CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board, Gypsum Panel Products and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 34 EXISTING BUILDING CODE

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix C GROUP U—AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix G FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION IN COASTAL DUNES

Appendix H Signs

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Administrative Provisions

Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation

Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard

Appendix AA Stretch Energy Code

901.1 Scope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation and operation of fire protection systems.

NOTE 1: In subsections 904.2, 907.1.1, 909.7, 909.8, 909.9, 909.10, 909.19 the term “fire official” or “building official” is to be substituted with the terms “building official in consultation with the fire official.” The fire official may appeal a building official action in accordance with 780 CMR 1.00.

NOTE 2: In subsection 903.1.1, the term “fire code official” is to be substituted with the term “building official and fire official.”

NOTE 3: In subsections 916.1 through 916.6.3, the term “fire code official” is to be substituted with the term “fire official.”

NOTE 4: Reference to the IFC shall be applied in accordance with subsection 101.4.5 of 780 CMR.

901.2 Fire Protection Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Fire protection systems shall be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance with this code and the International Fire Code.

Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduction to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.

Exception: Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of this code.
EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by 780 CMR shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of 780 CMR.
  2. Where alternative fire protection designs, which vary from any prescriptive requirements of 780 CMR 9.00, are to be utilized, the owner shall engage an independent registered design professional, to review said alternative design. The scope of the review shall include, but not be limited to:

    1. Design assumptions, methodologies, and resulting proposed system designs, to determine whether or not:

      1. the proposed fire protection systems and any other systems which are affected by the alternative design, are consistent with the general objectives and prescriptive provisions of 780 CMR 9.00;
      2. they all conform to accepted engineering practice.
    2. Preparation of a written report to the building official as to the appropriateness of the proposed design specifically listing any variances from the prescriptive provisions of 780 CMR 9.00 and describing, in detail, the design provisions used to achieve compliance. If the reviewing engineer concurs with the proposed design, the owner shall make application for a variance, to the Appeals Board in accordance with780 CMR 1.00. In addition to all supporting information and materials, the reviewing engineering’s report required in accordance with this exception shall be included in the application for variance. A permit shall not be issued until the variance, if required, has been granted, or unless the permit is issued in part in accordance with780 CMR 1.00.

      When a variance is granted in accordance with this exception for a bulk merchandising retail building as defined in 780 CMR 4.00 and when the condition is common to future buildings of the owner, the BBRS, upon request of the owner, may provide that the variance shall be applicable to such future buildings. If such request is made, a quorum of the BBRS shall hear the appeal. Each such application to a future building will be subject to determination as prescribed in780 CMR 1.00 by the building official in consultation with the fire official that its use is in conformity with the terms of the variance.

901.2.1 Document Submittal Process

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
This process includes the three tiers of the minimum document submittal requirements. This process does not preclude the permit applicant from submitting additional documents; for example shop drawings along with the construction documents at time of permit application.

  1. Tier One, Construction Documents. Prior to issuance of a permit, construction documents for the fire protection system shall be submitted in accordance with section 107.1.2 and a permit obtained prior to the installation of fire protection systems or modifications, alterations, additions or deletions to an existing fire protection system. The construction documents shall contain sufficient information to completely describe each of the fire protection system(s) for which a permit is to be issued. The construction documents shall include the following:

    1. Each system shall be described in a narrative report, which contains:

      1. design methodology for the protection of the occupancy and hazards in accordance with 780 CMR and applicable NFPA standards;
      2. sequence of operation of all fire protection systems and operations; and
      3. testing criteria to be used for final system acceptance.
    2. Building and site access for fire-fighting or rescue vehicle(s) and personnel or both.
    3. Fire hydrant(s) location and water supply information.
    4. Type/description and design layout of the automatic sprinkler system(s).
    5. Automatic sprinkler system(s) control equipment location.
    6. Type/description and design layout of the automatic standpipe system(s).
    7. Standpipe system hose valve(s) type and location.
    8. Fire department connection type(s) and location.
    9. Type/description and design layout of the fire protective signaling system(s).
    10. Fire protective signaling system(s) control equipment and remote annunciator.
    11. Type/description and design layout of the smoke control or exhaust system(s).
    12. Smoke control or exhaust system(s) control equipment location.
    13. Building life safety system features (auxiliary functions) required to be integratedas part of the fire protective signaling system(s).
    14. Type/description and design layout of the fire extinguishing system(s).
    15. Fire extinguishing system(s) control equipment location.
    16. Fire protection system(s) equipment room location.
    17. Fire protection system(s) equipment identification and operation signs.
    18. Fire protection system(s) alarm/ supervisory signal transmission method and location.
    19. Fire command center location.
    20. Type/description and location of any emergency alarm system.
    21. Type/description and location of any alternative fire suppression system or protection.
    22. Type/description and location of any carbon monoxide protection.
    23. Emergency responder radio coverage type/location.
  2. Tier Two, Shop Drawings. Prior to installation of fire protection systems, shop drawings, where applicable, shall be submitted in accordance with section 107.1.2 and shall contain, but not be limited to; detailed design layout, equipment specifications, system sequence of operation, and analysis to substantiate the design. Shop drawings shall note the name(s), license number(s) and license expiration date(s) of the contractor(s) installing the fire protection systems.

    EXCEPTION: For shop drawings of Fire Alarm and Detection Systems see section 907.1.2 for applicable requirements.
  3. Tier Three, Record Drawings. As built plans shall be provided to the owner for all fire protection and life safety systems that are sealed as reviewed and approved by the registered design professional or legally recognized professional performing construction control. Where changes to original shop drawings are minor, a list of as-built changes shall be permitted to be submitted where sealed and reviewed and approved by the registered design professional or legally recognized professional performing construction control in accordance with 780 CMR 1.00.

901.3 Modifications

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Persons shall not remove or modify any fire protection system installed or maintained under the provisions of this code or the International Fire Code without approval by the building official.All fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with applicable provisions of 527 CMR. The owner of every building or structure shall be responsible for the care and maintenance of all fire protection systems, including equipment and devices, to ensure the safety and welfare of the occupants. No person shall shut off, disconnect, obstruct, remove or destroy, or cause or permit to be shut off, disconnected, obstructed, removed or destroyed, any part of any sprinkler system, water main, hydrant or other device used for fire protection or carbon monoxide detection and alarm in any building owned, leased or occupied by such person or under his or her control or supervision, without first procuring a written permit so to do from the head of the fire department of the city or town wherein such building is situated in accordance with M.G.L. c. 148, § 27A.

When installations of fire protection systems are interrupted for repairs or other necessary reasons, the owner shall immediately advise the local fire department and shall diligently prosecute the restoration of the protection.
Threads provided for fire department connections to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or any other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connections used by the local fire department.

901.5 Acceptance Tests

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Fire protection systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this code and the International Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the building official. Tests required by this code, the International Fire Code and the standards listed in this code shall be conducted at the expense of the owner or the owner's authorized agent. It shall be unlawful to occupy portions of a structure until the required fire protection systems within that portion of the structure have been tested and approved. Fire protection systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of 780 CMR and NFPA standards and approved testing criteria and operational sequence as submitted in section 901.2.1(1)(a). When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the building official and fire official or their designee. The building official may authorize the fire official as designee. The fire official may authorize the building official as designee.

901.5.1 Certificate of Occupancy

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy and prior to witness of acceptance testing the following documents shall be submitted to the building and fire officials, or designees:

  1. Certification from the registered design professional, or other legally recognized professional, responsible for the construction documents in accordance withsection 107.6, stating that the fire protection systems have been installed in accordance with applicable codes and standards, in accordance with the approved construction documents and that the record drawings indicate any deviations, if any.
  2. Confirmation by the owner that they have received the as-built record drawings.
  3. Material, test, performance, and completion certificates, properly executed by the installing contractor in accordance with the applicable NFPA standards.
NOTE: In lieu of witnessing a satisfactory functional test, the building official and fire official or designees, may accept a final performance test report from a registered design professional, or other legally recognized professional, as an acceptance test. Said report shall certify that complete and satisfactory functional tests of all fire protection systems, in accordance with the applicable codes and standards, and that the approved testing criteria and operational sequence, have been witnessed.
Where required, fire protection systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station.

Exceptions:

1. A supervising station is not required for automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.

901.6.2 Fire Alarm Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Fire alarm systems required by the provisions of section 907.2 of this code and Sections 907.2 and 907.9 of the International Fire Code 780 CMR shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with section 907.6.6.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by section 907.2.11.
  2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.
  3. Supervisory service is not required for automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.
  4. Smoke detectors in patient sleeping rooms in occupancies in Group I-2.
Supervision and monitoring of emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems in Group H occupancies shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.

901.7 Fire Areas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10. For the purpose of 780 CMR 9.00, the term fire area shall be defined as: “The aggregate are of a building, regardless of subdivisions by fire barriers, fire walls, or horizontal assemblies.”
Where provided, fire pump rooms and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working room around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.

901.9 Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
All signs required to identify fire protection equipment, equipment rooms and equipment locations shall be constructed of durable materials, be permanently installed and be readily visible. Letters and numbers shall contrast with the sign background, shall be at least two inches in height and shall have an appropriate width-toheight ratio to permit the sign to be read easily from a distance of ten feet. The sign and location shall be approved by the local fire department.

901.9.1 Sprinkler Control Valve Room Signs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where sprinkler control valves are located in a separate room or building, a sign shall be provided on the entrance door. The lettering shall be at least 21/2 inches (63.5 mm) in height and shall otherwise conform to section 901.7 and shall read “Sprinkler Control Valves.”
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

[F] ALARM SIGNAL.

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.

[F] ANNUNCIATOR.

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

[F] AUTOMATIC.

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.

[F] AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM.

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS.

[F] CEILING LIMIT.

[F] CLEAN AGENT.

[F] COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE.

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM.

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT.

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

[F] ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE SYSTEM.

[F] ELEVATOR GROUP.

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.

[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.

FIRE AREA.

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER.

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

[F] INITIATING DEVICE.

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

[F] NOTIFICATION ZONE.

[F] NUISANCE ALARM.

PRIVATE GARAGE.


[F] RECORD DRAWINGS.

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

[F] SMOKE ALARM.

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR.

[F] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE.

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.

Class I system.

Class II system.

Class III system.

[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.


[F] SUPERVISING STATION.

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE.

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL.

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

[F] WET CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.

[F] ZONE.

[F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted instead of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.

903.2 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in all new, and some existing, buildings and structures shall be provided in accordance with items 1 and 2, below:

  1. In accordance with the following enhanced sprinkler provisions, as required by the respectively-referenced statute:

    1. The following statutes are enforced by the head of the fire department, and shall be appealed through the automatic sprinkler appeals board:

      1. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26A1/2: certain high-rise buildings constructed prior to 01/01/1975;
      2. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26G: certain non-residential structures that exceed 7,500 square feet;
      3. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26G1/2: bars, nightclubs, dance halls, and discotheques with a capacity of 100 or more persons; and
      4. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26H (if adopted through local option): lodging or boarding houses with six or more persons boarding or lodging.
    2. The followingstatute is enforced by the head of the fire department, and shall be appealed through the Building Code Appeals Board:

      1. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26A: certain high-rise buildings.
    3. The following statute is enforced by the head of the fire department, and shall be appealed through a court of competent jurisdiction:

      1. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26I (if adopted through local option): certain multiple dwelling units.
    4. M.G.L. c. 272, §§ 86 through 86D. Certain stables, as required by law. This provision is enforced by the head of the fire department, or his or her designee, and shall be appealed through a court of competent jurisdiction.
  2. 2. As required by Table 903.2.

    EXCEPTIONS: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic smoke detection system and notification in accordance with section 907 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion.

    1. Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection and notification system in accordance with section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than one-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with section 707 or not less than two-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with section 712, or both.
    2. Machine rooms of traction/drum hydraulic elevators, elevator hoistways, or elevator pits. Such elevator machine rooms, hoistways, or pits shall be constructed to meet the fire-resistance rating specified in Table 601 and otherwise as required by the applicable sections of 780 CMR 7.00. Where Table 601 requires a higher fire-resistance rating for elevator machine rooms, hoistways, or pits, such rating shall be provided unless such ratings are governed by other sections of 780 CMR. For elevator installation within atriums also see 780 CMR 4.00 for additional fire-resistance rating guidance. Where the elevator machine room is determined to be a true penthouse roof structure, also refer to section 1509.0 for additional fireresistance rating requirements.
    3. Non-combustible and limited combustible concealed spaces and plenums that contain electrical, data, communications and other cables that are of the types and in the configurations permitted in such spaces by 527 CMR.
    4. Transformer vaults where all the following conditions are satisfied:

      1. The cable within the vault is flame retardant or limited combustible.
      2. The dielectric fluid is a limited combustible fluid.
      3. The vault is enclosed in three hour fire resistance rated construction.
      4. The vault is at grade or no more than one level below grade. Access to the vault is directly from the exterior or via a dedicated two hour passageway.
      5. The vault is protected with automatic smoke detection connected to the building fire alarm system which notifies the fire department upon activation.
      6. The room is limited to the sole use of the transformer equipment and is limited in size to accommodate said equipment only. Storage is prohibited in the vault enclosure.
      7. The vault is provided with spill containment.
      8. An emergency fire plan has been developed with and approved by the fire department.
      9. Continuous ventilation is provided for the vault enclosure in accordance with the ventilation requirements of NFPA 30.
      10. The ventilation equipment is dedicated to serve the vault only.
      11. Standby emergency power, in addition to the normal power source, is provided for the ventilation equipment.
      12. The vault is no larger in area than 2,400 sq. ft.
    5. Transformer vaults where an alternative suppression system is provided for the vault in accordance with section 904 and section 903.2 exception 4. conditions i., j., and k. are met.
NOTE: Also see Subsections 903.3.1.1.1, 903.3.1.2.1, and 903.3.1.2.2

TABLE 903.2 OCCUPANCY AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER REQUIREMENTS

Building having occupancy Provide automatic fire sprinkler system throughout building if one of the following conditions will
exist (see Note a)
Fire Area Building
occupant
load
Occupancy location
A-1 >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
A-2 [Nightclub] >5,000
ft2
≥ 50 Any floor other than the
level of exit discharge
for A-2 Use
A-2 [all others] >5,000
ft2
≥ 100 Any floor other than the
level of exit discharge
for A-2 Use
A-3 >5,000
ft2
≥ 300 Any floor other than the
level of exit discharge
for A-3 Use
A-4 >7,500
ft2
≥ 300 Any floor other than the
level of exit discharge
for A-5 Use
A-5 See Note b
Assembly occupancies on roofs See Note c
Multiple fire areas of Group A-1, A-2, A3,
or A-4
See Note d
B [Ambulatory Health Care] See Note e
B >12,000
ft2
--- ---
E [below level of exit discharge] See Note f
E [all others] >12,000
ft2
--- ---
F-1 [Woodworking Operations] See Note g
F-1 [all others] >12,000
ft2
--- More than three (3)
stories above grade
plane
F-1 [all types] >24,000
ft2
--- Combined area of all
Group F-1 fire areas on
all floors, including
mezzanines.
H [Pyroxylin Plastics] See Note h
H-5 See Note i
H [all others] >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
Ia >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
M [bulk merchandising] >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
M [upholstered furniture display/sale] >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
M [storage of merchandise in high-piled
or rack storage arrays]
See Note j
M [all others] >12,000
ft2
--- More than three stories
above grade plane
M [all types] >24,000 ft2 --- Combined area of all
Group M fire areas on
all floors, including
mezzanines.
Ra >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
S-1 [upholstered furniture or
mattresses/storage]
>2,500
ft2
--- More than three stories
above grade plane
S-1 [with commercial motor vehicles] >5,000
ft2
--- More than three stories
above grade plane
S-1 [with repair garage, building two or
more stories above grade]
>10,000
ft2
--- 1. In basement; or
2. More than three stories above grade plane
S-1 [with repair garage, building one story
above grade]
>12,000
ft2
--- In basement
S-1 [with commercial motor vehicles] >5,000
ft2
--- 1. In basement; or
2. More than three stories
above grade plane
S-1 [with tire storage] See Note k
S-1 [all others] >12,000
ft2
--- More than three stories
above grade plane
S-1 [all types] >24,000
ft2
--- Combined area of all
Group M fire areas on
all floors, including
mezzanines.
S-2 See Note l & m
Note a:
  1. For Use Group R and I-1 buildings with an aggregate building area of 12,000 ft2 or more, and mixed use buildings containing R-Uses, the sprinkler system shall be designed and installed throughout the structure in accordance with NFPA 13.
  2. Buildings of entire R-Use, other than R-1 Occupancies and R-2 Dormitories, having no more than three dwelling units and also less than a 12,000 ft2 Fire Area shall be permitted to have an automatic fire suppression system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.3; provided that every automatic sprinkler system shall have at least one automatic water supply, or a stored water supply source, in accordance with NFPA 13D where the minimum quantity of stored water shall equal the water demand rate times 20 minutes.
  3. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 occupancies.
  4. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 1 occupancies.
  5. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 2 occupancies. Attics shall be protected as follows:

    1. Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.2.
    2. Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall comply with one of the following requirements:

      1. It shall beprotected throughout by a heat detector system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with section 907.2.10.
      2. It shall beconstructed of non-combustible materials.
      3. It shall beconstructed of fire-retardant-treated wood framing complying with section 2303.2.
      4. The automatic sprinkler system shall be extended to provide protection throughout the attic space.
  6. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in care facilities with five or fewer individuals in a single-family dwelling.
  7. Townhouses are required to be protected by automatic sprinkler systems.
Note b: Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in concession stands, retail areas, press boxes, and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 ft2 (93m2).
Note c: Assembly occupancies on roofs. Where an occupied roof has an Assembly Occupancy with an occupancy load exceeding:
  1. 100 for Group A-2; and
  2. 300 for all other Group A occupancies, all floors between the occupied roof and the level of exit discharge shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with sections 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, when applicable.
EXCEPTION: Open parking garages in Type I or Type II construction.
Note d: Multiple fire areas. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided where multiple fire areas of GroupA-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancies share exit or exit access components and the combined occupant load of these fire areas is 300 or more.
Note e: Group B ambulatory health care facilities. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all fire areas containing a Group B ambulatory health care facility occupancy when either one of the following conditions exists at any time:
  1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation.
  2. One or more care recipients who are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such an occupancy.
In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, and automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.
Note f: Group E. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided as follows:
  1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 ft2 in area.
  2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.
Note g: Group F-1 (Woodworking Operations). An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings that contain woodworking operation(s) in excess of 2,500 ft2 (232 m2) in area that generate(s) finely divided combustible waste or use(s) finely divided combustible materials.
Note h: Pyroxylin Plastics. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds.
Note i: Group H-5. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required by 780 CMR for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.1. Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.
Note j: High-piled storage. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with the IFC, and applicable provisions of 527 CMR, in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.
Note k: Bulk storage of tires. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 ft3 (566 m3), in accordance with section 903.3.1.1.
Note l: Group S-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group S-2 occupancies as follow:
  1. Throughout buildings classified as Group S-2 Enclosed Parking.
  2. Throughout Group S-2 Enclosed Parking located beneath other groups.

    EXCEPTION: Enclosed parking garages located beneath R-3 occupancies.
Note m: Commercial Parking Garages. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings having storage of commercial motor vehicles where the aggregate area used for parking exceeds 5,000 ft2 (464m2).

903.2.1 Group A

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the story where the fire area containing the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and throughout all stories from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the levels of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.

903.2.1.1 Group A-1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-1 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.

903.2.1.2 Group A-2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-2 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464.5 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.3 Group A-3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-3 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.4 Group A-4

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-4 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.5 Group A-5

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).

903.2.1.6 Assembly Occupancies on Roofs

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where an occupied roof has an assembly occupancy with an occupant load exceeding 100 for Group A-2 and 300 for other Group A occupancies, all floors between the occupied roof and the level of exit discharge shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

Exception: Open parking garages of Type I or Type II construction.

903.2.1.7 Multiple Fire Areas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided where multiple fire areas of Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancies share exit or exit access components and the combined occupant load of theses fire areas is 300 or more.

903.2.2 Ambulatory Care Facilities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time:
  1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.
  2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.
In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.

903.2.3 Group E

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:

1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has not fewer than one exterior exit door at ground level.

903.2.4 Group F-1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:
  1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

903.2.4.1 Woodworking Operations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area that generate finely divided combustible waste or use finely divided combustible materials.

903.2.5 Group H

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.

903.2.5.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.

903.2.5.2 Group H-5 Occupancies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required by this code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2.

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

[F] TABLE 903.2.5.2 GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

LOCATION OCCUPANCY HAZARD
CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areas Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensing Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensing Extra Hazard Group 2
Corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2

903.2.5.3 Pyroxylin Plastics

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).

903.2.6 Group I

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.

Exceptions:

1. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group I-1 Condition 1 facilities.

2. An automatic sprinkler system is not required where Group I-4 day care facilities are at the level of exit discharge and where every room where care is provided has not fewer than one exterior exit door.

3. In buildings where Group I-4 day care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be installed on the entire floor where care is provided, all floors between the level of care and the level of exit discharge, and all floors below the level of exit discharge other than areas classified as an open parking garage.

903.2.7 Group M

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

903.2.7.1 High-Piled Storage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.

903.2.8 Group R

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.

903.2.8.1 Group R-3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 occupancies.

903.2.8.2 Group R-4 Condition 1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 1 occupancies.

903.2.8.3 Group R-4 Condition 2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 2 occupancies. Attics shall be protected in accordance with Section 903.2.8.3.1 or 903.2.8.3.2.

903.2.8.3.1 Attics Used for Living Purposes, Storage or Fuel-Fired Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.

903.2.8.3.2 Attics Not Used for Living Purposes, Storage or Fuel-Fired Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected in accordance with one of the following:

1. Attics protected throughout by a heat detector system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907.2.10.

2. Attics constructed of noncombustible materials.

3. Attics constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood framing complying with Section 2303.2.

4. The automatic sprinkler system shall be extended to provide protection throughout the attic space.

903.2.8.4 Care Facilities

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in care facilities with five or fewer individuals in a single-family dwelling.

903.2.9 Group S-1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

5. A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

903.2.9.1 Repair Garages

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406, as shown:

1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).

2. Buildings not more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

903.2.9.2 Bulk Storage of Tires

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

903.2.10 Group S-2 Enclosed Parking Garages

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.6 where either of the following conditions exists:

1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.

903.2.10.1 Commercial Parking Garages

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided not fewer than one of the following types of exterior wall openings:

1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1011 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1012. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling not less than 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner such that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall be provided on not fewer than two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors, beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor above the discharge. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings that have one or more stories with an occupant load of 30 or more located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, measured to the finished floor.

Exceptions:

1. Open parking structures.

2. Occupancies in Group F-2.
Where required by the International Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust or flammable or combustible materials.

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct systems where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.
In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

F] TABLE 903.2.11.6 ADDITIONAL REQUIRED SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTION SUBJECT
402.5, 402.6.2 Covered and open mall buildings
403.3 High-rise buildings
404.3 Atriums
405.3 Underground structures
407.6 Group I-2
410.7 Stages
411.4 Special amusement buildings
412.3.6 Airport traffic control towers
412.4.6, 412.4.6.1,
412.6.5
Aircraft hangars
415.11.11 Group H-5 HPM exhaust ducts
416.5 Flammable finishes
417.4 Drying rooms
419.5 Live/work units
424.3 Children's play structures
507 Unlimited area buildings
509.4 Incidental uses
1029.6.2.3 Smoke-protected assembly seating
IFC Sprinkler system requirements as set forth in
Section 903.2.11.6 of the International Fire Code
Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 33 of the International Fire Code.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.8.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Sections 903.3.1.1.1 and 903.3.1.1.2.

903.3.1.1.1 Exempt Locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from a room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

1. A room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.

2. A room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, where approved by the fire code official.

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.

5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.

6. Machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms and control spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008.

Also see section 903.2 Exceptions
In Group R occupancies, other than Group R-4 occupancies, sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms that do not exceed 55 square feet (5 m2) in area and are located within individual dwelling units or sleeping units, provided that walls and ceilings, including the walls and ceilings behind a shower enclosure or tub, are of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier rating.
Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above grade plane shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.

The number of stories of Group R occupancies constructed in accordance with Sections 510.2 and 510.4 shall be measured from the horizontal assembly creating separate buildings.

903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and Decks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units where the building is of Type V construction, provided there is a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.

Also see section 903.2 Exceptions

903.3.1.2.2 Open-Ended Corridors

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided in open-ended corridors and associated exterior stairways and ramps as specified in Section 1027.6, Exception 3.

Also see section 903.2 Exceptions

903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D Sprinkler Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings,; Group R-3, Group R-4 Condition 1 and townhouses, Group R-3, Group R-4 Condition 1, buildings containing only R-Uses of three units or less shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in all of the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with this code.

2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.

4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code. For connections to public waterworks systems, the water supply test used for design of fire protection systems shall be adjusted to account for seasonal and daily pressure fluctuations based on information from the water supply authority and as approved by the fire code official.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.

903.3.5.2 Residential Combination Services

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A single combination water supply shall be allowed permitted provided that the domestic and/or commercial demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13, NFPA 13D or NFPA 13R as applicable.
Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.
Fire department connections for automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 912.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with the standards listed in Section 903.3.1 except as provided in Sections 903.3.8.1 through 903.3.8.5.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall not exceed six sprinklers in any single fire area.
Only areas classified by NFPA 13 as Light Hazard or Ordinary Hazard Group 1 shall be permitted to be protected by limited area sprinkler systems.
Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building with an automatic wet standpipe system, sprinklers shall be supplied by the standpipe system. Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building without an automatic wet standpipe system, water shall be permitted to be supplied by the plumbing system provided that the plumbing system is capable of simultaneously supplying domestic and sprinkler demands.
Control valves shall not be installed between the water supply and sprinklers unless the valves are of an approved indicating type that are supervised or secured in the open position.
Hydraulic calculations in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided to demonstrate that the available water flow and pressure are adequate to supply all sprinklers installed in any single fire area with discharge densities corresponding to the hazard classification.
Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.

Exceptions:
  1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.
  4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

903.4.1 Monitoring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attendedone of the following NFPA 72 locations. The owner has the choice of which single option to employ.

Exceptions:

1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
  1. UL listed or FM approved central supervising station, or
  2. Approved proprietary supervising station or approved remote supervising station, or
  3. Alarm signals to an approved Auxiliary Fire Alarm System in accordance with NFPA 72, with supervisory signals supervised by method a or b identified above, or at a constantly attended location approved by the local fire department, having personnel on duty trained to recognize the type of signal received and to take prescribed action. This shall be permitted to be a location different from that at which alarm signals are received.

903.4.2 Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system. Activation of the sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall activate a fire alarm system installed throughout the building in accordance with section 907.

EXCEPTION: Buildings sprinklered throughout in accordance with 903.3.1.3.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.

903.4.4 Re-transmission of Alarm Signals

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
In all cases, alarm signals received by those operating approved remote/proprietary station fire alarm system supervising stations shall re transmit alarm signals within 90 seconds of receipt, to the fire department having jurisdiction.

903.5 Testing and Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.

NOTE: See section 901.3.

904.5.1 Discharge Test

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
All systems shall be tested by a discharge of expellant gas through the piping and nozzles with observations being made of the flow of expellant gas through all nozzles as well as observing for leakage and continuity of piping with free unobstructed flow.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed for automatic sprinkler systems or by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 of the International Fire Code or Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.

Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.
Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.
Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, all of the following items shall be inspected:

1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.

4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.

5. Identification of devices with proper designations.

6. Operating instructions.
Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

904.6.1 Discharge Test

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
All systems shall be tested by a discharge of expellant gas through the piping and nozzles with observations being made of the flow of expellant gas through all nozzles as well as observing for leakage and continuity of piping with free unobstructed flow.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Automatic water mist systems shall be permitted in applications that are consistent with the applicable listing or approvals and shall comply with Sections 904.11.1 through 904.11.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 904.11.1.1 through 904.11.1.4.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 750 and the manufacturer's instructions.
Automatic water mist systems shall be automatically actuated.
Connections to a potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the International Plumbing Code.
Where a secondary water supply is required for an automatic sprinkler system, an automatic water mist system shall be provided with an approved secondary water supply.
Supervision and alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.
Monitoring shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.1.
Alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.2.
Floor control valves shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.
The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.

3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the International Mechanical Code.
A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) and not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) or less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.
The actuation of the fire suppression system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
Where carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect against all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.
In Group I-2 Condition 1, occupancies where cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 407.2.6 of this code, the domestic cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300A and listed and labeled for the intended application. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's instructions.
Manual actuation and system interconnection for the hood suppression system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2, respectively.
A portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 shall be installed within a 30-foot (9144 mm) distance of travel from domestic cooking appliances.

904.14 Water Spray Fixed Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Water spray fixed systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 15 and the listings contained therein.

904.15 Aerosol Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Aerosol systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2010 and the listings contained therein.
Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 905.2 through 905.10. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. Fire department connections for standpipe systems shall be in accordance with Section 912.
Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.8. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.
Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:
  1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
  4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
  5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider either of the following:
    1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less.
    2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.
Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

Exceptions:
  1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.
  2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.
Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed to not exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.

2. At each floor-level landing within interior exit stairways opening directly on the mall.

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building.

4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.

5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.
Stages greater than 1,000 square feet in area (93 m2) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.
The 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5 of the International Fire Code.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36 of the International Fire Code.
Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.

905.3.9 High-piled Combustible Storage

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A class I automatic wet or manual standpipe system shall be provided in all exit passageways of areas containing high-piled combustible storage.
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:
  1. In every required interior exit stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each story above and below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate landing between stories, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.
  2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.
  3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.
  4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
  5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of an interior exit stairway with access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1011.12.
  6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.
Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an interior exit stairway shall be protected by a degree of fire-resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an interior exit stairway are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.
In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.
In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies having occupant loads exceeding 1,000 persons, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment such as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or fire department valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.
Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:

1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.
Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.

2. Approved locking arrangements.

3. Group I-3.
Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.
Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall be transmitted to the control unit.

Exceptions:

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.

905.10 During Construction

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Standpipes systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with section 3311 and NFPA 241.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in all of the following locations:
  1. In Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.

    Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C.
  2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
  3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
  4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1 of the International Fire Code.
  5. Where required by the International Fire Code sections indicated in Table 906.1.
  6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.

[F] TABLE 906.1 ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE

IFC SECTION SUBJECT
303.5 Asphalt kettles
307.5 Open burning
308.1.3 Open flames‒torches
309.4 Powered industrial trucks
2005.2 Aircraft towing vehicles
2005.3 Aircraft welding apparatus
2005.4 Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
2005.5 Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
2005.6 Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
2007.7 Heliports and helistops
2108.4 Dry cleaning plants
2305.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2310.6.4 Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2311.6 Repair garages
2404.4.1 Spray-finishing operations
2405.4.2 Dip-tank operations
2406.4.2 Powder-coating areas
2804.3 Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
2808.8 Recycling facilities
2809.5 Exterior lumber storage
2903.5 Organic-coating areas
3006.3 Industrial ovens
3104.12 Tents and membrane structures
3206.10 High-piled storage
3315.1 Buildings under construction or demolition
3317.3 Roofing operations
3408.2 Tire rebuilding/storage
3504.2.6 Welding and other hot work
3604.4 Marinas
3703.6 Combustible fibers
5703.2.1 Flammable and combustible liquids, general
5704.3.3.1 Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
5704.3.7.5.2 Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible
liquids
5705.4.9 Solvent distillation units
5706.2.7 Farms and construction sites‒flammable and
combustible liquids storage
5706.4.10.1 Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and
combustible liquids
5706.5.4.5 Commercial, industrial, governmental or
manufacturing establishments‒fuel dispensing
5706.6.4 Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
5906.5.7 Flammable solids
6108.2 LP-gas
Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected and installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.

Exceptions:

1. The distance of travel to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.

2. In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.
The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

[F]TABLE 906.3(1) FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

LIGHT
(Low)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
ORDINARY
(Moderate)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
EXTRA
(High)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
Minimum rated sin-
gle extinguisher
2-Ac 2-A 4-Aa
Maximum floor area
per unit of A
3,000
square feet
1,500
square feet
1,000
square feet
Maximum floor area
for extinguisherb
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
Maximum distance of
travel to extinguisher
75 feet 75 feet 75 feet

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.


[F] TABLE 906.3(2) FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25 INCH

TYPE OF HAZARD BASIC MINIMUM
EXTINGUISHER RATING
MAXIMUM
DISTANCE OF TRAVEL
TO EXTINGUISHERS
(feet)
Light
(Low)
5-B
10-B
30
50
Ordinary
(Moderate)
10-B
20-B
30
50
Extra (High) 40-B
80-B
30
50

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Note: For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.
The minimum sizes and distribution of portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards shall comply with Table 906.3(1).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.12.5 of the International Fire Code.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.

Exceptions:

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.

2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.
The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International Fire Code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.
Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following where applicable to the system being installed:

1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.

2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices.

3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.

4. Design minimum audibility level for occupant notification.

5. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.

6. Annunciators.

7. Power connection.

8. Battery calculations.

9. Conductor type and sizes.

10. Voltage drop calculations.

11. Manufacturers' data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.

12. Details of ceiling height and construction.

13. The interface of fire safety control functions.

14. Classification of the supervising station.
Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.
An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.

Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed.

Exceptions:
  1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.
  2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies where the occupant load due to the assembly occupancy is 300 or more. Group A occupancies not separated from one another in accordance with Section 707.3.10 shall be considered as a single occupancy for the purposes of applying this section. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.
Stadiums, arenas and grandstands required to caption audible public announcements shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.4.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.

2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

3. The fire area contains an ambulatory care facility.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
Fire areas containing ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.
A manual fire alarm system that initiates the occupant notification signal utilizing an emergency voice/alarm communication system meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exceptions:
  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or less.
  2. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall not be required in Group E occupancies with occupant loads of 100 or less, provided that activation of the manual fire alarm system initiates an approved occupant notification signal in accordance with Section 907.5.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:
    1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.
    2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
    3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.
  4. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:
    1. The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
    2. The emergency voice/alarm communication system will activate on sprinkler waterflow.
    3. Manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist:

1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height.

2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 60, 62 and 63, respectively, of the International Fire Code.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3.

Exceptions:
  1. Manual fire alarm boxes in sleeping units of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all care providers' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.
  2. Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official and staff evacuation responsibilities are included in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 of the International Fire Code.
In Group I-1 occupancies, an automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5.

Exceptions:

1. For Group I-1 Condition 1 occupancies, smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior balconies.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors in Group I-2 Condition 1 facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.4. Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detection system as required in Section 407.

Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the care providers' station attending each unit.

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff.
Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, automatic sprinkler system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal that automatically notifies staff.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.
Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to residents.

Exceptions:

1. Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.

2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308.

3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.

2. The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered or open mall buildings complying with Section 402.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a waterflow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/ alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R- 1 occupancies.

Exceptions:
  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
    2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow.
    3. Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.8.3.1 Annunciation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
In buildings that are not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.1 or section 903.3.1.2, the smoke detectors in guestrooms shall be connected to the buildings fire alarm systems for the purpose of notifying the guestroom occupants and shall be annunciated by guestroom at a constantly attended location from which the fire alarm system is capable of being manually activated.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 through 907.2.9.3.

907.2.9.1 Manual Fire Alarm System

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where any of the following conditions apply:

1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge.

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit.

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.

Exceptions:

1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with sections 903.3.1.1, or 903.3.1.2, or 903.3.1.3 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler water flow.

3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1027.6, Exception 3.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing in all of the following locations:

1. Common spaces outside of dwelling units and sleeping units.

2. Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms and storage rooms.

3. All interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units and where each sleeping unit or dwelling unit either has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit or a means of egress door opening directly to an exit.

Required smoke alarms in dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing shall be interconnected with the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies.

Exceptions:
  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
    2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow.
    3. Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens.

Exceptions:
  1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.11 Single- And Multiple-Station Smoke Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.6 and NFPA 72.
Listed single- and multiplestation photoelectric type smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of 780 CMR and the household fire warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72, as applicable. Section 907.2.8 shall not preclude the installation of a fully addressable fire alarm system where system detectors and alarm notification devices can perform the functions as required in section 907.2.11.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:

1. In sleeping areas.

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
Single-or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
Smoke alarms shall not be installed in the following locations unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm in a location required by Section 907.2.11.1 or 907.2.11.2:

1. Ionization smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.

2. Ionization smoke alarms with an alarm-silencing switch shall not be installed less than 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.

3. Photoelectric smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 6 feet (1829 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
Smoke alarms shall be installed not less than 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally from the door or opening of a bathroom that contains a bathtub or shower unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm required by Section 907.2.11.1 or 907.2.11.2.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R or I-1 occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.
In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system in accordance with Section 2702. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system that complies with Section 2702.
Smoke detectors listed in accordance with UL 268 and provided as part of the building fire alarm system shall be an acceptable alternative to single- and multiple-station smoke alarms and shall comply with the following:

1. The fire alarm system shall comply with all applicable requirements in Section 907.

2. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall initiate alarm notification in the dwelling unit or sleeping unit in accordance with Section 907.5.2.

3. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not activate alarm notification appliances outside of the dwelling unit or sleeping unit, provided that a supervisory signal is generated and monitored in accordance with Section 907.6.6.
Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately activate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.
The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically do all of the following:

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface level.

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions.

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency.

4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound that is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
High-rise buildings shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Exceptions:

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sections 412 and 907.2.22.

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1.

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415.

6. In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2.
Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall activate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.10, smoke detectors shall be located as follows:

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room that is not provided with sprinkler protection.

2. In each elevator machine room, machinery space, control room and control space and in elevator lobbies.
Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be located as follows:

1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.
Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 911, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside interior exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the interior exit stairway.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection installed in locations required by a rational analysis in Section 909.4 and in accordance with the system operation requirements in Section 909.17. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2.

907.2.15 High-Piled Combustible Storage Areas

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 3206.5 of the International Fire Code.

EXCEPTION: Buildings sprinklered throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by the International Fire Code.
Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with this code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1.
Not fewer than one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in all of the following areas:
  1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.
  2. Elevator lobbies.
  3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
  4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.
Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location.
Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Where the total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/ alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Not fewer than one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in Chapter 2 and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm that will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in airport control towers in accordance with Sections 907.2.22.1 and 907.2.22.2.

Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab.
Airport traffic control towers with multiple exits and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations:

1. Airport traffic control cab.

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

4. Outside each opening into interior exit stairways.

5. Along the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.

6. Outside each opening into the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.
Airport traffic control towers with a single exit or where sprinklers are not installed throughout shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations:

1. Airport traffic control cab.

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.

6. Means of egress.

7. Accessible utility shafts.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).
Automatic fire detectors utilized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit where a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72.
Smoke detectors installed in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance with this code and the International Mechanical Code. In facilities that are required to be monitored by a supervising station, duct smoke detectors shall report only as a supervisory signal and not as a fire alarm. They shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

Exceptions:

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building's alarm notification appliances.

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.
Where delayed egress locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.7, an automatic smoke or heat detection system shall be installed as required by that section.
Automatic fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of ASME A17.1/CSA B44 and NFPA 72.
The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72.
Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 907.4.3.1.
In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders, and supervising station transmitting equipment.

Exception: Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of a smoke detector, a heat detector shall be permitted.
Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.6.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. In buildings not protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that the exit access travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) and not more than 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.
Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.
The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, unobscured and visible at all times.
Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors shall be permitted.
For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection.
A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the fire alarm control unit and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.2.3.3. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:

1. Automatic fire detectors.

2. Automatic sprinkler system waterflow devices.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes.

4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended location.
A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approved by the fire department so that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency.
Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose.
Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm.

Exceptions:

1. Audible alarm notification appliances are not required in critical care areas of Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.

2. A visible alarm notification appliance installed in a nurses' control station or other continuously attended staff location in a Group I-2 Condition 2 suite shall be an acceptable alternative to the installation of audible alarm notification appliances throughout the suite in Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.

3. Where provided, audible notification appliances located in each occupant evacuation elevator lobby in accordance with Section 3008.9.1 shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.
The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of not less than 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building.
The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.
Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building's fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404 of the International Fire Code. In high-rise buildings, the system shall operate on at least the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:

1. Elevator groups.

2. Interior exit stairways.

3. Each floor.

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Chapter 2.

Exception: In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.
A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.
Where stadiums, arenas and grandstands are required to caption audible public announcements in accordance with Section 1108.2.7.3, the emergency/voice alarm communication system shall be captioned. Prerecorded or live emergency captions shall be from an approved location constantly attended by personnel trained to respond to an emergency.
Emergency voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided with emergency power in accordance with Section 2702. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72.

907.5.2.2.6 Evacuation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where the head of the fire department or his or her designee determines that partial or selective evacuation is not desired but rather total evacuation is required, then a distinctive signal in lieu of a voice alarm is permitted.

907.5.2.3 Visible Alarms

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.3. Also refer to 521 CMR for visible alarm requirements in buildings, or portions thereof, open to the public.

Exceptions:

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Chapter 2.

3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.

4. Visual alarm notification appliances are not required in critical care areas of Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public use areas and common use areas.

Exception: Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with not less than 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing-impaired employee(s).
Group I-1 and R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.5.2.3.2 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

[F] TABLE 907.5.2.3.2 VISIBLE ALARMS

NUMBER OF SLEEP
UNITS
SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH VISIBLE
ALARMS
6 to 25 2
26 to 50 4
51 to 75 7
76 to 100 9
101 to 150 12
151 to 200 14
201 to 300 17
301 to 400 20
401 to 500 22
501 to 1,000 5% of total
1,001 and over 50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000
In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with Chapter 10 of ICC A117.1. Such capability shall be permitted to include the potential for future interconnection of the building fire alarm system with the unit smoke alarms, replacement of audible appliances with combination audible/visible appliances, or future extension of the existing wiring from the unit smoke alarm locations to required locations for visible appliances.
A fire alarm system shall be installed and monitored in accordance with Sections 907.6.1 through 907.6.6.2 and NFPA 72.
Wiring shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.
The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Back-up power for single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.6.
The fire alarm system shall identify the specific initiating device address, location, device type, floor level where applicable and status including indication of normal, alarm, trouble and supervisory status, as appropriate.

Exceptions:
  1. Fire alarm systems in single-story buildings less than 22,500 square feet (2090 m2) in area.
  2. Fire alarm systems that only include manual fire alarm boxes, waterflow initiating devices and not more than 10 additional alarm-initiating devices.
  3. Special initiating devices that do not support individual device identification.
  4. Fire alarm systems or devices that are replacing existing equipment.
The initiating device status shall be annunciated at an approved on-site location.
Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direction.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13.
A zoning indicator panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible alarm silencing switch.
In high-rise buildings, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided:

1. Smoke detectors.

2. Sprinkler waterflow devices.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes.

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection devices or suppression systems.
Access shall be provided to each fire alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.

907.6.6 Monitoring

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Fire alarm systems required by this chapter or by the International Fire Code780 CMR 9.00 shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72 and section 901.6.

EXCEPTION: Monitoring by a supervising station is not required for:
  1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by section 907.2.11.
  2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systemsin one- and two family dwellings.
  4. Smoke detectors in patient sleeping rooms in occupancies in Group I-2.
Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number unless approved by the fire chief.
Termination of fire alarm monitoring services shall be in accordance with Section 901.9 of the International Fire Code.
Upon completion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72.
When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72.
A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed and tested in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided.
Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings ("as-builts") and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location.
The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Section 907.8 of the International Fire Code.
Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided in accordance with Section 415.5.
Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 415.11.3.5. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 415.11.7.
A gas detection system shall be provided to detect the presence of highly toxic or toxic gas at or below the permissible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit of the gas for which detection is provided. The system shall be capable of monitoring the discharge from the treatment system at or below one-half the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) limit.

Exception: A gas detection system is not required for toxic gases when the physiological warning threshold level for the gas is at a level below the accepted PEL for the gas.
The gas detection system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to a constantly attended control station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and shall provide warning both inside and outside the area where gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms.

Exception: Signal transmission to a constantly attended control station is not required when not more than one cylinder of highly toxic or toxic gas is stored.
The gas detection system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being monitored for whichever gas is detected.

Exception: Automatic shutdown is not required for reactors utilized for the production of highly toxic or toxic compressed gases where such reactors are:

1. Operated at pressures less than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa).

2. Constantly attended.

3. Provided with readily accessible emergency shutoff valves.
The automatic closure of shutoff valves shall be in accordance with the following:

1. When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve for the compressed container of specific gas detected supplying the manifold shall automatically close.

Exception: When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at a use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff valve in the gas valve enclosure for the branch line located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically close.
Ozone gas-generator rooms shall be equipped with a continuous gas detection system that will shut off the generator and sound a local alarm when concentrations above the PEL occur.
A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 406.8.5.
Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values for the refrigerant classification shown in the International Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. The detector shall transmit a signal to an approved location.
Emergency alarm systems in accordance with Section 5307.5.2 of the International Fire Code shall be provided where required for compliance with Section 5307.5 of the International Fire Code.
This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems where they are required by other provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heatventing provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code.

909.2 General Design Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Buildings, structures or parts thereof required by this code 780 CMR to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of section 909 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately describe the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied by sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.

An independent third party review is required for smoke control system designs incorporating performance analysis under section 909 (design fire analysis, rational analysis, timed egress analysis), or the smoke control methods of sections 909.6, 909.7, or 909.8 or other alternative design method selected by the registered design professional. The independent third party reviewer shall prepare a written report documenting the review, and submit it to the registered design professional and the building and fire officials. If all parties concur that the analyses are appropriate, the design may be approved pursuant to section 104.11.
In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements that buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms in Section 1704.
A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of operation, the systems supporting them and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the submitted construction documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.7.
The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.
Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities.
The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of Chapter 16.
The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the HVAC systems.
The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.
All portions of active or engineered smoke control systems shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is greater.
The design shall consider the interaction effects of the operation of multiple smoke control systems for all design scenarios.
Smoke barriers required for passive smoke control and a smoke control system using the pressurization method shall comply with Section 709. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:

1. Walls A/Aw = 0.00100

2. Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035

3. Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150

4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050

where:

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m2).
AF = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).
Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).


The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to gaps around doors and operable windows. The total leakage area of the smoke barrier shall be determined in accordance with Section 909.5.1 and tested in accordance with Section 909.5.2.
Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps around doors and operable windows.
Compliance with the maximum total leakage area shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems utilizing the pressurization method. Compliance with the maximum total leakage area of passive smoke control systems shall be verified through methods such as door fan testing or other methods, as approved by the fire code official.
Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.5.3.

Exceptions:

1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.

3. In Group I-1 Condition 2, Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where a pair of oppositeswinging doors are installed across a corridor in accordance with Section 909.5.3.1, the doors shall not be required to be protected in accordance with Section 716. The doors shall be closefitting within operational tolerances and shall not have a center mullion or undercuts in excess of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm), louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and, where permitted by the door manufacturer's listing, positive-latching devices are not required.

4. In Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where such doors are special-purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies installed in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.3 and are automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.

5. Group I-3.

6. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.
In Group I-1 Condition 2, Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where doors are installed across a corridor, the doors shall be automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 and shall have a vision panel with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested.
Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 717.

909.6 Pressurization Method

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
When approved by the fire official, the primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke control zone of fire origin.
The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.

In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences not less than two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.
The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1010.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:



where:

A = Door area, square feet (m2).
d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).
F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).
Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).
K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
W = Door width, feet (m).
ΔP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).
Where stairways or elevator hoistways are pressurized, such pressurization systems shall comply with Section 909 as smoke control systems, in addition to the requirements of Sections 909.20 of this code and 909.21 of the International Fire Code.
Where approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. Smoke control systems using the airflow method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.
This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the calculated airflow exceeds this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.
Where approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.
The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above a walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.
The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section.
The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.
Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing, and configuration.
The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.
A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.
Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall be suitable for its intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates and as approved by the fire code official.
Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:



where:

c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, Btu/lb°F (kJ/kg K).
m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
Ta = Ambient temperature, °F (K).
Ts = Smoke temperature, °F (K).


Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.
Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.

Exception: Flexible connections, for the purpose of vibration isolation, complying with the International Mechanical Code and that are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.
Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.
Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved, recognized standards.
In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty, with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16.

Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.
Smoke control systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 2702.
The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Elements of the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.
Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override and the presence of power downstream of all disconnects. A preprogrammed weekly test sequence shall report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. The preprogrammed weekly test shall operate all devices, equipment and components used for smoke control.

Exception: Where verification of individual components tested through the preprogrammed weekly testing sequence will interfere with, and produce unwanted effects to, normal building operation, such individual components are permitted to be bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly testing, where approved by the building official and in accordance with both of the following:

  1. Where the operation of components is bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test, presence of power downstream of all disconnects shall be verified weekly by a listed control unit.
  2. Testing of all components bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test shall be in accordance with Section 909.20.6 of the International Fire Code.
In addition to meeting requirements of NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.
Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.
Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.
Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.
Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire department and any smoke detectors required by engineering analysis.
Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.
Control-air tubing shall be harddrawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B42, ASTM B43, ASTM B68, ASTM B88, ASTM B251 and ASTM B280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type in accordance with ASME B16.18 or ASME B16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP-5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquids below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices provided all of the following conditions are met:
  1. Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3 of the International Mechanical Code.
  2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or Teflon or by suitable brass compression to male barbed adapter.
  3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
  4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure.Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.
Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.
Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.
The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.

909.15 Control Diagrams

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command center and shall be kept on site adjacent to the fire alarm panel in a format and manner approved by the fire chief.

909.16 Fire Fighter's Smoke Control Panel

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A fire fighter's smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command center complying with Section 911 in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire fighter's smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire fighter's smoke control panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3.

EXCEPTION: Existing buildings with an existing dedicated function smoke control panel.
Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire fighter's control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:

1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status‒WHITE.

2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status‒RED.

3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status‒GREEN.

4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status‒YELLOW/AMBER.
The fire fighter's control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke control system equipment within the building as follows:

1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.

2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building.

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire fighter's control panel.

Exceptions:

1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.

2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.
The firefighter's control panel actions shall be as follows:

1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire fighter's control panel, automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall not contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment including, but not limited to, duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices, such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire fighter's control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire fighter's control panel switch position shall prevail. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70.

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position firefighter's control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire fighter's control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described in Section 909.16.1. Where directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.
Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire fighter's control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.
Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.
Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. Where applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.
Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.
Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.
Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.
Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute (rpm) and belt tension shall be made.
Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.
Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire-fighter's control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector in accordance with Section 1705.18.
Testing shall be conducted in accordance with the following:

1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.
Approved agencies for smoke control testing shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers.
A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the approved agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values, and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall sign, seal and date the report.

909.18.8.3.1 Report Filing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A copy of the final report shall be filed with the fire code official and building official and an identical copy shall be maintained in an approved location at the building.
Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating each component of the smoke control system, and describing its proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.
Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system and a written maintenance program complying with the requirements of Section 909.20.1 of the International Fire Code has been submitted and approved by the fire code official.

Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code official, shall be allowed provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent buildings.
Where required by Section 1023.11, a smokeproof enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with this section. A smokeproof enclosure shall consist of an interior exit stairway or ramp that is enclosed in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 1023 and an open exterior balcony or ventilated vestibule meeting the requirements of this section. Where access to the roof is required by the International Fire Code, such access shall be from the smokeproof enclosure where a smokeproof enclosure is required.
Access to the stairway or ramp shall be by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony. The minimum dimension of the vestibule shall be not less than the required width of the corridor leading to the vestibule but shall not have a width of less than 44 inches (1118 mm) and shall not have a length of less than 72 inches (1829 mm) in the direction of egress travel.
The smokeproof enclosure shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Openings are not permitted other than the required means of egress doors. The vestibule shall be separated from the stairway or ramp by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accordance with the fire-resistance rating requirements for floor assemblies.
Doors in a smokeproof enclosure shall be self- or automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 and shall be installed at the floor-side entrance to the smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of the smoke detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all levels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
The provisions of Sections 909.20.3.1 through 909.20.3.3 shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by natural means.
Where access to the stairway or ramp is by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assembly into the enclosure shall be a fire door assembly in accordance with Section 716.5.
Where access to the stairway or ramp is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly complying with Section 716.5. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection rating complying with Section 716.5.
Each vestibule shall have a minimum net area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) of opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or public way that is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in width.
The provisions of Sections 909.20.4.1 through 909.20.4.4 shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by mechanical means.
The door assembly from the building into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly complying with Section 716.5.3. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway or ramp shall not have less than a 20-minute fire protection rating and shall meet the requirements for a smoke door assembly in accordance with Section 716.5.3. The door shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 105.
The vestibule shall be supplied with not less than one air change per minute and the exhaust shall be not less than 150 percent of supply. Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter the vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor level. The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top of the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm) down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely within the smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall not obstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controlling dampers are permitted where necessary to meet the design requirements, but dampers are not otherwise required.
Where a specially engineered system is used, the system shall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90 air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emergency operation mode and shall be sized to handle three vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors shall be located at the floor-side entrance to each vestibule and shall activate the system for the affected vestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
The vestibule ceiling shall be not less than 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door opening into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to provide an upward-moving air column. The height shall not be decreased unless approved and justified by design and test.
The stairway or ramp shaft shall be provided with a dampered relief opening and supplied with sufficient air to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) in the shaft relative to the vestibule with all doors closed.
Where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the vestibule is not required, provided each interior exit stairway or ramp is pressurized to not less than 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and not more than 0.35 inches of water (87 Pa) in the shaft relative to the building measured with all interior exit stairway and ramp doors closed under maximum anticipated conditions of stack effect and wind effect.
The activation of ventilating equipment required by the alternatives in Sections 909.20.4 and 909.20.5 shall be by smoke detectors installed at each floor level at an approved location at the entrance to the smokeproof enclosure. When the closing device for the stairway and ramp shaft and vestibule doors is activated by smoke detection or power failure, the mechanical equipment shall activate and operate at the required performance levels. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.3.
Smokeproof enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent of other building ventilation systems. The equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall comply with one of the following:

  1. Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and directly connected to the smokeproof enclosure or connected to the smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
  2. Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located within the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust directly from and to the outside or through ductwork enclosed by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
  3. Equipment, control wiring, power wiring and ductwork shall be located within the building if separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Exceptions:
  1. Control wiring and power wiring utilizing a 2- hour rated cable.
  2. Where encased with not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of concrete.
  3. Control wiring and power wiring protected by a listed electrical circuit protective system with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

909.20.6.1.1 Intake Duct Detection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
An intake duct smoke detector shall be installed just downstream of the fresh air fan. Activation of this detector shall annunciate at the control panel and shall shut down the fan for that particular smoke proof enclosure.
Mechanical vestibule and stairway and ramp shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire detection systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 2702.

909.20.6.3 Acceptance and Testing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Before the mechanical equipment is approved, the system shall be tested in the presence of the building official and fire official or their designee, to confirm that the system is operating in compliance with these requirements. The building official may authorize the fire official as designee. The fire official may authorize the building official as designee.
Where elevator hoistway pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall comply with Sections 909.21.1 through 909.21.11.
Elevator hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all other hoistway doors closed. The pressure differentials shall be measured between the hoistway and the adjacent elevator landing. The opening and closing of hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated during this test. The supply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated source located a minimum distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) from any air exhaust system or outlet.

Exceptions:
  1. On floors containing only Group R occupancies, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and a dwelling unit or sleeping unit.
  2. Where an elevator opens into a lobby enclosed in accordance with Section 3007.6 or 3008.6, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and the space immediately outside the door(s) from the floor to the enclosed lobby.
  3. The pressure differential is permitted to be measured relative to the outdoor atmosphere on floors other than the following:
    1. The fire floor.
    2. The two floors immediately below the fire floor.
    3. The floor immediately above the fire floor.
  4. The minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to occupied floors are not required at the floor of recall with the doors open.
Ventilation systems, other than hoistway supply air systems, are permitted to be used to exhaust air from adjacent spaces on the fire floor, two floors immediately below and one floor immediately above the fire floor to the building's exterior where necessary to maintain positive pressure relationships as required in Section 909.21.1 during operation of the elevator shaft pressurization system.
A rational analysis complying with Section 909.4 shall be submitted with the construction documents.
Any duct system that is part of the pressurization system shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating as required for the elevator shaft enclosure.
The fan system provided for the pressurization system shall be as required by Sections 909.21.4.1 through 909.21.4.4.
Where located within the building, the fan system that provides the pressurization shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure.
The fan system shall be equipped with a smoke detector that will automatically shut down the fan system when smoke is detected within the system.
A separate fan system shall be used for each elevator hoistway.
The supply fan shall be either adjustable with a capacity of not less than 1,000 cfm (0.4719 m3/s) per door, or that specified by a registered design professional to meet the requirements of a designed pressurization system.
The pressurization system shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 2702.
The elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon activation of either the building fire alarm system or the elevator lobby smoke detectors. Where both a building fire alarm system and elevator lobby smoke detectors are present, each shall be independently capable of activating the pressurization system.
Testing for performance shall be required in accordance with Section 909.18.8. System acceptance shall be in accordance with Section 909.19.
Detection and control systems shall be marked in accordance with Section 909.14.
Control diagrams shall be provided in accordance with Section 909.15.
A control panel complying with Section 909.16 shall be provided.
Hoistway pressurization systems shall comply with the requirements for smoke control system response time in Section 909.17.

909.22 Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Smoke control systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and sections 909.22.1 through 909.22.5.

909.22.1 Schedule

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established.

909.22.2 Written Record

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A written record of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises. The written record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of servicing personnel, and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.

909.22.3 Testing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows.

909.22.4 Dedicated Smoke Control Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually. The system shall also be tested under standby power conditions.

909.22.5 Nondedicated Smoke Control Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall also be tested under standby power conditions.
Where required by this code, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke removal systems shall conform to the requirements of this section.
Smoke and heat vents or a mechanical smoke removal system shall be installed as required by Sections 910.2.1 and 910.2.2.

Exceptions:

1. Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of Class I and II commodities where protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.

2. Smoke and heat removal shall not be required in areas of buildings equipped with early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers.

3. Smoke and heat removal shall not be required in areas of buildings equipped with control mode special application sprinklers with a response time index of 50 (m s)1/2 or less that are listed to control a fire in stored commodities with 12 or fewer sprinklers.
Smoke and heat vents installed in accordance with Section 910.3 or a mechanical smoke removal system installed in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be installed in buildings and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) of undivided area. In occupied portions of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 where the upper surface of the story is not a roof assembly, a mechanical smoke removal system in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be installed.

Exception: Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars.
Smoke and heat removal required by Table 3206.2 of the International Fire Code for buildings and portions thereof containing high-piled combustible storage shall be installed in accordance with Section 910.3 in unsprinklered buildings. In buildings and portions thereof containing high-piled combustible storage equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, a smoke and heat removal system shall be installed in accordance with Section 910.3 or 910.4. In occupied portions of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, where the upper surface of the story is not a roof assembly, a mechanical smoke removal system in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be installed.
The design and installation of smoke and heat vents shall be in accordance with Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.3.
Smoke and heat vents shall be listed and labeled to indicate compliance with UL 793 or FM 4430.
Smoke and heat vents shall be located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines and fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire barriers. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof in the areas of the building where the vents are required to be installed by Section 910.2 with consideration given to roof pitch, sprinkler location and structural members.
The required aggregate area of smoke and heat vents shall be calculated as follows:

    For buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1:



where:

AVR = The required aggregate vent area (ft2).
V = Volume (ft3) of the area that requires smoke removal.


For unsprinklered buildings:



where:

AVR = The required aggregate vent area (ft2).
AFA = The area of the floor in the area that requires smoke removal.
Mechanical smoke removal systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 910.4.1 through 910.4.7.
The building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
Exhaust fans that are part of a mechanical smoke removal system shall be rated for operation at 221°F (105°C). Exhaust fan motors shall be located outside of the exhaust fan air stream.
The mechanical smoke removal system shall be sized to exhaust the building at a minimum rate of two air changes per hour based upon the volume of the building or portion thereof without contents. The capacity of each exhaust fan shall not exceed 30,000 cubic feet per minute (14.2 m3/sec).
Makeup air openings shall be provided within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the floor level. Operation of makeup air openings shall be manual or automatic. The minimum gross area of makeup air inlets shall be 8 square feet per 1,000 cubic feet per minute (0.74 m2 per 0.4719 m3/s) of smoke exhaust.
The mechanical smoke removal system shall be activated by manual controls only.
Manual controls shall be located so as to be accessible to the fire service from an exterior door of the building and protected against interior fire exposure by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Wiring for operation and control of mechanical smoke removal systems shall be connected ahead of the main disconnect in accordance with Section 701.12E of NFPA 70 and be protected against interior fire exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of not less than 15 minutes.
Where building air-handling and mechanical smoke removal systems are combined or where independent building air-handling systems are provided, fans shall automatically shut down in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. The manual controls provided for the smoke removal system shall have the capability to override the automatic shutdown of fans that are part of the smoke removal system.
Smoke and heat vents and mechanical smoke removal systems shall be maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Where required by other sections of this code and in buildings classified as high-rise buildings by this code, a fire command center for fire department operations shall be provided and shall comply with Sections 911.1.1 through 911.1.6.
The location and accessibility of the fire command center shall be approved by the fire chief.
The fire command center shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
The room shall be not less than 200 square feet (19 m2) with a minimum dimension of 10 feet (3048 mm).
A layout of the fire command center and all features required by this section to be contained therein shall be submitted for approval prior to installation.
Storage unrelated to operation of the fire command center shall be prohibited.
The fire command center shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain all of the following features:
  1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system control unit.
  2. The fire department communications system.
  3. Fire detection and alarm system annunciator.
  4. Annunciator unit visually indicating the location of the elevators and whether they are operational.
  5. Status indicators and controls for air distribution systems.
  6. The fire fighter's control panel required by Section 909.16 for smoke control systems installed in the building.
  7. Controls for unlocking interior exit stairway doors simultaneously.
  8. Sprinkler valve and waterflow detector display panels.
  9. Emergency and standby power status indicators.
  10. A telephone for fire department use with controlled access to the public telephone system.
  11. Fire pump status indicators.
  12. Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, fire protection systems, fire fighter air replenishment system, fire-fighting equipment and fire department access and the location of fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions.
  13. An approved Building Information Card that contains, but is not limited to, the following information:
    1. General building information that includes: property name, address, the number of floors in the building above and below grade, use and occupancy classification (for mixed uses, identify the different types of occupancies on each floor), and the estimated building population during the day, night and weekend.
    2. Building emergency contact information that includes: a list of the building's emergency contacts including but not limited to building manager and building engineer and their respective work phone number, cell phone number, e-mail address.
    3. Building construction information that includes: the type of building construction including but not limited to floors, walls, columns, and roof assembly.
    4. Exit access and exit stairway information that includes: number of exit access and exit stairways in the building, each exit access and exit stairway designation and floors served, location where each exit access and exit stairway discharges, interior exit stairways that are pressurized, exit stairways provided with emergency lighting, each exit stairway that allows reentry, exit stairways providing roof access; elevator information that includes: number of elevator banks, elevator bank designation, elevator car numbers and respective floors that they serve; location of elevator machine rooms, control rooms and control spaces; location of sky lobby, location of freight elevator banks.
    5. Building services and system information that includes: location of mechanical rooms, location of building management system, location and capacity of all fuel oil tanks, location of emergency generator, location of natural gas service.
    6. Fire protection system information that includes: location of standpipes, location of fire pump room, location of fire department connections, floors protected by automatic sprinklers, location of different types of automatic sprinkler systems installed including, but not limited to, dry, wet and pre-action.
    7. Hazardous material information that includes: location of hazardous material, quantity of hazardous material.
  14. Work table.
  15. Generator supervision devices, manual start and transfer features.
  16. Public address system, where specifically required by other sections of this code.
  17. Elevator fire recall switch in accordance with ASME A17.1/BSA 44.
  18. Elevator emergency or standby power selector switch(es), where emergency or standby power is provided.
Fire department connections shall be installed in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 through 912.6.
With respect to hydrants, driveways, buildings and landscaping, fire department connections shall be so located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.
Fire department connections shall be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible and recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire department vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the fire chief.
On existing buildings, wherever the fire department connection is not visible to approaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the letters "FDC" not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high and words in letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high or an arrow to indicate the location. Such signs shall be subject to the approval of the fire code official.
Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads.
Immediate access to fire department connections shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable object. Access to fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.

Exception: Fences, where provided with an access gate equipped with a sign complying with the legend requirements of this section and a means of emergency operation. The gate and the means of emergency operation shall be approved by the fire chief and maintained operational at all times.
The fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on fire department connections for water-based fire protection systems where the responding fire department carries appropriate key wrenches for removal.
A working space of not less than 36 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to the sides of wall-mounted fire department connections and around the circumference of free-standing fire department connections, except as otherwise required or approved by the fire chief.
Where fire department connections are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312 of the International Fire Code.
A metal sign with raised letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department connections serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION or a combination thereof as applicable. Where the fire department connection does not serve the entire building, a sign shall be provided indicating the portions of the building served.
The potable water supply to automatic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected against backflow as required by the International Plumbing Code.

912.7 Connections

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Fire department connections shall be such that attachment to any one water sprinkler connection will serve all sprinklers, and attachment to any one standpipe connection will serve all standpipes within the building.
Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 20.
The fire pump, driver and controller shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse conditions.
Fire pumps shall be located in rooms that are separated from all other areas of the building by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

Exceptions:

1. In other than high-rise buildings, separation by 1- hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 1-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both, shall be permitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

2. Separation is not required for fire pumps physically separated in accordance with NFPA 20.
Cables used for survivability of circuits supplying fire pumps shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements.
Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C).
Temperature of the pump room, pump house or area where engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine manufacturer's recommendations for oil heaters shall be followed.
Where provided, the fire pump suction, discharge and bypass valves, and isolation valves on the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open by one of the following methods:

1. Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling service.

2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

3. Locking valves open.

4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspection where valves are located within fenced enclosures under the control of the owner.
Fire pump test outlet valves shall be supervised in the closed position.
Acceptance testing shall be done in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20.

913.6 Second Power Source

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
All electric driven fire pumps shall be provided with emergency power from an on-site emergency generator system set when the fire pump is installed as protection for a building or structure with any one of the following characteristics:
  1. High-rise building.
  2. Use Group H.
  3. Use Group I having surgery or treatment areas.
Vertical shafts shall be identified as required by Sections 914.1.1 and 914.1.2.
Outside openings accessible to the fire department and that open directly on a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the word "SHAFTWAY" in red letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the building.
Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked with the word "SHAFTWAY" in red letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible.

