Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
The performance-based design shall be prepared by a person with qualifications acceptable to the AHJ.
When a performance-based design is submitted to the AHJ for review and approval, the owner shall document, in an approved format, each performance objective and applicable scenario, including any calculation methods or models used in establishing the proposed design's fire and life safety performance.
The degree of conservatism reflected in such data shall be specified, and a justification for the source shall be provided.
Copies of all references relied upon by the performance-based design to support assumptions, design features, or any other part of the design shall be made available to the AHJ if requested.
The AHJ shall make the final determination as to whether the performance objectives have been met.
Any approved changes to the original design shall be maintained in the same manner as the original design.
Where a performance-based design is approved and used, the property owner shall annually certify that the design features and systems have been maintained in accordance with the approved original performance-based design and assumptions and any subsequent approved changes or modifications to the original performance-based design.
Performance-based designs for facilities containing high hazard contents shall identify the properties of hazardous materials to be stored, used, or handled and shall provide adequate and reliable safeguards to accomplish the following objectives, considering both normal operations and possible abnormal conditions:
- Minimize the potential occurrence of unwanted releases, fire, or other emergency incidents resulting from the storage, use, or handling of hazardous materials
- Minimize the potential failure of buildings, equipment, or processes involving hazardous materials by ensuring that such buildings, equipment, or processes are reliably designed and are suitable for the hazards present
- Minimize the potential exposure of people or property to unsafe conditions or events involving an unintended reaction or release of hazardous materials
- Minimize the potential for an unintentional reaction that results in a fire, explosion, or other dangerous condition
- Provide a means to contain, treat, neutralize, or otherwise handle plausible releases of hazardous materials to minimize the potential for adverse impacts to persons or property outside of the immediate area of a release
- Provide appropriate safeguards to minimize the risk of and limit damage and injury that could result from an explosion involving hazardous materials that present explosion hazards
- Detect hazardous levels of gases or vapors that are dangerous to health and alert appropriate persons or mitigate the hazard when the physiological warning properties for such gases or vapors are inadequate to warn of danger prior to personal injury
- Maintain power to provide for continued operation of safeguards and important systems that are relied upon to prevent or control an emergency condition involving hazardous materials
- Maintain ventilation where ventilation is relied upon to minimize the risk of emergency conditions involving hazardous materials
- Minimize the potential for exposing combustible hazardous materials to unintended sources of ignition and for exposing any hazardous material to fire or physical damage that can lead to endangerment of people or property
A process hazard analysis and off-site consequence analysis shall be conducted when required by the AHJ to ensure that people and property are satisfactorily protected from potentially dangerous conditions involving hazardous materials. The results of such analyses shall be considered when determining active and passive mitigation measures used in accomplishing the objectives of 220.127.116.11.2 and 18.104.22.168.
Written procedures for pre-start-up safety reviews, normal and emergency operations, management of change, emergency response, and accident investigation shall be developed prior to beginning operations at a facility designed in accordance with Section 5.1. Such procedures shall be developed with the participation of employees.
A list of special terms used in this chapter shall be as follows:
- Design Fire Scenario. (See 22.214.171.124.)
- Design Specification. (See 3.4.5.)
- Design Team. (See 3.4.6.)
- Exposure Fire. (See 3.4.7.)
- Fire Model. (See 3.4.8.)
- Fire Scenario. (See 3.4.9.)
- Fuel Load. (See 3.4.10.)
- Input Data Specification. (See 3.4.12.)
- Occupant Characteristics. (See 3.4.13.)
- Performance Criteria. (See 3.4.14.)
- Proposed Design. (See 3.4.15.)
- Safety Factor. (See 3.4.17.)
- Safety Margin. (See 3.4.18.)
- Sensitivity Analysis. (See 126.96.36.199.)
- Stakeholder. (See 3.4.20.)
- Uncertainty Analysis. (See 188.8.131.52.)
- Verification Method. (See 3.4.22.)
No occupant who is not intimate with ignition shall be exposed to instantaneous or cumulative untenable conditions.
Means shall be provided to evacuate, relocate, or defend in place occupants not intimate with ignition for sufficient time so that they are not exposed to instantaneous or cumulative untenable conditions from smoke, heat, or flames.
Buildings shall be designed and constructed to reasonably prevent structural failure under fire conditions for sufficient time to protect the occupants.
