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The AHJ shall have the authority to require that construction documents for all fire protection systems be submitted for review and approval and a permit be issued prior to the installation, rehabilitation, or modification. (For additional information concerning construction documents, see Section 1.14.) Further, the AHJ shall have the authority to require that full acceptance tests of the systems be performed in the AHJ's presence prior to final system certification.
Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 1.12.
The property owner shall be responsible for the proper testing and maintenance of the equipment and systems.
Where required by Chapters 11 through 43 of NFPA 101, and where two or more fire protection or life safety systems are integrated, the integrated system shall be tested to verify the proper operation and function of such systems in accordance with NFPA 4. [101:9.11.4]
Obstructions shall not be placed or kept near fire hydrants, fire department inlet connections, or fire protection system control valves in a manner that would prevent such equipment or fire hydrants from being immediately visible and accessible.
A minimum 36 in. (915 mm) of clear space shall be maintained to permit access to and operation of fire protection equipment, fire department inlet connections, or fire protection system control valves. The fire department shall not be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access to fire protection equipment.
An approved clear and unobstructed path shall be provided and maintained for access to the fire department inlet connections.
Detailed records documenting all systems and equipment testing and maintenance shall be kept by the property owner and shall be made available upon request for review by the AHJ.
Existing systems shall be in accordance with 1.3.6.2 and 10.3.2.
All fire protection systems and devices shall be maintained in a reliable operating condition and shall be replaced or repaired where defective or recalled.
Whenever impairments, critical deficiencies, or non-critical deficiencies are identified in water-based fire protection systems maintained in accordance with NFPA 25, they shall be corrected in a time frame approved by the AHJ.
The AHJ shall be notified when any fire protection system is out of service and on restoration of service.
In the event of a failure of a fire protection system or an excessive number of accidental activations, the AHJ shall be permitted to require an approved fire watch until the system is repaired.
For occupancies of an especially hazardous nature or where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazard of the occupancy, or where access for fire apparatus is unduly difficult, or where the size or configuration of the building or contents limits normal fire suppression efforts, the AHJ shall have the authority to require additional safeguards consisting of additional fire safety equipment, more than one type of fire safety equipment, or special systems suitable for the protection of the hazard involved.
The AHJ shall have the authority to require locking fire department connection (FDC) plugs or caps on all water-based fire protection systems.
The design and installation of standpipe systems shall be in accordance with Section 13.2 and NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems.
Where required by this Code or the referenced codes and standards listed in Chapter 2, standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with 13.2.1.
New buildings shall be equipped with a Class I standpipe system installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 13.2 where any of the following conditions exist:
  1. More than three stories above grade where the building is protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system
  2. More than two stories above grade where the building is not protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system
  3. * More than 50 ft (15 m) above grade and containing intermediate stories or balconies
  4. More than one story below grade
  5. More than 20 ft (6.1 m) below grade
High-rise buildings shall be protected throughout by a Class I standpipe system in accordance with 13.2.2. [101:11.8.3.2]
In new assembly occupancies, regular stages over 1000 ft2 (93 m2) in area and all legitimate stages shall be equipped with 11/2 in. (38 mm) hose lines for first aid fire fighting at each side of the stage. [101:12.4.6.12.1]
In existing assembly occupancies, stages over 1000 ft2 (93 m2) in area shall be equipped with 11/2 in. (38 mm) hose lines for first aid fire fighting at each side of the stage. [101:13.4.6.12.1]
Hose connections shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, unless Class II or Class III standpipes in accordance with NFPA 14 are used. [101:12.4.6.12.2; 101:13.4.6.12.2]
Standpipe and hose systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 9.10 of NFPA 101 as follows, unless otherwise permitted by 13.2.2.5.1:
  1. Class I standpipe systems shall be provided for any building three or more stories in height.
  2. Class III standpipe and hose systems shall be provided for all nonsprinklered buildings three or more stories in height.
[101:22.3.5.5; 101:23.3.5.5]
The requirements of 13.2.2.5 shall not apply where otherwise permitted by the following:
  1. Formed hose, 1 in. (25 mm) in diameter, on hose reels shall be permitted to provide Class II service.
  2. Separate Class I and Class II systems shall be permitted in lieu of a Class III system.
[101:22.3.5.6; 101:23.3.5.6]
The AHJ shall be authorized to permit the removal of existing occupant-use hose lines where all of the following are met:
  1. This Code does not require their installation.
  2. The current building code does not require their installation.
  3. The AHJ determines that the occupant-use hose line will not be utilized by trained personnel or the fire department.
A standpipe system installed in accordance with this Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same level of performance and protection as designed.
The owner shall be responsible for maintaining the standpipe system and keeping it in good working condition.
A standpipe system installed in accordance with this Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25.
Where an existing standpipe system, including yard piping and fire department connection, is modified, the new piping shall be independently tested in accordance with 11.4.1 of NFPA 14. [14:11.4.7.1]
Modifications that cannot be isolated, such as new valves or the point of connection for new piping, shall not require testing in excess of system static pressure. [14:11.4.7.2]
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed and maintained in full operating condition in the occupancies specified in this Code or in the codes or standards referenced in Chapter 2.
Installations shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, NFPA 13R, or NFPA 13D as appropriate.
Existing systems shall be in accordance with 1.3.6.2 and 10.3.2.
Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprinklers for any hazardous area shall be permitted to be connected directly to a domestic water supply system having a capacity sufficient to provide 0.15 gpm/ft2 (6.1 mm/min) throughout the entire enclosed area. [101:9.7.1.2]
Sprinkler piping serving hazardous areas as described in 13.3.1.4 shall be provided with an indicating shutoff valve, supervised in accordance with 13.3.1.8 or NFPA 13 and installed in an accessible, visible location between the sprinklers and the connection to the domestic water supply. [101:9.7.1.3]
In areas protected by automatic sprinklers, automatic heat-detection devices required by other sections of this Code shall not be required. [101:9.7.1.4]
Automatic sprinkler systems installed to make use of an alternative permitted by this Code shall be considered required systems and shall meet the provisions of this Code that apply to required systems. [101:9.7.1.5]
Where supervised automatic sprinkler systems are required by another section of this Code, supervisory attachments shall be installed and monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72 and a distinctive supervisory signal shall be provided to indicate a condition that would impair the satisfactory operation of the sprinkler system. [101:9.7.2.1.1]
Supervisory signals shall sound and shall be displayed either at a location within the protected building that is constantly attended by qualified personnel or at an approved, remotely located receiving facility. [101:9.7.2.1.2]
Where supervision of automatic sprinkler systems is required by another section of this Code, waterflow alarms shall be transmitted to an approved, proprietary alarm-receiving facility, a remote station, a central station, or the fire department. [101:9.7.2.2.1]
The connection described in 13.3.1.8.2.1 shall be in accordance with 13.7.1.1. [101:9.7.2.2.2]
The following practices shall be observed to provide sprinklers of other than ordinary-temperature classification unless other temperatures are determined or unless high-temperature sprinklers are used throughout, and temperature selection shall be in accordance with Table 13.3.1.9(a), Table 13.3.1.9(b), and Figure 13.3.1.9:
  1. Sprinklers in the high-temperature zone shall be of the high-temperature classification, and sprinklers in the intermediate-temperature zone shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  2. Sprinklers located within 12 in. (300 mm) to one side or 30 in. (750 mm) above an uncovered steam main, heating coil, or radiator shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  3. Sprinklers within 7 ft (2.1 m) of a low-pressure blowoff valve that discharges free in a large room shall be of the high-temperature classification.
  4. Sprinklers under glass or plastic skylights exposed to the direct rays of the sun shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  5. Sprinklers in an unventilated, concealed space, under an uninsulated roof, or in an unventilated attic shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  6. Sprinklers in unventilated show windows having high-powered electric lights near the ceiling shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification.
  7. Sprinklers protecting commercial-type cooking equipment and ventilation systems shall be of the high- or extra high-temperature classification as determined by use of a temperature-measuring device. (See 7.9.6 of NFPA 13.)
  8. Sprinklers protecting residential areas installed near specific heat sources identified in Table 13.3.1.9(c) shall be installed in accordance with Table 13.3.1.9(c).
  9. Ordinary-temperature sprinklers located adjacent to a heating duct that discharges air that is less than 100°F (38°C) are not required to be separated in accordance with Table 13.3.1.9(a).
  10. Sprinklers in walk-in type coolers and freezers with automatic defrosting shall be of the intermediate-temperature classification or higher.
[13:8.3.2.5]
Table 13.3.1.9(a) Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers Based on Distance from Heat Sources
Type of Heat Condition Ordinary-Temperature Rating Intermediate-Temperature Rating High-Temperature Rating
(1) Heating ducts
(a) Above More than 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) 2 ft 6 in. or less (750 mm)  
(b) Side and below More than 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) 1 ft 0 in. or less (300 mm)  
(c) Diffuser Any distance except as shown under Intermediate-Temperature Rating column Downward discharge: Cylinder with 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) radius from edge extending 1 ft 0 in. below and 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) above  
    Horizontal discharge: Semicylinder or cylinder with 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) radius in direction of flow extending 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) below and 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) above  
(2) Unit heater
(a) Horizontal discharge   Discharge side: 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) to 20 ft 0 in. (6.1 m) radius pieshaped cylinder (see Figure 13.3.1.8) extending 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above and 2 ft 0 in. (600 mm) below heater; also 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder more than 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above unit heater 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder extending 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above and 2 ft 0 in. (600 mm) below unit heater
(b) Vertical downward discharge (for sprinklers below unit heater, see Figure 13.3.1.9)   7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder extending upward from an elevation 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above unit heater 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) radius cylinder extending from the top of the unit heater to an elevation 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m) above unit heater
(3) Steam mains (uncovered)
(a) Above More than 2 ft 6 in. (750 mm) 2 ft 6 in. or less (750 mm)  
(b) Side and below More than 1 ft 0 in. (300 mm) 1 ft 0 in. or less (300 mm)  
(c) Blowoff valve More than 7 ft 0 in. (2.1 m)   7 ft 0 in. or less (2.1 m)
[13: Table 8.3.2.5(a)]
Table 13.3.1.9(b) Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Locations
Location Ordinary-Temperature Rating Intermediate-Temperature Rating High-Temperature Rating
Skylights Glass or plastic  
Attics Do not use Ventilated or unventilated  
Peaked roof: metal or thin boards, concealed or not concealed, insulated or uninsulated Ventilated Unventilated  
Flat roof: metal, not concealed Ventilated or unventilated Note: For uninsulated roof, climate and insulated or uninsulated occupancy can necessitate intermediate sprinklers. Check on job.  
Flat roof: metal, concealed, insulated, or uninsulated Ventilated Unventilated  
Show windows Ventilated Unventilated  
Note: A check of job condition by means of thermometers might be necessary. [13: Table 8.3.2.5(b)]
Table 13.3.1.9(c) Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Residential Areas
Heat Source Minimum Distance from Edge of Source to Ordinary-Temperature Sprinkler Minimum Distance from Edge of Source to Intermediate-Temperature Sprinkler
in. mm in. mm
Side of open or recessed fireplace 36 915 12 300
Front of recessed fireplace 60 1525 36 915
Coal- or wood-burning stove 42 1070 12 305
Kitchen range 18 460 9 230
Wall oven 18 460 9 230
Hot air flues 18 460 9 230
Uninsulated heat ducts 18 460 9 230
Uninsulated hot water pipes 12 305 6 155
Side of ceiling- or wall-mounted hot air diffusers 24 610 12 305
Front of wall-mounted hot air diffusers 36 915 18 460
Hot water heater or furnace 6 155 3 75
Light fixture:
0 W—250 W 6 155 3 75
250 W—499 W 12 305 6 155
[13: Table 8.3.2.5(c)]
FIGURE 13.3.1.9 High-Temperature and Intermediate-Temperature Zones at Unit Heaters. [13:Figure 8.3.2.5]
Where required by this Code or the referenced codes and standards listed in Chapter 2, automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with 13.3.1.
Basements exceeding 2500 ft2 (232 m2) in new buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
New buildings housing emergency fire, rescue or ambulance services shall be protected throughout by approved supervised automatic sprinkler systems. Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from emergency fire, rescue or ambulance services that are storing vehicles or equipment only and are not part of a multiple mixed occupancy.
New buildings three or more stories in height above grade shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 unless otherwise permitted by 13.3.2.5.
Stand-alone open parking structures that are detached from other occupancies shall not be required to be protected by an automatic sprinkler system.
In buildings protected throughout by automatic sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 13, automatic sprinkler protection shall be provided for the exterior spaces in accordance with 13.3.2.6.
Unless the requirements of 13.3.2.6.2, 13.3.2.6.3, or 13.3.2.6.4 are met, sprinklers shall be installed under exterior projections exceeding 4 ft (1.2 m) in width. [13:8.15.7.1]
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted where the exterior canopies, roofs, porte-cocheres, balconies, decks, and similar projections are constructed with materials that are noncombustible, limited-combustible, or fire retardant-treated wood as defined in NFPA 703, or where the projections are constructed utilizing a noncombustible frame, limited-combustibles, or fire retardant-treated wood with an inherently flame-resistant fabric overlay as demonstrated by Test Method 2 in accordance with NFPA 701. [13:8.15.7.2]
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from below the exterior projections of combustible construction, provided the exposed finish material on the exterior projections are noncombustible, limited-combustible, or fire retardant-treated wood as defined in NFPA 703, and the exterior projections contain only sprinklered concealed spaces or any of the following unsprinklered combustible concealed spaces:
  1. Combustible concealed spaces filled entirely with noncombustible insulation
  2. Light or ordinary hazard occupancies where noncombustible or limited-combustible ceilings are directly attached to the bottom of solid wood joists so as to create enclosed joist spaces 160 ft3 (4.5 m3) or less in volume, including space below insulation that is laid directly on top or within the ceiling joists in an otherwise sprinklered attic [see 11.2.3.1.4(4)(d) of NFPA 13]
  3. Concealed spaces over isolated small exterior projections not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2) in area
[13:8.15.7.3]
Sprinklers shall be permitted to be omitted from exterior exit corridors when the exterior walls of the corridor are at least 50 percent open and when the corridor is entirely of noncombustible construction. [13:8.15.7.4]
Sprinklers shall be installed under exterior projections greater than 2 ft (600 mm) wide over areas where combustibles are stored. [13:8.15.7.5]
The following assembly occupancies shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.1.2:
  1. Dance halls
  2. Discotheques
  3. Nightclubs
  4. Assembly occupancies with festival seating
[101:12.3.5.1]
Upcodes Diagrams
Any building containing one or more assembly occupancies where the aggregate occupant load of the assembly occupancies exceeds 300 shall be protected by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 as follows (see also 12.1.6, 12.2.6, 12.3.2, and 12.3.6 of NFPA 101):
  1. Throughout the story containing the assembly occupancy
  2. Throughout all stories below the story containing the assembly occupancy
  3. In the case of an assembly occupancy located below the level of exit discharge, throughout all stories intervening between that story and the level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge
[101:12.3.5.2]
Upcodes Diagrams
The requirements of 13.3.2.7.2 shall not apply to the following:
  1. * Assembly occupancies consisting of a single multipurpose room of less than 12,000 ft2 (1115 m2) that are not used for exhibition or display and are not part of a mixed occupancy
  2. Gymnasiums, skating rinks, and swimming pools used exclusively for participant sports with no audience facilities for more than 300 persons
  3. * Locations in stadia and arenas as follows:
    1. Over the floor areas used for contest, performance, or entertainment, provided that the roof construction is more than 50 ft (15 m) above the floor level, and use is restricted to low fire hazard uses
    2. Over the seating areas, provided that use is restricted to low fire hazard uses
    3. Over open-air concourses where an approved engineering analysis substantiates the ineffectiveness of the sprinkler protection due to building height and combustible loading
  4. Locations in unenclosed stadia and arenas as follows:
    1. Press boxes of less than 1000 ft2 (93 m2)
    2. Storage facilities of less than 1000 ft2 (93 m2) if enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction
    3. Enclosed areas underneath grandstands that comply with 25.3.4
    [101:12.3.5.3]
Where another provision of Chapter 12 of NFPA 101 requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:12.3.5.4]
Every stage shall be protected by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in compliance with Section 13.3. [101:12.4.6.10]
Protection shall be provided throughout the stage and in storerooms, workshops, permanent dressing rooms, and other accessory spaces contiguous to stages. [101:12.4.6.10.1]
Sprinklers shall not be required for stages 1000 ft2 (93 m2) or less in area and 50 ft (15 m) or less in height where the following criteria are met:
  1. Curtains, scenery, or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically.
  2. Combustible hangings are limited to borders, legs, a single main curtain, and a single backdrop.
Sprinklers shall not be required under stage areas less than 48 in. (1220 mm) in clear height that are used exclusively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside with 5/8 in. (16 mm) Type X gypsum wallboard or the approved equivalent. [101:12.4.6.10.3]
Where the occupant load exceeds 100, the following assembly occupancies shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13:
  1. Dance halls
  2. Discotheques
  3. Nightclubs
  4. Assembly occupancies with festival seating
[101:13.3.5.1]
Any assembly occupancy used or capable of being used for exhibition or display purposes shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 where the exhibition or display area exceeds 15,000 ft2 (1400 m2). [101:13.3.5.2]
The sprinklers specified by 13.3.2.8.2 shall not be required where otherwise permitted in the following locations:
  1. Locations in stadia and arenas as follows:
    1. Over the floor areas used for contest, performance, or entertainment
    2. Over the seating areas
    3. Over open-air concourses where an approved engineering analysis substantiates the ineffectiveness of the sprinkler protection due to building height and combustible loading
  2. Locations in unenclosed stadia and arenas as follows:
    1. Press boxes of less than 1000 ft2 (93 m2)
    2. Storage facilities of less than 1000 ft2 (93 m2) if enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction
    3. Enclosed areas underneath grandstands that comply with 25.3.4
    [101:13.3.5.3]
Where another provision of this chapter and Chapter 13 of NFPA 101 requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:13.3.5.4]
Every stage shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in compliance with Section 13.3. [101:13.4.6.10]
Protection shall be provided throughout the stage and in storerooms, workshops, permanent dressing rooms, and other accessory spaces contiguous to such stages. [101:13.4.6.10.1]
Sprinklers shall not be required for stages 1000 ft2 (93 m2) or less in area where the following criteria are met:
  1. Curtains, scenery, or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically.
  2. Combustible hangings are limited to borders, legs, a single main curtain, and a single backdrop.
[101:13.4.6.10.2]
Sprinklers shall not be required under stage areas less than 48 in. (1220 mm) in clear height that are used exclusively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside with 5/8 in. (16 mm) Type X gypsum wallboard or the approved equivalent. [101:13.4.6.10.3]
Educational occupancy buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3.
The requirement of 13.3.2.9.1 shall not apply to any of the following:
  1. Non-relocatable buildings having an area not exceeding 1000 ft2 (93 m2)
  2. Non-relocatable buildings containing a single classroom
  3. Relocatable buildings complying with all of the following:
    1. Building area does not exceed 1000 ft2 (93 m2)
    2. Building contains a single classroom
    3. Building is located not less than 30 ft (9.1 m) from another building
[101:14.3.5.2]
Every portion of educational buildings below the level of exit discharge shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101:14.3.5.3]
Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101:14.3.5.4]
Where another provision of Chapter 14 of NFPA 101 requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:14.3.5.5]
Where student occupancy exists below the level of exit discharge, every portion of such floor shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101:15.3.5.1]
Where student occupancy does not exist on floors below the level of exit discharge, such floors shall be separated from the rest of the building by 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction or shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101:15.3.5.2]
Automatic sprinkler protection shall not be required where student occupancy exists below the level of exit discharge, provided that both of the following criteria are met:
  1. The approval of the AHJ shall be required.
  2. Windows for rescue and ventilation shall be provided in accordance with 15.2.11.1 of NFPA 101.
[101:15.3.5.3]
Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101:15.3.5.4]
Where another provision of Chapter 15 of NFPA 101 requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:15.3.5.5]
Buildings containing health care occupancies shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, unless otherwise permitted by 13.3.2.11.3. [101:18.3.5.1]
The sprinkler system required by 13.3.2.11.1 shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:18.3.5.4]
In Type I and Type II construction, alternative protection measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprinkler protection, without causing a building to be classified as nonsprinklered, in specified areas where the AHJ has prohibited sprinklers. [101:18.3.5.5]
Listed quick-response or listed residential sprinklers shall be used throughout smoke compartments containing patient sleeping rooms. [101:18.3.5.6]
Sprinklers shall not be required in clothes closets of patient sleeping rooms in hospitals where the area of the closet does not exceed 6 ft2 (0.55 m2), provided that the distance from the sprinkler in the patient sleeping room to the back wall of the closet does not exceed the maximum distance permitted by NFPA 13. [101:18.3.5.10]
Sprinklers in areas where cubicle curtains are installed shall be in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:18.3.5.11]
Buildings containing nursing homes shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and Section 9.7 of NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by 13.3.2.12.7. [101:19.3.5.1]
All high-rise buildings containing health care occupancies shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 13.3 within 12 years of the adoption of this Code, except as otherwise provided in 13.3.2.12.3 or 13.3.2.12.4. [101:19.4.2.1]
Where a jurisdiction adopts this edition of the Code and previously adopted the 2015 edition, the sprinklering required by 13.3.2.12.2 shall be installed within 9 years of the adoption of this Code. [101:19.4.2.2]
Where a jurisdiction adopts this edition of the Code and previously adopted the 2012 edition, the sprinklering required by 13.3.2.12.2 shall be installed within 6 years of the adoption of this Code. [101:19.4.2.3]
Where required by 19.1.6 of NFPA 101, buildings containing hospitals or limited care facilities shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and Section 9.7 of NFPA 101, unless otherwise permitted by 13.3.2.12.7. [101:19.3.5.3]
The sprinkler system required by 13.3.2.12.1 or 13.3.2.12.5 shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:19.3.5.4]
In Type I and Type II construction, alternative protection measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprinkler protection in specified areas where the AHJ has prohibited sprinklers, without causing a building to be classified as nonsprinklered. [101:19.3.5.5]
Where this Code permits exceptions for fully sprinklered buildings or smoke compartments, the sprinkler system shall meet all of the following criteria:
  1. It shall be in accordance with Section 13.3.
  2. It shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13, unless it is an approved existing system.
  3. It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system.
  4. It shall be fully supervised.
  5. In Type I and Type II construction, where the AHJ has prohibited sprinklers, approved alternative protection measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprinkler protection in specified areas without causing a building to be classified as nonsprinklered.
[101:19.3.5.7]
Where this Code permits exceptions for fully sprinklered buildings or smoke compartments and specifically references this paragraph, the sprinkler system shall meet all of the following criteria:
  1. It shall be installed throughout the building or smoke compartment in accordance with Section 13.3.
  2. It shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13, unless it is an approved existing system.
  3. It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system.
  4. It shall be fully supervised.
  5. It shall be equipped with listed quick-response or listed residential sprinklers throughout all smoke compartments containing patient sleeping rooms.
  6. Standard-response sprinklers shall be permitted to be continued to be used in approved existing sprinkler systems where quick-response and residential sprinklers were not listed for use in such locations at the time of installation.
  7. Standard-response sprinklers shall be permitted for use in hazardous areas protected in accordance with 19.3.2.1 of NFPA 101.
[101:19.3.5.8]
Isolated hazardous areas shall be permitted to be protected in accordance with 13.3.1.4. For new installations in existing health care occupancies, where more than two sprinklers are installed in a single area, waterflow detection shall be provided to sound the building fire alarm or to notify, by a signal, any constantly attended location, such as PBX, security, or emergency room, at which the necessary corrective action shall be taken. [101:19.3.5.9]
Sprinklers shall not be required in clothes closets of patient sleeping rooms in hospitals where the area of the closet does not exceed 6 ft2 (0.55 m2), provided that the distance from the sprinkler in the patient sleeping room to the back wall of the closet does not exceed the maximum distance permitted by NFPA 13. [101:19.3.5.10]
Newly introduced cubicle curtains in sprinklered areas shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:19.3.5.11]
All buildings classified as Use Condition II, Use Condition III, Use Condition IV, or Use Condition V shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.13.2. [101:22.3.5.2]
The automatic sprinkler system required by 13.3.2.13.1 shall meet all of the following criteria:
  1. It shall be in accordance with Section 13.3.
  2. It shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13.
  3. It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system.
  4. It shall be fully supervised.
[101:22.3.5.3]
Where required by Table 23.1.6.1 of NFPA 101, facilities shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.14.2. [101:23.3.5.2]
Where this Code permits exceptions for fully sprinklered detention and correctional occupancies or sprinklered smoke compartments, the sprinkler system shall meet all of the following criteria:
  1. It shall be in accordance with Section 13.3.
  2. It shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13.
  3. It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system.
  4. It shall be fully supervised.
[101:23.3.5.3]
All buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.15.2. [101:28.3.5.1]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.15.3. In hotel or dormitory occupancies up to and including four stories in height, that are located in buildings not exceeding 60 ft (18.3 m) in height above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. [101:28.3.5.3]
Where located in a building of Type III, Type IV, or Type V construction designed in accordance with 4.6.3(5) of NFPA 101, and where the roof assembly is located more than 55 ft (17 m) above the lowest level of required fire department vehicle access, attics shall comply with 13.3.2.15.2.1.1, 13.3.2.15.1.2, and one of the following:
  1. Attics shall be provided with sprinkler protection.
  2. Attics shall be constructed with noncombustible materials.
  3. Attics shall be constructed with fire-retardant-treated wood.
  4. Attics shall be filled with noncombustible insulation.
[101:28.3.5.3.1]
The height of the roof assembly shall be determined by measuring the distance from the lowest level of required fire department vehicle access adjacent to the building to the eave of the highest pitched roof, the intersection of the highest roof to the exterior wall, or the top of the highest parapet, whichever yields the greatest distance. [101:28.3.5.3.1.1]
Required fire department vehicle access roads used in 28.3.5.3.1.1 shall include only those roads that are necessary for required fire department vehicle access in accordance with Section 18.2. [101:28.3.5.3.1.2]
The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced sprinklers in NFPA 13 shall not be required for openings complying with 8.6.9.1 of NFPA 101 where the opening is within the guest room or guest suite. [101:28.3.5.4]
Listed quick-response or listed residential sprinklers shall be used throughout guest rooms and guest room suites. [101:28.3.5.6]
Open parking structures that comply with NFPA 88A and are contiguous with hotels or dormitories shall be exempt from the sprinkler requirements of 13.3.2.15.1. [101:28.3.5.7]
All high-rise buildings, other than those where each guest room or guest suite has exterior exit access in accordance with 7.5.3 of NFPA 101, shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.16.2. [101:29.3.5.1]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.16.3 and 13.3.2.16.4. In buildings four or fewer stories in height and not exceeding 60 ft (18.3 m) in height above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. [101:29.3.5.3]
The provisions for draft stops and closely spaced sprinklers in NFPA 13 shall not be required for openings complying with 8.6.9.1 of NFPA 101 where the opening is within the guest room or guest suite. [101:29.3.5.4]
In guest rooms and in guest room suites, sprinkler installations shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft2 (2.2 m2) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2). [101:29.3.5.5]
All buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 13.3.2.17.2. [101:30.3.5.1]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.17.3 and 13.3.2.17.5. In apartment buildings up to and including four stories in height, that are located in buildings not exceeding 60 ft (18.3 m) in height above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. [101:30.3.5.2]
Where located in a building of Type III, Type IV, or Type V construction designed in accordance with 4.6.3(5) of NFPA 101, and where the roof assembly is located more than 55 ft (17 m) above the lowest level of required fire department vehicle access, attics shall comply with 13.3.2.17.2.1.1, 13.3.2.17.2.1.2, and one of the following:
  1. Attics shall be provided with sprinkler protection.
  2. Attics shall be constructed with noncombustible materials.
  3. Attics shall be constructed with fire-retardant-treated wood.
  4. Attics shall be filled with noncombustible insulation.
[101:30.3.5.2.1]
The height of the roof assembly shall be determined by measuring the distance from the lowest level of required fire department vehicle access adjacent to the building to the eave of the highest pitched roof, the intersection of the highest roof to the exterior wall, or the top of the highest parapet, whichever yields the greatest distance. [101:30.3.5.2.1.1]
Required fire department vehicle access roads used in 13.3.2.17.2.1.1 shall include only those roads that are necessary for required fire department vehicle access in accordance with Section 18.2. [101:30.3.5.2.1.2]
In buildings sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 13, closets less than 12 ft2 (1.1 m2) in area in individual dwelling units shall not be required to be sprinklered. Closets that contain equipment such as washers, dryers, furnaces, or water heaters shall be sprinklered, regardless of size. [101:30.3.5.3]
In buildings sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 13 bathrooms not greater than 55 ft2 (5.1 m2) in individual dwelling units shall not be required to be sprinklered. [101:30.3.5.4]
The draft stop and closely spaced sprinkler requirements of NFPA 13 shall not be required for convenience openings complying with 8.6.9.1 of NFPA 101 where the convenience opening is within the dwelling unit. [101:30.3.5.5]
Listed quick-response or listed residential sprinklers shall be used throughout all dwelling units. [101:30.3.5.6]
Open parking structures complying with NFPA 88A that are contiguous with apartment buildings shall be exempt from the sprinkler requirements of 13.3.2.17.1. [101:30.3.5.7]
Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.17.1. [101:30.3.5.8]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.18.2 and 13.3.2.18.4. In buildings four or fewer stories in height and not exceeding 60 ft (18.3 m) in height above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. [101:31.3.5.2]
In individual dwelling units, sprinkler installation shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft2 (2.2 m2) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2). Closets that contain equipment such as washers, dryers, furnaces, or water heaters shall be sprinklered, regardless of size. [101:31.3.5.3]
In buildings sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 13 bathrooms not greater than 55 ft2 (5.1 m2) in individual dwelling units shall not be required to be sprinklered. [101:31.3.5.4]
The draft stop and closely spaced sprinkler requirements of NFPA 13 shall not be required for convenience openings complying with 8.6.9.1 of NFPA 101 where the convenience opening is within the dwelling unit. [101:31.3.5.5]
Buildings using Option 3 in accordance with NFPA 101 shall be provided with automatic sprinkler protection installed in accordance with 13.3.2.18.5.1 through 13.3.2.18.5.4. [101:31.3.5.9]
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in the corridor, along the corridor ceiling, utilizing the maximum spacing requirements of the standards referenced in 13.3.1.2. [101:31.3.5.9.1]
An automatic sprinkler shall be installed within every dwelling unit that has a door opening to the corridor, with such sprinkler positioned over the center of the door, unless the door to the dwelling unit has not less than a 20-minute fire protection rating and is self-closing. [101:31.3.5.9.2]
The workmanship and materials of the sprinkler installation specified in 13.3.2.18.5 shall meet the requirements of 13.3.1.2. [101:31.3.5.9.3]
Where Option 3 is being used to permit the use of 13/4 in. (44 mm) thick, solid-bonded wood-core doors in accordance with 31.2.2.1.3 of NFPA 101, sprinklers shall be provided within the exit enclosures in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:31.3.5.9.4]
Buildings using Option 4 in accordance with NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.18.1 and meeting the requirements of Section 13.3 for supervision for buildings seven or more stories in height. [101:31.3.5.10]
Where sprinklers are being used as an option to any requirement in this Code, the sprinklers shall be installed throughout the space in accordance with the requirements of that option. [101:31.3.5.11]
All new lodging or rooming houses shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.19.2. [101:26.3.6.1]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is required or is used as an alternative method of protection, either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be in accordance with Section 13.3 and 13.3.2.19.2.1 through 13.3.2.19.2.6. [101:26.3.6.2]
Activation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7. [101:26.3.6.2.1]
In buildings four or fewer stories in height and not exceeding 60 ft (18.3 m) in height above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. [101:26.3.6.2.2]
Systems in accordance with NFPA 13D shall be permitted where all of the following requirements are met:
  1. The lodging or rooming house shall not be part of a mixed occupancy.
  2. Entrance foyers shall be sprinklered.
  3. Lodging or rooming houses with sleeping accommodations for more than eight occupants shall be treated as two-family dwellings with regard to the water supply.
[101:26.3.6.2.3]
In buildings sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 13, closets less than 12 ft2 (1.1 m2) in area in individual dwelling units shall not be required to be sprinklered. [101:26.3.6.2.4]
In buildings sprinklered in accordance with NFPA 13, closets that contain equipment such as washers, dryers, furnaces, or water heaters shall be sprinklered, regardless of size. [101:26.3.6.2.5]
In existing lodging or rooming houses, sprinkler installations shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft2 (2.2 m2) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2). [101:26.3.6.2.6]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, either for total or partial building coverage, the system shall be in accordance with Section 13.3. [101:24.3.5.2]
All buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13 and provided with quick-response or residential sprinklers throughout. [101:32.3.3.5.1]
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided with electrical supervision in accordance with 13.3.1.8. [101:32.3.3.5.5]
All facilities, other than those meeting the requirement of 13.3.2.21.2.2, shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system, installed in accordance with 13.3.2.21.2.3, using quick-response or residential sprinklers. [101:32.2.3.5.1]
In conversions, sprinklers shall not be required in small board and care homes serving eight or fewer residents when all occupants have the ability as a group to move reliably to a point of safety within 3 minutes. [101:32.2.3.5.2]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, for either total or partial building coverage, all of the following requirements shall be met:
  1. The system shall be in accordance with NFPA 13 and shall initiate the fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.2.19.
  2. The adequacy of the water supply shall be documented to the AHJ.
[101:32.2.3.5.3]
In buildings four or fewer stories in height and not exceeding 60 ft (18.3 m) in height above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. All habitable areas, closets, roofed porches, roofed decks, and roofed balconies shall be sprinklered. [101:32.2.3.5.3.1]
An automatic sprinkler system with a 30-minute water supply, and complying with all of the following requirements and with NFPA 13D, shall be permitted:
  1. All habitable areas, closets, roofed porches, roofed decks, and roofed balconies shall be sprinklered.
  2. Facilities with more than eight residents shall be treated as two-family dwellings with regard to water supply.
[101:32.2.3.5.3.2]
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13 and NFPA 13R shall be provided with electrical supervision in accordance with 13.3.1.8. [101:32.2.3.5.4]
Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13D shall be provided with valve supervision by one of the following methods:
  1. Single listed control valve that shuts off both domestic and sprinkler systems and separate shutoff for the domestic system only
  2. Electrical supervision in accordance with 13.3.1.8
  3. Valve closure that causes the sounding of an audible signal in the facility
[101:32.2.3.5.5]
Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprinklers for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with 13.3.1.4 and shall meet all of the following requirements:
  1. In new installations, where more than two sprinklers are installed in a single area, waterflow detection shall be provided to initiate the fire alarm system required by 13.7.2.19.
  2. The duration of water supplies shall be as required by 13.3.2.21.2.3.2.
[101:32.2.3.5.6]
Attics shall be protected in accordance with 13.3.2.21.2.7.1 or 13.3.2.21.2.7.2. [101:32.2.3.5.7]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is required by 13.3.2.21.2, attics used for living purposes, storage, or fuel fired equipment shall be protected with automatic sprinklers that are part of the required, approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.1.2. [101:32.2.3.5.7.1]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is required by 13.3.2.21.2, attics not used for living purposes, storage, or fuel-fired equipment shall meet one of the following criteria:
  1. Attics shall be protected throughout by a heat detection system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7.
  2. Attics shall be protected with automatic sprinklers that are part of the required, approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.1.2.
  3. Attics shall be of noncombustible or limited-combustible construction.
  4. Attics shall be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood in accordance with NFPA 703.
[101:32.2.3.5.7.2]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, for either total or partial building coverage, the system shall be installed in accordance with Section 13.3, as modified by 13.3.2.22.1.1.1 through 13.3.2.22.1.1.3. [101:33.3.3.5.1]
In buildings four or fewer stories above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. [101:33.3.3.5.1.1]
In facilities having prompt or slow evacuation capability, automatic sprinklers shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft2 (2.2 m2) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2), provided that such spaces are finished with noncombustible or limited-combustible materials. [101:33.3.3.5.1.2]
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall not be required for existing installations in accordance with 13.3.2.22.1.6. [101:33.3.3.5.1.3]
All facilities having impractical evacuation capability shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13. [101:33.3.3.5.2]
All high-rise buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.22.1. Such systems shall initiate the fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.1.4. [101:33.3.3.5.3]
Attics shall be protected in accordance with 13.3.2.22.1.4.1 or 13.3.2.22.1.4.2. [101:33.3.3.5.4]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, attics used for living purposes, storage, or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected with automatic sprinklers that are part of the required, approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.1.2. [101:33.3.3.5.4.1]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, attics not used for living purposes, storage, or fuel-fired equipment shall meet one of the following criteria:
  1. Attics shall be protected throughout by a heat detection system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7.