Exception: Markings shall not be required on shaftway openings that are readily discernible as openings onto a shaftway by the construction or arrangement.
Fire protection equipment shall be identified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves or other fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for the use of the fire department. Approved signs required to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently installed and readily visible.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in new buildings in accordance with Sections 915.1.1 through 915.6. Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in existing buildings in accordance with Chapter 11 of the International Fire Code.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in Group I-1, I-2, I-4 and R occupancies and in classrooms in Group E occupancies in the locations specified in Section 915.2 where any of the conditions in Sections 915.1.2 through 915.1.6 exist.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in dwelling units, sleeping units, and classrooms that contain a fuel-burning appliance or a fuel-burning fireplace.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in dwelling units, sleeping units, and classrooms served by a fuel-burning, forced-air furnace.

Exception: Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in dwelling units, sleeping units, and classrooms if carbon monoxide detection is provided in the first room or area served by each main duct leaving the furnace, and the carbon monoxide alarm signals are automatically transmitted to an approved location.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms located in buildings that contain fuel-burning appliances or fuel-burning fireplaces.

Exceptions:
  1. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms where there are no communicating openings between the fuel-burning appliance or fuel-burning fireplace and the dwelling unit, sleeping unit or classroom.
  2. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms where carbon monoxide detection is provided in one of the following locations:

    1. In an approved location between the fuel-burning appliance or fuel-burning fireplace and the dwelling unit, sleeping unit or classroom.
    2. On the ceiling of the room containing the fuel-burning appliance or fuel-burning fireplace.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be provided in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms in buildings with attached private garages.

Exceptions:
  1. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required where there are no communicating openings between the private garage and the dwelling unit, sleeping unit or classroom.
  2. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in dwelling units, sleeping units and classrooms located more than one story above or below a private garage.
  3. Carbon monoxide detection shall not be required where the private garage connects to the building through an open-ended corridor.
  4. Where carbon monoxide detection is provided in an approved location between openings to a private garage and dwelling units, sleeping units or classrooms, carbon monoxide detection shall not be required in the dwelling units, sleeping units or classrooms.
For determining compliance with Section 915.1.5, an open parking garage complying with Section 406.5 or an enclosed parking garage complying with Section 406.6 shall not be considered a private garage.

915.2 Locations

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where required by section 915.1.1, carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in the locations specified in sections 915.2.1 through 915.2.3 or in accordance with the technical potions listed in applicable sections of 527 CMR, as wellas all applicable provisions of 527 CMR and 248 CMR.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in dwelling units outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms. Where a fuel-burning appliance is located within a bedroom or its attached bathroom, carbon monoxide detection shall be installed within the bedroom.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in sleeping units.

Exception: Carbon monoxide detection shall be allowed to be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the sleeping unit where the sleeping unit or its attached bathroom does not contain a fuel-burning appliance and is not served by a forced air furnace.
Carbon monoxide detection shall be installed in classrooms in Group E occupancies. Carbon monoxide alarm signals shall be automatically transmitted to an on-site location that is staffed by school personnel.

Exception: Carbon monoxide alarm signals shall not be required to be automatically transmitted to an on-site location that is staffed by school personnel in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 30 or less.
Carbon monoxide detection required by Sections 915.1 through 915.2.3 shall be provided by carbon monoxide alarms complying with Section 915.4 or carbon monoxide detection systems complying with Section 915.5.

915.3.1 Interconnection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where more than one listed carbon monoxide alarm or combination smoke/carbon monoxide detector is required to be installed within a dwelling unit, or E- or I-use area, they shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of the carbon monoxide alarm or combination smoke/carbon monoxide detector shall activate the carbon monoxide audible notification devices throughout the individual dwelling unit, or affected area, by detector or separate notification device.
Carbon monoxide alarms shall comply with Sections 915.4.1 through 915.4.3.
Carbon monoxide alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source, and when primary power is interrupted, shall receive power from a battery. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than that required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Where installed in buildings without commercial power, battery-powered carbon monoxide alarms shall be an acceptable alternative.
Carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed in accordance with UL 2034.
Combination carbon monoxide/smoke alarms shall be an acceptable alternative to carbon monoxide alarms. Combination carbon monoxide/smoke alarms shall be listed in accordance with UL 2034 and UL 217.
Carbon monoxide detection systems shall be an acceptable alternative to carbon monoxide alarms and shall comply with Sections 915.5.1 through 915.5.3.
Carbon monoxide detection systems shall comply with NFPA 720. Carbon monoxide detectors shall be listed in accordance with UL 2075.
Carbon monoxide detectors shall be installed in the locations specified in Section 915.2. These locations supersede the locations specified in NFPA 720.
Combination carbon monoxide/smoke detectors installed in carbon monoxide detection systems shall be an acceptable alternative to carbon monoxide detectors, provided they are listed in accordance with UL 2075 and UL 268.
Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.

916.1 General

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in all new buildings in accordance with section 510 of the International Fire Codes 916.2 through 916.6.3 and section 24.5 of NFPA 72: Two-way, in-building Emergency Communications Systems.

EXCEPTION: Existing buildings which contain fire fighter communication systems.

916.2 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage in New Buildings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
All new buildings shall have approved radio coverage for emergency responders within the building based upon the existing coverage levels of the public safety communication systems of the jurisdiction at the exterior of the building. This section shall not require improvement of the existing public safety communication systems.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Where approved by the building official and the fire code official, a wired communication system in accordance with section 907.2.13.2 shall be permitted to be installed or maintained instead of an approved radio coverage system.
  2. Where it is determined by the fire code official that the radio coverage system is not needed.
  3. In facilities where emergency responder radio coverage is required and such systems, components or equipment required could have a negative impact on the normal operations of that facility, the fire code official shall have the authority to accept an automatically activated emergency responder radio coverage system.

916.3 Permit Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A construction permit for the installation of or modification to emergency responder radio coverage systems and related equipment is required as specified in section 105.1. Maintenance performed in accordance with 780 CMR is not considered a modification and does not require a permit.

916.4 Technical Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Systems, components and equipment required to provide the emergency responder radio coverage system shall comply with sections 916.4.1 through 916.4.2.5.

916.4.1 Radio Signal Strength

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The building shall be considered to have acceptable emergency responder radio coverage when signal strength measurements in 95%of all areas on each floor of the building meet the signal strength requirements in sections 916.4.1.1 and 916.4.1.2.

916.4.1.1 Minimum Signal Strength into the Building

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be receivable within the building.

916.4.1.2 Minimum Signal Strength out of the Building

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be received by the agency’s radio system when transmitted from within the building.

916.4.2 System Design

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be designed in accordance with sections 916.4.2.1 through 916.4.2.5.

916.4.2.1 Amplification Systems Allowed

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Buildings and structures that cannot support the required level of radio coverage shall be equipped with a radiating cable system, a distributed antenna system with Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”)-certified signal boosters, or other system approved by the fire code official in order to achieve the required adequate radio coverage.

916.4.2.2 Technical Criteria

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The fire code official shall maintain a document providing the specific technical information and requirements for the emergency responder radio coverage system. This document shall contain, but not be limited to, the various frequencies required, the location of radio sites, effective radiated power of radio sites, and other supporting technical information.

916.4.2.3 Standby Power

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with section 2702. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system for a duration of not less than 24 hours.

916.4.2.4 Signal Booster Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
If used, signal boosters shall meet the following requirements:
  1. All signal booster components shall be contained in a National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (“NEMA”) 4-type waterproof cabinet.
  2. Battery systems used for the emergency power source shall be contained in a NEMA 4-type waterproof cabinet.
  3. The signal booster system and battery system shall be electrically supervised and monitored by a supervisory service, or when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location
  4. Equipment shall have FCC certification prior to installation.

916.4.2.5 Additional Frequencies and Change of Frequencies

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be capable of modification or expansion in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC.

916.5 Installation Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The installation of the public safety radio coverage system shall be in accordance with sections 916.5.1 through 916.5.4.

916.5.1 Approval Prior to Installation

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Amplification systems capable of operating on frequencies licensed to any public safety agency by the FCC shall not be installed without prior coordination and approval of the fire code official

916.5.2 Minimum Qualifications of Personnel

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The minimum qualifications of the system designer and lead installation personnel shall include both of the following:
  1. A valid FCC-issued general radio operator’s license.
  2. Certification of in-building system training issued by a nationally recognized organization, school or a certificate issued by the manufacturer of the equipment being installed.
These qualifications shall not be required where demonstration of adequate skills and experience satisfactory to the fire code official is provided.

916.5.3 Acceptance Test Procedure

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
Where an emergency responder radio coverage system is required, and upon completion of installation, the building owner shall have the radio system tested to verify that two-way coverage on each floor of the building is not less than 90%. The test procedure shall be conducted as follows:
  1. Each floor of the building shall be divided into a grid of 20 approximately equal test areas.
  2. The test shall be conducted using a calibrated portable radio of the latest brand and model used by the agency talking through the agency’s radio communications system.
  3. Failure of not more than two nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test.
  4. In the event that three of the test areas fail the test, in order to be more statistically accurate, the floor shall be permitted to be divided into 40 equal test areas. Failure of not more than four nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test. If the system fails the 40-area test, the system shall be altered to meet the 90% coverage requirement.
  5. A test location approximately in the center of each test area shall be selected for the test, with the radio enabled to verify two-way communications to and from the outside of the building through the public agency’s radio communications system. Once the test location has been selected, that location shall represent the entire test area. Failure in the selected test location shall be considered failure of that test area. Additional test locations shall not be permitted.
  6. The gain values of all amplifiers shall be measured and the test measurement results shall be kept on file with the building owner so that the measurements can be verified during annual tests. In the event that the measurement results become lost, the building owner shall be required to rerun the acceptance test to reestablish the gain values.
  7. As part of the installation a spectrum analyzer or other suitable test equipment shall be utilized to ensure spurious oscillations are not being generated by the subject signal booster. This test shall be conducted at the time of installation and subsequent annual inspections.

916.5.4 FCC Compliance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level. Amendments are shown in green text.
The emergency responder radio coverage system installation and components shall also comply with all applicable federal regulations including, but not limited to, FCC 47 CFR Part 90.219.

916.6 Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This se