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The performance-based design shall be prepared by a registered design professional.
Data sources shall be identified and documented for each input data requirement that must be met using a source other than a design fire scenario, an assumption, or a building design specification. The degree of conservatism reflected in such data shall be specified, and a justification for the source shall be provided.
The design features required for the building to continue to meet the performance goals and objectives of this Code shall be maintained for the life of the building. Such performance goals and objectives shall include complying with all documented assumptions and design specifications. Any variations shall require the approval of the authority having jurisdiction prior to the actual change. (See also 220.127.116.11.)
A list of special terms used in this chapter follows:
- Alternative Calculation Procedure. See 3.3.15.
- Data Conversion. See 3.3.53.
- Design Fire Scenario. See 18.104.22.168.
- Design Specification. See 3.3.272.1.
- Design Team. See 3.3.60.
- Exposure Fire. See 3.3.91.
- Fire Model. See 3.3.104.
- Fire Scenario. See 3.3.107.
- Fuel Load. See 22.214.171.124.
- Incapacitation. See 3.3.154.
- Input Data Specification. See 3.3.272.2.
- Occupant Characteristics. See 3.3.197.
- Performance Criteria. See 3.3.212.
- Proposed Design. See 3.3.226.
- Safe Location. See 3.3.244.
- Safety Factor. See 3.3.245.
- Safety Margin. See 3.3.246.
- Sensitivity Analysis. See 126.96.36.199.
- Stakeholder. See 3.3.276.
- Uncertainty Analysis. See 188.8.131.52.
- Verification Method. See 3.3.296.
Any occupant who is not intimate with ignition shall not be exposed to instantaneous or cumulative untenable conditions.
The design shall comply with the following requirements in addition to the performance criteria of Section 5.2 and the methods of Sections 5.4 through 5.8:
- Changes in level in means of egress — 7.1.7
- Guards — 7.1.8
- Doors — 7.2.1
- Stairs — 7.2.2, excluding the provisions of 184.108.40.206.1, 220.127.116.11.2, 18.104.22.168.2, 22.214.171.124.3, and 126.96.36.199.4
- Ramps — 7.2.5, excluding the provisions of 188.8.131.52.1, 184.108.40.206, and 220.127.116.11.1
- Fire escape ladders — 7.2.9
- Alternating tread devices — 7.2.11
- Capacity of means of egress — Section 7.3, excluding the provisions of 7.3.3 and 7.3.4
- Impediments to egress — 7.5.2
- Illumination of means of egress — Section 7.8
- Emergency lighting — Section 7.9
- Marking of means of egress — Section 7.10
Design specifications and other conditions used in the performance-based design shall be clearly stated and shown to be realistic and sustainable.
Characteristics of the building or its contents, equipment, or operations that are not inherent in the design specifications, but that affect occupant behavior or the rate of hazard development, shall be explicitly identified.
The selection of occupant characteristics to be used in the design calculations shall be approved by the authority having jurisdiction and shall provide an accurate reflection of the expected population of building users. Occupant characteristics shall represent the normal occupant profile, unless design specifications are used to modify the expected occupant features. Occupant characteristics shall not vary across fire scenarios, except as authorized by the authority having jurisdiction.
The basic response characteristics of sensibility, reactivity, mobility, and susceptibility shall be evaluated. Such evaluation shall include the expected distribution of characteristics of a population appropriate to the use of the building. The source of data for these characteristics shall be documented.
It shall be assumed that, in every normally occupied room or area, at least one person shall be located at the most remote point from the exits.
The design shall be based on the maximum number of people that every occupied room or area is expected to contain. Where the success or failure of the design is contingent on the number of occupants not exceeding a specified maximum, operational controls shall be used to ensure that the maximum number of occupants is not exceeded.
The inclusion of trained employees as part of the fire safety system shall be identified and documented.
Design characteristics or other conditions related to the availability, speed of response, effectiveness, roles, and other characteristics of emergency response personnel shall be specified, estimated, or characterized sufficiently for evaluation of the design.
The design shall not include mutually inconsistent assumptions, specifications, or statements of conditions.