  2. Attics shall be protected with automatic sprinklers that are part of the required, approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.1.2.
  3. Attics shall be of noncombustible or limited-combustible construction.
  4. Attics shall be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood in accordance with NFPA 703.
[101:33.3.3.5.4.2]
Automatic sprinkler systems shall be supervised in accordance with Section 13.3; waterflow alarms shall not be required to be transmitted off-site. [101:33.3.3.5.5]
Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprinklers for any isolated hazardous area in accordance with 13.3.1.4 shall be permitted; in new installations where more than two sprinklers are installed in a single area, waterflow detection shall be provided to initiate the fire alarm system required by 13.7.2.22. [101:33.3.3.5.6]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, for either total or partial building coverage, all of the following requirements shall be met:
  1. The system shall be in accordance with Section 13.3 and shall initiate the fire alarm system in accordance with 13.7.2.21, as modified by 13.3.2.22.2.1.1 through 13.3.2.22.2.1.6.
  2. The adequacy of the water supply shall be documented to the AHJ.
[101:33.2.3.5.3]
In prompt evacuation capability facilities, all of the following shall apply:
  1. An automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13D shall be permitted.
  2. Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft2 (2.2 m2) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2), provided that such spaces are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute thermal barrier.
[101:33.2.3.5.3.1]
In slow and impractical evacuation capability facilities, all of the following shall apply:
  1. An automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13D, with a 30-minute water supply, shall be permitted.
  2. All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered.
  3. Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2), provided that such spaces are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute thermal barrier.
[101:33.2.3.5.3.2]
In prompt and slow evacuation capability facilities, where an automatic sprinkler system is in accordance with NFPA 13, sprinklers shall not be required in closets not exceeding 24 ft2 (2.2 m2) and in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2), provided that such spaces are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute thermal barrier. [101:33.2.3.5.3.3]
In prompt and slow evacuation capability facilities in buildings four or fewer stories above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. [101:33.2.3.5.3.4]
In impractical evacuation capability facilities in buildings four or fewer stories above grade plane, systems in accordance with NFPA 13R shall be permitted. All habitable areas and closets shall be sprinklered. Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms not exceeding 55 ft2 (5.1 m2), provided that such spaces are finished with lath and plaster or materials providing a 15-minute thermal barrier. [101:33.2.3.5.3.5]
Initiation of the fire alarm system shall not be required for existing installations in accordance with 13.3.2.22.3. [101:33.2.3.5.3.6]
All impractical evacuation capability facilities shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.2.22.2.1. [101:33.2.3.5.3.7]
Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprinklers for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with 13.3.1.4 and shall meet all of the following requirements:
  1. In new installations, where more than two sprinklers are installed in a single area, waterflow detection shall be provided to initiate the fire alarm system required by 13.7.2.21.
  2. The duration of water supplies shall be as required for the sprinkler systems addressed in 13.3.2.22.2.1.
[101:33.2.3.5.6]
Attics shall be protected in accordance with 13.3.2.22.4.1 or 13.3.2.22.4.2. [101:33.2.3.5.7]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, attics used for living purposes, storage, or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected with automatic sprinklers that are part of the required, approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.1.2. [101:33.2.3.5.7.1]
Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed, attics not used for living purposes, storage, or fuel-fired equipment shall meet one of the following criteria:
  1. Attics shall be protected throughout by a heat detection system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 13.7.
  2. Attics shall be protected with automatic sprinklers that are part of the required, approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 13.3.1.2.
  3. Attics shall be of noncombustible or limited-combustible construction.
  4. Attics shall be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood in accordance with NFPA 703.
  5. Attics shall be protected by heat alarms arranged to provide occupant notification in accordance with 33.2.3.4.2.
[101:33.2.3.5.7.2]
Mercantile occupancies shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 in any of the following specified locations:
  1. Throughout all mercantile occupancies three or more stories in height
  2. Throughout all mercantile occupancies exceeding 12,000 ft2 (1115 m2) in gross area
  3. Throughout stories below the level of exit discharge where such stories have an area exceeding 2500 ft2 (232 m2) and are used for the sale, storage, or handling of combustible goods and merchandise
  4. Throughout multiple occupancies protected as mixed occupancies in accordance with 6.1.14 where the conditions of 13.3.2.23.1(1), (2), or (3) apply to the mercantile occupancy
[101:36.3.5.1]
Automatic sprinkler systems in Class A mercantile occupancies shall be supervised in accordance with 13.3.1.8. [101:36.3.5.2]
Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and the applicable provisions of the following:
  1. This Code
  2. NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
  3. NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
  4. NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Products
[101:36.4.5.5]
The mall structure and all anchor buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 and 13.3.2.23.4.1.2. [101:36.4.4.13.1]
The system shall be installed in such a manner that any portion of the system serving tenant spaces can be taken out of service without affecting the operation of the portion of the system serving the mall concourse. [101:36.4.4.13.2]
There shall be a hose outlet connected to a system sized to deliver 250 gal/min (946 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote outlet. [5000:27.4.4.8.2.1]
The outlet shall be supplied from the mall concourse zone sprinkler system and shall be hydraulically calculated. [5000:27.4.4.8.2.2]
Hose outlets shall be provided at each of the following locations:
  1. Within the mall concourse at the entrance to each exit passage or corridor
  2. At each floor level landing within enclosed stairways opening directly onto the mall concourse
  3. At exterior public entrances to the mall concourse
[5000:27.4.4.8.2.3]
Mercantile occupancies, other than one-story buildings that meet the requirements of a street floor, as defined in 3.3.192.19, shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 in any of the following specified locations:
  1. Throughout all mercantile occupancies with a story over 15,000 ft2 (1400 m2) in area
  2. Throughout all mercantile occupancies exceeding 30,000 ft2 (2800 m2) in gross area
  3. Throughout stories below the level of exit discharge where such stories have an area exceeding 2500 ft2 (232 m2) and are used for the sale, storage, or handling of combustible goods and merchandise
  4. Throughout multiple occupancies protected as mixed occupancies in accordance with 6.1.14 where the conditions of 13.3.2.24.1(1), (2), or (3) apply to the mercantile occupancy
[101:37.3.5.1]
Bulk merchandising retail buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3 and the applicable provisions of the following:
  1. This Code
  2. NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
  3. NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
  4. NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Products
[101:37.4.5.5]
Underground and limited access structures, and all areas and floor levels traversed in traveling to the exit discharge, shall be protected by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3, unless such structures meet one of the following criteria:
  1. They have an occupant load of 50 or fewer persons in new underground or limited access portions of the structure.
  2. They have an occupant load of 100 or fewer persons in existing underground or limited access portions of the structure.
  3. The structure is a one-story underground or limited access structure that is permitted to have a single exit, per Chapters 12 through 43 of NFPA 101, with a common path of travel not greater than 50 ft (15 m).
[101:11.7.3.4]
New high-rise buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3.
Existing high-rise buildings shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this chapter and 13.3.2.26.2.1 through 13.3.2.26.2.3.
Each building owner shall, within 180 days of receiving notice, file an intent to comply with this regulation with the AHJ for approval.
The AHJ shall review and respond to the intent-to-comply submittal within 60 days of receipt.
The entire building shall be required to be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system within 12 years of adoption of this Code.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all occupancies containing areas greater than 2500 ft2 (232 m2) for the high-piled storage of combustibles.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all occupancies containing areas greater than 12,000 ft2 (1115 m2) for the storage of combustibles.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all occupancies containing storage commodities classified as Group A Plastics in excess of 5 ft (1.5 m) in height over an area exceeding 2500 ft2 (232 m2) in area.
An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all mini-storage buildings greater than 2500 ft2 (232 m2) and where any of the individual storage units are separated by less than a 1-hour fire resistance-rated barrier. [5000:30.3.5.3]
Buildings and structures where the volume for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 ft3 (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system. [5000:30.3.5.2]
An approved automatic fire sprinkler system shall be installed in buildings containing woodworking operations exceeding 2500 ft2 (232 m2) that use equipment, machinery, or appliances; that generate finely divided combustible waste; or that use finely divided combustible materials. [5000:29.3.5.1.2]
Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance with 8.6.6 of NFPA 101 shall be protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 13.3. [101:16.3.5.3; 101:17.3.5.3]
New industrial occupancies, other than low-hazard industrial occupancies, shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 13 in any of the following locations:
  1. Throughout all industrial occupancies three or more stories in height
  2. Throughout all industrial occupancies exceeding 12,000 ft2 (1115 m2) in fire area
  3. Where the total area of all floors, including mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 ft2 (2230 m2)
[5000:29.3.5.1.1]
A sprinkler system installed in accordance with this Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same level of performance and protection as designed. The owner shall be responsible for maintaining the system and keeping it in good working condition.
A sprinkler system installed in accordance with this Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25.
Where automatic sprinklers are installed, ceilings necessary for the proper actuation of the fire protection device in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be maintained.
The property owner or designated representative shall be responsible for properly maintaining a water-based fire protection system. [25:4.1.1]
Inspection, testing, maintenance, and impairment procedures shall be implemented in accordance those established in this document and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [25:4.1.1.1]
Inspection, testing, and maintenance shall be performed by qualified personnel. [25:4.1.1.2]
The owner shall coordinate with the entity conducting the inspection, testing, and maintenance activities to minimize any water damage caused by the discharge of water. [25:4.1.1.2.1]
Where the property owner or designated representative is not the occupant, the property owner or designated representative shall be permitted to delegate the authority for inspecting, testing, maintenance, and the managing of impairments of the fire protection system to a designated representative. [25:4.1.1.3]
Where a designated representative has received the authority for inspecting, testing, maintenance, and the managing of impairments, the designated representative shall comply with the requirements identified for the property owner or designated representative throughout this Code. [25:4.1.1.4]
The property owner or designated representative shall ensure that water-filled piping is maintained at a minimum temperature of 40°F (4.0°C) unless an approved anti-freeze solution is utilized. [25:4.1.2]
All areas of the building containing water-filled piping that does not have another means of freeze protection shall be maintained at a minimum temperature of 40°F (4.0°C). [25:4.1.2.1]
Aboveground water-filled pipes that pass through open areas, cold rooms, passageways, or other areas exposed to temperatures below 40°F (4.0°C), protected against freezing by insulating coverings, frostproof casings, listed heat tracing systems, or other reliable means shall be maintained at temperatures between 40°F (4.0°C) and 120°F (48.9°C). [25:4.1.2.2]
Where other approved means of freeze protection for water-filled piping as described in 13.3.3.4.1.2.2 are utilized they shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. [25:4.1.2.3]
The property owner or designated representative shall provide ready accessibility to components of water-based fire protection systems that require inspection, testing, and maintenance. [25:4.1.3]
The property owner or designated representative shall notify the AHJ, the fire department, if required, and the alarm-receiving facility before testing or shutting down a system or its supply. [25:4.1.4]
The notification of system shutdown or test shall include the purpose for the shutdown, the system or component involved, the estimated time of shutdown or test, and the expected duration of the shutdown or test. [25:4.1.4.1]
The AHJ, the fire department, and the alarm-receiving facility shall be notified when the system, supply, or component is returned to service or when the test is complete. [25:4.1.4.2]
The property owner or designated representative shall correct or repair deficiencies or impairments. [25:4.1.5.1]
Corrections and repairs shall be performed by qualified maintenance personnel or a qualified contractor. [25:4.1.5.2]
The property owner or designated representative shall not make changes in the occupancy, the use or process, or the materials used or stored in the building without evaluation of the fire protection system(s) for its capability to protect the new occupancy, use, or materials. [25:4.1.6]
The evaluation required by 13.3.3.4.1.6 shall not be considered part of the normal inspection, testing, and maintenance required by this Code. [25:4.1.6.1]
The evaluation shall consider factors that include, but are not limited to, the following:
  1. Occupancy changes such as converting office or production space into warehousing
  2. Process or material changes such as metal stamping to molded plastics
  3. Building revisions such as relocated walls, added mezzanines, and ceilings added below sprinklers
  4. Removal of heating systems in spaces with piping subject to freezing
  5. Changes to the storage method, arrangement, height, or commodities
  6. Changes in water supplies
[25:4.1.6.2]
Where changes in the occupancy, hazard, water supply, storage commodity, storage arrangement, building modification, or other condition that affects the installation criteria of the system are identified, the property owner or designated representative shall promptly take steps to evaluate the adequacy of the installed system in order to protect the building or hazard in question. [25:4.1.7.1]
Where the evaluation reveals that the installed system is inadequate to protect the building or hazard in question, the property owner or designated representative shall make the required corrections. [25:4.1.7.2]
Corrections shall be approved. [25:4.1.7.3]
The location of shutoff valves shall be identified at the system riser or other approved locations. [25:4.1.8]
A permanently marked metal or rigid plastic information sign shall be placed at the system control riser supplying an antifreeze loop, dry system, preaction system, or auxiliary system control valve. [25:4.1.9.1]
Each sign shall be secured with a corrosion-resistant wire, chain, or other approved means and shall indicate at least the following information:
  1. Location of the design area or areas
  2. Discharge densities over the design area or areas
  3. Required flow and residual pressure demand at the base of riser
  4. Occupancy classification or commodity classification and maximum permitted storage height and configuration
  5. Hose stream allowance included in addition to the sprinkler demand
  6. The name of the installing contractor or person providing the information
[25:4.1.9.2]
An antifreeze information sign shall be placed on the antifreeze system main valve, which indicates the manufacture type and brand of the antifreeze solution, the concentration by volume of the antifreeze solution used, and the volume of the antifreeze solution used in the system. [25:4.1.10]
Where an impairment to a water-based fire protection system occurs or is identified during inspection, testing, or maintenance activities, the procedures outlined in Chapter 15 of NFPA 25 shall be followed, including the attachment of a tag to the impaired system. [25:4.1.11.1]
Where a water-based fire protection system is returned to service following an impairment, the system shall be verified to be working properly by means of an appropriate inspection or test as described in the table, "Summary of Component Replacement [Action] Requirements" in the applicable chapters of NFPA 25. [25:4.1.11.2]
Manufacturers shall be permitted to make modifications to their own listed product in the field with listed devices that restore the original performance as intended by the listing, where acceptable to the AHJ. [25:4.2]
Records shall be made for all inspections, tests, and maintenance of the system and its components and shall be made available to the AHJ upon request. [25:4.3.1]
Records shall be permitted to be stored and accessed electronically. [25:4.3.1.1]
Records shall indicate the following:
  1. The procedure/activity performed (e.g., inspection, test, or maintenance)
  2. The organization that performed the activity
  3. The required frequency of the activity
  4. The results and date of the activity
  5. The name and contact information of the qualified contractor or owner, including lead person for activity
[25:4.3.2]
Records shall be maintained by the property owner. [25:4.3.3]
As-built system installation drawings, hydraulic calculations, original acceptance test records, and device manufacturer's data sheets shall be retained for the life of the system. [25:4.3.4]
Subsequent records shall be retained for a period of 1 year after the next inspection, test, or maintenance of that type required by the Code. [25:4.3.5]
Where a sprinkler has been removed for any reason, it shall not be reinstalled. [25:5.4.1.1]
Replacement sprinklers shall have the proper characteristics for the application intended, which include the following:
  1. Style
  2. Orifice size and K-factor
  3. Temperature rating
  4. Coating, if any
  5. Deflector type (e.g., upright, pendent, sidewall)
  6. Design requirements
[25:5.4.1.2]
Spray sprinklers shall be permitted to replace old-style sprinklers. [25:5.4.1.2.1]
Where replacing residential sprinklers manufactured prior to 2003 that are no longer available from the manufacturer and are installed using a design density less than 0.05 gpm/ft2 (204 mm/min), a residential sprinkler with an equivalent K-factor (± 5 percent) shall be permitted to be used provided the currently listed coverage area for the replacement sprinkler is not exceeded. [25:5.4.1.2.2]
Replacement sprinklers for piers and wharves shall comply with NFPA 307. [25:5.4.1.2.3]
Only new, listed sprinklers shall be used to replace existing sprinklers. [25:5.4.1.3]
Special and quick-response sprinklers as defined by NFPA 13 shall be replaced with sprinklers of the same orifice, size, temperature range and thermal response characteristics, and K-factor. [25:5.4.1.4]
A supply of at least six spare sprinklers shall be maintained on the premises so that any sprinklers that have operated or been damaged in any way can be promptly replaced. [25:5.4.1.5]
The sprinklers shall correspond to the types and temperature ratings of the sprinklers in the property. [25:5.4.1.5.1]
The sprinklers shall be kept in a cabinet located where the temperature in which they are subjected will at no time exceed 100°F (38°C). [25:5.4.1.5.2]
Where dry sprinklers of different lengths are installed, spare dry sprinklers shall not be required, provided that a means of returning the system to service is furnished. [25:5.4.1.5.3]
The stock of spare sprinklers shall include all types and ratings installed and shall be as follows:
  1. For protected facilities having under 300 sprinklers — no fewer than 6 sprinklers
  2. For protected facilities having 300 to 1000 sprinklers — no fewer than 12 sprinklers
  3. For protected facilities having over 1000 sprinklers — no fewer than 24 sprinklers
[25:5.4.1.5.4]
One sprinkler wrench as specified by the sprinkler manufacturer shall be provided in the cabinet for each type of sprinkler installed to be used for the removal and installation of sprinklers in the system. [25:5.4.1.5.5]
A list of the sprinklers installed in the property shall be posted in the sprinkler cabinet. [25:5.4.1.5.6]
The list shall include the following:
  1. Sprinkler Identification Number (SIN) if equipped; or the manufacturer, model, orifice, deflector type, thermal sensitivity, and pressure rating
  2. General description
  3. Quantity of each type to be contained in the cabinet
  4. Issue or revision date of the list
[25:5.4.1.5.6.1]
Sprinklers shall not be altered in any respect or have any type of ornamentation, paint, or coatings applied after shipment from the place of manufacture. [25:5.4.1.6]
Sprinklers and automatic spray nozzles used for protecting commercial-type cooking equipment and ventilating systems shall be replaced annually. [25:5.4.1.7]
Where automatic bulb-type sprinklers or spray nozzles are used and annual examination shows no buildup of grease or other material on the sprinklers or spray nozzles, such sprinklers and spray nozzles shall not be required to be replaced. [25:5.4.1.7.1]
Sprinklers protecting spray areas and mixing rooms in resin application areas installed with protective coverings shall continue to be protected against overspray residue so that they will operate in the event of fire. [25:5.4.1.8.1]
Sprinklers installed as described in 13.3.3.5.1.8.1 shall be protected using cellophane bags having a thickness of 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) or less or thin paper bags. [25:5.4.1.8.2]
Coverings shall be replaced periodically so that heavy deposits of residue do not accumulate. [25:5.4.1.8.3]
Dry pipe systems shall be kept dry at all times. [25:5.4.2]
During nonfreezing weather, a dry pipe system shall be permitted to be left wet if the only other option is to remove the system from service while waiting for parts or during repair activities. [25:5.4.2.1]
Refrigerated spaces or other areas within the building interior where temperatures are maintained at or below 40°F (4.4°C) shall not be permitted to be left wet. [25:5.4.2.2]
Air driers shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [25:5.4.2.3]
Compressors used in conjunction with dry pipe sprinkler systems shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [25:5.4.2.4]
Subsection 13.3.3.6 shall provide the minimum requirements for a water-based fire protection system impairment program. [25:15.1.1.1]
Measures shall be taken during the impairment to ensure that increased risks are minimized and the duration of the impairment is limited. [25:15.1.1.2]
The property owner or designated representative shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of 13.3.3.6. [25:15.2.1]
In the absence of a specific designee, the property owner or designated representative shall be considered the impairment coordinator. [25:15.2.2]
Where the lease, written use agreement, or management contract specifically grants the authority for inspection, testing, and maintenance of the fire protection system(s) to the tenant, management firm, or managing individual, the tenant, management firm, or managing individual shall assign a person as impairment coordinator. [25:15.2.3]
A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. [25:15.3.1]
The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection and the system control valve, and other locations required by the AHJ indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. [25:15.3.2]
The impaired equipment shall be considered to be the water-based fire protection system, or part thereof, that is removed from service. [25:15.4.1]
The impaired equipment shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following:
  1. Sprinkler systems
  2. Standpipe systems
  3. Fire hose systems
  4. Underground fire service mains
  5. Fire pumps
  6. Water storage tanks
  7. Water spray fixed systems
  8. Foam-water sprinkler systems
  9. Water mist systems
  10. Fire service control valves
  11. Water supply
[25:15.4.2]
All preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. [25:15.5.1]
Before authorization is given, the impairment coordinator shall be responsible for verifying that the following procedures have been implemented:
  1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.
  2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.
  3. Recommendations to mitigate any increased risks have been submitted to management or the property owner or designated representative.
  4. Where a fire protection system is out of service for more than 10 hours in a 24-hour period, the impairment coordinator shall arrange for one of the following:
    1. Evacuation of the building or portion of the building affected by the system out of service
    2. * An approved fire watch
    3. * Establishment of a temporary water supply
    4. * Establishment and implementation of an approved program to eliminate potential ignition sources and limit the amount of fuel available to the fire
  5. The fire department has been notified.
  6. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, property owner or designated representative, and other AHJs have been notified.
  7. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.
  8. A tag impairment system has been implemented. (See 13.3.3.6.3.)
  9. All necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.
[25:15.5.2]
Emergency impairments shall include, but are not limited to, interruption of water supply, frozen or ruptured piping, and equipment failure, and includes impairments found during inspection, testing, or maintenance activities.
[25:15.6.1]
The coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in 13.3.3.6.5. [25:15.6.2]
When all impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that the following procedures have been implemented:
  1. Any necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational. The appropriate chapter of NFPA 25 shall be consulted for guidance on the type of inspection and test required.
  2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.
  3. The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.
  4. The property owner or designated representative, insurance carrier, alarm company, and other AHJs have been advised that protection is restored.
  5. The impairment tag has been removed.
[25:15.7]
Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 20 and Section 13.4.
Permits, where required, shall comply with Section 1.12.
The provisions of this section reflect a consensus of what is necessary to provide an acceptable degree of protection from the hazards addressed in this section at the time the section was issued. [20:1.4]
Unless otherwise specified, the provisions of this section shall not apply to facilities, equipment, structures, or installations that existed or were approved for construction or installation prior to the effective date of the section. Where specified, the provisions of this section shall be retroactive. [20:1.4.1]
In those cases where the AHJ determines that the existing situation presents an unacceptable degree of risk, the AHJ shall be permitted to apply retroactively any portion of this section deemed appropriate. [20:1.4.2]
The retroactive requirements of this section shall be permitted to be modified if their application clearly would be impractical in the judgment of the AHJ, and only where it is clearly evident that a reasonable degree of safety is provided. [20:1.4.3]
Stationary pumps shall be selected based on the conditions under which they are to be installed and used. [20:4.2.1]
The pump manufacturer or its authorized representative shall be given complete information concerning the liquid and power supply characteristics. [20:4.2.2]
A complete plan and detailed data describing pump, driver, controller, power supply, fittings, suction and discharge connections, and liquid supply conditions shall be prepared for approval. [20:4.2.3]
Plans shall be drawn to an indicated scale, on sheets of uniform size, and shall indicate, as a minimum, the items from the following list that pertain to the design of the system:
  1. Name(s) of owner and occupant
  2. Location, including street address
  3. Point of compass
  4. Name and address of installing contractor
  5. Pump make and model number
  6. Pump rating _____ gpm @ _____ psi _____ rpm
  7. Suction main size, length, location, type and class/schedule of material, and point of connection to water supply, as well as depth to top of pipe below grade
  8. Water storage tank, if applicable
  9. Size and type of valves, regulators, meters, and valve pits, if applicable
  10. Water supply information including the following flow test information, if applicable:
    1. Location and elevation of static and residual test gauge with relation to the elevation reference point
    2. Flow location
    3. Static pressure, psi (bar)
    4. Residual pressure, psi (bar)
    5. Flow, gpm (L/min)
    6. Date
    7. Time
    8. Name of person who conducted the test or supplied the information
    9. Other sources of water supply, with pressure or elevation
  11. Pump driver details including manufacturer and horsepower
  12. Voltage for electric motor-driven pumps
  13. Fuel system details for diesel-driven pumps
  14. Controller manufacturer, type, and rating
  15. Suction and discharge pipe, fitting, and valve types
  16. Test connection piping and valves
  17. Flow meter details, if applicable
  18. Pressure maintenance pump and controller arrangement, including sensing line details, if applicable
[20:4.2.3.1]
Each pump, driver, controlling equipment, power supply and arrangement, and liquid supply shall be approved by the AHJ for the specific field conditions encountered. [20:4.2.4]
In the event of fire pump operation, qualified personnel shall respond to the fire pump location to determine that the fire pump is operating in a satisfactory manner. [20:4.3.1]
The system designer shall be identified on the system design documents. [20:4.3.2.1]
Acceptable minimum evidence of qualifications or certification shall be provided when requested by the AHJ. [20:4.3.2.2]
Qualified personnel shall include, but not be limited to, one or more of the following:
  1. Personnel who are factory trained and certified for fire pump system design of the specific type and brand of system being designed
  2. Personnel who are certified by a nationally recognized fire protection certification organization acceptable to the AHJ
  3. Personnel who are registered, licensed, or certified by a state or local authority
[20:4.3.2.3]
Additional evidence of qualification or certification shall be permitted to be required by the AHJ. [20:4.3.2.4]
Installation personnel shall be qualified or shall be supervised by persons who are qualified in the installation, inspection, and testing of fire protection systems [20:4.3.3.1].