The design shall comply with the following requirements in addition to the performance criteria of Section 5.2 and the methods of Section 5.4 through Section 5.7:
- Fundamental requirements in Section 10.1
- Fire drills in Section 10.5
- Smoking in Section 10.9
- Open flame, candles, open fires, and incinerators in Section 10.10
- Fire protection markings in Section 10.11
- Seasonal and vacant buildings and premises in Section 10.12
- Combustible vegetation in Section 10.13
- Safeguards during building construction, alteration, and demolition operations in Chapter 16
The design shall comply with the following NFPA 101 requirements in addition to the performance criteria of Section 5.2 and the methods of Section 5.4 through Section 5.7:
- Changes in level in means of egress: 7.1.7 of NFPA 101
- Guards: 7.1.8 of NFPA 101
- Door openings: 7.2.1 of NFPA 101
- Stairs: 7.2.2 of NFPA 101
- Ramps: 7.2.5 of NFPA 101
- Fire escape ladders: 7.2.9 of NFPA 101
- Alternating tread devices: 7.2.11 of NFPA 101
- Capacity of means of egress: Section 7.3 of NFPA 101
- Impediments to egress: 7.5.2 of NFPA 101
- Illumination of means of egress: Section 7.8 of NFPA 101
- Emergency lighting: Section 7.9 of NFPA 101
- Marking of means of egress: Section 7.10 of NFPA 101
Design scenarios shall be evaluated for each required scenario using a method acceptable to the AHJ and appropriate for the conditions. Each scenario shall be as challenging and realistic as any that could realistically occur in the building.
Each design scenario used in the performance-based design proposal shall be translated into input data specifications, as appropriate for the calculation method or model.
This design scenario shall explicitly account for the following:
- Occupant activities
- Number and location of occupants
- Room size
- Furnishings and contents
- Fuel properties and ignition sources
- Ventilation conditions
The first item ignited and its location shall be explicitly defined.
Fire Design Scenario 3 involves a fire that starts in a normally unoccupied room that can potentially endanger a large number of occupants in a large room or other area. This design scenario shall address the concern regarding a fire starting in a normally unoccupied room and migrating into the space that can, potentially, hold the greatest number of occupants in the building.
Fire Design Scenario 4 involves a fire that originates in a concealed wall or ceiling space adjacent to a large occupied room. This design scenario shall address the concern regarding a fire originating in a concealed space that does not have either a detection system or suppression system and then spreading into the room within the building that can, potentially, hold the greatest number of occupants.
Fire Design Scenario 6 involves the most severe fire resulting from the largest possible fuel load characteristic of the normal operation of the building. This design scenario shall address the concern regarding a rapidly developing fire with occupants present.
Fire Design Scenario 7 involves an outside exposure fire. This design scenario shall address the concern regarding a fire starting at a location remote from the area of concern and either spreading into the area, blocking escape from the area, or developing untenable conditions within the area.
Fire Design Scenario 8 involves a fire originating in ordinary combustibles in a room or area with each passive or active fire protection system or feature independently rendered ineffective. This set of design scenarios shall address concerns regarding each fire protection system or fire protection feature, considered individually, being unreliable or becoming unavailable. This scenario shall not be required to be applied to fire protection systems or features for which both the level of reliability and the design performance in the absence of the system are acceptable to the AHJ.
Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 3 involves the application of an external factor to the hazardous material that is likely to result in a fire, explosion, toxic release, or other unsafe condition. This design scenario shall address the concern regarding the initiation of a hazardous materials event by the application of heat, shock, impact, or water onto a hazardous material being stored, used, handled, or dispensed in the facility.
Hazardous Materials Design Scenario 4 involves an unauthorized discharge with each protection system independently rendered ineffective. This set of design hazardous materials scenarios shall address concern regarding each protection system or protection feature, considered individually, being unreliable or becoming unavailable.
Building Use Design Scenario 1 involves an event in which the maximum occupant load is in the assembly building and an emergency event occurs blocking the principal exit/entrance to the building. This design scenario shall address the concern of occupants having to take alternative exit routes under crowded conditions.
Building Use Design Scenario 2 involves a fire in an area of a building undergoing construction or demolition while the remainder of the building is occupied. The normal fire suppression system in the area undergoing construction or demolition has been taken out of service. This design scenario shall address the concern regarding the inoperability of certain building fire safety features during construction and demolition in a partially occupied building.
A complete listing of input data requirements for all models, engineering methods, and other calculation or verification methods required or proposed as part of the performance-based design shall be provided.
Uncertainty in input data shall be analyzed and, as determined appropriate by the AHJ, addressed through the use of conservative values.
The assessment methods used shall accurately and appropriately produce the required output data from input data based on the design specifications, assumptions, and scenarios.
Evidence shall be provided confirming that the assessment methods are valid and appropriate for the proposed facility, use, and conditions.
The AHJ shall be provided with sufficient documentation to support the validity, accuracy, relevance, and precision of the proposed methods.
The engineering standards, calculation methods, and other forms of scientific information provided shall be appropriate for the particular application and methodologies used.
Descriptions of design hazard scenarios shall be documented.
Input data to models and assessment methods, including sensitivity analysis, shall be documented.
Output data from models and assessment methods, including sensitivity analysis, shall be documented.
Retained prescriptive requirements shall be documented.
Assumptions made by the model user, and descriptions of models and methods used, including known limitations, shall be documented.
Documentation shall be provided that the assessment methods have been used validly and appropriately to address the design specifications, assumptions, and scenarios.
The design team's relevant experience with the models, test methods, databases, and other assessment methods used in the performance-based design proposal shall be documented.
The performance evaluation summary shall be documented.
Design proposals shall include documentation that provides anyone involved in ownership or management of the facility with all of the following notification: