ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 101, 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The requirements of this chapter shall apply to new buildings or portions thereof used as residential board and care occupancies. (See 1.3.1.)
The provisions of Chapter 1, Administration, shall apply.
The provisions of Chapter 4, General, shall apply.
This chapter is divided into five sections as follows:
  1. Section 32.1 — General Requirements
  2. Section 32.2 — Small Facilities (that is, sleeping accommodations for not more than 16 residents)
  3. Section 32.3 — Large Facilities (that is, sleeping accommodations for more than 16 residents)
  4. Section 32.4 — Suitability of an Apartment Building to House a Board and Care Occupancy (Sections 32.5 and 32.6 are reserved.)
  5. Section 32.7 — Operating Features
For the purposes of this chapter, exceptions for conversions shall apply only for a change of occupancy from an existing residential or health care occupancy to a residential board and care occupancy.
Multiple occupancies shall comply with 6.1.14 and 32.1.3 in buildings other than those meeting the requirement of 32.1.3.2.
The requirement of 32.1.3.1 shall not apply to apartment buildings housing residential board and care occupancies in conformance with Section 32.4. In such facilities, any safeguards required by Section 32.4 that are more restrictive than those for other housed occupancies shall apply only to the extent prescribed by Section 32.4.
No board and care occupancy shall have its sole means of egress or means of escape pass through any nonresidential or non-health care occupancy in the same building.
No board and care occupancy shall be located above any other occupancy, unless the board and care occupancy is separated from the other occupancy in accordance with Table 6.1.14.4.1(a) and Table 6.1.14.4.1(b).
For definitions, see Chapter 3, Definitions.
No means of escape or means of egress shall be considered as complying with the minimum criteria for acceptance, unless emergency evacuation drills are regularly conducted using that route in accordance with the requirements of 32.7.3.
Fire resistance-rated assemblies shall comply with Section 8.3.
Section 32.2 shall apply to residential board and care occupancies providing sleeping accommodations for not more than 16 residents.
Where sleeping accommodations for more than 16 residents are provided, the occupancy shall be classified as a large facility in accordance with Section 32.3.
For purposes of applying requirements of this chapter that utilize the term level of exit discharge, including determination of stories in height as addressed in 4.6.3, the level of exit discharge shall be permitted to be the combination of floor levels as addressed in 32.2.1.4.1, 32.2.1.4.2, or 32.2.1.4.3.
One floor level located not more than three stair risers above the level of exit discharge shall be permitted to be considered part of the level of exit discharge.
One floor level located not more than three stair risers below the level of exit discharge shall be permitted to be considered part of the level of exit discharge.
Where one floor level is located above the level of exit discharge, another floor level is located below the level of exit discharge, and not more than a total of three stair risers separate the upper level from the lower level, the two floor levels shall be permitted to be considered part of the level of exit discharge.
The provisions of 32.2.1.4.1, 32.2.1.4.2, and 32.2.1.4.3 shall not be used in combination with each other.
Designated means of escape shall be continuously maintained free of all obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or emergency.
Every sleeping room and living area shall have access to a primary means of escape located to provide a safe path of travel to the outside at street level or the finished ground level.
Where sleeping rooms or living areas are above or below the level of exit discharge, the primary means of escape shall be an interior stair in accordance with 32.2.2.4, an exterior stair, a horizontal exit, or a fire escape stair.

32.2.2.3.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Sleeping rooms, other than those complying with 32.2.2.3.2 or 32.2.2.3.3, and living areas in facilities without a sprinkler system installed in accordance with 32.2.3.5 shall have a second means of escape consisting of one of the following:
  1. Door, stairway, passage, or hall providing a way of unobstructed travel to the outside of the dwelling at street or the finished ground level that is independent of, and remotely located from, the primary means of escape
  2. Passage through an adjacent nonlockable space independent of, and remotely located from, the primary means of escape to any approved means of escape
  3. *Outside window or door operable from the inside, without the use of tools, keys, or special effort, that provides a clear opening of not less than 5.7 ft2 (0.53 m2), or not less than 5.0 ft2 for grade floor windows, with the width not less than 20 in. (510 mm), the height not less than 24 in. (610 mm), and the bottom of the opening not more than 44 in. (1120 mm) above the floor, with such means of escape acceptable, provided that one of the following criteria is met:
    1. The window is within 20 ft (6100 mm) of the finished ground level.
    2. The window is directly accessible to fire department rescue apparatus, as approved by the authority having jurisdiction.
    3. The window or door opens onto an exterior balcony.
  4. Windows having a sill height below the adjacent finished ground level that are provided with a window well meeting the following criteria:
    1. The window well has horizontal dimensions that allow the window to be fully opened.
    2. The window well has an accessible net clear opening of not less than 9 ft2 (0.84 m2), with a length and width of not less than 36 in. (915 mm).
    3. A window well with a vertical depth of more than 44 in. (1120 mm) is equipped with an approved permanently affixed ladder or with steps meeting the following criteria:
      1. The ladder or steps do not encroach more than 6 in. (150 mm) into the required dimensions of the window well.
      2. The ladder or steps are not obstructed by the window.
      3. Ladders or steps that comply with the requirements of 32.2.2.3.1(4)(c)i. and 32.2.2.3.1(4)(c)ii. are exempt from the requirements of 7.2.2.
Sleeping rooms that have a door leading directly to the outside of the building with access to the finished ground level or to an exterior stairway meeting the requirements of 32.2.2.6.3 shall be considered as meeting all the requirements for a second means of escape.
Sleeping rooms shall not be required to have a secondary means of escape where the clinical needs of the residents require special security measures, provided all of the following are met:
  1. The building is protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 32.3.3.5.
  2. A fire alarm system is provided in accordance with 32.3.3.4.1 through 32.3.3.4.3 and 32.3.3.4.6.
  3. Smoke detectors are provided in accordance with 32.3.3.4.8.
Interior stairs shall be protected in accordance with 32.2.2.4.1 through 32.2.2.4.4, unless they meet the requirement of 32.2.2.4.5, 32.2.2.4.6, or 32.2.2.4.7.
Interior stairs shall be enclosed with fire barriers in accordance with Section 8.3 having a minimum 1/2-hour resistance rating.
Stairs shall comply with 7.2.2.5.3.
The entire primary means of escape shall be arranged so that occupants are not required to pass through a portion of a story above or a story below, unless that route is separated from all spaces on that story by construction having a minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating.
In buildings of construction other than Type II(000), Type III(200), or Type V(000), the supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire resistance rating of the supported wall.
Stairs that connect a story at street level to only one other story shall be permitted to be open to the story that is not at street level.
In buildings three or fewer stories in height and protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 32.2.3.5, stair enclosures shall not be required, provided that there still remains a primary means of escape from each sleeping area that does not require occupants to pass through a portion of a lower floor, unless that route is separated from all spaces on that floor by construction having a minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating.
Stairs serving a maximum of two stories in buildings protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 32.2.3.5 shall be permitted to be unenclosed.
Doors, other than those meeting the requirements of 32.2.2.5.1.1 and 32.2.2.5.1.2, and paths of travel to a means of escape shall be not less than 32 in. (810 mm) wide.
Bathroom doors shall be not less than 24 in. (610 mm) wide.
In conversions (see 32.1.1.6), 28 in. (710 mm) doors shall be permitted.
Doors shall be swinging or sliding.
Every closet door latch shall be readily opened from the inside.
Every bathroom door shall be designed to allow opening from the outside during an emergency when locked.
No door in any means of escape, other than those meeting the requirement of 32.2.2.5.5.1, 32.2.2.5.5.2, or 32.2.2.5.5.3, shall be locked against egress when the building is occupied.
Delayed-egress electrical locking systems complying with 7.2.1.6.1 shall be permitted on exterior doors only.
Sensor-release of electrical locking systems complying with 7.2.1.6.2 shall be permitted.
Door-locking arrangements shall be permitted where the clinical needs of residents require specialized security measures or where residents pose a security threat, provided all of the following conditions are met:
  1. Staff can readily unlock doors at all times in accordance with 32.2.2.5.5.4.
  2. The building is protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 32.2.3.5.
  3. The provision of 32.2.3.5.2 for conversions is not be permitted to be used.
Doors located in the means of egress and permitted to be locked in accordance with 32.2.2.5.5.3 shall comply with all of the following:
  1. Provisions shall be made for the rapid removal of occupants by means of one of the following:
    1. Remote control of locks from within the locked building
    2. Keying of all locks to keys carried by staff at all times
    3. Other such reliable means available to staff at all times
  2. Only one locking device shall be permitted on each door.
Forces to open doors shall comply with 7.2.1.4.5.
Door-latching devices shall comply with 7.2.1.5.10.
Floor levels at doors shall comply with 7.2.1.3.
Stairs shall comply with 7.2.2, unless otherwise specified in this chapter.
Existing winders complying with 7.2.2.2.4 shall be permitted to remain only in conversions.
Exterior stairs shall be protected against blockage caused by fire within the building.