Minimum evidence of qualifications or certification shall be provided when requested by the AHJ. [20:4.3.3.2]
Qualified personnel shall include, but not be limited to, one or more of the following:
  1. Personnel who are factory trained and certified for fire pump system installation of the specific type and brand of system being designed
  2. Personnel who are certified by a nationally recognized fire protection certification organization acceptable to the AHJ
  3. Personnel who are registered, licensed, or certified by a state or local authority
[20:4.3.3.3]
Additional evidence of qualification or certification shall be permitted to be required by the AHJ. [20:4.3.3.4]
Service personnel shall be qualified and experienced in the inspection, testing, and maintenance of fire protection systems. [20:4.3.4.1]
Qualified personnel shall include, but not be limited to, one or more of the following:
  1. Personnel who are factory trained and certified for fire pump system servicing of the specific type and brand of system being designed
  2. Personnel who are certified by a nationally recognized fire protection certification organization acceptable to the AHJ
  3. Personnel who are registered, licensed, or certified by a state or local authority
  4. Personnel who are employed and qualified by an organization listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory for the servicing of fire protection systems
[20:4.3.4.2]
Additional evidence of qualification or certification shall be permitted to be required by the AHJ. [20:4.3.4.3]
The fire pump, driver, controller, water supply, and power supply shall be protected against possible interruption of service through damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism, and other adverse conditions. [20:4.13.1]
Except as permitted in 13.4.2.1.1.3, fire pump units serving high-rise buildings shall be protected from surrounding occupancies by a minimum of 2-hour fire-rated construction or physically separated from the protected building by a minimum of 50 ft (15.3 m). [20:4.13.1.1.1]
Except as permitted in 13.4.2.1.1.3, indoor fire pump rooms in non-high-rise buildings or in separate fire pump buildings shall be physically separated or protected by fire-rated construction in accordance with Table 13.4.2.1.1.2. [20:4.13.1.1.2]
Table 13.4.2.1.1.2 Equipment Protection
Pump Room/House Building(s) Exposing Pump Room/House Required Separation
Not sprinklered Not sprinklered 2 hour fire-rated
Not sprinklered Fully sprinklered or
Fully sprinklered Not sprinklered 50 ft (15.3 m)
1 hour fire-rated
Fully sprinklered Fully sprinklered or
50 ft (15.3 m)
[20: Table 4.13.1.1.2]
Fire pump units supplying a local application fire protection system(s) shall be physically separated from the hazard being protected in a manner that will prevent a fire associated with the hazard from directly exposing the pumping unit. [20:4.12.1.1.3]
The location of and access to the fire pump room shall be preplanned with the fire department. [20:4.13.1.1.3]
Except as permitted in 13.4.2.1.1.6, rooms containing fire pumps shall be free from storage, equipment, and penetrations not essential to the operation of the pump and related components. [20:4.13.1.1.4]
Equipment related to domestic water distribution shall be permitted to be located within the same room as the fire pump equipment. [20:4.13.1.1.5]
The pump room or pump house shall be sized to fit all of the components necessary for the operation of the fire pump and to accommodate the following:
  1. Clearance between components for installation and maintenance
  2. Clearance between a component and the wall for installation and maintenance
  3. Clearance between energized electrical equipment and other equipment in accordance with NFPA 70
  4. Orientation of the pump to the suction piping to allow compliance with 4.15.6.3 of NFPA 20
[20:4.13.1.1.6]
Fire pump units that are outdoors shall be located at least 50 ft (15.3 m) away from any buildings and other fire exposures exposing the building. [20:4.13.1.2.1]
Outdoor installations shall be required to be provided with protection against possible interruption, in accordance with 13.4.2.1. [20:4.13.1.2.2]
The location of and access to the fire pump room(s) shall be pre-planned with the fire department. [20:4.13.2.1]
Except as provided in 13.4.2.2.1.1.1 fire pump rooms not directly accessible from the outside shall be accessible through an enclosed passageway from an enclosed stairway or exterior exit. [20:4.13.2.1.1]
Fire pump units supplying only local application fire protection systems shall be accessible by a path that is not subject to exposure from a fire in any hazard protected by the fire pump. [20:4.13.2.1.1.1]
The enclosed passageway shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than the fire-resistance rating of the fire pump room. [20:4.13.2.1.2]
An approved or listed source of heat shall be provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or pump house, where required, above 40°F (4°C). [20:4.13.3.1]
The requirements of 13.4.4.5 shall be followed for higher temperature requirements for internal combustion engines. [20:4.13.3.2]
Artificial light shall be provided in a pump room or pump house. [20:4.13.4]
Emergency lighting shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 101.
Emergency lights shall not be connected to an engine-starting battery. [20:4.13.5.2]
Provision shall be made for ventilation of a pump room or pump house. [20:4.13.6]
Floors shall be pitched for adequate drainage of escaping water away from critical equipment such as the pump, driver, controller, and so forth. [20:4.13.7.1]
The pump room or pump house shall be provided with a floor drain that will discharge to a frost-free location. [20:4.13.7.2]
Couplings and flexible connecting shafts shall be installed with a coupling guard in accordance with Section 7 of ANSI B11.19, Performance Requirements for Safeguarding. [20:4.13.8]
Where provided, the suction valve, discharge valve, bypass valves, and isolation valves on the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open by one of the following methods:
  1. Central station, proprietary, or remote station signaling service
  2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended point
  3. Locking valves open
  4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspection where valves are located within fenced enclosures under the control of the owner
[20:4.17.1]
Control valves located in the pipeline to the hose valve header shall be supervised closed by one of the methods allowed in 13.4.3.1. [20:4.17.2]
Engines shall be designed and installed so that they can be started no less than once a week and run for no less than 30 minutes to attain normal running temperature. [20:11.6.1.1]
Engines shall run smoothly at rated speed, except for engines addressed in 13.4.4.1.3. [20:11.6.1.2]
Engines equipped with variable speed pressure limiting control shall be permitted to run at reduced speeds provided factory-set pressure is maintained and they run smoothly. [20:11.6.1.3]
Engines shall be designed and installed so that they can be kept clean, dry, and well lubricated to ensure adequate performance. [20:11.6.2]
Storage batteries shall be designed and installed so that they can be kept charged at all times. [20:11.6.3.1]
Storage batteries shall be designed and installed so that they can be tested frequently to determine the condition of the battery cells and the amount of charge in the battery. [20:11.6.3.2]
Only distilled water shall be used in battery cells. [20:11.6.3.3]
Battery plates shall be kept submerged at all times. [20:11.6.3.4]
The automatic feature of a battery charger shall not be a substitute for proper maintenance of battery and charger. [20:11.6.3.5]
The battery and charger shall be designed and installed so that periodic inspection of both battery and charger is physically possible. [20:11.6.3.6]
This inspection shall determine that the charger is operating correctly, the water level in the battery is correct, and the battery is holding its proper charge. [20:11.6.3.6.1]
The fuel storage tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can be kept as full and maintained as practical at all times but never below 66 percent (two-thirds) of tank capacity. [20:11.6.4.1]
The tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can always be filled by means that will ensure removal of all water and foreign material. [20:11.6.4.2]
The temperature of the pump room, pump house, or area where engines are installed shall be designed so that the temperature is maintained at the minimum recommended by the engine manufacturer and is never less than the minimum recommended by the engine manufacturer. [20:11.6.5.1]
The sequence for emergency manual operation, arranged in a step-by-step manner, shall be posted on the fire pump engine. [20:11.6.6.1]
It shall be the engine manufacturer's responsibility to list any specific instructions pertaining to the operation of this equipment during the emergency operation. [20:11.6.6.2]
All visible indicators shall be plainly visible. [20:12.4.1.1]
Visible indication shall be provided to indicate that the controller is in the automatic position. If the visible indicator is a pilot lamp, it shall be accessible for replacement. [20:12.4.1.2]
Separate visible indicators and a common audible fire pump alarm capable of being heard while the engine is running and operable in all positions of the main switch except the off position shall be provided to immediately indicate the following conditions:
  1. Critically low oil pressure in the lubrication system.
  2. High engine temperature.
  3. Failure of engine to start automatically.
  4. Shutdown from overspeed.
  5. High cooling water temperature
[20:12.4.1.3]
The controller shall provide means for testing the low oil pressure alarms and circuit in conjunction with the engine circuit testing method. [20:12.4.1.3.1]
Instructions shall be provided on how to test the operation of the signals in 13.4.5.1.3. [20:12.4.1.3.2]
Separate visible indicators and a common audible signal capable of being heard while the engine is running and operable in all positions of the main switch except the off position shall be provided to immediately indicate the following conditions:
  1. * Battery failure or missing battery. Each controller shall be provided with a separate visible indicator for each battery. The battery failure signal shall initiate at no lower than two-thirds of battery nominal voltage rating (8.0 V dc on a 12 V dc system). Sensing shall be delayed to prevent nuisance signals.
  2. Battery charger failure. Each controller shall be provided with a separate visible indicator for battery charger failure and shall not require the audible signal for battery charger failure.
  3. Low air or hydraulic pressure. Where air or hydraulic starting is provided (see 11.2.7 and 11.2.7.4 of NFPA 20), each pressure tank shall provide to the controller separate visible indicators to indicate low pressure.
  4. System overpressure, for engines equipped with variable speed pressure limiting controls, to actuate at 115 percent of set pressure.
  5. ECM selector switch in alternate ECM position (only for engines with ECM controls).
  6. Common alarm for fuel injection malfunction (only for engines with ECM).
  7. Low fuel level. Signal at two-thirds tank capacity.
  8. Low air pressure (air-starting engine controllers only). The air supply container shall be provided with a separate visible indicator to indicate low air pressure.
  9. Low engine temperature.
  10. Supervisory signal for interstitial space liquid intrusion.
  11. High cooling water temperature.
  12. Fuel maintenance needed if automatic fuel maintenance system is provided.
[20:12.4.1.4]
A separate signal silencing switch or valve, other than the controller main switch, shall be provided for the conditions reflected in 13.4.5.1.3 and 13.4.5.1.4. [20:12.4.1.5]
The switch or valve shall allow the audible device to be silenced for up to 4 hours and then re-sound repeatedly for the conditions in 13.4.5.1.3. [20:12.4.1.5.1.]
The switch or valve shall allow the audible device to be silenced for up to 24 hours and then re-sound repeatedly for the conditions in 13.4.5.1.4. [20:12.4.1.5.2]
The audible device shall re-sound until the condition is corrected or the main switch is placed in the off position. [20:12.4.1.5.3]
The controller shall automatically return to the nonsilenced state when the alarm(s) have cleared (returned to normal). [20:12.4.1.6]
This switch shall be clearly marked as to its function. [20:12.4.1.6.1]
Where the pump room is not constantly attended, audible or visible signals powered by a source other than the engine starting batteries and not exceeding 125 V shall be provided at a point of constant attendance. [20:12.4.2.1]
Controllers shall be equipped to operate circuits for remote indication of the conditions covered in 13.4.5.1.3, 13.4.5.1.4, and 13.4.5.2.3. [20:12.4.2.2]
The remote panel shall indicate the following:
  1. The engine is running (separate signal).
  2. The controller main switch has been turned to the off or manual position (separate signal).
  3. * There is trouble on the controller or engine (separate or common signals). (See 13.4.5.1.4 and 13.4.5.1.5.)
[20:12.4.2.3]
Controllers shall be equipped with open or closed contacts to operate circuits for the conditions covered in 13.4.5.2. [20:12.4.3]
The pump manufacturer, the engine manufacturer (when supplied), the controller manufacturer, and the transfer switch manufacturer (when supplied) or their factory-authorized representatives shall be present for the field acceptance test. (See Section 4.4 of NFPA 20.) [20:14.2.1]
The date, time, and location of the field acceptance test shall be coordinated with the AHJ. [20:14.2.2]
All electric wiring to the fire pump motor(s), including control (multiple pumps) interwiring, normal power supply, alternate power supply where provided, and jockey pump, shall be completed and checked by the electrical contractor prior to the initial startup and acceptance test. [20:14.2.3]
A copy of the manufacturer's certified pump test curve shall be available for comparison of the results of the field acceptance test. [20:14.2.4.1]
For water mist positive displacement pumping units, a copy of the manufacturer's certified shop test data for both variable speed and non-variable speed operation shall be available for comparison of the results of the field acceptance test. [20:14.2.4.1.1]
At all flow conditions, including those required to be tested in 14.2.6.2 of NFPA 20, the fire pump as installed shall equal the performance as indicated on the manufacturer's certified shop test curve within the accuracy limits of the test equipment. [20:14.2.4.2]
For water mist positive displacement pumping units with variable speed features, the pump unit as installed shall equal the performance as indicated on the fire pump unit manufacturer's certified shop test data, with variable speed features deactivated within the accuracy limits of the test equipment. [20:14.2.4.2.1]
For water mist positive displacement pumping units, the pump unit as installed shall equal the performance as indicated on the fire pump unit manufacturer's certified shop test data, with variable speed features activated within the accuracy limits of the test equipment. [20:14.2.4.2.2]
The actual unadjusted fire pump discharge flows and pressures installed shall meet or exceed the fire protection system's demand. [20:14.2.5]
One set of record drawings shall be provided to the building owner. [20:14.3.1]
One copy of the completed test report shall be provided to the building owner. [20:14.3.2]
One set of instruction manuals for all major components of the fire pump system shall be supplied by the manufacturer of each major component. [20:14.3.3]
The manual shall contain the following:
  1. A detailed explanation of the operation of the component
  2. Instructions for routine maintenance
  3. Detailed instructions concerning repairs
  4. Parts list and parts identification
  5. Schematic electrical drawings of controller, transfer switch, and fire pump control panels
  6. * List of recommended spare parts and lubricants
[20:14.3.4]
Any special tools and testing devices required for routine maintenance shall be available for inspection by the AHJ at the time of the field acceptance test. [20:14.3.5]
Fire pumps shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. [20:14.4]
Whenever a critical path component in a positive displacement fire pump is replaced, as defined in 14.5.2.5 of NFPA 20, a field test of the pump shall be performed. [20:14.5.1.1]
If components that do not affect performance are replaced, such as shafts, then only a functional test shall be required to ensure proper installation and reassembly. [20:14.5.1.2]
If components that affect performance are replaced, such as rotors, plungers, and so forth, then a retest shall be conducted by the pump manufacturer or designated representative or qualified persons acceptable to the AHJ. [20:14.5.1.3]
For water mist positive displacement pumping units, the retest shall include the pump unit as a whole. [20:14.5.1.3.1]
The field retest results shall be compared to the original pump performance as indicated by the fire pump manufacturer's original factory-certified test curve, whenever it is available. [20:14.5.1.4.1]
The field retest results shall meet or exceed the performance characteristics as indicated on the pump nameplate, and the results shall be within the accuracy limits of field testing as stated elsewhere in NFPA 20. [20:14.5.1.4.2]
Private fire service mains shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 and NFPA 24.
Where no adequate and reliable water supply exists for fire-fighting purposes, the requirements of NFPA 1142 shall apply.
The installation of devices to protect the public water supply from contamination shall comply with the provisions of NFPA 13, NFPA 13D, NFPA 13R, NFPA 24, and the plumbing code.
Backflow prevention devices shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 25.
A private fire service main installed in accordance with this Code shall be properly maintained to provide at least the same level of performance and protection as designed. The owner shall be responsible for maintaining the system and keeping it in good working condition.
A private fire service main installed in accordance with this Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25.
The selection, installation, inspection, maintenance, recharging, and testing of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with NFPA 10 and Section 13.6.
The requirements given herein are minimum. [10:1.1.1]
The requirements shall not apply to permanently installed systems for fire extinguishment, even where portions of such systems are portable (such as hose and nozzles attached to a fixed supply of extinguishing agent). [10:1.1.2]
Fire extinguishers shall be provided where required by this Code as specified in Table 13.6.1.2 and the referenced codes and standards listed in Chapter 2.
Table 13.6.1.2 Portable Fire Extinguishers Required
Occupancy Use Where Required
Ambulatory health care occupancies Yes
Apartment occupanciesa Yes
Assembly occupanciesb Yes
Business occupancies Yes
Day-care occupancies Yes
Detention and correctional occupanciesc,d Yes
Educational occupancies Yes
Health care occupancies Yes
Hotel and dormitory occupancies Yes
Industrial occupancies Yes
Lodging and rooming house occupancies Yes
Mercantile occupancies Yes
Occupancies in special structures Yes
One- and two-family dwelling occupancies No
Residential board and care occupancies Yes
Storage occupanciese Yes
aPortable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at exterior locations or interior locations so that all portions of the buildings are within 75 ft (22.8 m) of travel distance to an extinguishing unit.
bPortable fire extinguishers are not required in seating or outdoor performance areas.
cAccess to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked.
dPortable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations only.
eIn storage areas where forklift, powered industrial truck, or cart operators are the primary occupants, fixed extinguishers, as specified in NFPA 10, need not be provided when:
(1) Use of vehicle-mounted extinguishers is approved by the AHJ.
(2) Each vehicle is equipped with a 10 lb, 40-A:80-B:C extinguisher affixed to the vehicle using a mounting bracket approved by the extinguisher manufacturer or the AHJ for vehicular use.
(3) Not less than two spare extinguishers of equal or greater rating are available onsite to replace a discharged extinguisher.
(4) Vehicle operators are trained in the proper operation and use of the extinguisher.
(5) Inspections of vehicle-mounted extinguishers are performed daily.
Portable fire extinguishers used to comply with Section 13.6 shall be listed and labeled and shall meet or exceed all the requirements of ANSI/UL 711, CAN/ULC-S508, Standard for Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers, and one of the following applicable performance standards:
  1. Carbon dioxide types: ANSI/UL 154, CAN/ULC-S503, Standard for Carbon-Dioxide Fire Extinguishers
  2. Dry chemical types: ANSI/UL 299, CAN/ULC-S504, Standard for Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishers
  3. Water types: ANSI/UL 626, CAN/ULC-S507, Standard for Water Fire Extinguishers
  4. Halon types: CAN/ULC-S512, Standard for Halogenated Agent Hand and Wheeled Fire Extinguishers
  5. Film-forming foam types: ANSI/UL 8, CAN/ULC-S554, Water Based Agent Fire Extinguishers
  6. Halocarbon types: ANSI/UL 2129, CAN/ULC-S566, Standard for Halocarbon Clean Agent Fire Extinguishers
[10:4.1.1]
Each fire extinguisher shall be marked with the following:
  1. Identification of the listing and labeling organization
  2. Product category indicating the type of extinguisher
  3. Extinguisher classification as indicated in Section 5.3 of NFPA 10
  4. Performance and fire test standards that the extinguisher meets or exceeds
[10:4.1.2]
Fire extinguishers manufactured prior to January 1, 1986, shall not be required to comply with 13.6.1.3.2. [10:4.1.2.1]
Halon extinguishers listed and labeled to UL 1093, Standard for Halogenated Agent Fire Extinguishers, shall be permitted to be used to comply with the requirements of Section 13.6 when installed, inspected and maintained in accordance with Section 13.6. [10:4.1.2.2]
An organization listing fire extinguishers used to comply with the requirements of Section 13.6 shall utilize a third-party certification program for portable fire extinguishers that meets or exceeds UL 1803, Standard for Factory Follow-Up on Third Party Certified Portable Fire Extinguishers. [10:4.1.3]
Fire extinguishers manufactured prior to January 1, 1989, shall not be required to comply with 13.6.1.3.3. [10:4.1.3.1]
Certification organizations accredited by the Standards Council of Canada shall not be required to comply with 13.6.1.3.3. [10:4.1.3.2]
Listed and labeled Class D extinguishing agents intended to be manually applied to combustible metal fires shall comply with the fire test requirements specified in ANSI/UL 711, CAN/ULC-S508, Standard for Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers. [10:4.1.3.3]
Extinguishers listed for the Class C rating shall not contain an agent that is a conductor of electricity. [10:4.1.4]
In addition to successfully meeting the requirements of ANSI/UL 711, CAN/ULC-S508, Standard for Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers, water-based agents that are listed for the Class C rating shall be tested in accordance with ASTM D5391, Standard Test for Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity of a Flowing High Purity Water Sample. [10:4.1.4.1]
Fire extinguishers containing water-based agents that have a conductivity higher than 1.00 µS/cm at 77°F (25°C) shall be considered a conductor of electricity and therefore shall not be rated Class C. [10:4.1.4.2]
Paragraphs 13.6.1.3.4.1 and 13.6.1.3.4.2 shall apply only to water-based extinguishers manufactured after August 15, 2002. [10:4.1.4.3]
A fire extinguisher shall have a label, tag, or stencil attached to it providing the following information:
  1. The content's product name as it appears on the manufacturer's Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
  2. Listing of the hazardous material identification in accordance with Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS), Implementation Manual [in Canada, Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS)] developed by the National Paint and Coatings Association
  3. List of any hazardous materials that are in excess of 1.0 percent of the contents
  4. List of each chemical in excess of 5.0 percent of the contents
  5. Information as to what is hazardous about the agent in accordance with the MSDS
  6. Manufacturer's or service agency's name, mailing address, and phone number
[10:4.2]
The owner or the owner's agent shall be provided with a fire extinguisher instruction manual that details condensed instructions and cautions necessary to the installation, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the fire extinguisher(s). [10:4.3.1]
The manual shall refer to NFPA 10 as a source of detailed instruction. [10:4.3.2]
The following types of fire extinguishers are considered obsolete and shall be removed from service:
  1. Soda acid
  2. Chemical foam (excluding film-forming agents)
  3. Carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide, and chlorobromomethane (CBM)
  4. Cartridge-operated water
  5. Cartridge-operated loaded stream
  6. Copper or brass shell (excluding pump tanks) joined by soft solder or rivets
  7. Carbon dioxide extinguishers with metal horns
  8. Solid charge-type AFFF extinguishers (paper cartridge)
  9. Pressurized water fire extinguishers manufactured prior to 1971
  10. Any extinguisher that needs to be inverted to operate
  11. Any extinguisher manufactured prior to 1955
  12. Any extinguishers with 4B, 6B, 8B, 12B, and 16B fire ratings
  13. Stored-pressure water extinguishers with fiberglass shells (pre-1976)
[10:4.4]
Dry chemical stored-pressure extinguishers with an indicated manufacturing date of 1984 or prior shall be removed from service. [10:4.4.1]
Paragraph 13.6.1.6.1 shall not apply to wheeled-type dry chemical stored-pressure fire extinguishers. [10:4.4.1.1]
Any fire extinguisher that can no longer be serviced in accordance with the manufacturer's maintenance manual is considered obsolete and shall be removed from service. [10:4.4.2]
The selection of fire extinguishers for a given situation shall be determined by the applicable requirements of Sections 5.2 through 5.6 of NFPA 10 and the following factors:
  1. Type of fire most likely to occur
  2. Size of fire most likely to occur
  3. Hazards in the area where the fire is most likely to occur
  4. Energized electrical equipment in the vicinity of the fire
  5. Ambient temperature conditions
  6. Other factors (see Section H.2 of NFPA 10)
[10:5.1]
Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed as a first line of defense to cope with fires of limited size, except as required by 5.5.5 of NFPA 10. [10:5.1.1]
The selection of extinguishers shall be independent of whether the building is equipped with automatic sprinklers, standpipe and hose, or other fixed protection equipment. [10:5.1.2]
The classification of fire extinguishers shall consist of a letter that indicates the class of fire on which a fire extinguisher has been found to be effective. [10:5.3.1]
