ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Residential Code 2015 (IRC 2015)

Part I — Administrative

Part II — Definitions

Part III — Building Planning and Construction

Part IV — Energy Conservation

Part V — Mechanical

Part VI — Fuel Gas

Part VII — Plumbing

Part VIII — Electrical

Part IX — Referenced Standards

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
(The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.)
These provisions shall be applicable only to a manufactured home used as a single dwelling unit installed on privately owned (nonrental) lots and shall apply to the following:
  1. Construction, alteration and repair of any foundation system that is necessary to provide for the installation of a manufactured home unit.
  2. Construction, installation, addition, alteration, repair or maintenance of the building service equipment that is necessary for connecting manufactured homes to water, fuel, or power supplies and sewage systems.
  3. Alterations, additions or repairs to existing manufactured homes. The construction, alteration, moving, demolition, repair and use of accessory buildings and structures, and their building service equipment, shall comply with the requirements of the codes adopted by this jurisdiction.
These provisions shall not be applicable to the design and construction of manufactured homes and shall not be deemed to authorize either modifications or additions to manufactured homes where otherwise prohibited.

Exception: In addition to these provisions, new and replacement manufactured homes to be located in flood hazard areas as established in Table R301.2(1) of the International Residential Code shall meet the applicable requirements of Section R322 of the International Residential Code.
Manufactured homes and their building service equipment to which additions, alterations or repairs are made shall comply with all the requirements of these provisions for new facilities, except as specifically provided in this section.

AE102.2 Additions, Alterations or Repairs

AMENDMENT
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Additions, alterations and repairs made to a manufactured home shall conform to 780 CMR 51.00: Massachusetts Residential Code and the specialized codes.
Building service equipment lawfully in existence at the time of the adoption of the applicable codes may have their use, maintenance or repair continued if the use, maintenance or repair is in accordance with the original design and no hazard to life, health or property has been created by such building service equipment.
Manufactured homes that are in existence at the time of the adoption of these provisions may have their existing use or occupancy continued if such use or occupancy was legal at the time of the adoption of these provisions, provided such continued use is not dangerous to life, health and safety.

The use or occupancy of any existing manufactured home shall not be changed unless evidence satisfactory to the building official is provided to show compliance with all applicable provisions of the codes adopted by this jurisdiction. Upon any change in use or occupancy, the manufactured home shall cease to be classified as such within the intent of these provisions.
All manufactured homes and their building service equipment, existing and new, and all parts thereof, shall be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. All devices or safeguards which are required by applicable codes or by the Manufactured Home Standards shall be maintained in conformance to the code or standard under which it was installed. The owner or the owner's designated agent shall be responsible for the maintenance of manufactured homes, accessory buildings, structures and their building service equipment. To determine compliance with this section, the building official may cause any manufactured home, accessory building or structure to be reinspected.
Manufactured homes which are to be relocated within this jurisdiction shall comply with these provisions.

AE201.1 General

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For the purpose of these provisions, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words and their derivatives shall be construed as defined or specified herein.

ACCESSORY BUILDING. Any building or structure or portion thereto, located on the same property as a manufactured home, which does not qualify as a manufactured home as defined herein.

BUILDING SERVICE EQUIPMENT. Refers to the plumbing, mechanical and electrical equipment, including piping, wiring, fixtures and other accessories which provide sanitation, lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, fire protection and facilities essential for the habitable occupancy of a manufactured home or accessory building or structure for its designated use and occupancy.

MANUFACTURED HOME. A structure transportable in one or more sections which, in the traveling mode, is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in width or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length or, when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet (30 m2), and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; except that such term shall include any structure which meets all the requirements of this paragraph, except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and complies with the standards established under this title.

For mobile homes built prior to June 15, 1976, a label certifying compliance with the Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, ANSI 119.1, in effect at the time of manufacture, is required. For the purpose of these provisions, a mobile home shall be considered a manufactured home. A manufactured home (mobile home) is not a manufactured building. For manufactured buildings, see 780 CMR 110.R3.

MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION. Construction which is required for the installation of a manufactured home, including the construction of the foundation system, required structural connections thereto and the installation of on-site water, gas, electrical and sewer systems and connections thereto which are necessary for the normal operation of the manufactured home.

MANUFACTURED HOME STANDARDS. The Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards as promulgated by the HUD.

PRIVATELY OWNED (NONRENTAL) LOT. A parcel of real estate outside of a manufactured home rental community (park) where the land and the manufactured home to be installed thereon are held in common ownership.
A manufactured home shall not be installed on a foundation system, reinstalled or altered without first obtaining a permit from the building official. A separate permit shall be required for each manufactured home installation. When approved by the building official, such permit may include accessory buildings and structures, and their building service equipment, when the accessory buildings or structures will be constructed in conjunction with the manufactured home installation.
A permit shall be obtained to alter, remodel, repair or add accessory buildings or structures to a manufactured home subsequent to its initial installation. Permit issuance and fees therefor shall be in conformance to the codes applicable to the type of work involved.