32.2.2.7

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Vertical openings, other than those meeting the requirement of 32.2.3.1.4, shall be separated by smoke partitions in accordance with Section 8.4 having a minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating.
Stairs shall be permitted to be open where complying with 32.2.2.4.6 or 32.2.2.4.7.
Any space where there is storage or activity having fuel conditions exceeding those of a one- or two-family dwelling and that possesses the potential for a fully involved fire shall be protected in accordance with 32.2.3.2.4 and 32.2.3.2.5.
Spaces requiring protection in accordance with 32.2.3.2.1 shall include, but shall not be limited to, areas for cartoned storage, food or household maintenance items in wholesale or institutional-type quantities and concentrations, or mass storage of residents' belongings.
Any hazardous area that is on the same floor as, and is in or abuts, a primary means of escape or a sleeping room shall be protected by one of the following means:
  1. Protection shall be an enclosure having a minimum 1-hour fire resistance rating, in accordance with 8.2.3, and an automatic fire detection system connected to the fire alarm system provided in 32.2.3.4.1.
  2. Protection shall be automatic sprinkler protection, in accordance with 32.2.3.5, and a smoke partition, in accordance with Section 8.4, located between the hazardous area and the sleeping area or primary escape route, with any doors in such separation self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8.
Other hazardous areas shall be protected by one of the following:
  1. Enclosure having a minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating, with a self-closing or automatic-closing door in accordance with 7.2.1.8 that is equivalent to minimum 13/4 in. (44 mm) thick, solid-bonded wood-core construction, and protected by an automatic fire detection system connected to the fire alarm system provided in 32.2.3.4.1
  2. Automatic sprinkler protection in accordance with 32.2.3.5, regardless of enclosure
Interior finish shall be in accordance with Section 10.2.
Interior wall and ceiling finish materials complying with Section 10.2 shall be Class A, Class B, or Class C.
Interior floor finish shall comply with 10.2.7.1 or 10.2.7.2, as applicable.
A manual fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 9.6.
Initiation of the required fire alarm system shall be by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2.1(1).
Occupant notification shall be provided automatically, without delay, in accordance with 9.6.3.
Carbon monoxide alarms or carbon monoxide detectors in accordance with Section 9.12 and 32.2.3.4.4 shall be provided in new, small board and care facilities where either of the following conditions exists:
  1. Where small board and care facilities have communicating attached garages, unless otherwise exempted by 32.2.3.4.4.3
  2. Where small board and care facilities contain fuel-burning appliances or fuel-burning fireplaces
Where required by 32.2.3.4.4.1, carbon monoxide alarms or carbon monoxide detectors shall be installed in the following locations:
  1. Outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the sleeping rooms
  2. Within sleeping rooms containing fuel-burning-appliances or fuel-burning fireplaces
  3. On every occupiable level, including basements and excluding attics and crawl spaces
  4. Centrally located within occupiable spaces adjacent to a communicating attached garage, unless otherwise exempted by 32.2.3.4.4.3
Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detectors as specified in 32.2.3.4.4.1(1) shall not be required in the following locations:
  1. In garages
  2. Within small board and care facilities with communicating attached garages that are open parking structures as defined by the building code
  3. Within small board and care facilities with communicating attached garages that are mechanically ventilated in accordance with the mechanical code
Approved smoke alarms shall be provided in accordance with 9.6.2.10.
Smoke alarms shall be installed on all levels, including basements but excluding crawl spaces and unfinished attics.
Additional smoke alarms shall be installed in all living areas, as defined in 3.3.21.5.
Each sleeping room shall be provided with an approved smoke alarm in accordance with 9.6.2.10.
All facilities, other than those meeting the requirement of 32.2.3.5.2, shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system, installed in accordance with 32.2.3.5.3, using quick-response or residential sprinklers.
In conversions, sprinklers shall not be required in small board and care homes serving eight or fewer residents when all occupants have the ability as a group to move reliably to a point of safety within 3 minutes.
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, for either total or partial building coverage, all of the following requirements shall be met:
  1. The system shall be in accordance with NFPA 13 and shall initiate the fire alarm system in accordance with 32.2.3.4.1.
  2. The adequacy of the water supply shall be documented to the authority having jurisdiction.
In buildings four or fewer stories in height and not exceeding 60 ft (18.3 m) in height above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. All habitable areas, closets, roofed porches, roofed decks, and roofed balconies shall be sprinklered.
An automatic sprinkler system with a 30-minute water supply, and complying with all of the following requirements and with NFPA 13D shall be permitted:
  1. All habitable areas, closets, roofed porches, roofed decks, and roofed balconies shall be sprinklered.
  2. Facilities with more than eight residents shall be treated as two-family dwellings with regard to water supply.
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13 and NFPA 13R shall be provided with electrical supervision in accordance with 9.7.2.
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13D shall be provided with valve supervision by one of the following methods:
  1. Single listed control valve that shuts off both domestic and sprinkler systems and separate shutoff for the domestic system only
  2. Electrical supervision in accordance with 9.7.2
  3. Valve closure that causes the sounding of an audible signal in the facility
Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprinklers for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.2 and shall meet all of the following requirements:
  1. In new installations, where more than two sprinklers are installed in a single area, waterflow detection shall be provided to initiate the fire alarm system required by 32.2.3.4.1.
  2. The duration of water supplies shall be as required by 32.2.3.5.3.2.
Attics shall be protected in accordance with 32.2.3.5.7.1 or 32.2.3.5.7.2.
Where an automatic sprinkler system is required by 32.2.3.5, attics used for living purposes, storage, or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected with automatic sprinklers that are part of the required, approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1.
Where an automatic sprinkler system is required by 32.2.3.5, attics not used for living purposes, storage, or fuel-fired equipment shall meet one of the following criteria:
  1. Attics shall be protected throughout by a heat detection system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6.
  2. Attics shall be protected with automatic sprinklers that are part of the required, approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1.
  3. Attics shall be of noncombustible or limited-combustible construction.
  4. Attics shall be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood in accordance with NFPA 703.
Systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13D shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with 32.2.3.5.8.1 through 32.2.3.5.8.15, which reference specific sections of NFPA 25. The frequency of the inspection, test, or maintenance shall be in accordance with this Code, whereas the purpose and procedure shall be from NFPA 25.
Control valves shall be inspected monthly in accordance with 13.3.2 of NFPA 25.
Gauges shall be inspected monthly in accordance with 13.2.7.1.1 of NFPA 25.
Alarm devices shall be inspected quarterly in accordance with 5.2.4 of NFPA 25.
Alarm devices shall be tested semiannually in accordance with 5.3.2 of NFPA 25.
Valve supervisory switches shall be tested semiannually in accordance with 13.3.3.5 of NFPA 25.
Visible sprinklers shall be inspected annually in accordance with 5.2.1 of NFPA 25.
Visible pipe shall be inspected annually in accordance with 5.2.2 of NFPA 25.
Visible pipe hangers shall be inspected annually in accordance with 5.2.3 of NFPA 25.
Buildings shall be inspected annually prior to the onset of freezing weather to ensure that there is adequate heat wherever water-filled piping is run in accordance with 4.1.2 of NFPA 25.
A representative sample of fast-response sprinklers shall be tested once the sprinklers in the system are 20 years old in accordance with 5.3.1.1.1.3 of NFPA 25.

(A) If the sample fails the test, all of the sprinklers represented by that sample shall be replaced.

(B) If the sprinklers pass the test, the test shall be repeated every 10 years thereafter.

A representative sample of dry-pendent sprinklers shall be tested once the sprinklers in the system are 10 years old in accordance with 5.3.1.1.1.6 of NFPA 25.

(A) If the sample fails the test, all of the sprinklers represented by that sample shall be replaced.

(B) If the sprinklers pass the test, the test shall be repeated every 10 years thereafter.

Antifreeze solutions shall be tested annually in accordance with 5.3.3 of NFPA 25.
Control valves shall be operated through their full range and returned to normal annually in accordance with 13.3.3.1 of NFPA 25.
Operating stems of OS&Y valves shall be lubricated annually in accordance with 13.3.4 of NFPA 25.
Dry-pipe systems that extend into the unheated portions of the building shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with 13.4.5 of NFPA 25.
Corridor walls, other than those meeting the provisions of 32.2.3.6.2, shall meet all of the following requirements:
  1. Walls separating sleeping rooms shall have a minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating. The minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating shall be considered to be achieved if the partitioning is finished on both sides with lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute thermal barrier.
  2. Sleeping room doors shall be substantial doors, such as those of 13/4 in. (44 mm) thick, solid-bonded wood-core construction or of other construction of equal or greater stability and fire integrity.
  3. Any vision panels shall be fixed fire window assemblies in accordance with 8.3.4 or shall be wired glass not exceeding 9 ft2 (0.84 m2) each in area and installed in approved frames.
The requirements of 32.2.3.6.1 shall not apply to corridor walls that are smoke partitions in accordance with Section 8.4 where the facility is protected in accordance with 32.2.3.5, and all of the following shall also apply:
  1. In such instances, there shall be no limitation on the type or size of glass panels.
  2. Door closing shall comply with 32.2.3.6.4.
No louvers, operable transoms, or other air passages shall penetrate the wall, except properly installed heating and utility installations other than transfer grilles, which shall be prohibited.
Doors shall meet all of the following requirements:
  1. Doors shall be provided with latches or other mechanisms suitable for keeping the doors closed.
  2. No doors shall be arranged to prevent the occupant from closing the door.
  3. Doors shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8 in buildings other than those protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 32.2.3.5.
Alcohol-based hand-rub dispensers in accordance with 8.7.3.3 shall be permitted.
Utilities shall comply with Section 9.1.
Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment shall comply with 9.2.1 and 9.2.2, unless otherwise required in this chapter.
No stove or combustion heater shall be located to block escape in case of fire caused by the malfunction of the stove or heater.
Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall not be used in any residential board and care facility.
Elevators, escalators, and conveyors shall comply with Section 9.4.
Section 32.3 shall apply to residential board and care occupancies providing sleeping accommodations for more than 16 residents.
Facilities having sleeping accommodations for not more than 16 residents shall comply with Section 32.2.
Large board and care facilities shall be limited to the building construction types specified in Table 32.3.1.3 (see 8.2.1), based on the number of stories in height as defined in 4.6.3.

Table 32.3.1.3 Construction Type Limitations

Construction Type Sprinklereda Stories in Height Typeb
1 2 3 4—12 >12
I (442)c, d Yes X X X X X
No NP NP NP NP NP
I (332)c, d Yes X X X X X
No NP NP NP NP NP
II (222)c, d Yes X X X X NP
No NP NP NP NP NP
II (111)c, d Yes X X X NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP
II (000) Yes X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP
III (211) Yes X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP
III (200) Yes X NP NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP
IV (2HH) Yes X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP
V (111) Yes X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP
V (000) Yes X NP NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP

X: Permitted. NP: Not permitted.

aBuilding protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1), and provided with quick-response or residential sprinklers throughout. (See 32.3.3.5.)

bSee 4.6.3.

cAny building of Type I, Type II(222), or Type II(111) construction is permitted to include roofing systems involving combustible supports, decking, or roofing, provided that all of the following criteria are met:

(1) The roof covering meets Class A requirements in accordance with ASTM E108, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, or ANSI/UL 790, Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings.

(2) The roof is separated from all occupied portions of the building by a noncombustible floor assembly having not less than a 2-hour fire resistance rating that includes not less than 21/2 in. (63 mm) of concrete or gypsum fill.

(3) The structural elements supporting the 2-hour fire resistance-rated floor assembly specified in item (2) are required to have only the fire resistance rating required of the building.

dAny building of Type I, Type II(222), or Type II(111) construction is permitted to include roofing systems involving combustible supports, decking, or roofing, provided that all of the following criteria are met:

(1) The roof covering meets Class A requirements in accordance with ASTM E108, Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, or ANSI/UL 790, Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings.

(2) The roof/ceiling assembly is constructed with fire-retardant-treated wood meeting the requirements of NFPA 220.

(3) The roof/ceiling assembly has the required fire resistance rating for the type of construction.

The occupant load, in number of persons for whom means of egress and other provisions are required, shall be determined on the basis of the occupant load factors of Table 7.3.1.2 that are characteristic of the use of the space, or shall be determined as the maximum probable population of the space under consideration, whichever is greater.
Means of egress from resident rooms and resident dwelling units to the outside of the building shall be in accordance with Chapter 7 and this chapter.
Means of escape within the resident room or resident dwelling unit shall comply with Section 24.2 for one- and two-family dwellings.

32.3.2.1.3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Components of means of egress shall be limited to the types described in 32.3.2.2.2 through 32.3.2.2.10.
Doors in means of egress shall meet all of the following criteria:
  1. Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be permitted.
  2. Doors within individual rooms and suites of rooms shall be permitted to be swinging or sliding.
  3. No door, other than those meeting the requirement of 32.3.2.2.2(4), 32.3.2.2.2(5), or 32.3.2.2.2(6), shall be equipped with a lock or latch that requires the use of a tool or key from the egress side.
  4. Delayed-egress electrical locking systems in accordance with 7.2.1.6.1 shall be permitted.
  5. Sensor-release of electrical locking systems in accordance with 7.2.1.6.2 shall be permitted.
  6. Door-locking arrangements shall be permitted where the clinical needs of residents require specialized security measures or where residents pose a security threat, provided both of the following conditions are met:
    1. Staff can readily unlock doors at all times in accordance with 32.3.2.2.2(7)
    2. The building is protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 32.3.3.5
  7. Doors located in the means of egress that are permitted to be locked under other provisions of Chapter 32, other than those meeting the requirement of 32.3.2.2.2(4) or 32.3.2.2.2(5), shall have adequate provisions made for the rapid removal of occupants by means such as remote control of locks, keying of all locks to keys carried by staff at all times, or other such reliable means available to staff at all times.
  8. Only one such locking device, as described in 32.3.2.2.2(7), shall be permitted on each door.
Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be permitted.
Smokeproof enclosures complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted.
Horizontal exits complying with 7.2.4 shall be permitted.
Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be permitted.
Exit passageways complying with 7.2.6 shall be permitted.
Fire escape ladders complying with 7.2.9 shall be permitted.
Alternating tread devices complying with 7.2.11 shall be permitted.
Areas of refuge complying with 7.2.12 shall be permitted.
The capacity of means of egress shall be in accordance with Section 7.3.
Street floor exits shall be sufficient for the occupant load of the street floor plus the required capacity of stairs and ramps discharging onto the street floor.
The width of corridors shall be sufficient for the occupant load served but shall be not less than 60 in. (1525 mm).
Means of egress shall comply with the following, except as otherwise permitted by 32.3.2.4.2:
  1. The number of means of egress shall be in accordance with Section 7.4.
  2. Not less than two separate exits shall be provided on every story.
  3. Not less than two separate exits shall be accessible from every part of every story.
Exit access, as required by 32.3.2.4.1(3), shall be permitted to include a single exit access path for the distances permitted as common paths of travel by 32.3.2.5.2.
Access to all required exits shall be in accordance with Section 7.5.
Common paths of travel shall not exceed 75 ft (23 m).
Dead-end corridors shall not exceed 30 ft (9.1 m).
Any room, or any suite of rooms, exceeding 2000 ft2 (185 m2) shall be provided with not less than two exit access doors located remotely from each other.
Travel distance from any point in a room to the nearest exit, measured in accordance with Section 7.6, shall not exceed 250 ft (76 m).
Emergency lighting in accordance with Section 7.9 shall be provided, unless each sleeping room has a direct exit to the outside at the finished ground level.
Lockups in residential board and care occupancies shall comply with the requirements of 22.4.5.
Vertical openings shall be enclosed or protected in accordance with Section 8.6.
Unenclosed vertical openings in accordance with 8.6.9.1 shall be permitted.
No floor below the level of exit discharge used only for storage, heating equipment, or purposes other than residential occupancy shall have unprotected openings to floors used for residential occupancy.
Hazardous areas shall be protected in accordance with Section 8.7.
The areas described in Table 32.3.3.2.2 shall be protected as indicated.

Table 32.3.3.2.2 Hazardous Area Protection

Hazardous Area Description Separation/Protection†
Boiler and fuel-fired heater rooms 1 hour
Central/bulk laundries larger than 100 ft2 (9.3 m2) 1 hour
Paint shops employing hazardous substances and materials in quantities less than those that would be classified as a severe hazard 1 hour
Physical plant maintenance shops 1 hour
Soiled linen rooms 1 hour
Storage rooms larger than 50 ft2 (4.6 m2), but not exceeding 100 ft2 (9.3 m2), storing combustible material Smoke partition
Storage rooms larger than 100 ft2 (9.3 m2) storing combustible material 1 hour
Trash collection rooms 1 hour

†Minimum fire resistance rating.

Interior finish shall be in accordance with Section 10.2.
Interior wall and ceiling finish materials complying with Section 10.2 shall be in accordance with the following:
  1. Exit enclosures — Class A
  2. Lobbies and corridors — Class B
  3. Rooms and enclosed spaces — Class B
Interior floor finish in exit enclosures and exit access corridors and spaces not separated from them by walls complying with 32.3.3.6 shall be not less than Class II.
Interior floor finish shall comply with 10.2.7.1 or 10.2.7.2, as applicable.
A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 9.6.
The required fire alarm system shall be initiated by each of the following:
  1. Manual means in accordance with 9.6.2
  2. Manual fire alarm box located at a convenient central control point under continuous supervision of responsible employees
  3. Required automatic sprinkler system
  4. Required detection system
An annunciator panel, connected to the fire alarm system, shall be provided at a location readily accessible from the primary point of entry for emergency response personnel.
Occupant notification shall be provided automatically, without delay, in accordance with 9.6.3.
High-rise buildings shall be provided with an approved emergency voice communication/ alarm system in accordance with 11.8.4.
Emergency forces notification shall meet the following requirements:
  1. Emergency forces notification shall be accomplished in accordance with 9.6.4.
  2. Smoke detection devices or smoke detection systems shall be permitted to initiate a positive alarm sequence in accordance with 9.6.3.4 for not more than 120 seconds.
Approved smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with 9.6.2.10 inside every sleeping room, outside every sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms, and on all levels within a resident unit.
Corridors and spaces open to the corridors, other than those meeting the requirement of 32.3.3.4.8.3, shall be provided with smoke detectors that comply with NFPA 72 and are arranged to initiate an alarm that is audible in all sleeping areas.
Smoke detection systems shall not be required in unenclosed corridors, passageways, balconies, colonnades, or other arrangements with one or more sides along the long dimension fully or extensively open to the exterior at all times.
Carbon monoxide alarms or carbon monoxide detectors in accordance with Section 9.12 and 32.3.3.4.9 shall be provided in new large board and care facilities where either of the following conditions exists:
  1. Where large board and care facilities have communicating attached garages, unless otherwise exempted by 32.3.3.4.9.3
  2. Where sleeping rooms or sleeping room suites contain fuel-burning appliances or fuel-burning fireplaces
Where required by 32.3.3.4.9.1, carbon monoxide alarms or carbon monoxide detectors shall be installed in the following locations:
  1. Outside each separate sleeping room area in the immediate vicinity of the sleeping rooms
  2. Within sleeping rooms containing fuel-burning appliances or fuel-burning fireplaces
  3. On every occupiable level of a sleeping room and sleeping room suite
  4. Centrally located within occupiable spaces adjacent to a communicating attached garage, unless otherwise exempted by 32.3.3.4.9.3
Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detectors as specified in 32.3.3.4.9.1(1) shall not be required in the following locations:
  1. In garages
  2. Within facilities with communicating attached garages that are open parking structures as defined by the building code
  3. Within facilities with communicating attached garages that are mechanically ventilated in accordance with the mechanical code
Where fuel-burning appliances or fuel-burning fireplaces are installed outside sleeping rooms, carbon monoxide alarms or carbon monoxide detectors shall be installed in the locations specified as follows:
  1. Within rooms containing fuel-burning appliances or fuel-burning fireplaces
  2. Centrally located within occupiable spaces served by the first supply air register from a fuel-burning HVAC system
All buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) and provided with quick-response or residential sprinklers throughout.
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided with electrical supervision in accordance with 9.7.2.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 9.9.
Access shall be provided from every resident use area to at least one means of egress that is separated from all sleeping rooms by walls complying with 32.3.3.6.3 through 32.3.3.6.6.
Sleeping rooms shall be separated from all spaces, other than adjacent sleeping rooms and bathrooms directly accessible from the sleeping rooms, by walls complying with 32.3.3.6.3 through 32.3.3.6.6.
Walls required by 32.3.3.6.1 or 32.3.3.6.2 shall be smoke partitions in accordance with Section 8.4 having a minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating.
Doors protecting corridor openings shall not be required to have a fire protection rating, but shall be constructed to resist the passage of smoke.
Door-closing devices shall not be required on doors in corridor wall openings, other than those serving exit enclosures, smoke barriers, enclosures of vertical openings, and hazardous areas.
No louvers, transfer grilles, operable transoms, or other air passages, other than properly installed heating and utility installations, shall penetrate the walls or doors specified in 32.3.3.6.
Buildings shall be subdivided by smoke barriers in accordance with 32.3.3.7.1 through 32.3.3.7.22.
Every story shall be divided into not less than two smoke compartments, unless it meets the requirement of 32.3.3.7.4, 32.3.3.7.5, 32.3.3.7.6, 32.3.3.7.7, or 32.3.3.7.8.
Each smoke compartment shall have an area not exceeding 22,500 ft2 (2100 m2).
The travel distance from any point to reach a door in the required smoke barrier shall be limited to a distance of 200 ft (61 m).
Smoke barriers shall not be required on stories that do not contain a board and care occupancy located above the board and care occupancy.
Smoke barriers shall not be required in areas that do not contain a board and care occupancy and that are separated from the board and care occupancy by a fire barrier complying with Section 8.3.
Smoke barriers shall not be required on stories that do not contain a board and care occupancy and that are more than one story below the board and care occupancy.
Smoke barriers shall not be required in open parking structures protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 32.3.3.5.
Smoke barriers shall not be required in single-story buildings that are less than 10,000 ft2 (929 m2) in area and where all sleeping rooms have direct egress to the exterior.
Smoke barriers shall be constructed in accordance with Section 8.5 and shall have a minimum 1-hour fire resistance rating, unless they meet the requirement of 32.3.3.7.10 or 32.3.3.7.11.
Where an atrium is used, smoke barriers shall be permitted to terminate at an atrium wall constructed in accordance with 8.6.7(1)(c), in which case not less than two separate smoke compartments shall be provided on each floor.
Dampers shall not be required in duct penetrations of smoke barriers in fully ducted heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems.
Not less than 15 net ft2 (1.4 net m2) per resident shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, lounge or dining areas, and other low hazard areas on each side of the smoke barrier.
On stories not housing residents, not less than 6 net ft2 (0.56 net m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of the smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining compartments.
