CODES

ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

International Building Code 2009 (IBC 2009)

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration

Chapter 2 Definitions

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based on Use and Occupancy

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas

Chapter 6 Types of Construction

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems

Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Chapter 11 Accessibility

Chapter 12 Interior Environment

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures

Chapter 16 Structural Design

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations

Chapter 19 Concrete

Chapter 20 Aluminum

Chapter 21 Masonry

Chapter 22 Steel

Chapter 23 Wood

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster

Chapter 26 Plastic

Chapter 27 Electrical

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems

Chapter 31 Special Construction

Chapter 32 Encroachments Into the Public Right-Of-Way

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction

Chapter 34 Existing Structures

Chapter 34 Existing Structures

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix A Employee Qualifications

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix B Board of Appeals

Appendix C Group U - Agricultural Buildings

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix D Fire Districts

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix E Supplementary Accessibility Requirements

Appendix F Rodentproofing

Appendix G Flood-Resistant Construction

Appendix H Signs

Appendix I Patio Covers

Appendix J Grading

Appendix K Administrative Provisions

Appendix K Administrative Provisions

901.1 Scope

STATE AMENDMENT
The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation and operation of fire protection systems.

Note 1. Throughout Chapter 9, when reference to the International Plumbing Code is made the user shall refer to 248 CMR 10.00: Uniform State Plumbing Code.

Note 2. Throughout Chapter 9, when reference to the International Fire Code is made the user shall:
  1. Refer to 527 CMR, the Massachusetts Fire Prevention Regulations; or
  2. Refer to the International Fire Code if the applicable requirements are not contained in 527 CMR; or
  3. Contact the local fire official for the applicable requirements if not found in either 527 CMR or the International Fire Code.
Note 3. Throughout Chapter 9, when references to Chapter 27 and/or NFPA 70 are made, the user shall refer to 527 CMR 12.00: 2008 Massachusetts Electrical Code (Amendments).

Note 4. Throughout Chapter 9, where reference is made to the terms “fire official”, “fire department”, “head of the fire department” or “fire code official”, such is to be construed as meaning the “local fire chief or his / her designee”.

Note 5. In subsections 904.2, 907.1.1, 909.7, 909.8, 909.9, 909.10, 909.18.8.3.1, 909.19, 909.19 Exception, and 910.4, the term “fire official” or “building official” is to be substituted with the terms “building official in consultation with the fire official”. The fire official may appeal a building official action per Chapter 1.

Note 6. In subsections 901.6.3 Exception and 909.20.6.3, the term “building official” is to be substituted with the term “building official and/or fire official”.

Note 7. In subsection 903.1.1, the term “fire code official” is to be substituted with the term “building official and fire official”.

Fire protection systems shall be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance with this code and the International Fire Code.

Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduction to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.

Exception: Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of this code.

Exceptions:
  1. Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed for partial or complete protection provided that such system meets the requirements of this code.
  2. Where alternative fire protection designs, which vary from any prescriptive requirements of this Chapter, are to be utilized, the owner shall engage an independent registered design professional, to review said alternative design. The scope of the review shall include, but not be limited to:
    1. Design assumptions, methodologies, and resulting proposed system designs, to determine whether or not:
      1. the proposed fire protection systems and any other systems which are affected by the alternative design, are consistent with the general objectives and prescriptive provisions of this Chapter;
      2. they all conform to accepted engineering practice.
    2. Preparation of a written report to the building official as to the appropriateness of the proposed design specifically listing any variances from the prescriptive provisions of this Chapter and describing, in detail, the design provisions used to achieve compliance.
    If the reviewing engineer concurs with the proposed design, the owner shall make application for a variance, to the State Building Code Appeals Board as provided in section 113.0. In addition to all supporting information and materials, the reviewing engineering’s report required per this exception shall be included in the application for variance. A building permit shall not be issued until the variance, if required, has been granted, or unless the building permit is issued in part per section 107.3.3. When a variance is granted per this exception for a bulk merchandising retail building as defined in Chapter 4, and when the condition is common to future buildings of the owner, the BBRS, upon request of the owner, may provide that the variance shall be applicable to such future buildings. If such request is made, a quorum of the BBRS shall hear the appeal. Each such application to a future building will be subject to determination as prescribed in section 107.1.2 by the building official in conjunction with the fire official that its use is in conformity with the terms of the variance.
This process includes three tiers of the minimum document submittal requirements. This process does not preclude the permit applicant from submitting additional documents; for example shop drawings along with the construction documents at time of permit application
  1. Tier One, Construction Documents - Prior to issuance of a building permit, construction documents for the fire protection system must be submitted in accordance with section 107.1.2 and a building permit obtained prior to the installation of fire protection systems or modifications, alterations, additions or deletions to an existing fire protection system. The construction documents shall contain sufficient information to completely describe each of the fire protection system(s) for which a permit is to be issued. The construction documents shall include the following:
    1. Each system shall be described in a narrative report, which contains:
      1. design methodology for the protection of the occupancy and hazards in accordance with this code and applicable NFPA Standards and,
      2. sequence of operation of all fire protection systems and operations and,
      3. testing criteria to be used for final system acceptance.
    2. Building and site access for fire-fighting and/or rescue vehicle(s) and personnel.
    3. Fire hydrant(s) location and water supply information.
    4. Type/description and design layout of the automatic sprinkler system(s).
    5. Automatic sprinkler system(s) control equipment location.
    6. Type/description and design layout of the automatic standpipe system(s).
    7. Standpipe system hose valve(s) type and location.
    8. Fire department siamese connection type(s) and location.
    9. Type/description and design layout of the fire protective signaling system(s).
    10. Fire protective signaling system(s) control equipment and remote annunciator location.
    11. Type/description and design layout of the smoke control or exhaust system(s).
    12. Smoke control or exhaust system(s) control equipment location.
    13. Building life safety system features (auxiliary functions) required to be integrated as part of the fire protective signaling system(s).
    14. Type/description and design layout of the fire extinguishing system(s).
    15. Fire extinguishing system(s) control equipment location.
    16. Fire protection system(s) equipment room location.
    17. Fire protection system(s) equipment identification and operation signs.
    18. Fire protection system(s) alarm/ supervisory signal transmission method and location.
    19. Fire command center location.
    20. Type/description and location of any emergency alarm system.
    21. Type/description and location of any alternative fire suppression system or protection.
    22. Type/description and location of any carbon monoxide protection.
  2. Tier Two, Shop Drawings - Prior to installation of fire protection systems, shop drawings, where applicable, shall be submitted to the building official and fire official and shall contain, but not be limited to; detailed design layout, equipment specifications, system sequence of operation, and analysis to substantiate the design. Shop drawings shall note the name(s), license number(s) and license expiration date(s) of the contractor(s) installing the fire protection systems.

