ADOPTS WITH AMENDMENTS:

NFPA 101, 2018

Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The requirements of this chapter shall apply to new buildings or portions thereof used as detention or correctional occupancies. (See 1.3.1.)
The provisions of Chapter 1 shall apply.
The provisions of Chapter 4 shall apply.
This chapter establishes life safety requirements that shall apply to the design of all new detention and correctional facilities, other than the following:
  1. Use Condition I facilities protected as residential occupancies in accordance with 22.1.2.3
  2. *Facilities determined to have equivalent safety provided in accordance with Section 1.4
Detention and correctional occupancies shall include those used for purposes such as correctional institutions, detention facilities, community residential centers, training schools, work camps, and substance abuse centers where occupants are confined or housed under some degree of restraint or security.
Detention and correctional occupancies shall include those that provide sleeping facilities for one or more residents and are occupied by persons who are generally prevented from taking self-preservation action because of security measures not under the occupants' control.
Lockups in other than detention and correctional occupancies and health care occupancies shall comply with the requirements of 22.4.5.
All detention and correctional facilities shall be designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to minimize the possibility of a fire emergency.
Because the safety of all occupants in detention and correctional facilities cannot be adequately ensured solely by dependence on evacuation of the building, their protection from fire shall be provided by appropriate arrangement of facilities; adequate, trained staff; and development of operating, security, and maintenance procedures composed of the following:
  1. Design, construction, and compartmentation
  2. Provision for detection, alarm, and extinguishment
  3. Fire prevention and planning, training, and drilling programs for the isolation of fire and the transfer of occupants to areas of refuge, for evacuation of the building, or for protection of the occupants in place
  4. Provision of security to the degree necessary for the safety of the public and the occupants of the facility
Additions shall be separated from any existing structure not conforming with the provisions of Chapter 23 by a fire barrier having not less than a 2-hour fire resistance rating constructed to the requirements of the addition, and the following also shall apply:
  1. Doors in such partitions shall normally be kept closed.
  2. Doors in such partitions shall be permitted to be held open if they meet the requirements of 7.2.1.8.2.
Modernizations and renovations shall be in accordance with 4.6.7, unless otherwise permitted by 22.1.1.4.2.
In nonsprinklered existing buildings, modernizations or renovations shall be permitted to comply with the nonsprinklered options contained in 22.4.4 in lieu of the sprinkler requirement of 22.3.5.2.
Where construction, alteration, or demolition operations are conducted, the provisions of 4.6.10.2 shall apply.
For application of the life safety requirements of this chapter, the resident user category shall be divided into the groups specified in 22.1.2.1.1 through 22.1.2.1.5.
Use Condition I shall be defined as a condition under which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted to the exterior via means of egress that meet the requirements of the Code.
Use Condition II shall be defined as a condition under which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments.
Use Condition III shall be defined as a condition under which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping rooms and a group activity space, with egress impeded by remote-controlled release of means of egress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.
Use Condition IV shall be defined as a condition under which free movement is restricted from an occupied space, and remote-controlled release is provided to allow movement from all sleeping rooms, activity spaces, and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.
Use Condition V shall be defined as a condition under which free movement is restricted from an occupied space, and staff-controlled manual release at each door is provided to allow movement from all sleeping rooms, activity spaces, and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.
To be classified as Use Condition III or Use Condition IV, the arrangement, accessibility, and security of the release mechanism(s) used for emergency egress shall be such that the minimum available staff, at any time, can promptly release the locks.
Areas housing occupancies corresponding to Use Condition I shall conform to one of the following:
  1. Requirements of residential occupancies under this Code
  2. *Requirements of this chapter for Use Condition II facilities, provided that the staffing requirements of Section 22.7 are met
Multiple occupancies shall be in accordance with 6.1.14.
Egress provisions for areas of detention and correctional facilities that correspond to other occupancies shall meet the corresponding requirements of this Code for such occupancies as modified by 22.1.3.2.1 and 22.1.3.2.2.
Where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress, staff in the building shall be provided with a means for the supervised release of occupants during all times of use.
Where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress, the following shall apply:
  1. Detention-grade hardware meeting the requirements of ASTM F1577, Standard Test Methods for Detention Locks for Swinging Doors, shall be provided on swinging doors within the required means of egress.
  2. Sliding doors within the required means of egress shall be designed and engineered for detention and correctional use, and lock cylinders shall meet the cylinder test requirements of ASTM F1577.
Sections of detention and correctional facilities shall be permitted to be classified as other occupancies, provided that they meet both of the following conditions:
  1. They are not intended to serve residents for sleeping purposes.
  2. They are separated from areas of detention or correctional occupancies by construction having not less than a 2-hour fire resistance rating.
All means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to the requirements of this Code for detention and correctional occupancies, unless otherwise permitted by 22.1.3.5.
Egress through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform with detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy chapter of this Code shall be permitted, provided that both of the following criteria apply:
  1. The occupancy shall not contain high hazard contents.
  2. The horizontal exit shall comply with the requirements of 22.2.2.5.
Any area with a hazard of contents classified higher than that of the detention or correctional occupancy and located in the same building shall be protected as required in 22.3.2.
Nondetention- or noncorrectional-related occupancies classified as containing high hazard contents shall not be permitted in buildings housing detention or correctional occupancies.
Atrium walls in accordance with 6.1.14.4.6 shall be permitted to serve as part of the separation required by 6.1.14.4.1 for creating separated occupancies on a story-by-story basis.
For definitions, see Chapter 3, Definitions.
The classification of hazard of contents shall be as defined in Section 6.2.
Detention and correctional occupancies shall be limited to the building construction types specified in Table 22.1.6.1 (See 8.2.1.)

Table 22.1.6.1 Construction Type Limitations

Stories in Height
Construction Type Sprinklered† 1 With basement 1 Without basement 2 3 >3 But not High-Rise High-Rise
I (442) Yes X X X X X X
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
I (332) Yes X X X X X X
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
II (222) Yes X X X X X X
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
II (111) Yes X X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
II (000) Yes X X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
III (211) Yes X X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
III (200) Yes X X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
IV (2HH) Yes X X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
V (111) Yes X X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
V (000) Yes X X X NP NP NP
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
X: Permitted for Use Conditions II, III, IV, and V. (See 22.1.2.3 for Use Condition I.)
NP: Not permitted.
†Sprinklered throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1). (See 22.3.5.)
‡See 4.6.3.
All interior walls and partitions in Type I or Type II construction shall be of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials.
The occupant load, in number of persons for whom means of egress and other provisions are required, either shall be determined on the basis of the occupant load factors of Table 7.3.1.2 that are characteristic of the use of the space or shall be determined as the maximum probable population of the space under consideration, whichever is greater.
Means of egress shall comply with Chapter 7, unless otherwise provided or modified by Section 22.2.
Components of means of egress shall be limited to the types described in 22.2.2.2 through 22.2.2.11.
Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be permitted, unless otherwise provided by 22.2.11.
Stairs shall be permitted as follows:
  1. Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be permitted.
  2. Noncombustible grated stair treads and landing floors shall be permitted.
Spiral stairs complying with 7.2.2.2.3 shall be permitted for access to and between staff locations.
Smokeproof enclosures complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted.
Horizontal exits complying with 7.2.4 and the modifications of 22.2.2.5.1 and 22.2.2.5.2 shall be permitted.
Not less than 6 ft2 (0.55 m2) of accessible space per occupant shall be provided on each side of the horizontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining compartments.
Horizontal exits shall be permitted to comprise 100 percent of the exits required, provided that an exit, other than a horizontal exit, located in another (not necessarily adjacent) fire compartment is accessible without returning through the compartment of fire origin.
Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be permitted.
Exit passageways complying with 7.2.6 shall be permitted.
Fire escape ladders complying with 7.2.9 shall be permitted.
Alternating tread devices complying with 7.2.11 shall be permitted.
Areas of refuge complying with 7.2.12 shall be permitted.
The capacity of any required means of egress shall be in accordance with Section 7.3.
Aisles, corridors, and ramps required for egress shall be not less than 48 in. (1220 mm) in width.
Residents' sleeping room door widths shall be permitted to comply with 22.2.11.1.4.
The number of means of egress shall be in accordance with Section 7.4.
Not less than two separate exits shall meet both of the following criteria:
  1. They shall be provided on every story.
  2. They shall be accessible from every part of every story, fire compartment, or smoke compartment; however, exit access travel shall be permitted to be common for the distances permitted as common path of travel by 22.2.5.3.
Not less than one approved exit shall be accessible from each fire compartment and each required smoke compartment into which residents are potentially moved in a fire emergency, with the exits arranged so that egress is possible without returning through the zone of fire origin.
Every sleeping room shall have a door leading directly to an exit access corridor, unless otherwise permitted by one of the following:
  1. The requirement of 22.2.5.1 shall not apply if there is an exit door opening directly to the outside from a room at the finished ground level.
  2. One adjacent room, such as a day room, a group activity space, or other common space, shall be permitted to intervene, and the following also shall apply:
    1. Where sleeping rooms directly adjoin a day room or group activity space that is used for access to an exit, such sleeping rooms shall be permitted to open directly to the day room or space.
    2. Sleeping rooms permitted to open directly to the day room or space shall be permitted to be separated in elevation by a one-half story or full story height.

22.2.5.2

ILLUSTRATION
No exit or exit access shall contain a corridor, a hallway, or an aisle having a pocket or dead end exceeding 50 ft (15 m) for Use Condition II, Use Condition III, or Use Condition IV and 20 ft (6100 mm) for Use Condition V.
A common path of travel shall not exceed 100 ft (30 m).
A sally port shall be permitted in a means of egress where there are provisions for continuous and unobstructed travel through the sally port during an emergency egress condition.
Travel distance shall comply with 22.2.6.1 through 22.2.6.7.
Travel distance shall be measured in accordance with Section 7.6.
The travel distance between any room door required as an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 150 ft (46 m).
The travel distance between any point in a room and an exit shall not exceed 200 ft (61 m).
The travel distance between any point in a sleeping room to the door in that room shall not exceed 50 ft (15 m), unless otherwise permitted by 22.2.6.7.
The maximum travel distance limitation of 22.2.6.6 shall be permitted to be increased to 100 ft (30 m) in open dormitories, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
  1. The enclosing walls of the dormitory space shall be of smoke-tight construction.
  2. Not less than two exit access doors remotely located from each other shall be provided where travel distance to the exit access door from any point within the dormitory exceeds 50 ft (15 m).
Exits shall be permitted to discharge into a fenced or walled courtyard, provided that not more than two walls of the courtyard are the building walls from which egress is being made.
Enclosed yards or courts used for exit discharge in accordance with 22.2.7.1 shall be of sufficient size to accommodate all occupants at a distance of not less than 50 ft (15 m) from the building while providing a net area of 15 ft2 (1.4 m2) per person.
All exits shall be permitted to discharge through the level of exit discharge.
The requirements of 7.7.2 shall be waived, provided that not more than 50 percent of the exits discharge into a single fire compartment separated from other compartments by construction having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating.
Emergency lighting shall be provided in accordance with Section 7.9.
Exit marking shall be provided as follows:
  1. Exit signs shall be provided in areas accessible to the public in accordance with Section 7.10.
  2. Exit signs shall not be required in detention and correctional residential housing areas. (See 3.3.22.1.)
Doors within means of egress shall be in accordance with Chapter 7, unless otherwise provided in 22.2.11.1.2 through 22.2.11.1.12.
Doors shall be permitted to be locked in accordance with the applicable use condition.
Where egress doors are locked with key-operated locks, the provisions of 22.7.7 shall apply.
Doors to resident sleeping rooms shall be not less than 28 in. (710 mm) in clear width.
Doors in a means of egress shall be permitted to be of the horizontal-sliding type, provided that the force necessary to slide the door to its fully open position does not exceed 50 lbf (222 N) where a force of 50 lbf (222 N) is simultaneously applied perpendicular to the door.
Doors from areas of refuge to the exterior shall be permitted to be locked with key locks in lieu of locking methods described in 22.2.11.1.8, the keys to unlock such doors shall be maintained and available at the facility at all times, and the locks shall be operable from the outside.
Any remote-control release used in a means of egress shall be provided with a reliable means of operation to release locks on all doors and shall be remotely located from the resident living areas, unless otherwise permitted by 22.2.11.1.8.2.
The remote location of a remote-control release used in a means of egress shall provide sight and sound supervision of the resident living areas.
Remote-control locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Use Condition IV shall not be required, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
  1. Not more than 10 locks need to be unlocked to relocate all occupants from one smoke compartment to an area of refuge as promptly as is required where remote-control unlocking is used. (See 22.3.7.9 for requirements for smoke barrier doors.)
  2. Unlocking of all necessary locks is accomplished with not more than two separate keys.
All remote-control release-operated doors shall be provided with a redundant means of operation as follows:
  1. Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks shall be constructed so that, in the event of power failure, a manual mechanical means to release and open the doors is provided at each door, and either emergency power arranged in accordance with 22.2.11.1.9.2 is provided for the power operation or a remote-control manual mechanical release is provided.
  2. Mechanically operated sliding doors or mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a manual mechanical means at each door to release and open the door.
The emergency power required by 22.2.11.1.9.1(1) shall be arranged to provide the required power automatically in the event of any interruption of normal power due to any of the following:
  1. Failure of a public utility or other outside electrical power supply
  2. Opening of a circuit breaker or fuse
  3. Manual act(s), including accidental opening of a switch controlling normal lighting facilities
The provisions of 7.2.1.5.8 for stairway re-entry shall not apply.
Doors unlocked by means of remote control under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when closed, unless specific action is taken at the remote-control location to enable doors to relock.
Emergency power shall be provided for all electric power-operated sliding doors and electric power-operated locks, unless otherwise permitted by 22.2.11.1.12.2.
The emergency power shall be arranged to automatically operate within 10 seconds upon failure of normal power and to maintain the necessary power source for a minimum of 11/2 hours.
The emergency power specified in 22.2.11.1.12 shall not be required in facilities with 10 or fewer locks complying with 22.2.11.1.8.2.
Where hazardous materials are present, the provisions of 7.12.2 shall apply.
Any vertical opening shall be enclosed or protected in accordance with Section 8.6, unless otherwise permitted by one of the following:
  1. Unprotected vertical openings in accordance with 8.6.9.1 shall be permitted.
  2. *In residential housing area smoke compartments, unprotected vertical openings shall be permitted in accordance with the conditions of 8.6.6, provided that the height between the lowest and highest finished floor levels does not exceed 23 ft (7010 mm), and the following also shall be permitted:
    1. The number of levels shall not be restricted.
    2. Residential housing areas subdivided in accordance with 22.3.8 shall be permitted to be considered as part of the communicating space.
    3. The separation shall not be required to have a fire resistance rating. [See 8.6.6(4)(b).]
Any hazardous area shall be protected in accordance with Section 8.7. The areas described in Table 22.3.2.1 shall be protected as indicated.

Table 22.3.2.1 Hazardous Area Protection

Hazardous Area Description Separation/Protection†
Areas not incidental to resident housing 2 hours
Boiler and fuel-fired heater 1 hour
Commercial cooking equipment In accordance with 9.2.3
Commissaries Smoke resistant
Employee locker rooms Smoke resistant
Hobby/handicraft shops Smoke resistant
Laundries >100 ft2 (>9.3 m2) 1 hour
Maintenance shops Smoke resistant
Padded cells 1 hour
Soiled linen rooms 1 hour
Storage rooms >50 ft2 (>4.6 m2) but ≤100 ft2 (≤9.3 m2) storing combustible material Smoke resistant
Storage rooms >100 ft2 (>9.3 m2) storing combustible material 1 hour
Trash collection rooms 1 hour
†Minimum fire resistance rating.
Where Table 22.3.2.1 requires separations to be smoke resistant, the provision of 8.7.1.2 shall not apply.
Hazardous areas determined by the authority having jurisdiction as not incidental to residents' housing shall be separated by 2-hour fire resistance-rated barriers in conjunction with automatic sprinkler protection.
Where cooking facilities are protected in accordance with 9.2.3, kitchens shall not be required to be provided with roomwide protection.
Waste chutes, incinerators, and linen chutes shall be protected in accordance with Section 9.5.
Where hazardous materials are stored, used, or handled, the provisions of 8.7.3.1 shall apply.
Interior finish shall be in accordance with Section 10.2.
Interior wall and ceiling finish materials complying with Section 10.2 shall be Class A or Class B in corridors, in exits, and in any space not separated from corridors and exits by partitions capable of retarding the passage of smoke; and Class A, Class B, or Class C in all other areas. The provisions of 10.2.8.1 shall not apply.
Interior floor finish in exit enclosures and exit access corridors shall be not less than Class II. The provisions of 10.2.8.2 shall not apply.
Interior floor finish shall comply with 10.2.7.1 or 10.2.7.2, as applicable.
Detention and correctional occupancies shall be provided with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6, except as modified by 22.3.4.2 through 22.3.4.4.3.
Initiation of the required fire alarm system shall be by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2, by means of any required detection devices or detection systems, and by means of waterflow alarm in the sprinkler system required by 22.3.5.2, unless otherwise permitted by the following:
  1. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be locked, provided that staff is present within the area when it is occupied and staff has keys readily available to unlock the boxes.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be located in a staff location, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
    1. The staff location is attended when the building is occupied.
    2. The staff attendant has direct supervision of the sleeping area.
Occupant notification shall be accomplished automatically in accordance with 9.6.3, and the following also shall apply:
  1. A positive alarm sequence shall be permitted in accordance with 9.6.3.4.
  2. *Any smoke detectors required by this chapter shall be permitted to be arranged to alarm at a constantly attended location only and shall not be required to accomplish general occupant notification.
Fire department notification shall be accomplished in accordance with 9.6.4, unless otherwise permitted by one of the following:
  1. A positive alarm sequence shall be permitted in accordance with 9.6.3.4.
  2. Any smoke detectors required by this chapter shall not be required to transmit an alarm to the fire department.
  3. This requirement shall not apply where staff is provided at a constantly attended location that meets one of the following criteria:
    1. It has the capability to promptly notify the fire department.
    2. It has direct communication with a control room having direct access to the fire department.
Where the provision of 22.3.4.3.2.1(3) is utilized, the fire plan, as required by 22.7.1.3, shall include procedures for logging of alarms and immediate notification of the fire department.
An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be in accordance with Section 9.6, as modified by 22.3.4.4.1 through 22.3.4.4.3, throughout all resident sleeping areas and adjacent day rooms, activity rooms, or contiguous common spaces.
Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleeping rooms with four or fewer occupants.
Other arrangements and positioning of smoke detectors shall be permitted to prevent damage or tampering, or for other purposes.
Other arrangements, as specified in 22.3.4.4.2, shall be capable of detecting any fire, and the placement of detectors shall be such that the speed of detection is equivalent to that provided by the spacing and arrangements required by the installation standards referenced in Section 9.6.
Detectors shall be permitted to be located in exhaust ducts from cells, behind grilles, or in other locations.
The equivalent performance of the design permitted by 22.3.4.4.2.2 shall be acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction in accordance with the equivalency concepts specified in Section 1.4.
Smoke detectors shall not be required in Use Condition II open dormitories where staff is present within the dormitory whenever the dormitory is occupied.
High-rise buildings shall comply with 22.4.3.
All buildings classified as Use Condition II, Use Condition III, Use Condition IV, or Use Condition V shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 22.3.5.3.
The automatic sprinkler system required by 22.3.5.2 shall meet all of the following criteria:
  1. It shall be in accordance with Section 9.7.
  2. It shall be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1).
  3. It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system.
  4. It shall be fully supervised.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 9.9, unless otherwise permitted by the following:
  1. *Access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked.
  2. *Portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations only.
Standpipe and hose systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 9.10 as follows, unless otherwise permitted by 22.3.5.6:
  1. Class I standpipe systems shall be provided for any building three or more stories in height.
  2. Class III standpipe and hose systems shall be provided for all nonsprinklered buildings three or more stories in height.
The requirements of 22.3.5.5 shall not apply where otherwise permitted by the following:
  1. Formed hose, 1 in. (25 mm) in diameter, on hose reels shall be permitted to provide Class II service.
  2. Separate Class I and Class II systems shall be permitted in lieu of a Class III system.
Smoke barriers shall be provided to divide every story used for sleeping by residents, or any other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into not less than two compartments, unless otherwise permitted by one of the following:
  1. Protection shall be permitted to be accomplished using horizontal exits. (See 7.2.4.)
  2. *The requirement for subdivision of building space shall be permitted to be fulfilled by one of the following:
    1. Smoke compartments having exit to a public way, where such exit serves only one area and has no openings to other areas
    2. Building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire resistance rating or 50 ft (15 m) of open space
    3. Secured, open area having a holding space located 50 ft (15 m) from the housing area that provides 15 ft2 (1.4 m2) or more of refuge area for each person (resident, staff, visitors) potentially present at the time of a fire
Doors used to access the areas specified in 22.3.7.1(2)(a), (b), and (c) shall meet the requirements for doors at smoke barriers for the applicable use condition.
Where smoke barriers are required by 22.3.7.1, they shall be provided in accordance with both of the following criteria:
  1. They shall limit the occupant load to not more than 200 residents in any smoke compartment.
  2. They shall limit the travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier in accordance with both of the following criteria:
    1. The distance from any room door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 ft (46 m).
    2. The distance from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 ft (61 mm).
Any required smoke barrier shall be constructed in accordance with Section 8.5, shall be of substantial construction, and shall have structural fire resistance.
Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected in accordance with Section 8.5, unless otherwise permitted by the following:
  1. *The total number of vision panels in any barrier shall not be restricted.
  2. Sliding doors in smoke barriers that are designed to normally be kept closed and are remotely operated from a continuously attended location shall not be required to be self-closing.
Not less than 6 net ft2 (0.55 net m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of the smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining compartments, and this space shall be readily available wherever occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a fire emergency.
Doors in smoke barriers shall meet all of the following criteria:
  1. The doors shall provide resistance to the passage of smoke.
  2. Swinging doors shall be self-latching, or the opening resistance of the door shall be not less than 5 lbf (22 N).
  3. Sliding doors shall be exempt from the latching requirement of 8.5.4.3.
Doors in smoke barriers shall conform with the requirements for doors in means of egress as specified in Section 22.2 and shall have locking and release arrangements according to the applicable use condition. The provisions of 22.2.11.1.8.2 shall not be used for smoke barrier doors serving a smoke compartment containing more than 20 persons.
Vision panels shall be provided in smoke barriers at points where the barrier crosses an exit access corridor.
Smoke dampers shall be provided in accordance with 8.5.5, unless otherwise permitted by 22.3.7.12.
Arrangements and positioning of smoke detectors required by 22.3.7.11 shall be permitted to prevent damage or tampering, or for other purposes, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
  1. Such arrangements shall be capable of detecting any fire.
  2. The placement of detectors shall be such that the speed of detection is equivalent to that provided by the spacing and arrangement required by NFPA 72 as referenced in 8.5.5.7.1.
Subdivision of facility spaces shall comply with Table 22.3.8.

Table 22.3.8 Subdivision of Resident Housing Spaces

Feature Use Condition
II III IV V
Room to room separation NR NR NR SR
Room face to corridor separation NR NR NR SR
Room face to common space separation NR NR ≤50 ft (≤15 m)† SR >50 ft (>15 m)† NR ≤50 ft (≤15 m)† SR ≤50 ft (>15 m)† SR
Common space to corridor separation NR NR NR SR
Total openings in solid room face where room face is required to be smoke resistant or fire rated ‡ 0.85 ft2
(0.08 m2)
0.85 ft2
(0.08 m2)
0.85 ft2
(0.08 m2)
0.85 ft2 (0.08 m2) where meeting one of the following:
  1. Kept in closed position, except when in use by staff
  2. Closable from the inside
  3. Provided with smoke control
NR: No requirement. SR: Smoke resistant
Notes:
(1) Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke resistant (SR) in accordance with Table 22.3.8 are required to be substantial doors of construction that resists the passage of smoke. Latches and door closers are not required on cell doors.
(2) Under Use Condition II, Use Condition III, or Use Condition IV, a space subdivided by open construction (any combination of grating doors and grating walls or solid walls) is permitted to be considered one room if housing not more than 16 persons. The perimeter walls of such space are required to be of smoke-resistant construction. Smoke detection is required to be provided in such space. Under Use Condition IV, common walls between sleeping areas within the space are required to be smoke resistant, and grating doors and fronts are permitted to be used. Under Use Condition II and Use Condition III, open dormitories are permitted to house more than 16 persons, as permitted by other sections of this chapter.
(3) Where barriers are required to be smoke resistant (SR), the provisions of Sections 8.4 and 8.5 do not apply.†
†Travel distance through the common space to the exit access corridor.
‡"Total openings in solid room face" include all openings (e.g., undercuts, food passes, grilles), the total of which is not to exceed 0.85 ft2 (0.08 m2). All openings are required to be 36 in. (915 mm) or less above the floor.
See Section 11.7 for requirements for underground buildings.
Modernizations or renovations of nonsprinklered existing buildings shall be permitted to meet the requirements of this chapter, as modified by 22.4.4.2 through 22.4.4.13, in lieu of the sprinkler requirement of 22.3.5.2.
Detention and correctional occupancies in nonsprinklered buildings shall be limited to the building construction types specified in Table 22.4.4.2.1. (See 8.2.1.)

Table 22.4.4.2.1 Construction Type Limitations — Nonsprinklered Buildings

Stories in Height
Construction Type Sprinklered 1 With Basement 1 Without Basement 2 3 >3 But Not High-Rise High-Rise
I (442) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No X X X X X NP
I (332) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No X X X X X NP
II (222) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No X X X X X NP
II (111) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No X1 X X1 NP NP NP
II (000) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No NP NP NP NP NP NP
III (211) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No X1 X1 X1 NP NP NP
III (200) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No X1 X1 NP NP NP NP
IV (2HH) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No X1 X1 X1 NP NP NP
V (111) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No X1 X1 X1 NP NP NP
V (000) Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
No NP NP NP NP NP NP

NA: Not applicable. NP: Not permitted.

X: Permitted for Use Conditions II, III, IV, and V. (See 22.1.2.3 for Use Condition I.)

X1: Permitted for Use Conditions II, III, and IV. Use Condition V not permitted. (See 22.1.2.3 for Use Condition I.)

†See 4.6.3.

A residential housing area complying with 22.4.4.6 shall be considered as one story in height for purposes of applying Table 22.4.4.2.1.
Ducts shall be permitted to penetrate horizontal exits in accordance with 7.2.4.3.5(3) if protected by combination fire dampers/smoke leakage-rated dampers that meet the smoke damper actuation requirements of 8.5.5.
The travel distance between any room door required as an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 100 ft (30 m).
The travel distance between any point in a room and an exit shall not exceed 150 ft (46 m).
Multilevel residential housing areas without enclosure protection between levels shall be permitted, provided that the conditions of 22.4.4.6.2 through 22.4.4.6.4 are met.
The entire normally occupied area, including all communicating floor levels, shall be sufficiently open and unobstructed so that a fire or other dangerous condition in any part is obvious to the occupants or supervisory personnel in the area.
Egress capacity shall simultaneously accommodate all occupants of all communicating levels and areas, with all communicating levels in the same fire area considered as a single floor area for purposes of determining required egress capacity.
The height between the highest and lowest finished floor levels shall not exceed 13 ft (3960 mm). The number of levels shall not be restricted.
Any hazardous area shall be protected in accordance with Section 8.7. The areas described in Table 22.4.4.7 shall be protected as indicated.

Table 22.4.4.7 Hazardous Area Protection — Nonsprinklered Buildings

Hazardous Area Description Separation/Protection†
Areas not incidental to resident housing 2 hours
Boiler and fuel-fired heater rooms 2 hours or 1 hour and sprinklers
Central or bulk laundries >100 ft2 (>9.3 m2) 2 hours or 1 hour and sprinklers
Commercial cooking equipment In accordance with 9.2.3
Commissaries 1 hour or sprinklers
Employee locker rooms 1 hour or sprinklers
Hobby/handicraft shops 1 hour or sprinklers
Maintenance shops 1 hour or sprinklers
Padded cells 2 hours or 1 hour and sprinklers
Soiled linen rooms 2 hours or 1 hour and sprinklers
Storage rooms >50 ft2 (>4.6 m2) but ≤100 ft2 (≤9.3 m2) storing combustible material 1 hour or sprinklers
Storage rooms >100 ft2 (>9.3 m2) storing combustible material 2 hours or 1 hour and sprinklers
Trash collection rooms 2 hours or 1 hour and sprinklers

†Minimum fire resistance rating.

Interior wall and ceiling finish materials complying with Section 10.2 shall be Class A in corridors, in exits, and in any space not separated from corridors and exits by partitions capable of retarding the passage of smoke; and Class A, Class B, or Class C in all other areas.
Interior floor finish in exit enclosures and exit access corridors shall be not less than Class I.
Interior floor finish shall comply with 10.2.7.1 or 10.2.7.2, as applicable.
Initiation of the fire alarm system required by 22.3.4.1 shall be by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2 and by means of any required detection devices or detection systems, unless otherwise permitted by the following:
  1. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be locked, provided that staff is present within the area when it is occupied and staff has keys readily available to unlock the boxes.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be located in a staff location, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
    1. The staff location is attended when the building is occupied.
    2. The staff attendant has direct supervision of the sleeping area.
An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be in accordance with Section 9.6, as modified by 22.4.4.9.2.1 and 22.4.4.9.2.2, throughout all resident sleeping areas and adjacent day rooms, activity rooms, or contiguous common spaces.
Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleeping rooms with four or fewer occupants in Use Condition II or Use Condition III.
Other arrangements and positioning of smoke detectors shall be permitted to prevent damage or tampering, or for other purposes. Such arrangements shall be capable of detecting any fire, and the placement of detectors shall be such that the speed of detection is equivalent to that provided by the spacing and arrangements required by the installation standards referenced in Section 9.6. Detectors shall be permitted to be located in exhaust ducts from cells, behind grilles, or in other locations. The equivalent performance of the design, however, shall be acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction in accordance with the equivalency concepts specified in Section 1.4.
Where smoke barriers are required by 22.3.7.1, they shall be provided in accordance with both of the following criteria:
  1. They shall limit the occupant load to not more than 200 residents in any smoke compartment.
  2. They shall limit the travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier in accordance with both of the following criteria:
    1. The distance from any room door required as exit access shall not exceed 100 ft (30 m).
    2. The distance from any point in a room shall not exceed 150 ft (46 m).
Subdivision of facility spaces shall comply with Table 22.4.4.11.

Table 22.4.4.11 Subdivision of Resident Housing Spaces — Nonsprinklered Buildings

Feature Use Condition
II III IV V
Room to room separation NR NR SR FR (1/2)
Room face to corridor separation SR SR SR FR
Room face to common space separation NR NR
≤50 ft (≤15 m)†
SR
>50 ft (>15 m)†
SR FR
Common space to corridor separation FR FR FR FR
Total openings in solid room face where room face is required to be smoke resistant or fire rated ‡ 0.85 ft2
(0.08 m2)
0.85 ft2
(0.08 m2)
0.85 ft2
(0.08 m2)
0.85 ft2
(0.08 m2)
where meeting one of the following:
(1) Kept in closed position, except when in use by staff
(2) Closable from the inside
(3) Provided with smoke control

NR: No requirement. SR: Smoke resistant. FR (1/2): Minimum 1/2-hour fire resistance rating. FR: Minimum 1-hour fire resistance rating.

Notes:

(1) Doors in openings in partitions required to be fire rated [FR (1/2), FR] in accordance with Table 22.4.4.11, in other than required enclosures of exits or hazardous areas, are required to be substantial doors of construction that resist fire for a minimum of 20 minutes. Vision panels with an existing installation of wired glass or glass with not less than 45-minute fire-rated glazing are permitted. Latches and door closers are not required on cell doors.

(2) Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke resistant (SR) in accordance with Table 22.4.4.11 are required to be substantial doors of construction that resists the passage of smoke. Latches and door closers are not required on cell doors.

(3) Under Use Condition II, Use Condition III, or Use Condition IV, a space subdivided by open construction (any combination of grating doors and grating walls or solid walls) is permitted to be considered one room if housing not more than 16 persons. The perimeter walls of such space are required to be of smoke-resistant construction. Smoke detection is required to be provided in such space. Under Use Condition IV, common walls between sleeping areas within the space are required to be smoke resistant, and grating doors and fronts are permitted to be used. In Use Condition II and Use Condition III, open dormitories are permitted to house more than 16 persons, as permitted by other sections of this chapter.

(4) Where barriers are required to be smoke resistant (SR), the provisions of Sections 8.4 and 8.5 do not apply.

†Travel distance through the common space to the exit access corridor.

‡"Total openings in solid room face" include all openings (e.g., undercuts, food passes, grilles), the total of which is not to exceed 0.85 ft2 (0.08 m2). All openings are required to be 36 in. (915 mm) or less above the floor.

Any one of the following means shall be provided to evacuate smoke from the smoke compartment of fire origin:
  1. Operable windows on not less than two sides of the building, spaced not more than 30 ft (9.1 m) apart, that provide openings with dimensions of not less than 22 in. (560 mm) in width and 24 in. (610 mm) in height
  2. *Manual or automatic smoke vents
  3. Engineered smoke control system
  4. Mechanical exhaust system providing not less than six air changes per hour
  5. Other method acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction
Newly introduced upholstered furniture within detention and correctional occupancies shall meet the criteria specified in 10.3.2.1(2) and 10.3.3.
Newly introduced mattresses within detention and correctional occupancies shall meet the criteria specified in 10.3.2.2 and 10.3.3.2.
Lockups in occupancies, other than detention and correctional occupancies and health care occupancies, where the holding area has capacity for more than 50 detainees shall be classified as detention and correctional occupancies and shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 22.
Lockups in occupancies, other than detention and correctional occupancies and health care occupancies, where any individual is detained for 24 or more hours shall be classified as detention and correctional occupancies and shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 22.

22.4.5.1.3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Lockups in occupancies, other than detention and correctional occupancies and health care occupancies, where the holding area has capacity for not more than 50 detainees, and where no individual is detained for 24 hours or more, shall comply with 22.4.5.1.4.
The lockup shall be permitted to comply with the requirements for the predominant occupancy in which the lockup is placed, provided that all of the following criteria are met:
  1. *Doors and other physical restraints to free egress by detainees can be readily released by staff within 2 minutes of the onset of a fire or similar emergency.
  2. Staff is in sufficient proximity to the lockup so as to be able to effect the 2-minute release required by 22.4.5.1.4(1) whenever detainees occupy the lockup.
  3. Staff is authorized to effect the release required by 22.4.5.1.4(1).
  4. Staff is trained and practiced in effecting the release required by 22.4.5.1.4(1).
  5. Where the release required by 22.4.5.1.4(1) is effected by means of remote release, detainees are not to be restrained from evacuating without the assistance of others.

22.4.5.1.5

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The fire department with responsibility for responding to a building that contains a lockup shall be notified of the presence of the lockup.

22.4.5.2 Alternate Provisions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

22.4.5.2.1

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

22.4.5.2.2

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

22.4.5.2.3

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

22.4.5.2.4

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Alcohol-based hand-rub dispensers shall be permitted where both of the following criteria are met:
  1. The detention and correction facility permits their use.
  2. The installation meets the requirements in 8.7.3.3.
Utilities shall comply with the provisions of Section 9.1.
Alarms, emergency communications systems, and the illumination of generator set locations shall be provided with emergency power in accordance with NFPA 70.
Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment shall comply with the provisions of Section 9.2 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications, unless otherwise modified by 22.5.2.2.
Portable space-heating devices shall be prohibited, unless otherwise permitted by 22.5.2.4.
Any heating device, other than a central heating plant, shall be designed and installed so that combustible material cannot be ignited by the device or its appurtenances, and both of the following requirements also shall apply:
  1. If fuel-fired, such heating devices shall comply with all of the following:
    1. They shall be chimney connected or vent connected.
    2. They shall take air for combustion directly from outside.
    3. They shall be designed and installed to provide for complete separation of the combustion system from the atmosphere of the occupied area.
  2. The heating system shall have safety devices to immediately stop the flow of fuel and shut down the equipment in case of either excessive temperatures or ignition failure.
Approved, suspended unit heaters shall be permitted in locations other than means of egress and sleeping areas, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
  1. Such heaters are located high enough to be out of the reach of persons using the area.
  2. Such heaters are vent connected and equipped with the safety devices required by 22.5.2.3(2).
Combustion and ventilation air for boiler, incinerator, or heater rooms shall be taken directly from, and discharged directly to, the outside.
Elevators, escalators, and conveyors shall comply with the provisions of Section 9.4.
Waste chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes shall comply with the provisions of Section 9.5.
Waste chutes and linen chutes, including pneumatic waste and linen systems, shall be provided with automatic extinguishing protection in accordance with Section 9.7.
Waste chutes shall discharge into a chute discharge room used for no purpose other than collection of waste and shall be protected in accordance with Sections 8.7 and 9.5.
Incinerators shall not be directly flue-fed, and floor chutes shall not directly connect with the combustion chamber.
Detention and correctional facilities, or those portions of facilities having such occupancy, shall be provided with 24-hour staffing, and the following requirements also shall apply:
  1. Staff shall be within three floors or a 300 ft (91 m) horizontal distance of the access door of each resident housing area.
  2. For Use Condition III, Use Condition IV, and Use Condition V, the arrangement shall be such that the staff involved starts the release of locks necessary for emergency evacuation or rescue and initiates other necessary emergency actions within 2 minutes of alarm.
  3. The following shall apply to areas in which all locks are unlocked remotely in compliance with 22.2.11.1.8:
    1. Staff shall not be required to be within three floors or 300 ft (91 m) of the access door.
    2. The 10-lock, manual key exemption of 22.2.11.1.8.2 shall not be permitted to be used in conjunction with the alternative requirement of 22.7.1.1(3)(a).
Provisions shall be made so that residents in Use Condition III, Use Condition IV, and Use Condition V shall be able to notify staff of an emergency.
The administration of every detention or correctional facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory personnel, written copies of a plan for the protection of all persons in the event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of refuge, and for evacuation from the building when necessary.
All employees shall be instructed and drilled with respect to their duties under the plan.
The plan shall be coordinated with, and reviewed by, the fire department legally committed to serve the facility.
Employees of detention and correctional occupancies shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers and other manual fire suppression equipment.
The training specified in 22.7.1.4 shall be provided to new staff promptly upon commencement of duty.
Refresher training shall be provided to existing staff at not less than annual intervals.
Books, clothing, and other combustible personal property allowed in sleeping rooms shall be stored in closable metal lockers or an approved fire-resistant container.
The number of heat-producing appliances, such as toasters and hot plates, and the overall use of electrical power within a sleeping room shall be controlled by facility administration.
Draperies and curtains, including privacy curtains, in detention and correctional occupancies shall be in accordance with the provisions of 10.3.1.
Newly introduced upholstered furniture within detention and correctional occupancies shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of 10.3.2.1(2).
Newly introduced mattresses within detention and correctional occupancies shall be tested in accordance with the provisions of 10.3.2.2.
Combustible decorations shall be prohibited in any detention or correctional occupancy unless they are flame retardant and approved.
Wastebaskets and other waste containers shall be of noncombustible or other approved materials. Waste containers with a capacity exceeding 20 gal (76 L) shall be provided with a noncombustible lid or lid of other approved material.
All keys necessary for unlocking doors installed in a means of egress shall be individually identified by both touch and sight.
Portable space-heating devices shall be prohibited in all detention and correctional occupancies.
Doors and door hardware in means of egress shall be inspected annually by an appropriately trained person. The inspection shall be documented.
Integrated fire protection and life safety systems shall be tested in accordance with 9.11.4.1.
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