Doors in smoke barriers shall be substantial doors, such as 13/4 in. (44 mm) thick, solid-bonded wood-core doors, or shall be of construction that resists fire for a minimum of 20 minutes.
Nonrated factory- or field-applied protective plates extending not more than 48 in. (1220 mm) above the bottom of the door shall be permitted.
Cross-corridor openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by a pair of swinging doors or a special-purpose horizontally sliding accordion or folding door assemblies complying with 7.2.1.14.
Swinging doors shall be arranged so that each door swings in a direction opposite from the other.
Doors in smoke barriers shall comply with 8.5.4 and shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8.
Vision panels consisting of fire-rated glazing or wired glass panels in approved frames shall be provided in each cross-corridor swinging door and in each cross-corridor horizontal-sliding door in a smoke barrier.
Rabbets, bevels, or astragals shall be required at the meeting edges, and stops shall be required at the head and sides of door frames in smoke barriers.
Positive latching hardware shall not be required.
Center mullions shall be prohibited.
Cooking facilities shall be protected in accordance with 9.2.3, unless otherwise permitted by 32.3.3.8.2, 32.3.3.8.3, or 32.3.3.8.4.
Where residential cooking equipment is used for food warming or limited cooking, or where the equipment has heating elements or burners that have been tested and listed not to allow cooking pan temperature to exceed 662°F (350°C), the equipment shall not be required to be protected in accordance with 9.2.3, and the presence of the equipment shall not require the area to be protected as a hazardous area.
Compliance with 9.2.3 shall not be required where all of the following conditions are met:
  1. Residential or commercial cooking equipment in a single kitchen per smoke compartment is used to prepare meals for 30 or fewer persons.
  2. The portion of the board and care facility served by the cooking facility is limited to 30 beds and is separated from other portions of the board and care facility by a smoke barrier constructed in accordance with 32.3.3.7.9 and with 32.3.3.7.14 through 32.3.3.7.22.
  3. The cooktop or range is equipped with a range hood of a width at least equal to the width of the cooking surface, with grease baffles or other grease-collecting and clean-out capability.
  4. * The hood systems have a minimum airflow of 500 cfm (14,000 L/min).
  5. The hood systems that are not ducted to the exterior additionally have a charcoal filter to remove smoke and odor.
  6. The cooktop or range complies with all of the following:
    1. The cooktop or range is protected with a fire suppression system listed in accordance with ANSI/UL 300, Standard for Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Commercial Cooking Equipment, or is tested and meets all requirements of UL 300A, Extinguishing System Units for Residential Range Top Cooking Surfaces, in accordance with the applicable testing document's scope.
    2. A manual release of the extinguishing system is provided in accordance with Section 10.5 of NFPA 96.
    3. An interlock is provided to turn off all sources of fuel and electrical power to the cooktop or range when the suppression system is activated.
  7. *The use of solid fuel for cooking is prohibited.
  8. *Deep-fat frying is prohibited.
  9. Portable fire extinguishers in accordance with NFPA 96 are located in all kitchen areas.
  10. *A switch meeting all of the following is provided:
    1. A locked switch, or a switch located in a restricted location, is provided within the cooking facility that deactivates the cooktop or range.
    2. The switch is used to deactivate the cooktop or range whenever the kitchen is not under staff supervision.
    3. The switch is on a timer, not exceeding a 120-minute capacity, that automatically deactivates the cooktop or range, independent of staff action.
  11. Procedures for the use, inspection, testing, and maintenance of the cooking equipment are in accordance with Chapter 11 of NFPA 96, and the manufacturer's instructions are followed.
  12. *No fewer than two ac-powered photoelectric smoke alarms, interconnected in accordance with 9.6.2.10.3 and equipped with a silence feature, are located not closer than 20 ft (6.1 m) and not farther than 25 ft (7.6 m) from the cooktop or range.
  13. The smoke alarms required by 32.3.3.8.3(12) are permitted to be located outside the kitchen area where such placement is necessary for compliance with the 20 ft (6.1 m) minimum distance criterion.
  14. A single system smoke detector is permitted to be installed in lieu of the smoke alarms required in 32.3.3.8.3(12), provided the following criteria are met:
    1. The detector is located not closer than 20 ft (6.1 m) and not farther than 25 ft (7.6 m) from the cooktop or range.
    2. The detector is permitted to initiate a local audible alarm signal only.
    3. The detector is not required to initiate a building-wide occupant notification signal.
    4. The detector is not required to notify emergency forces.
    5. The local audible signal initiated by the detector is permitted to be silenced and reset by a button on the detector or by a switch installed within 10 ft (3.0 m) of the system smoke detector.
    6. System smoke detectors that are required by other sections of the chapter to be installed in corridors or spaces open to the corridor are not used to meet the requirements of 32.3.3.8.3(12) and are located not closer than 25 ft (7.6 m) to the cooktop or range.
Within a smoke compartment, residential or commercial cooking equipment that is used to prepare meals for 30 or fewer persons shall be permitted, provided that the cooking facility complies with all of the following conditions:
  1. The space containing the cooking equipment is not a sleeping room.
  2. The space containing the cooking equipment is separated from the corridor by partitions complying with 32.3.3.6.2 through 32.3.3.6.5.
  3. The requirements of 32.3.3.8.3(1) through (10) are met.
Where cooking facilities are protected in accordance with 9.2.3, the presence of the cooking equipment shall not cause the room or space housing the equipment to be classified as a hazardous area with respect to the requirements of 32.3.3.2, and the room or space shall not be permitted to be open to the corridor.
Where required, standpipe and hose systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 9.10.
Class I standpipe systems shall be installed throughout all high-rise buildings.
Roof outlets shall not be required on roofs having a slope of 3 in 12 or greater.
Alcohol-based hand-rub dispensers in accordance with 8.7.3.3 shall be permitted.
Utilities shall comply with Section 9.1.
Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment shall comply with Section 9.2.
No stove or combustion heater shall be located such that it blocks escape in case of fire caused by the malfunction of the stove or heater.
Unvented fuel-fired heaters shall not be used in any board and care occupancy.
Elevators, dumbwaiters, and vertical conveyors shall comply with Section 9.4.
In high-rise buildings, one elevator shall be provided with a protected power supply and shall be available for use by the fire department in case of emergency.
Waste chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes shall comply with Section 9.5.
Section 32.4 shall apply to apartment buildings that have one or more individual apartments used as a board and care occupancy. (See 32.1.3.2.)
The provisions of Section 32.4 shall be used to determine the suitability of apartment buildings, other than those complying with 32.4.1.1.4, to house a residential board and care facility.
The suitability of apartment buildings not used for board and care occupancies shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 30.
If a new board and care occupancy is created in an existing apartment building, the suitability of such a building for apartments not used for board and care occupancies shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 31.
Requirements for individual apartments used as residential board and care occupancies shall be as specified in Section 32.2. Egress from the apartment into the common building corridor shall be considered acceptable egress from the board and care facility.
Apartment buildings housing board and care facilities shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 30 and the additional requirements of Section 32.4, unless the authority having jurisdiction has determined that equivalent safety for housing a residential board and care facility is provided in accordance with Section 1.4.
In addition to the requirements of Chapter 30, apartment buildings, other than those complying with 32.4.1.4.2, housing residential board and care facilities shall meet the construction requirements of 32.3.1.3.
If a new board and care occupancy is created in an existing apartment building, the construction requirements of 19.1.6 shall apply.
The requirements of Section 30.2 shall apply only to the parts of means of egress serving the apartment(s) used as a residential board and care occupancy, as modified by 32.4.2.2.
If a new board and care occupancy is created in an existing apartment building, the requirements of Section 31.2 shall apply to the parts of the means of egress serving the apartment(s) used as a residential board and care occupancy.
The requirements of 30.3.3 shall apply only to the parts of means of egress serving the apartment(s) used as a residential board and care occupancy, as modified by 32.4.3.1.2.
If a new board and care occupancy is created in an existing apartment building, the requirements of 31.3.3 shall apply to the parts of the means of egress serving the apartment(s) used as a residential board and care occupancy.
The requirements of 30.3.6 shall apply only to corridors serving the residential board and care facility, including that portion of the corridor wall separating the residential board and care facility from the common corridor, as modified by 32.4.3.2.2.
If a new board and care occupancy is created in an existing apartment building, the requirements of 31.3.6 shall apply to the corridor serving the residential board and care facility.
The administration of every residential board and care facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory personnel, written copies of a plan for protecting all persons in the event of fire, for keeping persons in place, for evacuating persons to areas of refuge, and for evacuating persons from the building when necessary.
The emergency action plan shall include special staff response, including the fire protection procedures needed to ensure the safety of any resident, and shall be amended or revised whenever any resident with unusual needs is admitted to the home.
All employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed with respect to their duties and responsibilities under the plan, and such instruction shall be reviewed by the staff not less than every 2 months.
A copy of the plan shall be readily available at all times within the facility.
All residents participating in the emergency action plans shall be trained in the proper actions to be taken in the event of fire.
The training required by 32.7.2.1 shall include actions to be taken if the primary escape route is blocked.
If a resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, training in fire prevention and the actions to be taken in the event of a fire shall be a part of the training program.
Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire to the extent that their physical and mental abilities permit them to do so without additional personal risk.
Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be conducted in accordance with 32.7.3.1 through 32.7.3.6.
Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be conducted not less than six times per year on a bimonthly basis, with not less than two drills conducted during the night when residents are sleeping, as modified by 32.7.3.5 and 32.7.3.6.
The emergency drills shall be permitted to be announced to the residents in advance.
The drills shall involve the actual evacuation of all residents to an assembly point, as specified in the emergency action plan, and shall provide residents with experience in egressing through all exits and means of escape required by the Code.
Exits and means of escape not used in any drill shall not be credited in meeting the requirements of this Code for board and care facilities.
Actual exiting from windows shall not be required to comply with 32.7.3; opening the window and signaling for help shall be an acceptable alternative.
Residents who cannot meaningfully assist in their own evacuation or who have special health problems shall not be required to actively participate in the drill. Section 18.7 shall apply in such instances.
Smoking regulations shall be adopted by the administration of board and care occupancies.
Where smoking is permitted, noncombustible safety-type ashtrays or receptacles shall be provided in convenient locations.
New draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging furnishings and decorations shall comply with 32.7.5.1.1 and 32.7.5.1.2.
New draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging furnishings and decorations in board and care facilities shall be in accordance with the provisions of 10.3.1, unless otherwise permitted by 32.7.5.1.2.
In other than common areas, new draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging furnishings and decorations shall not be required to comply with 32.7.5.1.1 where the building is protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 32.2.3.5 for small facilities or 32.3.3.5 for large facilities.
New upholstered furniture within board and care facilities shall comply with 32.7.5.2.1 or 32.7.5.2.2.
New upholstered furniture shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of 10.3.2.1(1) and 10.3.3.
Upholstered furniture belonging to residents in sleeping rooms shall not be required to be tested, provided that a smoke alarm is installed in such rooms; battery-powered single-station smoke alarms shall be permitted in such rooms.
Newly introduced mattresses within board and care facilities shall comply with 32.7.5.3.1 or 32.7.5.3.2.
Newly introduced mattresses shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of 10.3.2.2 and 10.3.3.2.
Mattresses belonging to residents in sleeping rooms shall not be required to be tested, provided that a smoke alarm is installed in such rooms; battery-powered single-station smoke alarms shall be permitted in such rooms.
Staff shall be on duty and in the facility at all times when residents requiring evacuation assistance are present.
Door assemblies for which the door leaf is required to swing in the direction of egress travel shall be inspected and tested not less than annually in accordance with 7.2.1.15.
Integrated fire protection and life safety systems shall be tested in accordance with 9.11.4.1.
UpCodes Premium
Leverage the most sophisticated code compliance platform.
TRY FREE FOR TWO WEEKS VISIT PRICING