    Exception. For shop drawings of Fire Alarm and Detection Systems see section 907.1.2 for applicable requirements.
  3. Tier Three, Record Drawings - As built plans shall be provided to the building owner for all fire protection and life safety systems that are sealed as reviewed and approved by the registered design professional or legally recognized professional performing Construction Control. Where changes to original shop drawings are minor, a list of as-built changes shall be permitted to be submitted where sealed and reviewed and approved by the registered design professional or legally recognized professional performing Construction Control.

901.3 Modifications

STATE AMENDMENT
No person shall remove or modify any fire protection system installed or maintained under the provisions of this code or the International Fire Code without approval by the building official.

901.3 Maintenance

STATE AMENDMENT
All water based fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 25 as listed in Chapter 35. All other fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of the applicable reference standards and standards listed in Chapter 35. The owner of every building or structure shall be responsible for the care and maintenance of all fire protection systems, including equipment and devices, to ensure the safety and welfare of the occupants. No person shall shut off, disconnect, obstruct, remove or destroy, or cause or permit to be shut off, disconnected, obstructed, removed or destroyed, any part of any sprinkler system, water main, hydrant or other device used for fire protection or carbon monoxide detection and alarm in any building owned, leased or occupied by such person or under his control or supervision, without first procuring a written permit so to do from the head of the fire department of the city or town wherein such building is situated in accordance with M.G.L. c. 148, § 27A.

When installations of fire protection systems are interrupted for repairs or other necessary reasons, the owner, tenant or lessee shall immediately advise the local fire department and shall diligently prosecute the restoration of the protection.
Threads provided for fire department connections to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or any other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connections used by the local fire department.

901.5 Acceptance Tests

STATE AMENDMENT
Fire protection systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this code and the International Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the building official. Tests required by this code, the International Fire Code and the standards listed in this code shall be conducted at the expense of the owner or the owner’s representative. It shall be unlawful to occupy portions of a structure until the required fire protection systems within that portion of the structure have been tested and approved. Fire protection systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of this code and NFPA Standards and approved testing criteria and operational sequence as submitted in section 901.2.1, Tier One, Item a. When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the building official and/or fire official or an approved third party inspection agent.
Prior to the issuance of a Certificate of Occupancy and prior to witness of acceptance testing the following documents must be submitted to the building and fire officials, or designees.
  1. Certification from the registered design professional, or other legally recognized professional, responsible for the construction documents per section 107.6, stating that the fire protection systems have been installed in accordance with applicable codes and standards, in accordance with the approved construction documents and that the record drawings indicate any deviations, if any.
  2. Confirmation by the building owner or the owner’s authorized representative that they have received the as-built record drawings.
  3. Material, Test, Performance, and Completion Certificates, properly executed by the installing contractor in accordance with the applicable NFPA standards.

    Note. In lieu of witnessing a satisfactory functional test, the building official and fire official or designees, may accept a final performance test report from a registered design professional, or other legally recognized professional, as an acceptance test. Said report shall certify that complete and satisfactory functional tests of all fire protection systems, in accordance with the applicable codes and standards, and that the approved testing criteria and operational sequence, have been witnessed.
Where required, fire protection systems shall be monitored by an supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station.

Exceptions:

1. A supervising station is not required for automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.

901.6.2 Fire Alarm Systems

STATE AMENDMENT

Fire alarm systems required by the provisions of Section 907.2 of this code and Sections 907.2 and 907.3 of the International Fire Code shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with Section 907.6.5.

Exceptions:

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.

2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.

3. Supervisory service is not required for automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.

Manual fire alarm, automatic fire-extinguishing and emergency alarm systems in Group H occupancies shall be monitored by an approved supervising station.

Exception: When approved by the building official, on-site monitoring at a constantly attended location shall be permitted provided that notifications to the fire department will be equal to those provided by an approved supervising station.

901.7 Fire Areas

STATE AMENDMENT
Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.9.

901.7 Signs

STATE AMENDMENT
All signs required to identify fire protection equipment, equipment rooms and equipment locations shall be constructed of durable materials, be permanently installed and be readily visible. Letters and numbers shall contrast with the sign background, shall be at least two inches in height and shall have an appropriate width-to-height ratio to permit the sign to be read easily from a distance of ten feet. The sign and location shall be approved by the local fire department.
Where sprinkler control valves are located in a separate room or building, a sign shall be provided on the entrance door. The lettering shall be at least 21/2 inches (63.5 mm) in height and shall otherwise conform to section 901.7 and shall read "Sprinkler Control Valves."

902.1 Definitions

STATE AMENDMENT

The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any combination thereof.

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.

[F] AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or combustion products.

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment which automatically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire.

[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with detectors to provide early warning of fire.

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time period is less.

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism.

CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR. A listed device that activates an alarm upon detection of carbon monoxide.

[F] CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed, as published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.

[F] CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation.

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat— either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both.

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities.

[F] ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building located adjacent or directly across from one another that responds to a common hall call button(s).

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide indication and warning of emergency situations involving hazardous materials.

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a building.

[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See “Manual fire alarm box.”

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection devices and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit may be capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices.

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate response to those signals.

[F] FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above. The aggregate area of the building regardless of subdivisions by fire barriers and horizontal assemblies.

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status of detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the system(s) can be manually controlled.

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action.

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof.

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for occupants or to control the spread of harmful effects of fire.

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically or chemically, over the area to be protected.

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an element from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box or supervisory switch.

MAINTENANCE OF FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS. Replacement or repair of any component or components of a fire protection system, where such does not affect system performance and compatibility. No building permit is required for maintenance. Other permits, however, may be required pursuant to M.G.L. c. 148, § 27A and 527 CMR.

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal.

MODIFICATIONS, ALTERATIONS, ADDITIONS OR DELETIONS TO FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS. Any changes which affect the performance of the fire protection system. Such changes require a building permit and are subject to other permitting requirements pursuant to M.G.L. c. 148, § 27A.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal to operate in all interconnected alarms.

NIGHT CLUBS. See section 303.1.1

[F] NOTIFICATION ZONE. See “Zone, notification.”

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be determined.

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings (“as builts”) that document the location of all devices, appliances, wiring sequences, wiring methods and connections of the components of a fire alarm system as installed.

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.

[F] SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm responsive to smoke.

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway designed and constructed so that the movement of the products of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building into the enclosure is limited.

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe classes are as follows:

Class I system. A system providing 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.

Class II system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the building occupants or by the fire department during initial response.

Class III system. A system providing 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants and 21/2-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.

[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows:

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a device, such as dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water supply that is capable of supplying the system demand automatically.

Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire department connection in order to meet the system demand.

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the system but does not have a water supply capable of delivering the system demand attached to the system. Manual-wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to meet the system demand.

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection. A remote control activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond to these signals.

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life and property.

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the fire suppression systems or equipment or the maintenance features of related systems.

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiation device, such as a valve supervisory switch, water-level indicator or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler system, whose change of state signals an off-normal condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety system, or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment or maintenance features of related systems.

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3).

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or component.

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, forming an extinguishing agent.

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid of wire.

[F] ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of control can be executed.

[F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building or facility covered by notification appliances which are activated simultaneously.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.
Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.

903.2 Where Required

STATE AMENDMENT

Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.

Automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Table 903.2 and this Section.

Note. Automatic sprinkler systems may be required by M.G.L. c. 148, § 26A, 26A1/2, 26G, 26G1/2, 26H or 26I, or M.G.L. c. 272 §§ 86 through 86d

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.



Exceptions: Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system and notification in accordance with section 907 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from any room merely because it is damp, of fireresistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.
  1. Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection and notification system in accordance with section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with section 707 or not less than two-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with section 712, or both.
  2. Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard and protected by an alternative automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.
  3. Portions of buildings that comply with Chapter 4 for open parking structures less than 70 feet in height above grade plane.
  4. Machine rooms of traction/drum hydraulic elevators, elevator hoistways, or elevator pits. Such elevator machine rooms, hoistways, or pits shall be constructed to meet the fireresistance rating specified in Table 601 and otherwise as required by the applicable sections of Chapter 7. Where Table 601 requires a higher fireresistance rating for elevator machine rooms, hoistways, or pits, such rating must be provided unless such ratings are governed by other sections of this code. For elevator installation within atriums also see Chapter 4 for additional fireresistance rating guidance. Where the elevator machine room is determined to be a true penthouse roof structure, also refer to section 1509.0 for additional fire resistance rating requirements.
  5. Noncombustible and limited combustible concealed spaces and plenums that contain electrical, data, communications and other cables that are of the types and in the configurations permitted in such spaces by 527 CMR 12.00: 2008 Massachusetts Electrical Code (Amendments).
  6. Transformer Vaults where all the following conditions are satisfied:
    1. The cable within the vault is flame retardant or limited combustible.
    2. The dielectric fluid is a limited combustible fluid.
    3. The vault is enclosed in three hour fire resistance rated construction.
    4. The vault is at grade or no more than one level below grade. Access to the vault is directly from the exterior or via a dedicated two hour passageway.
    5. The vault is protected with automatic smoke detection connected to the building fire alarm system which notifies the fire department upon activation.
    6. The room is limited to the sole use of the transformer equipment and is limited in size to accommodate said equipment only. Storage is prohibited in the vault enclosure.
    7. The vault is provided with spill containment.
    8. An emergency fire plan has been developed with and approved by the fire department.
    9. Continuous ventilation is provided for the vault enclosure in accordance with the ventilation requirements of NFPA 30.
    10. The ventilation equipment is dedicated to serve the vault only.
    11. Standby emergency power, in addition to the normal power source, is provided for the ventilation equipment.
    12. The vault is no larger in area than 2400 sq. ft.
  7. Transformer Vaults where an alternative suppression system is provided for the vault in accordance with section 904 and Exception 6. conditions i., j., and k. are met.