Design fire scenarios shall be evaluated using a method acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and appropriate for the conditions. Each design fire scenario shall be as challenging as any that could occur in the building, but shall be realistic, with respect to at least one of the following scenario specifications:
- Initial fire location
- Early rate of growth in fire severity
- Smoke generation
Design fire scenarios shall comply with the following:
- Scenarios selected as design fire scenarios shall include, but shall not be limited to, those specified in 18.104.22.168 through 22.214.171.124.
- Design fire scenarios demonstrated by the design team to the satisfaction of the authority having jurisdiction as inappropriate for the building use and conditions shall not be required to be evaluated fully.
Design Fire Scenario 1 shall be described as follows:
- It is an occupancy-specific fire representative of a typical fire for the occupancy.
- It explicitly accounts for the following:
- Occupant activities
- Number and location of occupants
- Room size
- Contents and furnishings
- Fuel properties and ignition sources
- Ventilation conditions
- Identification of the first item ignited and its location
Design Fire Scenario 3 shall be described as follows:
- It is a fire that starts in a normally unoccupied room, potentially endangering a large number of occupants in a large room or other area.
- It addresses the concern regarding a fire starting in a normally unoccupied room and migrating into the space that potentially holds the greatest number of occupants in the building.
Design Fire Scenario 4 shall be described as follows:
- It is a fire that originates in a concealed wall or ceiling space adjacent to a large occupied room.
- It addresses the concern regarding a fire originating in a concealed space that does not have either a detection system or a suppression system and then spreading into the room within the building that potentially holds the greatest number of occupants.
Design Fire Scenario 7 shall be described as follows:
- It is an outside exposure fire.
- It addresses the concern regarding a fire starting at a location remote from the area of concern and either spreading into the area, blocking escape from the area, or developing untenable conditions within the area.
Design Fire Scenario 8 shall be described as follows:
- It is a fire originating in ordinary combustibles in a room or area with each passive or active fire protection system independently rendered ineffective.
- It addresses concerns regarding the unreliability or unavailability of each fire protection system or fire protection feature, considered individually.
- *It is not required to be applied to fire protection systems for which both the level of reliability and the design performance in the absence of the system are acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.
A proposed design's performance shall be assessed relative to each performance objective in Section 4.2 and each applicable scenario in 5.5.3, with the assessment conducted through the use of appropriate calculation methods. The authority having jurisdiction shall approve the choice of assessment methods.
Input data for computer fire models shall be obtained in accordance with ASTM E1591, Standard Guide for Obtaining Data for Deterministic Fire Models. Data for use in analytical models that are not computer-based fire models shall be obtained using appropriate measurement, recording, and storage techniques to ensure the applicability of the data to the analytical method being used.
A complete listing of input data requirements for all models, engineering methods, and other calculation or verification methods required or proposed as part of the performance-based design shall be provided.
Uncertainty in input data shall be analyzed and, as determined appropriate by the authority having jurisdiction, addressed through the use of conservative values.
The assessment methods used shall accurately and appropriately produce the required output data from input data, based on the design specifications, assumptions, and scenarios.
Evidence shall be provided to confirm that the assessment methods are valid and appropriate for the proposed building, use, and conditions.
The authority having jurisdiction shall be provided with sufficient documentation to support the validity, accuracy, relevance, and precision of the proposed methods. The engineering standards, calculation methods, and other forms of scientific information provided shall be appropriate for the particular application and methodologies used.
Input data to models and assessment methods, including sensitivity analyses, shall be documented.
Output data from models and assessment methods, including sensitivity analyses, shall be documented.
Retained prescriptive requirements shall be documented.
Assumptions made by the model user, and descriptions of models and methods used, including known limitations, shall be documented.
Documentation shall be provided to verify that the assessment methods have been used validly and appropriately to address the design specifications, assumptions, and scenarios.
The design team's relevant experience with the models, test methods, databases, and other assessment methods used in the performance-based design proposal shall be documented.
The performance evaluation summary shall be documented.
Design proposals shall include documentation that provides anyone involved in the ownership or management of the building with notification of the following: