CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2015 (IBC 2015)

Copyright

Preface

Effective Use of the International Building Code

Legislation

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Special Inspections and Tests

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board, Gypsum Panel Products and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Reserved

Chapter 34 EXISTING BUILDING CODE

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix C GROUP U—AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix G FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION IN COASTAL DUNES

Appendix H Signs

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Administrative Provisions

Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation

Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard

Appendix AA Stretch Energy Code

901.1 Scope

STATE AMENDMENT
The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation and operation of fire protection systems.

NOTE 1: In subsections 904.2, 907.1.1, 909.7, 909.8, 909.9, 909.10, 909.19 the term “fire official” or “building official” is to be substituted with the terms “building official in consultation with the fire official.” The fire official may appeal a building official action in accordance with 780 CMR 1.00.

NOTE 2: In subsection 903.1.1, the term “fire code official” is to be substituted with the term “building official and fire official.”

NOTE 3: In subsections 916.1 through 916.6.3, the term “fire code official” is to be substituted with the term “fire official.”

NOTE 4: Reference to the IFC shall be applied in accordance with subsection 101.4.5 of 780 CMR.
Fire protection systems shall be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance with this code and the International Fire Code.

Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduction to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.

Exception: Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of this code.
EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by 780 CMR shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of 780 CMR.
  2. Where alternative fire protection designs, which vary from any prescriptive requirements of 780 CMR 9.00, are to be utilized, the owner shall engage an independent registered design professional, to review said alternative design. The scope of the review shall include, but not be limited to:

    1. Design assumptions, methodologies, and resulting proposed system designs, to determine whether or not:

      1. the proposed fire protection systems and any other systems which are affected by the alternative design, are consistent with the general objectives and prescriptive provisions of 780 CMR 9.00;
      2. they all conform to accepted engineering practice.
    2. Preparation of a written report to the building official as to the appropriateness of the proposed design specifically listing any variances from the prescriptive provisions of 780 CMR 9.00 and describing, in detail, the design provisions used to achieve compliance. If the reviewing engineer concurs with the proposed design, the owner shall make application for a variance, to the Appeals Board in accordance with780 CMR 1.00. In addition to all supporting information and materials, the reviewing engineering’s report required in accordance with this exception shall be included in the application for variance. A permit shall not be issued until the variance, if required, has been granted, or unless the permit is issued in part in accordance with780 CMR 1.00.

      When a variance is granted in accordance with this exception for a bulk merchandising retail building as defined in 780 CMR 4.00 and when the condition is common to future buildings of the owner, the BBRS, upon request of the owner, may provide that the variance shall be applicable to such future buildings. If such request is made, a quorum of the BBRS shall hear the appeal. Each such application to a future building will be subject to determination as prescribed in780 CMR 1.00 by the building official in consultation with the fire official that its use is in conformity with the terms of the variance.
This process includes the three tiers of the minimum document submittal requirements. This process does not preclude the permit applicant from submitting additional documents; for example shop drawings along with the construction documents at time of permit application.

  1. Tier One, Construction Documents. Prior to issuance of a permit, construction documents for the fire protection system shall be submitted in accordance with section 107.1.2 and a permit obtained prior to the installation of fire protection systems or modifications, alterations, additions or deletions to an existing fire protection system. The construction documents shall contain sufficient information to completely describe each of the fire protection system(s) for which a permit is to be issued. The construction documents shall include the following:

    1. Each system shall be described in a narrative report, which contains:

      1. design methodology for the protection of the occupancy and hazards in accordance with 780 CMR and applicable NFPA standards;
      2. sequence of operation of all fire protection systems and operations; and
      3. testing criteria to be used for final system acceptance.
    2. Building and site access for fire-fighting or rescue vehicle(s) and personnel or both.
    3. Fire hydrant(s) location and water supply information.
    4. Type/description and design layout of the automatic sprinkler system(s).
    5. Automatic sprinkler system(s) control equipment location.
    6. Type/description and design layout of the automatic standpipe system(s).
    7. Standpipe system hose valve(s) type and location.
    8. Fire department connection type(s) and location.
    9. Type/description and design layout of the fire protective signaling system(s).
    10. Fire protective signaling system(s) control equipment and remote annunciator.
    11. Type/description and design layout of the smoke control or exhaust system(s).
    12. Smoke control or exhaust system(s) control equipment location.
    13. Building life safety system features (auxiliary functions) required to be integratedas part of the fire protective signaling system(s).
    14. Type/description and design layout of the fire extinguishing system(s).
    15. Fire extinguishing system(s) control equipment location.
    16. Fire protection system(s) equipment room location.
    17. Fire protection system(s) equipment identification and operation signs.
    18. Fire protection system(s) alarm/ supervisory signal transmission method and location.
    19. Fire command center location.
    20. Type/description and location of any emergency alarm system.
    21. Type/description and location of any alternative fire suppression system or protection.
    22. Type/description and location of any carbon monoxide protection.
    23. Emergency responder radio coverage type/location.
  2. Tier Two, Shop Drawings. Prior to installation of fire protection systems, shop drawings, where applicable, shall be submitted in accordance with section 107.1.2 and shall contain, but not be limited to; detailed design layout, equipment specifications, system sequence of operation, and analysis to substantiate the design. Shop drawings shall note the name(s), license number(s) and license expiration date(s) of the contractor(s) installing the fire protection systems.

    EXCEPTION: For shop drawings of Fire Alarm and Detection Systems see section 907.1.2 for applicable requirements.
  3. Tier Three, Record Drawings. As built plans shall be provided to the owner for all fire protection and life safety systems that are sealed as reviewed and approved by the registered design professional or legally recognized professional performing construction control. Where changes to original shop drawings are minor, a list of as-built changes shall be permitted to be submitted where sealed and reviewed and approved by the registered design professional or legally recognized professional performing construction control in accordance with 780 CMR 1.00.

901.3 Modifications

STATE AMENDMENT
Persons shall not remove or modify any fire protection system installed or maintained under the provisions of this code or the International Fire Code without approval by the building official.All fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with applicable provisions of 527 CMR. The owner of every building or structure shall be responsible for the care and maintenance of all fire protection systems, including equipment and devices, to ensure the safety and welfare of the occupants. No person shall shut off, disconnect, obstruct, remove or destroy, or cause or permit to be shut off, disconnected, obstructed, removed or destroyed, any part of any sprinkler system, water main, hydrant or other device used for fire protection or carbon monoxide detection and alarm in any building owned, leased or occupied by such person or under his or her control or supervision, without first procuring a written permit so to do from the head of the fire department of the city or town wherein such building is situated in accordance with M.G.L. c. 148, § 27A.

When installations of fire protection systems are interrupted for repairs or other necessary reasons, the owner shall immediately advise the local fire department and shall diligently prosecute the restoration of the protection.
Threads provided for fire department connections to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or any other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connections used by the local fire department.

901.5 Acceptance Tests

STATE AMENDMENT
Fire protection systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this code and the International Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the building official. Tests required by this code, the International Fire Code and the standards listed in this code shall be conducted at the expense of the owner or the owner's authorized agent. It shall be unlawful to occupy portions of a structure until the required fire protection systems within that portion of the structure have been tested and approved. Fire protection systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of 780 CMR and NFPA standards and approved testing criteria and operational sequence as submitted in section 901.2.1(1)(a). When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the building official and fire official or their designee. The building official may authorize the fire official as designee. The fire official may authorize the building official as designee.
Prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy and prior to witness of acceptance testing the following documents shall be submitted to the building and fire officials, or designees:

  1. Certification from the registered design professional, or other legally recognized professional, responsible for the construction documents in accordance withsection 107.6, stating that the fire protection systems have been installed in accordance with applicable codes and standards, in accordance with the approved construction documents and that the record drawings indicate any deviations, if any.
  2. Confirmation by the owner that they have received the as-built record drawings.
  3. Material, test, performance, and completion certificates, properly executed by the installing contractor in accordance with the applicable NFPA standards.
NOTE: In lieu of witnessing a satisfactory functional test, the building official and fire official or designees, may accept a final performance test report from a registered design professional, or other legally recognized professional, as an acceptance test. Said report shall certify that complete and satisfactory functional tests of all fire protection systems, in accordance with the applicable codes and standards, and that the approved testing criteria and operational sequence, have been witnessed.
Where required, fire protection systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station.

Exceptions:

1. A supervising station is not required for automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.

901.6.2 Fire Alarm Systems

STATE AMENDMENT
Fire alarm systems required by the provisions of section 907.2 of this code and Sections 907.2 and 907.9 of the International Fire Code 780 CMR shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with section 907.6.6.

EXCEPTIONS:
  1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by section 907.2.11.
  2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.
  3. Supervisory service is not required for automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.
  4. Smoke detectors in patient sleeping rooms in occupancies in Group I-2.
Supervision and monitoring of emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems in Group H occupancies shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.

901.7 Fire Areas

STATE AMENDMENT
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10. For the purpose of 780 CMR 9.00, the term fire area shall be defined as: “The aggregate are of a building, regardless of subdivisions by fire barriers, fire walls, or horizontal assemblies.”
Where provided, fire pump rooms and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working room around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fireresistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.

901.9 Signs

STATE AMENDMENT
All signs required to identify fire protection equipment, equipment rooms and equipment locations shall be constructed of durable materials, be permanently installed and be readily visible. Letters and numbers shall contrast with the sign background, shall be at least two inches in height and shall have an appropriate width-toheight ratio to permit the sign to be read easily from a distance of ten feet. The sign and location shall be approved by the local fire department.
Where sprinkler control valves are located in a separate room or building, a sign shall be provided on the entrance door. The lettering shall be at least 2½ inches (63.5 mm) in height and shall otherwise conform to section 901.7 and shall read “Sprinkler Control Valves.”
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

[F] ALARM SIGNAL.

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.

[F] ANNUNCIATOR.

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

[F] AUTOMATIC.

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.

[F] AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM.

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS.

[F] CEILING LIMIT.

[F] CLEAN AGENT.

[F] COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE.

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM.

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT.

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

[F] ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE SYSTEM.

[F] ELEVATOR GROUP.

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.

[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.

FIRE AREA.

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER.

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

[F] INITIATING DEVICE.

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

[F] NOTIFICATION ZONE.

[F] NUISANCE ALARM.

PRIVATE GARAGE.


[F] RECORD DRAWINGS.

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

[F] SMOKE ALARM.

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR.

[F] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE.

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.

Class I system.

Class II system.

Class III system.

[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.

Automatic dry.

Automatic wet.

Manual dry.

Manual wet.

Semiautomatic dry.

[F] SUPERVISING STATION.

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE.

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL.

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

[F] WET CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.