903.2

STATE AMENDMENT
TABLE 903.2 OCCUPANCY AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER REQUIREMENTS

903.2.1 Group A

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor area where the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and in all floors from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the nearest level of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.

903.2.1.1 Group A-1

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more;

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies; or

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.

903.2.1.2 Group A-2

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464.5 m2);

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more; or

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.3 Group A-3

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; or

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.4 Group A-4

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2);

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; or

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.5 Group A-5

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all fire areas containing a Group B ambulatory health care facility occupancy when either of the following conditions exists at any time:

1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self- preservation.

2. One or more care recipients who are incapable of self- preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such an occupancy.

903.2.3 Group E

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:

1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has at least one exterior exit door at ground level.

903.2.4 Group F-1

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area which generate finely divided combustible waste or use finely divided combustible materials.

903.2.5 Group H

STATE AMENDMENT
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.

903.2.5.1 General

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.

903.2.5.2 Group H-5

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that required by this code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2. Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

[F] TABLE 903.2.5.2
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

LOCATION

OCCUPANCY HAZARD
CLASSIFICATION

Fabrication areas

Ordinary Hazard Group 2

Service corridors

Ordinary Hazard Group 2

Storage rooms without dispensing

Ordinary Hazard Group 2

Storage rooms with dispensing

Extra Hazard Group 2

Corridors

Ordinary Hazard Group 2

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).

903.2.6 Group I

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 shall be allowed in Group I-1 facilities.

903.2.7 Group M

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group M occupancy is used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.

903.2.8 Group R

STATE AMENDMENT
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.

903.2.9 Group S-1

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

903.2.9.1 Repair Garages

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406, as shown:

1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).

2. Buildings no more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.

4. A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.4 as follows:

1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); or

2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

In all occupancies an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6.

Exception: Groups R-3 and U.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided at least one of the following types of exterior wall openings:

1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.
Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall be provided on at least two sides of the story.
Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes extending through three or more floors shall have additional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at alternate floors. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:

1. Airport control towers.

2. Open parking structures.

3. Occupancies in Group F-2.

Where required by the International Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust, or flammable or combustible materials.

Exception: Ducts in which the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.

In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 also require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

[F] TABLE 903.2.11.6
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

SECTION

SUBJECT

402.9

Covered malls

403.2, 403.3

High-rise buildings

404.3

Atriums

405.3

Underground structures

407.5

Group I-2

410.6

Stages

411.4

Special amusement buildings

412.4.6, 412.4.6.1, 412.6.5

Aircraft hangars

415.6.2.4

Group H-2

416.4

Flammable finishes

417.4

Drying rooms

507

Unlimited area buildings

508.2.5

Incidental accessory occupancies

1028.6.2.3

Smoke-protected assembly seating

IFC

Sprinkler system requirements as set forth in Section 903.2.11.6 of the International Fire Code

Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 14 of the International Fire Code.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.6.
Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.
Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1.

Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from any room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

1. Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, when approved by the fire code official.

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.

5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.

See 903.2 Exceptions 1. through 7. and section 903.1.1.
Where allowed in buildings of Group R, up to and including four stories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.
Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units where the building is of Type V construction, provided there is a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.
Where allowed, automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D. Only where allowed and utilized in accordance with Table 903.2 Note a, automatic sprinkler systems shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with NFPA 13D.

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing patient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with this code.

2. Dwelling units, and sleeping units in Group R and I-1 occupancies.

3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.

Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.

Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.

903.3.5 Water Supplies

STATE AMENDMENT
Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code.

Note. See 248 CMR and 310 CMR for backflow preventer requirements.
Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.

Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to be connected to the domestic service where a wet automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area sprinkler systems connected to domestic water supplies shall comply with each of the following requirements:

1. Valves shall not be installed between the domestic water riser control valve and the sprinklers.

Exception: An approved indicating control valve supervised in the open position in accordance with Section 903.4.

2. The domestic service shall be capable of supplying the simultaneous domestic demand and the sprinkler demand required to be hydraulically calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or NFPA 13D.

A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.
A single combination water supply shall be permitted provided that the domestic and/or commercial demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13, NFPA 13D or NFPA 13R as applicable.

A secondary on-site water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by this code. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occupancy hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 13.

Exception: Existing buildings.

Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.

All valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.

Exceptions:

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

903.4.1 Monitoring

STATE AMENDMENT

Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Exceptions:

1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.

Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to one of the following NFPA 72 locations:
  1. UL listed or FM approved central supervising station, or
  2. Approved proprietary supervising station or approved remote supervising station, or
  3. Alarm signals to an approved AuxiliaryFire Alarm System in accordance with NFPA 72, with supervisory signals supervised by method a or b identified above, or at a constantly attended location approved by the local fire department, having personnel on duty trained to recognize the type of signal received and to take prescribed action. This shall be permitted to be a location different from that at which alarm signals are received.

903.4.2 Alarms

STATE AMENDMENT
Approved audible devices shall be connected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall be activated by waterflow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall be provided on the exterior of the building in an approved location. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system. Approved audible and visual alarm devices shall be connected to every water sprinkler system. Such alarm devices shall be activated by waterflow (equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system) and shall be located in an approved location on the exterior of the building and throughout the building in accordance with the requirements of section 907.
Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.
In all cases, central stations and those operating approved remote/proprietary station fire alarm system supervising stations shall re transmit alarm signals within 90 seconds of receipt, to the fire department having jurisdiction.
Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the International Fire Code.

Note. See section 901.3.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed by other requirements of this code.
Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 of the International Fire Code or Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.
Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1.
Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.
Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.6.2.
Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.
Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.

Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, the following items shall be inspected:

1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.

4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.

5. Identification of devices with proper designations.

6. Operating instructions.

Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.
The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.
Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing.

904.5.1 Discharge Test

STATE AMENDMENT
All systems shall be tested by a discharge of expellant gas through the piping and nozzles with observations beingmade of the flow of expellant gas through all nozzles as well as observing for leakage and continuity of piping with free unobstructed flow.
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing.

904.6.1 Discharge Test

STATE AMENDMENT
All systems shall be tested by a discharge of expellant gas through the piping and nozzles with observations beingmade of the flow of expellant gas through all nozzles as well as observing for leakage and continuity of piping with free unobstructed flow.
Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing.
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing.
Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing.
Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing.

The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.

3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the International Mechanical Code.

A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) or less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.

The actuation of the fire suppression system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.
When carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect against all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.
Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.
Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.
Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.
Water spray fixed systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 15 and the listings contained therein

904.13 Water Mist Systems

STATE AMENDMENT
Water mist systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 750 and the listings contained therein.

905.1 General

STATE AMENDMENT
Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved by the fire official and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall be approved by the head of the fire department. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.
Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14.
The riser piping, supply piping, and the waterservice piping shall be hydraulically sized in accordance with the provisions of NFPA-14.

Exception. The residual pressure(s) as noted in NFPA-14 are not required to be maintained in buildings less than 70 feet in height which are equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system. However, the system shall be designed to accommodate the outlet pressure and water flows in accordance with NFPA-14 and inlet pressures consistent with local fire department equipment.

905.2.2 High-rise Buildings

STATE AMENDMENT
High-rise buildings shall have each floor supplied by a minimum of two combination standpipe/sprinkler risers installed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA-14.

Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.7 and in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 905.5 and 905.6. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.

Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.

5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider:

5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less; and

5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.

Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

Exceptions:

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.

2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings where the highest floor surface used for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or less above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

A covered mall building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Covered mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways opening directly on the mall.

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall.

4. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.

Stages greater than 1,000 square feet in area (93 m2) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.

The 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.
Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.
Buildings with a helistop or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall extend the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 1107.5 of the International Fire Code.
Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 45 of the International Fire Code.
A class I automatic wet or manual standpipe system shall be provided in all exit passageways of areas containing high-piled combustible storage

905.3.9 Travel Distance

STATE AMENDMENT
A class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system shall be provided in all buildings where any portion of the building floor area is more than 400 feet of travel from the nearest point of fire department vehicle access. Vehicle access travel distance is actual distance measure along and/or around the building exterior and shall not be reduced by the addition of fire walls/party walls which otherwise would define individual buildings.

905.3.10 Groups A-1 and A-2

STATE AMENDMENT
Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, shall be equipped with a Class II standpipe system.

Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.

5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), each standpipe shall be provided with a hose connection located either on the roof or at the highest landing of a stairway with stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection shall be provided at the top of the most hydraulically remote standpipe for testing purposes.

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.

Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.

In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.

905.4.3 Inch Reducer

STATE AMENDMENT
A removable 1.5 inch reducer and cap shall be provided on all Class I outlets.
Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.
In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms.
Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.
A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be permitted to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.
Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.
In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.
Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment such as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or fire department valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.

Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:

1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.

Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.

2. Approved locking arrangements.

3. Group I-3.

905.8 Dry Standpipes

STATE AMENDMENT

Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.

905.8 Standpipes

STATE AMENDMENT
Where standpipe systems are required by this code, such systems shall be automatic wet systems.

Exceptions:
  1. When approved by the fire official, an automatic dry or semi-automatic dry standpipe system shall be permitted in areas subject to freezing.
  2. A manual wet standpipe is permitted in buildings less than 70 feet in height which are equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system. However, the shall system shall be designed to obtain the outlet pressures and water flows in accordance with NFPA-14 with inlet pressure at the fire department connection that are consistent with local fire department equipment.

Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted to the control unit.

Exceptions:

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.

905.10 During Construction

STATE AMENDMENT
Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3311. Standpipes systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with section 3311.0 and NFPA 241.

Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in the following locations.

1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.

Exception: In new and existing Group A, B and E occupancies equipped throughout with quick response sprinklers, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6.

2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.

4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 1415.1 of the International Fire Code.

5. Where required by the International Fire Code sections indicated in Table 906.1.

6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.

[F] TABLE 906.1
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE

IFC SECTION

SUBJECT

303.5

Asphalt kettles

307.5

Open burning

308.1.3

Open flames—torches

309.4

Powered industrial trucks

1105.2

Aircraft towing vehicles

1105.3

Aircraft welding apparatus

1105.4

Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles

1105.5

Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles

1105.6

Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations

(continued)

[F] TABLE 906.1—continued
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE

IFC SECTION

SUBJECT

1107.7

Heliports and helistops

1208.4

Dry cleaning plants

1415.1

Buildings under construction or demolition

1417.3

Roofing operations

1504.4.1

Spray-finishing operations

1505.4.2

Dip-tank operations

1506.4.2

Powder-coating areas

1904.2

Lumberyards/woodworking facilities

1908.8

Recycling facilities

1909.5

Exterior lumber storage

2003.5

Organic-coating areas

2106.3

Industrial ovens

2205.5

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities

2210.6.4

Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities

2211.6

Repair garages

2306.1

Rack storage

2404.12

Tents and membrane structures

2508.2

Tire rebuilding/storage

2604.2.6

Welding and other hot work

2903.6

Combustible fibers

3403.2.1

Flammable and combustible liquids, general

3404.3.3.1

Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids

3404.3.7.5.2

Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids

3405.4.9

Solvent distillation units

3406.2.7

Farms and construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage

3406.4.10.1

Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids

3406.5.4.5

Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing

3406.6.4

Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids

3606.5.7

Flammable solids

3808.2

LP-gas

4504.4

Marinas

Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.

Exceptions:

1. The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.

2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.

2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.

2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.

2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every three years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.

2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.

3. In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.

The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

The minimum sizes and distribution of portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards shall comply with Table 906.3(1).

[F] TABLE 906.3(1)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

LIGHT
(Low)
HAZARD OCCUPANCY

ORDINARY (Moderate)
HAZARD OCCUPANCY

EXTRA
(High)
HAZARD OCCUPANCY

Minimum Rated Single Extinguisher

2-Ac

2-A

4-Aa

Maximum Floor Area Per Unit of A

3,000 square feet

1,500 square feet

1,000 square feet

Maximum Floor Area for Extinguisherb

11,250 square feet

11,250 square feet

11,250 square feet

Maximum Travel Distance to Extinguisher

75 feet

75 feet

75 feet

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

a. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.

b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.

c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.

[F] TABLE 906.3(2)
FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH
DEPTHS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25 INCH

TYPE OF HAZARD

BASIC MINIMUM EXTINGUISHER RATING

MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE TO EXTINGUISHERS (feet)

Light (Low)

5-B
10-B

30
50

Ordinary (Moderate)

10-B
20-B

30
50

Extra (High)

40-B
80-B

30
50

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

Note: For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.

Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.
Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.11.5 of the International Fire Code.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.

Exceptions:

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.

2. In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.

The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.
Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm).
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.
This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components.
Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International Fire Code, and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.

Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following:

1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.

2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices.

3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.

4. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.

5. Annunciators.

6. Power connection.

7. Battery calculations.

8. Conductor type and sizes.

9. Voltage drop calculations.

10. Manufacturers’ data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.

11. Details of ceiling height and construction.

12. The interface of fire safety control functions.

13. Classification of the supervising station.

Shop drawings shall note the name(s), license number(s) and license expiration date(s) of the contractor(s) installing the fire protection systems
Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.

An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.

A minimum of one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed.

Exceptions:

1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.

2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public. 2. Where automatic sprinkler protection, installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, is provided and connected to the building fire alarm system, automatic heat detection per section 907.2 shall not be required.

907.2.1 Group A

STATE AMENDMENT

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies having an occupant load of 300 or more. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies having an occupant load of 50 or more. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy

Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.

Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 300 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with section 907.5.2.2.

Exception. Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.
The activation of any fire protection system element (signaling system, detection, sprinklering, etc.) shall automatically:
  1. Cause immediate illumination of all areas and components of the required means of egress, and additionally;
  2. Cause immediate full activation of all other house lighting; and
  3. Cause immediate stopping of any and all sounds and visual distractions (public address systems, entertainment and dance lighting, music, etc.) that conflict/compete with the fire protective signaling system.

907.2.2 Group B

STATE AMENDMENT

A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.

2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

3. The Group B fire area contains a Group B ambulatory health care facility.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

Fire areas containing Group B ambulatory health care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory health care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

907.2.3 Group E

STATE AMENDMENT

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of less than 50.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.

2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

2.4. The capability to activate the evacuation signal from a central point is provided.

2.5. In buildings where normally occupied spaces are provided with a two-way communication system between such spaces and a constantly attended receiving station from where a general evacuation alarm can be sounded, except in locations specifically designated by the fire code official.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the notification appliances will activate on sprinkler waterflow and manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system with emergency voice/alarm communication capabilities in accordance with section 907.5 shall be installed in Group E Occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system

Exception. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of less than 50

907.2.4 Group F

STATE AMENDMENT

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist:

1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height; and

2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 37, 39 and 40, respectively, of the International Fire Code.

907.2.6 Group I

STATE AMENDMENT

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3.

Exceptions:

1. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.4.2 are not exceeded.

2. Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official.

Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the building official and fire official.

907.2.6.1 Group I-1

STATE AMENDMENT

An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5.

Exceptions:

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior balconies.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors, sleeping areas and other habitable spaces other than kitchens. The system shall be activated in accordance with section 907.5.
Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors in nursing homes (both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.

Exceptions:

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain patient sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each patient sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the nursing station attending each unit.

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain patient sleeping units where patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.

Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff.
Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal which automatically notifies staff.
Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.
Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to residents.

Exceptions:

1. Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.

2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308.

3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

907.2.7 Group M

STATE AMENDMENT

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.

2. The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered mall buildings complying with Section 402.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a waterflow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when all of the following conditions are met:

2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;

2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler waterflow; and

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.8.3.1 Annunciation

STATE AMENDMENT
In buildings that are not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with section 903.3.1.1 or section 903.3.1.2, the smoke detectors in guestrooms shall be connected to the buildings fire alarm systems for the purpose of notifying the guestroom occupants and shall be annunciated by guestroom at a constantly attended location from which the fire alarm system is capable of being manually activated.
Section 907.2.8.3 shall not preclude the installation of a fully addressable fire alarm system where system detectors and alarm notification devices can perform the functions are required in section 907.2.11.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 and 907.9.2.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where:

1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge;

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit; or

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.

Exceptions:

1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler waterflow.

3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1026.6, Exception 4.

Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3.

A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies.

Exceptions:

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:

2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;

2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler waterflow; and

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens.

Exceptions:

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

2. An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.4 and NFPA 72. Listed single- and multiple-station photoelectric type smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and the household fire warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72. Section 907.2.8 shall not preclude the installation of a fully addressable fire alarm system where system detectors and alarm notification devices can perform the functions as required in section 907.2.11.

Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:

1. In sleeping areas.

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.

Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms in Group I-1 shall not be required where smoke detectors are provided in the sleeping rooms as part of an automatic smoke detection system.

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-1, R-2, R-3 or R-4, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special amusement buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1 through 907.2.12.3.
Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.

907.2.12.2 System Response

STATE AMENDMENT

The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically:

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking surface level;

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions;

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency; and

4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation. 4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation. The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72.

An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.

Buildings with a floor used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

Exceptions:

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sections 907.2.22 and 412.

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1.

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415.

6. In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and general occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.

High-rise buildings shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with section 907.5.2.2.
Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2.

Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall operate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. Smoke detectors shall be located as follows:

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room which is not provided with sprinkler protection.

2. In each elevator machine room and in elevator lobbies.

Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be located as follows:

1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.

Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of a radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 911, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the enclosed exit stairway.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection installed throughout the atrium. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2.
An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 2306.5 of the International Fire Code.

Exception. Buildings sprinklered throughout with automatic sprinklers
Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by the International Fire Code.
Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system.
Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with this code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1.

A minimum of one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in the following areas:

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.

2. Elevator lobbies.

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.

907.2.18.2 Alarm Required

STATE AMENDMENT
Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location. Activation of the smoke exhaust system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location and activate the alarm notification appliances throughout the building in accordance with section 907.3.
Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.
A minimum of one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in Section 412.3.1 and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm which will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.

An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in airport control towers in all occupiable and equipment spaces.

Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab.

An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).
An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided for all sleeping areas, and means of egress from sleeping areas, of occupants capable of selfpreservation in buildings not otherwise required to have smoke detectors by section 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 where any space is used for sleeping purpose
Automatic fire detectors utilized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control unit where a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72.

Smoke detectors installed in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control unit when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance with this code and the International Mechanical Code. Duct smoke detectors shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

Exceptions:

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building’s alarm notification appliances.

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.

Where delayed egress locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.9.6, an automatic smoke or heat detection system shall be installed as required by that section.
Automatic fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of ASME A17.1 and NFPA 72. Automatic fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of 524 CMR 17.00: Power Passenger and Freight Elevators (For Installations Made Prior to July 1, 1989), 524 CMR 35.00: Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators A17.1-2004 and the Massachusetts Modifications of That Code and NFPA 72.

907.3.4 Wiring

STATE AMENDMENT
The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72. The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with 527 CMR 12.00: 2008 Massachusetts Electrical Code (Amendments) and NFPA 72.
Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 907.4.3.

In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders, and supervising station transmitting equipment.

Exceptions:

1. Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of a smoke detector, a heat detector shall be permitted.

2. The smoke detector shall not be required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.5.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box.
Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.

Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.

The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3.
Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors shall be permitted.
For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection.

A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the panel and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.2.3.4. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:

1. Automatic fire detectors.

2. Sprinkler waterflow devices.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes.

4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended location.

A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approved by the fire department, in order that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency.
Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose.

Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm.

Exception: Visible alarm notification appliances shall be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appliances in critical care areas of Group I-2 occupancies.

The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building. The minimum sound pressure levels shall be: 75 dBA in occupancies in Groups R and I-1; 90 dBA in mechanical equipment rooms and 60 dBA in other occupancies.
The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.

Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building’s fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404. In high-rise buildings, the system shall operate on a minimum of the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:

1. Elevator groups.

2. Exit stairways.

3. Each floor.

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002.1.

Exception: In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.

2. In Group A with an occupant load of 300 or more where the head of the fire department or designee determines that partial or selective evacuation is not desired, but rather total evacuation is required, then a distinctive signal in lieu of a voice alarm is permitted.

A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall also have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.
The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.
Emergency voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided with an approved emergency power source.

907.5.2.2.5 Evacuation

STATE AMENDMENT
Where the head of the fire department or his/her designee determines that partial or selective evacuation is not desired but rather total evacuation is required, then a distinctive signal in lieu of a voice alarm is permitted.

907.5.2.3 Visible Alarms

STATE AMENDMENT

Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.4. Also refer to 521 CMR 40.00: Alarms for visible alarm requirements in buildings, or portions thereof, open to the public.

Exceptions:

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Section 1002.1.

3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.

Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public areas and common areas.
Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with a minimum of 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing impaired employee(s).

Group I-1 and R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.5.2.3.3 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

[F] TABLE 907.5.2.3.3
VISIBLE ALARMS

NUMBER OF SLEEP UNITS

SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH VISIBLE ALARMS

6 to 25

2

26 to 50

4

51 to 75

7

76 to 100

9

101 to 150

12

151 to 200

14

201 to 300

17

301 to 400

20

401 to 500

22

501 to 1,000

5% of total

1,001 and over

50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000

In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with ICC A117.1.
A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 72.
Wiring shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.

The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Back-up power for single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.4.

Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direction.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13.

A zoning indicator panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible-alarm silencing switch.

In high-rise buildings, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided:

1. Smoke detectors.

2. Sprinkler waterflow devices.

3. Manual fire alarm boxes.

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection devices or suppression systems.

Access shall be provided to each fire alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.

907.6.5 Monitoring

STATE AMENDMENT

Fire alarm systems required by this chapter or by the International Fire Code shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not required for:

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.

2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.

3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.

Fire alarm systems required by section 907 shall be monitored in accordance with section 903.4.1

Exception. Monitoring by a supervising station is not required for:
  1. Single and multiple station smoke alarms required by section 907.2.11 in other than Groups R-1 and R-2 with more than 12 units.
  2. Smoke detectors in Group I-3 Occupancies
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems and single- and multi-station smoke detectors in oneand two-family dwellings.
  4. Smoke detectors in patient sleeping rooms in occupancies in Group I-2.
Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number unless approved by the fire chief.
In all cases, central stations and those operating approved remote/proprietarystation fire alarm system supervising stations shall re transmit alarm signals within 90 seconds of receipt, to the fire department having jurisdiction.
Upon completion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72.
When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72.
A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed and tested in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided.
Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings (“as-builts”) and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location.
The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Section 907.9 of the International Fire Code.
Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided in accordance with Section 414.7.
Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 415.8.4.6. A continuous gas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 415.8.7.

A gas detection system shall be provided to detect the presence of highly toxic or toxic gas at or below the permissible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit of the gas for which detection is provided. The system shall be capable of monitoring the discharge from the treatment system at or below one-half the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) limit.

Exception: A gas-detection system is not required for toxic gases when the physiological warning threshold level for the gas is at a level below the accepted PEL for the gas.

The gas detection system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to a constantly attended control station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and shall provide warning both inside and outside the area where gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms.

Exception: Signal transmission to a constantly attended control station is not required when not more than one cylinder of highly toxic or toxic gas is stored.

The gas detection system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being monitored for whichever gas is detected.

Exception: Automatic shutdown is not required for reactors utilized for the production of highly toxic or toxic compressed gases where such reactors are:

1. Operated at pressures less than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa).

2. Constantly attended.

3. Provided with readily accessible emergency shutoff valves.

The automatic closure of shutoff valves shall be in accordance with the following:

1. When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve for the compressed container of specific gas detected supplying the manifold shall automatically close.

Exception: When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas-detection system alarm is at a use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff valve in the gas valve enclosure for the branch line located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically close.

Ozone gas-generator rooms shall be equipped with a continuous gas-detection system that will shut off the generator and sound a local alarm when concentrations above the PEL occur.
A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 406.6.6.
Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values for the refrigerant classification indicated in the International Mechanical Code. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations.
This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems when they are required by other provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heat-venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code.
Buildings, structures or parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately describe the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied by sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions. Buildings, structures or parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of section 909 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately describe the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied by sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.

An independent third partyreviewisrequired for smoke control system designs incorporating performance analysis under section 909 (design fire analysis, rational analysis, timed egress analysis), or the smoke control methods of sections 909.6, 909.7, or 909.8 or other alternative design method selected by the registered design professional. The independent third party reviewer shall prepare a written report documenting the review, and submit it to the registered design professional and the building and fire officials. If all parties concur that the analyses are appropriate, the design may be approved pursuant to section 104.11.
In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements which buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms in Section 1704.
A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of operation, the systems supporting them and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the submitted construction documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6.
The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.
Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities.
The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of Chapter 16.
The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the HVAC systems.
The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.
All portions of active or passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is less.
When the exhaust method of section 909.8 is used, the rational analysis shall evaluate exposure of occupants exiting a space to smoke or tenability thresholds. Occupant exposure to smoke or tenability thresholds shall be determined by a timed egress analysis using a minimum duration of 1.5 times the calculated egress time. The smoke control system shall remain operational for the required duration.

Smoke barriers shall comply with Section 710, and shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:

1. Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100

2. Exit enclosures: A/Aw = 0.00035

3. All other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150

4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050

where:

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m2).

AF= Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).

Aw= Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be included in calculating the total leakage area.

The total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive smoke control systems tested using other approved means such as door fan testing shall be as approved by the fire code official.

Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 715.4.3.

Exceptions:

1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.

3. In Group I-2, where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3. Positive-latching devices are not required.

4. Group I-3.

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.

Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 716.

909.6 Pressurization Method

STATE AMENDMENT
The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke control zone of fire origin.

When approved by the fire official, the primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be bypressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke control zone of fire origin.

The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.

In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences at least two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.

The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:

F = Fdc + K(WA ΔP)/2(W- d) (Equation 9-1)

where:

A = Door area, square feet (m2).

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).

Fdc= Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).

K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).

W = Door width, feet (m).

ΔP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).

When approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects.

The minimum average velocity through a fixed opening shall not be less than:

v = 217.2 [h (Tf - To)/(Tf + 460)]1/2 (Equation 9-2)

For SI: v = 119.9 [h (Tf - To)/Tf]1/2

where:

h = Height of opening, feet (m).

Tf = Temperature of smoke, °F (K).

To = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K).

v = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).

This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflow to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.
When approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B.
The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.
The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section.
The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.
Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.
The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.
A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.
Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall be suitable for its intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates and as approved by the fire code official.

Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:

Ts = (Qc/mc) + (Ta) (Equation 9-3)

where:

c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, Btu/lb°F (kJ/kg × K).

m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).

Qc= Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).

Ta= Ambient temperature, °F (K).

Ts= Smoke temperature, °F (K).

Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.

Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of vibration isolation) complying with the International Mechanical Code, that are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.

Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.
Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved, recognized standards.
In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty, with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16. Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.
The smoke control system shall be supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be from the normal building power systems. Secondary power shall be from an approved standby source complying with Chapter 27 of this code. The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
Elements of the smoke management system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span a 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke management system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.
Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.
Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.
In addition to meeting requirements of NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.
Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.
Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.
Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.
Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire department and any smoke detectors required by engineering analysis.
Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.

Control-air tubing shall be hard- drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquids below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices provided all of the following conditions are met:

1. Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for flame and smoke characteristics.

2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable brass compression to male barbed adapter.

3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.

Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.
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