create any additional danger or impediment to egress beyond the normally permissible conditions in the building and is such that materials are safeguarded when the building is unoccupied.

4.5.7.1

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In any building or structure, whether or not a physical alteration is needed, a change from one occupancy classification to another shall be permitted only where such a structure, building, or portion thereof conforms with the requirements of this Code, the provisions of the Building Code and applicable codes that apply to new construction for the proposed new use, except as follows:
  1. Where, in the opinion of the AHJ, the proposed occupancy or change in use is not more hazardous than the existing use, based on life safety and fire risk, the AHJ shall be permitted to approve such change of occupancy provided compliance with the requirements of this Code for buildings of like occupancy or use are specifically incorporated to safeguard the life, health, and welfare of persons.
  2. Change of tenants or ownership shall not be construed to be a change of occupancy classification where the nature of use and assigned occupancy classification remain the same.

4.5.7.2

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Where specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code, existing construction features shall be permitted to be continued in use in conversions.

4.5.8 Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing

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4.5.8.1

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4.5.8.2

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4.5.8.3*

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4.5.8.4*

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4.5.8.5*

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4.5.8.6

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4.5.8.7

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4.5.9 Noncombustible Material

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A material that complies with any one of the following shall be considered a noncombustible material:
  1. The material, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors, when subjected to fire or heat.
  2. The material is reported as passing ASTM E 136: Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C.
  3. The material is reported as complying with the pass/fail criteria of ASTM E 136: Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C when tested in accordance with the test method and procedure in ASTM E 2652: Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Tube Furnace with a Cone-shaped Airflow Stabilizer, at 750°C.
[5000: 7.1.4.1]

4.5.9.1

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Where the term limited-combustible is used in this Code, it shall also include the term noncombustible. [5000: 7.1.4.1.2]

4.5.10 Limited-Combustible Material

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A material shall be considered a limited-combustible material where both of the following conditions of Sections 4.5.10.1, and 4.5.10.2, and the conditions of either Section 4.5.10.3 or 4.5.10.4, are met. [5000: 7.1.4.2]

4.5.10.1

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The material does not comply with the requirements for a noncombustible material in accordance with Section 4.5.9. [5000: 7.1.4.2(1)]

4.5.10.2

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The material, in the form in which it is used, exhibits a potential heat value not exceeding 3500 Btu/lb (8141 kD/kg) where tested in accordance with NFPA 259, Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building Materials. [5000:7.1.4.2(2)]

4.5.10.3

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The material has a structural base of a noncombustible material with a surfacing not exceeding a thickness of 1/4 inch (3.2 mm) where the surfacing exhibits a flame spread index not greater than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84: Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or ANSI/UL 723: Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. [5000:7.1.4.2.1]

4.5.10.4

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The material is composed of materials which, in the form and thickness used, neither exhibit a flame spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion when tested in accordance with, ASTM E, 84: Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials or ANSI/UL 723: Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, and are of such composition that all surfaces that would be exposed by cutting through the material on any plane would neither exhibit a flame spread index greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or ANSI/UL 723. [5000: 7.1.4.2.2]

4.5.10.5

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