An addition made to a manufactured home, as defined in these provisions, shall comply with these provisions.
Except as provided in Section AE301.1, permits shall be required for all accessory buildings and structures, and their building service equipment. Permit issuance and fees therefor shall be in conformance to the codes applicable to the types of work involved.

AE301.4 Exempted Work

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AE301.4 Reserved

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Section AE302 Application for Permit

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AE302.1 Application

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AE302.2 Plans and Specifications

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AE302.3 Information on Plans and Specifications

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Section AE302 Reserved

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Section AE303 Permits Issuance

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AE303.1 Issuance

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AE303.2 Retention of Plans

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AE303.3 Validity of Permit

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AE303.4 Expiration

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AE303.5 Suspension or Revocation

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Section AE303 Reserved

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Section AE304 Fees

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AE304.1 Permit Fees

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AE304.2 Plan Review Fees

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AE304.3 Other Provisions

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AE304.3.1 Expiration of Plan Review

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AE304.3.2 Investigation Fees—Work Without a Permit

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AE304.3.2.1 Investigation

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AE304.3.2.2 Fee

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AE304.3.3 Fee Refunds

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AE304.3.3.1 Permit Fee Erroneously Paid or Collected

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AE304.3.3.2 Permit Fee Paid When No Work Done

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AE304.3.3.3 Plan Review Fee

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Section AE304 Reserved

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Section AE305 Inspections

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AE305.1 General

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AE305.2 Inspection Requests

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AE305.3 Inspection Record Card

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AE305.4 Approval Required

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AE305.5 Required Inspections

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AE305.5.1 Structural Inspections for the Manufactured Home Installation

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AE305.5.2 Structural Inspections for Accessory Building and Structures

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AE305.5.3 Building Service Equipment Inspections

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AE305.5.4 Final Inspection

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AE305.6 Other Inspections

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Section AE305 Reserved

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Section AE306 Special Inspections

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AE306.1 General

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Section AE306 Reserved

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Section AE307 Utility Service

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AE307.1 General

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Section AE307 Reserved

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A manufactured home shall be limited in use to a single dwelling unit.
Accessory buildings shall be classified as to occupancy by thebuilding official as set forth in this code.

Section AE402 Location on Property

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AE402.1 General

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Section AE402 Reserved

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A manufactured home shall be installed on a foundation system which is designed and constructed to sustain within the stress limitations specified in this code and all loads specified in this code.

Exception: When specifically authorized by the building official, foundation and anchorage systems which are constructed in accordance with the methods specified in Section AE600 of these provisions, or in the HUD, Permanent Foundations for Manufactured Housing, 1984 Edition, Draft, shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this appendix.
The installation instructions as provided by the manufacturer of the manufactured home shall be used to determine permissible points of support for vertical loads and points of attachment for anchorage systems used to resist horizontal and uplift forces.
Any system or method of construction to be used shall submit to a rational analysis in accordance with well-established principles of mechanics.
Foundation systems designed and constructed in accordance with this section may be considered a permanent installation.
The classification of the soil at each manufactured home site shall be determined when required by the building official. The building official may require that the determination be made by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to conduct soil investigations.

The classification shall be based on observation and any necessary tests of the materials disclosed by borings or excavations made in appropriate locations. Additional studies may be necessary to evaluate soil strength, the effect of moisture variation on soil-bearing capacity, compressibility and expansiveness.

When required by the building official, the soil classification design-bearing capacity and lateral pressure shall be shown on the plans.
Footings and foundations, unless otherwise specifically provided, shall be constructed of materials specified by this code for the intended use and in all cases shall extend below the frost line. Footings of concrete and masonry shall be of solid material. Foundations supporting untreated wood shall extend at least 8 inches (203 mm) above the adjacent finish grade. Footings shall have a minimum depth below finished grade of 12 inches (305 mm) unless a greater depth is recommended by a foundation investigation.

Piers and bearing walls shall be supported on masonry or concrete foundations or piles, or other approved foundation systems which shall be of sufficient capacity to support all loads.
When a design is provided, the foundation system shall be designed in accordance with the applicable structural provisions of this code and shall be designed to minimize differential settlement. Where a design is not provided, the minimum foundation requirements shall be as set forth in this code.
Provisions shall be made for the control and drainage of surface water away from the manufactured home.
A minimum clearance of 12 inches (305 mm) shall be maintained beneath the lowest member of the floor support framing system. Clearances from the bottom of wood floor joists or perimeter joists shall be as specified in this code.

Under-floor spaces shall be ventilated with openings as specified in this code. If combustion air for one or more heat-producing appliance is taken from within the under-floor spaces, ventilation shall be adequate for proper appliance operation.

Under-floor access openings shall be provided. Such openings shall be not less than 18 inches (457 mm) in any dimension and not less than 3 square feet (0.279 m2) in area, and shall be located so that any water supply and sewer drain connections located under the manufactured home are accessible.
Skirting and permanent perimeter enclosures shall be installed only where specifically required by other laws or ordinances. Skirting, when installed, shall be of material suitable for exterior exposure and contact with the ground. Permanent perimeter enclosures shall be constructed of materials as required by this code for regular foundation construction.

Skirting shall be installed in accordance with the skirting manufacturer's installation instructions. Skirting shall be adequately secured to ensure stability, minimize vibration and susceptibility to wind damage, and compensate for possible frost heave.
Where retaining walls are used as a permanent perimeter enclosure, they shall resist the lateral displacements of soil or other materials and shall conform to this code as specified for foundation walls. Retaining walls and foundation walls shall be constructed of approved treated wood, concrete, masonry or other approved materials or combination of materials as for foundations as specified in this code. Siding materials shall extend below the top of the exterior of the retaining or foundation wall, or the joint between the siding and enclosure wall shall be flashed in accordance with this code.
Accessory buildings shall not be structurally supported by or attached to a manufactured home unless engineering calculations are submitted to substantiate any proposed structural connection.

Exception: The building official may waive the submission of engineering calculations if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that engineering calculations are not necessary to show conformance to these provisions.

Section AE505 Building Service Equipment

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AE505.1 General

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Section AE505 Reserved

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Exterior stairways and ramps which provide egress to the public way shall comply with the applicable provisions of this code.
Every accessory building or portion thereof shall be provided with exits as required by this code.

Section AE507 Occupancy, Fire Safety and Energy Conservation Standards

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AE507.1 General

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Section AE507 Reserved

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This section is applicable only where specifically authorized by thebuilding official.
The capacity of individual load-bearing piers and their footings shall be sufficient to sustain all loads specified in this code within the stress limitations specified in this code. Footings, unless otherwise approved by the building official, shall be placed level on firm, undisturbed soil or an engineered fill which is free of organic material, such as weeds and grasses. Where used, an engineered fill shall provide a minimum load-bearing capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds per square foot (48 kN/m2). Continuous footings shall conform to the requirements of this code. Section AE502 of these provisions shall apply to footings and foundations constructed under the provisions of this section.
Piers shall be designed and constructed to distribute loads evenly. Multiple-section homes may have concentrated roof loads which will require special consideration. Load-bearing piers may be constructed utilizing one of the following methods listed. Such piers shall be considered to resist only vertical forces acting in a downward direction. They shall not be considered as providing any resistance to horizontal loads induced by wind or earthquake forces.
  1. A prefabricated load-bearing device that is listed and labeled for the intended use.
  2. Mortar shall comply with ASTM C 270, Type M, S or N; this may consist of one part Portland cement, one-half part hydrated lime and four parts sand by volume. Lime shall not be used with plastic or waterproof cement.
  3. A cast-in-place concrete pier with concrete having specified compressive strength at 28 days of 2,500 pounds per square inch (17 225 kPa).
Alternative materials and methods of construction may be used for piers which have been designed by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such.

Caps and leveling spacers may be used for leveling of the manufactured home. Spacing of piers shall be as specified in the manufacturer's installation instructions, if available, or by an approved designer.
Piers constructed as indicated in Section AE602 may have heights as follows:
  1. Except for corner piers, piers 36 inches (914 mm) or less in height may be constructed of masonry units, placed with cores or cells vertically. Piers shall be installed with their long dimension at right angles to the main frame member they support and shall have a minimum cross-sectional area of 128 square inches (82 560 mm2). Piers shall be capped with minimum 4-inch (102 mm)solid masonry units or equivalent.
  2. Piers between 36 and 80 inches (914 and 2032 mm) in height and all corner piers greater than 24 inches (610 mm) in height shall be at least 16 inches by 16 inches (406 mm by 406 mm) consisting of interlocking masonry units and shall be fully capped with minimum 4-inch (102 mm) solid masonry units or equivalent.
  3. Piers greater than 80 inches (2032 mm) in height may be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Item 2, provided the piers shall be filled solid with grout and reinforced with four continuous No. 5 bars. One bar shall be placed in each corner cell of hollow masonry unit piers or in each corner of the grouted space of piers constructed of solid masonry units.
  4. Cast-in-place concrete piers meeting the same size and height limitations of Items 1, 2 and 3 may be substituted for piers constructed of masonry units.
Ground anchors shall be designed and installed to transfer the anchoring loads to the ground. The load-carrying portion of the ground anchors shall be installed to the full depth called for by the manufacturer's installation instructions and shall extend below the established frost line into undisturbed soil.