[F] ZONE.

[F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted instead of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.

903.2 Where Required

STATE AMENDMENT
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.
Approved automatic sprinkler systems in all new, and some existing, buildings and structures shall be provided in accordance with items 1 and 2, below:

  1. In accordance with the following enhanced sprinkler provisions, as required by the respectively-referenced statute:

    1. The following statutes are enforced by the head of the fire department, and shall be appealed through the automatic sprinkler appeals board:

      1. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26A1/2: certain high-rise buildings constructed prior to 01/01/1975;
      2. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26G: certain non-residential structures that exceed 7,500 square feet;
      3. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26G1/2: bars, nightclubs, dance halls, and discotheques with a capacity of 100 or more persons; and
      4. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26H (if adopted through local option): lodging or boarding houses with six or more persons boarding or lodging.
    2. The followingstatute is enforced by the head of the fire department, and shall be appealed through the Building Code Appeals Board:

      1. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26A: certain high-rise buildings.
    3. The following statute is enforced by the head of the fire department, and shall be appealed through a court of competent jurisdiction:

      1. M.G.L. c. 148,§ 26I (if adopted through local option): certain multiple dwelling units.
    4. M.G.L. c. 272, §§ 86 through 86D. Certain stables, as required by law. This provision is enforced by the head of the fire department, or his or her designee, and shall be appealed through a court of competent jurisdiction.
  2. 2. As required by Table 903.2.

    EXCEPTIONS: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic smoke detection system and notification in accordance with section 907 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion.

    1. Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection and notification system in accordance with section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than one-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with section 707 or not less than two-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with section 712, or both.
    2. Machine rooms of traction/drum hydraulic elevators, elevator hoistways, or elevator pits. Such elevator machine rooms, hoistways, or pits shall be constructed to meet the fire-resistance rating specified in Table 601 and otherwise as required by the applicable sections of 780 CMR 7.00. Where Table 601 requires a higher fire-resistance rating for elevator machine rooms, hoistways, or pits, such rating shall be provided unless such ratings are governed by other sections of 780 CMR. For elevator installation within atriums also see 780 CMR 4.00 for additional fire-resistance rating guidance. Where the elevator machine room is determined to be a true penthouse roof structure, also refer to section 1509.0 for additional fireresistance rating requirements.
    3. Non-combustible and limited combustible concealed spaces and plenums that contain electrical, data, communications and other cables that are of the types and in the configurations permitted in such spaces by 527 CMR.
    4. Transformer vaults where all the following conditions are satisfied:

      1. The cable within the vault is flame retardant or limited combustible.
      2. The dielectric fluid is a limited combustible fluid.
      3. The vault is enclosed in three hour fire resistance rated construction.
      4. The vault is at grade or no more than one level below grade. Access to the vault is directly from the exterior or via a dedicated two hour passageway.
      5. The vault is protected with automatic smoke detection connected to the building fire alarm system which notifies the fire department upon activation.
      6. The room is limited to the sole use of the transformer equipment and is limited in size to accommodate said equipment only. Storage is prohibited in the vault enclosure.
      7. The vault is provided with spill containment.
      8. An emergency fire plan has been developed with and approved by the fire department.
      9. Continuous ventilation is provided for the vault enclosure in accordance with the ventilation requirements of NFPA 30.
      10. The ventilation equipment is dedicated to serve the vault only.
      11. Standby emergency power, in addition to the normal power source, is provided for the ventilation equipment.
      12. The vault is no larger in area than 2,400 sq. ft.
    5. Transformer vaults where an alternative suppression system is provided for the vault in accordance with section 904 and section 903.2 exception 4. conditions i., j., and k. are met.
NOTE: Also see Subsections 903.3.1.1.1, 903.3.1.2.1, and 903.3.1.2.2

TABLE 903.2 OCCUPANCY AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER REQUIREMENTS

Building having occupancy Provide automatic fire sprinkler system throughout building if one of the following conditions will
exist (see Note a)
Fire Area Building
occupant
load
Occupancy location
A-1 >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
A-2 [Nightclub] >5,000
ft2
≥ 50 Any floor other than the
level of exit discharge
for A-2 Use
A-2 [all others] >5,000
ft2
≥ 100 Any floor other than the
level of exit discharge
for A-2 Use
A-3 >5,000
ft2
≥ 300 Any floor other than the
level of exit discharge
for A-3 Use
A-4 >7,500
ft2
≥ 300 Any floor other than the
level of exit discharge
for A-5 Use
A-5 See Note b
Assembly occupancies on roofs See Note c
Multiple fire areas of Group A-1, A-2, A3,
or A-4
See Note d
B [Ambulatory Health Care] See Note e
B >12,000
ft2
--- ---
E [below level of exit discharge] See Note f
E [all others] >12,000
ft2
--- ---
F-1 [Woodworking Operations] See Note g
F-1 [all others] >12,000
ft2
--- More than three (3)
stories above grade
plane
F-1 [all types] >24,000
ft2
--- Combined area of all
Group F-1 fire areas on
all floors, including
mezzanines.
H [Pyroxylin Plastics] See Note h
H-5 See Note i
H [all others] >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
Ia >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
M [bulk merchandising] >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
M [upholstered furniture display/sale] >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
M [storage of merchandise in high-piled
or rack storage arrays]
See Note j
M [all others] >12,000
ft2
--- More than three stories
above grade plane
M [all types] >24,000 ft2 --- Combined area of all
Group M fire areas on
all floors, including
mezzanines.
Ra >0 ft2 > 0 Any level
S-1 [upholstered furniture or
mattresses/storage]
>2,500
ft2
--- More than three stories
above grade plane
S-1 [with commercial motor vehicles] >5,000
ft2
--- More than three stories
above grade plane
S-1 [with repair garage, building two or
more stories above grade]
>10,000
ft2
--- 1. In basement; or
2. More than three stories above grade plane
S-1 [with repair garage, building one story
above grade]
>12,000
ft2
--- In basement
S-1 [with commercial motor vehicles] >5,000
ft2
--- 1. In basement; or
2. More than three stories
above grade plane
S-1 [with tire storage] See Note k
S-1 [all others] >12,000
ft2
--- More than three stories
above grade plane
S-1 [all types] >24,000
ft2
--- Combined area of all
Group M fire areas on
all floors, including
mezzanines.
S-2 See Note l & m
Note a:
  1. For Use Group R and I-1 buildings with an aggregate building area of 12,000 ft2 or more, and mixed use buildings containing R-Uses, the sprinkler system shall be designed and installed throughout the structure in accordance with NFPA 13.
  2. Buildings of entire R-Use, other than R-1 Occupancies and R-2 Dormitories, having no more than three dwelling units and also less than a 12,000 ft2 Fire Area shall be permitted to have an automatic fire suppression system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.3; provided that every automatic sprinkler system shall have at least one automatic water supply, or a stored water supply source, in accordance with NFPA 13D where the minimum quantity of stored water shall equal the water demand rate times 20 minutes.
  3. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 occupancies.
  4. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 1 occupancies.
  5. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 2 occupancies. Attics shall be protected as follows:

    1. Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.2.
    2. Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall comply with one of the following requirements:

      1. It shall beprotected throughout by a heat detector system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with section 907.2.10.
      2. It shall beconstructed of non-combustible materials.
      3. It shall beconstructed of fire-retardant-treated wood framing complying with section 2303.2.
      4. The automatic sprinkler system shall be extended to provide protection throughout the attic space.
  6. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in care facilities with five or fewer individuals in a single-family dwelling.
  7. Townhouses are required to be protected by automatic sprinkler systems.
Note b: Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in concession stands, retail areas, press boxes, and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 ft2 (93m2).
Note c: Assembly occupancies on roofs. Where an occupied roof has an Assembly Occupancy with an occupancy load exceeding:
  1. 100 for Group A-2; and
  2. 300 for all other Group A occupancies, all floors between the occupied roof and the level of exit discharge shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with sections 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, when applicable.
EXCEPTION: Open parking garages in Type I or Type II construction.
Note d: Multiple fire areas. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided where multiple fire areas of GroupA-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancies share exit or exit access components and the combined occupant load of these fire areas is 300 or more.
Note e: Group B ambulatory health care facilities. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all fire areas containing a Group B ambulatory health care facility occupancy when either one of the following conditions exists at any time:
  1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation.
  2. One or more care recipients who are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such an occupancy.
In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, and automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.
Note f: Group E. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided as follows:
  1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 ft2 in area.
  2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.
Note g: Group F-1 (Woodworking Operations). An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings that contain woodworking operation(s) in excess of 2,500 ft2 (232 m2) in area that generate(s) finely divided combustible waste or use(s) finely divided combustible materials.
Note h: Pyroxylin Plastics. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds.
Note i: Group H-5. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required by 780 CMR for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.1. Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.
Note j: High-piled storage. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with the IFC, and applicable provisions of 527 CMR, in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.
Note k: Bulk storage of tires. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 ft3 (566 m3), in accordance with section 903.3.1.1.
Note l: Group S-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group S-2 occupancies as follow:
  1. Throughout buildings classified as Group S-2 Enclosed Parking.
  2. Throughout Group S-2 Enclosed Parking located beneath other groups.

    EXCEPTION: Enclosed parking garages located beneath R-3 occupancies.
Note m: Commercial Parking Garages. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings having storage of commercial motor vehicles where the aggregate area used for parking exceeds 5,000 ft2 (464m2).

903.2.1 Group A

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the story where the fire area containing the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and throughout all stories from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the levels of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.

903.2.1.1 Group A-1

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-1 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.

903.2.1.2 Group A-2

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-2 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464.5 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.3 Group A-3

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-3 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.4 Group A-4

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-4 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.5 Group A-5

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).
Where an occupied roof has an assembly occupancy with an occupant load exceeding 100 for Group A-2 and 300 for other Group A occupancies, all floors between the occupied roof and the level of exit discharge shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

Exception: Open parking garages of Type I or Type II construction.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided where multiple fire areas of Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancies share exit or exit access components and the combined occupant load of theses fire areas is 300 or more.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time:

1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of selfpreservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.

2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.

In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.

903.2.3 Group E

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:

1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has not fewer than one exterior exit door at ground level.

903.2.4 Group F-1

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area that generate finely divided combustible waste or use finely divided combustible materials.

903.2.5 Group H

STATE AMENDMENT
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.

903.2.5.1 General

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required by this code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2.

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

[F] TABLE 903.2.5.2 GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

LOCATION OCCUPANCY HAZARD
CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areas Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensing Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensing Extra Hazard Group 2
Corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).

903.2.6 Group I

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.

Exceptions:

1. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group I-1 Condition 1 facilities.

2. An automatic sprinkler system is not required where Group I-4 day care facilities are at the level of exit discharge and where every room where care is provided has not fewer than one exterior exit door.

3. In buildings where Group I-4 day care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be installed on the entire floor where care is provided, all floors between the level of care and the level of exit discharge, and all floors below the level of exit discharge other than areas classified as an open parking garage.

903.2.7 Group M

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.

903.2.8 Group R

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.

903.2.8.1 Group R-3

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 1 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 2 occupancies. Attics shall be protected in accordance with Section 903.2.8.3.1 or 903.2.8.3.2.
Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.
Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected in accordance with one of the following:

1. Attics protected throughout by a heat detector system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907.2.10.

2. Attics constructed of noncombustible materials.

3. Attics constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood framing complying with Section 2303.2.

4. The automatic sprinkler system shall be extended to provide protection throughout the attic space.

903.2.8.4 Care Facilities

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in care facilities with five or fewer individuals in a single-family dwelling.

903.2.9 Group S-1

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

5. A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

903.2.9.1 Repair Garages

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406, as shown:

1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).

2. Buildings not more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.6 where either of the following conditions exists:

1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided not fewer than one of the following types of exterior wall openings:

1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1011 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1012. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling not less than 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner such that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall be provided on not fewer than two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors, beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor above the discharge. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings that have one or more stories with an occupant load of 30 or more located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, measured to the finished floor.

Exceptions:

1. Open parking structures.

2. Occupancies in Group F-2.
Where required by the International Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust or flammable or combustible materials.

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct systems where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.
In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

F] TABLE 903.2.11.6 ADDITIONAL REQUIRED SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTION SUBJECT
402.5, 402.6.2 Covered and open mall buildings
403.3 High-rise buildings
404.3 Atriums
405.3 Underground structures
407.6 Group I-2
410.7 Stages
411.4 Special amusement buildings
412.3.6 Airport traffic control towers
412.4.6, 412.4.6.1,
412.6.5
Aircraft hangars
415.11.11 Group H-5 HPM exhaust ducts
416.5 Flammable finishes
417.4 Drying rooms
419.5 Live/work units
424.3 Children's play structures
507 Unlimited area buildings
509.4 Incidental uses
1029.6.2.3 Smoke-protected assembly seating
IFC Sprinkler system requirements as set forth in
Section 903.2.11.6 of the International Fire Code
Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 33 of the International Fire Code.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.8.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Sections 903.3.1.1.1 and 903.3.1.1.2.
Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from a room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

1. A room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.

2. A room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, where approved by the fire code official.

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.

5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.

6. Machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms and control spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008.

Also see section 903.2 Exceptions
In Group R occupancies, other than Group R-4 occupancies, sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms that do not exceed 55 square feet (5 m2) in area and are located within individual dwelling units or sleeping units, provided that walls and ceilings, including the walls and ceilings behind a shower enclosure or tub, are of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier rating.
Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above grade plane shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.

The number of stories of Group R occupancies constructed in accordance with Sections 510.2 and 510.4 shall be measured from the horizontal assembly creating separate buildings.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units where the building is of Type V construction, provided there is a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.

Also see section 903.2 Exceptions
Sprinkler protection shall be provided in open-ended corridors and associated exterior stairways and ramps as specified in Section 1027.6, Exception 3.

Also see section 903.2 Exceptions
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings,; Group R-3, Group R-4 Condition 1 and townhouses, Group R-3, Group R-4 Condition 1, buildings containing only R-Uses of three units or less shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in all of the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with this code.

2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.

4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code. For connections to public waterworks systems, the water supply test used for design of fire protection systems shall be adjusted to account for seasonal and daily pressure fluctuations based on information from the water supply authority and as approved by the fire code official.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.
A single combination water supply shall be allowed permitted provided that the domestic and/or commercial demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13, NFPA 13D or NFPA 13R as applicable.
Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.
Fire department connections for automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 912.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with the standards listed in Section 903.3.1 except as provided in Sections 903.3.8.1 through 903.3.8.5.
Limited area sprinkler systems shall not exceed six sprinklers in any single fire area.
Only areas classified by NFPA 13 as Light Hazard or Ordinary Hazard Group 1 shall be permitted to be protected by limited area sprinkler systems.
Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building with an automatic wet standpipe system, sprinklers shall be supplied by the standpipe system. Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building without an automatic wet standpipe system, water shall be permitted to be supplied by the plumbing system provided that the plumbing system is capable of simultaneously supplying domestic and sprinkler demands.
Control valves shall not be installed between the water supply and sprinklers unless the valves are of an approved indicating type that are supervised or secured in the open position.
Hydraulic calculations in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided to demonstrate that the available water flow and pressure are adequate to supply all sprinklers installed in any single fire area with discharge densities corresponding to the hazard classification.
Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.

Exceptions:

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.

2. Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8.

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

903.4.1 Monitoring

STATE AMENDMENT
Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attendedone of the following NFPA 72 locations. The owner has the choice of which single option to employ.

Exceptions:

1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.
  1. UL listed or FM approved central supervising station, or
  2. Approved proprietary supervising station or approved remote supervising station, or
  3. Alarm signals to an approved Auxiliary Fire Alarm System in accordance with NFPA 72, with supervisory signals supervised by method a or b identified above, or at a constantly attended location approved by the local fire department, having personnel on duty trained to recognize the type of signal received and to take prescribed action. This shall be permitted to be a location different from that at which alarm signals are received.

903.4.2 Alarms

STATE AMENDMENT
An approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system. Activation of the sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall activate a fire alarm system installed throughout the building in accordance with section 907.

EXCEPTION: Buildings sprinklered throughout in accordance with 903.3.1.3.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.
In all cases, alarm signals received by those operating approved remote/proprietary station fire alarm system supervising stations shall re transmit alarm signals within 90 seconds of receipt, to the fire department having jurisdiction.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.

NOTE: See section 901.3.

904.5.1 Discharge Test

STATE AMENDMENT
All systems shall be tested by a discharge of expellant gas through the piping and nozzles with observations being made of the flow of expellant gas through all nozzles as well as observing for leakage and continuity of piping with free unobstructed flow.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed for automatic sprinkler systems or by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 of the International Fire Code or Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.

Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.
Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.
Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, all of the following items shall be inspected:

1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.

4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.

5. Identification of devices with proper designations.

6. Operating instructions.
Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

904.6.1 Discharge Test

STATE AMENDMENT
All systems shall be tested by a discharge of expellant gas through the piping and nozzles with observations being made of the flow of expellant gas through all nozzles as well as observing for leakage and continuity of piping with free unobstructed flow.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.
Automatic water mist systems shall be permitted in applications that are consistent with the applicable listing or approvals and shall comply with Sections 904.11.1 through 904.11.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 904.11.1.1 through 904.11.1.4.
Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 750 and the manufacturer's instructions.
Automatic water mist systems shall be automatically actuated.
Connections to a potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the International Plumbing Code.
Where a secondary water supply is required for an automatic sprinkler system, an automatic water mist system shall be provided with an approved secondary water supply.
Supervision and alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.
Monitoring shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.1.
Alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.2.
Floor control valves shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.3.
Automatic water mist systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.
The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.

3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the International Mechanical Code.
A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) and not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) or less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.
The actuation of the fire suppression system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
Where carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect against all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.
In Group I-2 Condition 1, occupancies where cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 407.2.6 of this code, the domestic cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300A and listed and labeled for the intended application. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's instructions.
Manual actuation and system interconnection for the hood suppression system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2, respectively.
A portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 shall be installed within a 30-foot (9144 mm) distance of travel from domestic cooking appliances.
Water spray fixed systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 15 and the listings contained therein.

904.15 Aerosol Systems

STATE AMENDMENT
Aerosol systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2010 and the listings contained therein.
Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 905.2 through 905.10. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. Fire department connections for standpipe systems shall be in accordance with Section 912.
Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.8. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.
Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.

5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider either of the following:

5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less.

5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.
Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

Exceptions:
  1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.
  2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.
Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed to not exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.

2. At each floor-level landing within interior exit stairways opening directly on the mall.

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building.

4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.

5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.
Stages greater than 1,000 square feet in area (93 m2) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.
The 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5 of the International Fire Code.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36 of the International Fire Code.
Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.
A class I automatic wet or manual standpipe system shall be provided in all exit passageways of areas containing high-piled combustible storage.
Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

1. In every required interior exit stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each story above and below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate landing between stories, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.

5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of an interior exit stairway with access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1011.12.

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.
Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an interior exit stairway shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an interior exit stairway are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.
In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.
In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies having occupant loads exceeding 1,000 persons, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment such as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or fire department valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.
Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:

1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.
Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.

2. Approved locking arrangements.

3. Group I-3.
Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.
Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall be transmitted to the control unit.

Exceptions:

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.

905.10 During Construction

STATE AMENDMENT
Standpipes systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with section 3311 and NFPA 241.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in all of the following locations:

1. In Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.

Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C.

2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.

4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1 of the International Fire Code.

5. Where required by the International Fire Code sections indicated in Table 906.1.

6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.

[F] TABLE 906.1 ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE

IFC SECTION SUBJECT
303.5 Asphalt kettles
307.5 Open burning
308.1.3 Open flames‒torches
309.4 Powered industrial trucks
2005.2 Aircraft towing vehicles
2005.3 Aircraft welding apparatus
2005.4 Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
2005.5 Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
2005.6 Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
2007.7 Heliports and helistops
2108.4 Dry cleaning plants
2305.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2310.6.4 Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2311.6 Repair garages
2404.4.1 Spray-finishing operations
2405.4.2 Dip-tank operations
2406.4.2 Powder-coating areas
2804.3 Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
2808.8 Recycling facilities
2809.5 Exterior lumber storage
2903.5 Organic-coating areas
3006.3 Industrial ovens
3104.12 Tents and membrane structures
3206.10 High-piled storage
3315.1 Buildings under construction or demolition
3317.3 Roofing operations
3408.2 Tire rebuilding/storage
3504.2.6 Welding and other hot work
3604.4 Marinas
3703.6 Combustible fibers
5703.2.1 Flammable and combustible liquids, general
5704.3.3.1 Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
5704.3.7.5.2 Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible
liquids
5705.4.9 Solvent distillation units
5706.2.7 Farms and construction sites‒flammable and
combustible liquids storage
5706.4.10.1 Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and
combustible liquids
5706.5.4.5 Commercial, industrial, governmental or
manufacturing establishments‒fuel dispensing
5706.6.4 Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
5906.5.7 Flammable solids
6108.2 LP-gas
Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected and installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.

Exceptions:

1. The distance of travel to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.

2. In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.
The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

[F]TABLE 906.3(1) FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

LIGHT
(Low)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
ORDINARY
(Moderate)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
EXTRA
(High)
HAZARD
OCCUPANCY
Minimum rated sin-
gle extinguisher
2-Ac 2-A 4-Aa
Maximum floor area
per unit of A
3,000
square feet
1,500
square feet
1,000
square feet
Maximum floor area
for extinguisherb
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
11,250
square feet
Maximum distance of
travel to extinguisher
75 feet 75 feet 75 feet

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.
c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.


[F] TABLE 906.3(2) FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25 INCH

TYPE OF HAZARD BASIC MINIMUM
EXTINGUISHER RATING
MAXIMUM
DISTANCE OF TRAVEL
TO EXTINGUISHERS
(feet)
Light
(Low)
5-B
10-B
30
50
Ordinary
(Moderate)
10-B
20-B
30
50
Extra (High) 40-B
80-B
30
50

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Note: For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.
The minimum sizes and distribution of portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards shall comply with Table 906.3(1).
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.12.5 of the International Fire Code.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.

Exceptions:

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.

2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.
The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International Fire Code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.
Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following where applicable to the system being installed:

1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.

2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices.

3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.

4. Design minimum audibility level for occupant notification.

5. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.

6. Annunciators.

7. Power connection.

8. Battery calculations.

9. Conductor type and sizes.

10. Voltage drop calculations.

11. Manufacturers' data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.

12. Details of ceiling height and construction.

13. The interface of fire safety control functions.

14. Classification of the supervising station.
Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.
An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.

Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed.

Exceptions:

1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.

2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies where the occupant load due to the assembly occupancy is 300 or more. Group A occupancies not separated from one another in accordance with Section 707.3.10 shall be considered as a single occupancy for the purposes of applying this section. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.
Stadiums, arenas and grandstands required to caption audible public announcements shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.4.
A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.

2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

3. The fire area contains an ambulatory care facility.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
Fire areas containing ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.
A manual fire alarm system that initiates the occupant notification signal utilizing an emergency voice/alarm communication system meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or less.

2. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall not be required in Group E occupancies with occupant loads of 100 or less, provided that activation of the manual fire alarm system initiates an approved occupant notification signal in accordance with Section 907.5.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

3.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.

3.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

3.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

4. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

4.1. The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

4.2. The emergency voice/alarm communication system will activate on sprinkler waterflow.

4.3. Manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist:

1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height.

2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 60, 62 and 63, respectively, of the International Fire Code.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3.

Exceptions:

1. Manual fire alarm boxes in sleeping units of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all care providers' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.

2. Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official and staff evacuation responsibilities are included in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 of the International Fire Code.
In Group I-1 occupancies, an automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5.

Exceptions:

1. For Group I-1 Condition 1 occupancies, smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior balconies.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors in Group I-2 Condition 1 facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.4. Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detection system as required in Section 407.

Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the care providers' station attending each unit.

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.
Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff.
Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, automatic sprinkler system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal that automatically notifies staff.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.
Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to residents.

Exceptions:

1. Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.

2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308.

3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.

2. The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered or open mall buildings complying with Section 402.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.
During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a waterflow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/ alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R- 1 occupancies.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met:

2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow.

2.3. Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.8.3.1 Annunciation

STATE AMENDMENT
In buildings that are not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.1 or section 903.3.1.2, the smoke detectors in guestrooms shall be connected to the buildings fire alarm systems for the purpose of notifying the guestroom occupants and shall be annunciated by guestroom at a constantly attended location from which the fire alarm system is capable of being manually activated.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 through 907.2.9.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where any of the following conditions apply:

1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge.

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit.

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.

Exceptions:

1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with sections 903.3.1.1, or 903.3.1.2, or 903.3.1.3 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler water flow.

3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1027.6, Exception 3.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing in all of the following locations:

1. Common spaces outside of dwelling units and sleeping units.

2. Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms and storage rooms.

3. All interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units and where each sleeping unit or dwelling unit either has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit or a means of egress door opening directly to an exit.

Required smoke alarms in dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing shall be interconnected with the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3.
A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met:

2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow.

2.3. Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens.

Exceptions:

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2. An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.
Single- and multiplestation smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.6 and NFPA 72.
Listed single- and multiplestation photoelectric type smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of 780 CMR and the household fire warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72, as applicable. Section 907.2.8 shall not preclude the installation of a fully addressable fire alarm system where system detectors and alarm notification devices can perform the functions as required in section 907.2.11.
Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:

1. In sleeping areas.

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
Singleor multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
Smoke alarms shall not be installed in the following locations unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm in a location required by Section 907.2.11.1 or 907.2.11.2:

1. Ionization smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.

2. Ionization smoke alarms with an alarm-silencing switch shall not be installed less than 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.

3. Photoelectric smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 6 feet (1829 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.
Smoke alarms shall be installed not less than 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally from the door or opening of a bathroom that contains a bathtub or shower unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm required by Section 907.2.11.1 or 907.2.11.2.
Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R or I-1 occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.
In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system in accordance with Section 2702. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system that complies with Section 2702.
Smoke detectors listed in accordance with UL 268 and provided as part of the building fire alarm system shall be an acceptable alternative to single- and multiple-station smoke alarms and shall comply with the following:

1. The fire alarm system shall comply with all applicable requirements in Section 907.

2. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall initiate alarm notification in the dwelling unit or sleeping unit in accordance with Section 907.5.2.

3. Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not activate alarm notification appliances outside of the dwelling unit or sleeping unit, provided that a supervisory signal is generated and monitored in accordance with Section 907.6.6.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special amusement buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1 through 907.2.12.3.
Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately activate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.
The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically do all of the following:

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface level.

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions.

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency.

4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound that is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.
An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.
High-rise buildings shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Exceptions:

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sections 412 and 907.2.22.

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1.

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415.

6. In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.
Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2.
Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall activate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.10, smoke detectors shall be located as follows:

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room that is not provided with sprinkler protection.

2. In each elevator machine room, machinery space, control room and control space and in elevator lobbies.
Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be located as follows:

1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.
Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 911, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside interior exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the interior exit stairway.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection installed in locations required by a rational analysis in Section 909.4 and in accordance with the system operation requirements in Section 909.17. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 3206.5 of the International Fire Code.

EXCEPTION: Buildings sprinklered throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by the International Fire Code.
Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system.
Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with this code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1.
Not fewer than one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in all of the following areas:

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.

2. Elevator lobbies.

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 airinlet openings.
Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location.
Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Where the total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/ alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Not fewer than one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in Chapter 2 and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm that will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in airport control towers in accordance with Sections 907.2.22.1 and 907.2.22.2.

Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab.
Airport traffic control towers with multiple exits and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations:

1. Airport traffic control cab.

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

4. Outside each opening into interior exit stairways.

5. Along the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.

6. Outside each opening into the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.
Airport traffic control towers with a single exit or where sprinklers are not installed throughout shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations:

1. Airport traffic control cab.

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.

6. Means of egress.

7. Accessible utility shafts.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).
Automatic fire detectors utilized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit where a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72.
Smoke detectors installed in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance with this code and the International Mechanical Code. In facilities that are required to be monitored by a supervising station, duct smoke detectors shall report only as a supervisory signal and not as a fire alarm. They shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

Exceptions:

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building's alarm notification appliances.

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.
Where delayed egress locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.7, an automatic smoke or heat detection system shall be installed as required by that section.
Automatic fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of ASME A17.1/CSA B44 and NFPA 72.
The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72.
Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 907.4.3.1.
In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders, and supervising station transmitting equipment.

Exception: Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of a smoke detector, a heat detector shall be permitted.
Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.6.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. In buildings not protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that the exit access travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) and not more than 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.
Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.
The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, unobscured and visible at all times.
Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors shall be permitted.
For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection.
A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the fire alarm control unit and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.2.3.3. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:

1. Automatic fire detectors.

2. Automatic sprinkler system waterflow devices.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes.

4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended location.
A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approved by the fire department so that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency.
Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose.
Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm.

Exceptions:

1. Audible alarm notification appliances are not required in critical care areas of Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.

2. A visible alarm notification appliance installed in a nurses' control station or other continuously attended staff location in a Group I-2 Condition 2 suite shall be an acceptable alternative to the installation of audible alarm notification appliances throughout the suite in Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.

3. Where provided, audible notification appliances located in each occupant evacuation elevator lobby in accordance with Section 3008.9.1 shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.
The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of not less than 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building.
The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.
Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building's fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404 of the International Fire Code. In high-rise buildings, the system shall operate on at least the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:

1. Elevator groups.

2. Interior exit stairways.

3. Each floor.

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Chapter 2.

Exception: In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.
A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.
Where stadiums, arenas and grandstands are required to caption audible public announcements in accordance with Section 1108.2.7.3, the emergency/voice alarm communication system shall be captioned. Prerecorded or live emergency captions shall be from an approved location constantly attended by personnel trained to respond to an emergency.
Emergency voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided with emergency power in accordance with Section 2702. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72.

907.5.2.2.6 Evacuation

STATE AMENDMENT
Where the head of the fire department or his or her designee determines that partial or selective evacuation is not desired but rather total evacuation is required, then a distinctive signal in lieu of a voice alarm is permitted.

907.5.2.3 Visible Alarms

STATE AMENDMENT
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.3. Also refer to 521 CMR for visible alarm requirements in buildings, or portions thereof, open to the public.

Exceptions:

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Chapter 2.

3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.

4. Visual alarm notification appliances are not required in critical care areas of Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.
Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public use areas and common use areas.

Exception: Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with not less than 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing-impaired employee(s).
Group I-1 and R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.5.2.3.2 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

[F] TABLE 907.5.2.3.2 VISIBLE ALARMS

NUMBER OF SLEEP
UNITS
SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH VISIBLE
ALARMS
6 to 25 2
26 to 50 4
51 to 75 7
76 to 100 9
101 to 150 12
151 to 200 14
201 to 300 17
301 to 400 20
401 to 500 22
501 to 1,000 5% of total
1,001 and over 50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000
In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with Chapter 10 of ICC A117.1. Such capability shall be permitted to include the potential for future interconnection of the building fire alarm system with the unit smoke alarms, replacement of audible appliances with combination audible/visible appliances, or future extension of the existing wiring from the unit smoke alarm locations to required locations for visible appliances.
A fire alarm system shall be installed and monitored in accordance with Sections 907.6.1 through 907.6.6.2 and NFPA 72.
Wiring shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.
The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Back-up power for single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.6.
The fire alarm system shall identify the specific initiating device address, location, device type, floor level where applicable and status including indication of normal, alarm, trouble and supervisory status, as appropriate.

Exceptions:

1.