Manufactured ground anchors shall be listed and installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the anchor manufacturer's instructions, and shall include the means of attachment of ties meeting the requirements of Section AE605. Ground anchor manufacturer's installation instructions shall include the amount of preload required and load capacity in various types of soil. These instructions shall include tensioning adjustments which may be needed to prevent damage to the manufactured home, particularly damage that can be caused by frost heave. Each ground anchor shall be marked with the manufacturer's identification and listed model identification number which shall be visible after installation. Instructions shall accompany each listed ground anchor specifying the types of soil for which the anchor is suitable under the requirements of this section.

Each approved ground anchor, when installed, shall be capable of resisting an allowable working load at least equal to 3,150 pounds (14 kN) in the direction of the tie plus a 50-percent overload [4,725 pounds (21 kN) total] without failure. Failure shall be considered to have occurred when the anchor moves more than 2 inches (51 mm) at a load of 4,725 pounds (21 kN) in the direction of the tie installation. Those ground anchors which are designed to be installed so that loads on the anchor are other than direct withdrawal shall be designed and installed to resist an applied design load of 3,150 pounds (14 kN) at 40 to 50 degrees from vertical or within the angle limitations specified by the home manufacturer without displacing the tie end of the anchor more than 4 inches (102 mm) horizontally. Anchors designed for the connection of multiple ties shall be capable of resisting the combined working load and overload consistent with the intent expressed herein.

When it is proposed to use ground anchors and the building official has reason to believe that the soil characteristics at a given site are such as to render the use of ground anchors advisable, or when there is doubt regarding the ability of the ground anchors to obtain their listed capacity, thebuilding official may require that a representative field installation be made at the site in question and tested to demonstrate ground-anchor capacity. The building official shall approve the test procedures.
Anchoring equipment, when installed as a permanent installation, shall be capable of resisting all loads as specified within these provisions. When the stabilizing system is designed by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such, alternative designs may be used, providing the anchoring equipment to be used is capable of withstanding a load equal to 1.5 times the calculated load. All anchoring equipment shall be listed and labeled as being capable of meeting the requirements of these provisions. Anchors as specified in this code may be attached to the main frame of the manufactured home by an approved 3/16-inch-thick (4.76 mm) slotted steel plate anchoring device. Other anchoring devices or methods meeting the requirements of these provisions may be permitted when approved by the building official.

Anchoring systems shall be so installed as to be permanent. Anchoring equipment shall be so designed to prevent self-disconnection with no hook ends used.
All anchoring equipment, tension devices and ties shall have a resistance to deterioration as required by this code.
Tensioning devices, such as turnbuckles or yoke-type fasteners, shall be ended with clevis or welded eyes.
Steel strapping, cable, chain or other approved materials shall be used for ties. All ties shall be fastened to ground anchors and drawn tight with turnbuckles or other adjustable tensioning devices or devices supplied with the ground anchor. Tie materials shall be capable of resisting an allowable working load of 3,150 pounds (14 kN) with no more than 2-percent elongation and shall withstand a 50-percent overload [4,750 pounds (21 kN)]. Ties shall comply with the weathering requirements of Section AE604.3. Ties shall connect the ground anchor and the main structural frame. Ties shall not connect to steel outrigger beams which fasten to and intersect the main structural frame unless specifically stated in the manufacturer's installation instructions. Connection of cable ties to main frame members shall be 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) closed-eye bolts affixed to the frame member in an approved manner. Cable ends shall be secured with at least two U-bolt cable clamps with the "U" portion of the clamp installed on the short (dead) end of the cable to ensure strength equal to that required by this section.

Wood floor support systems shall be fixed to perimeter foundation walls in accordance with provisions of this code. The minimum number of ties required per side shall be sufficient to resist the wind load stated in this code. Ties shall be as evenly spaced as practicable along the length of the manufactured home with the distance from each end of the home and the tie nearest that end not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm). When continuous straps are provided as vertical ties, such ties shall be positioned at rafters and studs. Where a vertical tie and diagonal tie are located at the same place, both ties may be connected to a single anchor, provided the anchor used is capable of carrying both loads. Multiple-section manufactured homes require diagonal ties only. Diagonal ties shall be installed on the exterior main frame and slope to the exterior at an angle of 40 to 50 degrees from the vertical or within the angle limitations specified by the home manufacturer. Vertical ties which are not continuous over the top of the manufactured home shall be attached to the main frame.
ASTM C 270—04 Specification for Mortar for Unit
Masonry

AE602
NFPA 501—03 Standard on Manufactured
Housing

AE201
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