Fire extinguishers classified for use on Class A or Class B hazards shall be required to have a rating number preceding the classification letter that indicates the relative extinguishing effectiveness. [10:5.3.1.1]
Fire extinguishers classified for use on Class C, Class D, or Class K hazards shall not be required to have a number preceding the classification letter. [10:5.3.1.2]
Fire extinguishers shall be selected for the class(es) of hazards to be protected in accordance with 13.6.2.3.2.1 through 13.6.2.3.2.5. (For specific hazards, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.) [10:5.3.2]
Fire extinguishers for the protection of Class A hazards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed and labeled for use on Class A fires. (For halon agent-type extinguishers, see 13.6.2.3.2.6.) [10:5.3.2.1]
Fire extinguishers for the protection of Class B hazards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed and labeled for use on Class B fires. (For halon agent-type extinguishers, see 13.6.2.3.2.6.) [10:5.3.2.2]
Fire extinguishers for the protection of Class C hazards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed and labeled for use on Class C hazards. (For halon agent-type fire extinguishers, see 13.6.2.3.2.6.) [10:5.3.2.3]
Fire extinguishers and extinguishing agents for the protection of Class D hazards shall be of the types specifically listed and labeled for use on the specific combustible metal hazard. [10:5.3.2.4]
Fire extinguishers for the protection of Class K hazards shall be selected from types that are specifically listed and labeled for use on Class K fires. [10:5.3.2.5]
Use of halon agent fire extinguishers shall be limited to applications where a clean agent is necessary to extinguish fire efficiently without damaging the equipment or area being protected, or where the use of alternative agents has the potential to cause a hazard to personnel in the area. [10:5.3.2.6]
Placement of portable fire extinguishers containing halogenated agents shall conform to minimum confined space volume requirement warnings contained on the fire extinguisher nameplates. [10:5.3.2.6.1]
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be considered for hazard protection in areas in which a fire risk assessment has shown the following:
  1. High hazard areas are present
  2. Limited available personnel are present, thereby requiring an extinguisher that has the following features:
    1. High agent flow rate
    2. Increased agent stream range
    3. Increased agent capacity
[10:5.3.2.7]
Rooms or areas shall be classified as being light hazard, ordinary hazard, or extra hazard. [10:5.4.1]
Light hazard occupancies shall be classified as locations where the quantity and combustibility of Class A combustibles and Class B flammables are low and fires with relatively low rates of heat release are expected. These occupancies consist of fire hazards having normally expected quantities of Class A combustible furnishings, and/or the total quantity of Class B flammables typically expected to be present is less than 1 gal (3.8 L) in any room or area. [10:5.4.1.1]
Ordinary hazard occupancies shall be classified as locations where the quantity and combustibility of Class A combustible materials and Class B flammables are moderate and fires with moderate rates of heat release are expected. These occupancies consist of fire hazards that only occasionally contain Class A combustible materials beyond normal anticipated furnishings, and/or the total quantity of Class B flammables typically expected to be present is from 1 gal to 5 gal (3.8 L to 18.9 L) in any room or area. [10:5.4.1.2]
Extra hazard occupancies shall be classified as locations where the quantity and combustibility of Class A combustible material are high or where high amounts of Class B flammables are present and rapidly developing fires with high rates of heat release are expected. These occupancies consist of fire hazards involved with the storage, packaging, handling, or manufacture of Class A combustibles, and/or the total quantity of Class B flammables expected to be present is more than 5 gal (18.9 L) in any room or area. [10:5.4.1.3]
Limited areas of greater or lesser hazard shall be protected as required. [10:5.4.1.4]
Fire extinguishers shall be provided for the protection of both the building structure and the occupancy hazards contained therein regardless of the presence of any fixed fire suppression systems. [10:5.4.2]
Required building protection shall be provided by fire extinguishers for Class A fires. [10:5.4.2.1]
Occupancy hazard protection shall be provided by fire extinguishers for such Class A, B, C, D, or K fire potentials as might be present. [10:5.4.2.2]
Fire extinguishers provided for building protection shall be permitted to also be considered for the protection of occupancies having a Class A fire potential. [10:5.4.2.3]
Buildings having an occupancy hazard subject to Class B or Class C fires, or both, shall have a standard complement of Class A fire extinguishers for building protection, plus additional Class B or Class C fire extinguishers, or both. [10:5.4.2.4]
Where fire extinguishers have more than one letter classification (such as 2-A:20-B:C), they shall be permitted to satisfy the requirements of each letter class. [10:5.4.2.5]
Large-capacity dry chemical extinguishers of 10 lb (4.54 kg) or greater and a discharge rate of 1 lb/sec (0.45 kg/sec) or more shall be used to protect these hazards. [10:5.5.1.1]
Large capacity dry chemical extinguishers of 10 lb (4.54 kg) or greater and having a discharge rate of 1 lb/sec (0.45 kg/sec) or more shall be used to protect these hazards. [10:5.5.2]
Selection of a fire extinguisher for this type of hazard shall be based on one of the following:
  1. Extinguisher containing a vapor-suppressing foam agent
  2. * Multiple extinguishers containing non-vapor-suppressing Class B agents intended for simultaneous application
  3. Larger capacity extinguishers of 10 lb (4.54 kg) or greater and a minimum discharge rate of 1 lb/sec (0.45 kg/sec)
[10:5.5.3]
Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) and film-forming fluoroprotein foam (FFFP) types of fire extinguishers shall not be used for the protection of water-soluble flammable liquids, such as alcohols, acetone, esters, ketones, and so forth, unless specifically referenced on the fire extinguisher nameplate. [10:5.5.4]
Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking appliances that use combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils and fats) shall be listed and labeled for Class K fires. [10:5.5.5]
Class K fire extinguishers manufactured after January 1, 2002, shall not be equipped with extended wand-type discharge devices. [10:5.5.5.1]
Fire extinguishers installed specifically for the protection of cooking appliances that use combustible cooking media (animal or vegetable oils and fats) without a Class K rating shall be removed from service. [10:5.5.5.2]
Where a hazard is protected by an automatic fire protection system, a placard shall be conspicuously placed near the extinguisher that states that the fire protection system shall be actuated prior to using the fire extinguisher. [10:5.5.5.3]
Fire extinguishers for the protection of delicate electronic equipment shall be selected from types specifically listed and labeled for Class C hazards. (See 13.6.2.3.2.3.) [10:5.5.6]
Dry chemical fire extinguishers shall not be installed for the protection of delicate electronic equipment. [10:5.5.6.1]
Only water or foam extinguishers shall be installed in areas where pool chemicals containing chlorine or bromine are stored. [10:5.5.7.1]
Multipurpose dry chemical fire extinguishers shall not be installed in areas where pool chemicals containing chlorine or bromine are stored. [10:5.5.7.2]
Fire extinguishers intended for use on oxidizer fires where oxidizers are stored or used shall be selected and installed based on the specific recommendations contained within the material's safety data sheet (SDS) for the oxidizer, surrounding conditions, and NFPA 400. [10:5.5.7.3]
Fire extinguishers or containers of Class D extinguishing agents provided for the protection of Class D fires shall be listed and labeled for Class D fires. [10:5.5.8]
Class D fire extinguishers and agents shall be compatible with the specific metal for which protection is provided. [10:5.5.8.1]
Where portable fire extinguishers are required to be installed, the following documents shall be reviewed for the occupancies outlined in their respective scopes:
  1. This Code
  2. NFPA 2, Hydrogen Technologies Code
  3. NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection
  4. NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
  5. NFPA 30A, Code for Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages
  6. NFPA 33, Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials
  7. NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Film
  8. NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals
  9. NFPA 51, Standard for the Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes
  10. NFPA 51B, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot Work
  11. NFPA 52, Vehicular Natural Gas Fuel Systems Code
  12. NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code
  13. NFPA 59, Utility LP-Gas Plant Code
  14. NFPA 59A, Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
  15. NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code
  16. NFPA 75, Standard for the Fire Protection of Information Technology Equipment
  17. NFPA 76, Standard for the Fire Protection of Telecommunications Facilities
  18. NFPA 96, Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations
  19. NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities Code
  20. NFPA 99B, Standard for Hypobaric Facilities
  21. NFPA 101, Life Safety Code
  22. NFPA 102, Standard for Grandstands, Folding and Telescopic Seating, Tents, and Membrane Structures
  23. NFPA 115, Standard for Laser Fire Protection
  24. NFPA 120, Standard for Fire Prevention and Control in Coal Mines
  25. NFPA 122, Standard for Fire Prevention and Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining and Metal Mineral Processing Facilities
  26. NFPA 130, Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit and Passenger Rail Systems
  27. NFPA 140, Standard on Motion Picture and Television Production Studio Soundstages, Approved Production Facilities, and Production Locations
  28. NFPA 150, Standard on Fire and Life Safety in Animal Housing Facilities
  29. NFPA 160, Standard for the Use of Flame Effects Before an Audience
  30. NFPA 232, Standard for the Protection of Records
  31. NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations
  32. NFPA 301, Code for Safety to Life from Fire on Merchant Vessels
  33. NFPA 302, Fire Protection Standard for Pleasure and Commercial Motor Craft
  34. NFPA 303, Fire Protection Standard for Marinas and Boatyards
  35. NFPA 307, Standard for the Construction and Fire Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves
  36. NFPA 326, Standard for the Safeguarding of Tanks and Containers for Entry, Cleaning, or Repair
  37. NFPA 385, Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids
  38. NFPA 400, Hazardous Materials Code
  39. NFPA 403, Standard for Aircraft Rescue and Fire-Fighting Services at Airports
  40. NFPA 407, Standard for Aircraft Fuel Servicing
  41. NFPA 408, Standard for Aircraft Hand Portable Fire Extinguishers
  42. NFPA 409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars
  43. NFPA 410, Standard on Aircraft Maintenance
  44. NFPA 418, Standard for Heliports
  45. NFPA 423, Standard for Construction and Protection of Aircraft Engine Test Facilities
  46. NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals
  47. NFPA 495, Explosive Materials Code
  48. NFPA 498, Standard for Safe Havens and Interchange Lots for Vehicles Transporting Explosives
  49. NFPA 501A, Standard for Fire Safety Criteria for Manufactured Home Installations, Sites, and Communities
  50. NFPA 502, Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges, and Other Limited Access Highways
  51. NFPA 505, Fire Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks Including Type Designations, Areas of Use, Conversions, Maintenance, and Operations
  52. NFPA 655, Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions
  53. NFPA 731, Standard for the Installation of Electronic Premises Security Systems
  54. NFPA 801, Standard for Fire Protection for Facilities Handling Radioactive Materials
  55. NFPA 804, Standard for Fire Protection for Advanced Light Water Reactor Electric Generating Plants
  56. NFPA 805, Performance-Based Standard for Fire Protection for Light Water Reactor Electric Generating Plants
  57. NFPA 820, Standard for Fire Protection in Wastewater Treatment and Collection Facilities
  58. NFPA 909, Code for the Protection of Cultural Resource Properties — Museums, Libraries, and Places of Worship
  59. NFPA 914, Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures
  60. NFPA 1123, Code for Fireworks Display
  61. NFPA 1125, Code for the Manufacture of Model Rocket and High Power Rocket Motors
  62. NFPA 1126, Standard for the Use of Pyrotechnics Before a Proximate Audience
  63. NFPA 1141, Standard for Fire Protection Infrastructure for Land Development in Wildland, Rural, and Suburban Areas
  64. NFPA 1192, Standard on Recreational Vehicles
  65. NFPA 1194, Standard for Recreational Vehicle Parks and Campgrounds
  66. NFPA 1221, Standard for the Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Emergency Services Communications Systems
  67. NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus
  68. NFPA 1906, Standard for Wildland Fire Apparatus
  69. NFPA 1925, Standard on Marine Fire-Fighting Vessels
  70. NFPA 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code
[10:5.6.1]
In no case shall the requirements of the documents in 13.6.2.6.1 be less than those specified in Section 13.6 and Chapter 2. [10:5.6.2]
The minimum number of fire extinguishers needed to protect a property shall be determined as outlined in 13.6.3. [10:6.1.1]
The installation of extinguishers shall be independent of whether the building is equipped with automatic sprinklers, standpipe and hose, or other fixed protection equipment. [10:6.1.1.1]
Additional extinguishers shall be permitted to be installed to provide more protection as necessary. [10:6.1.1.2]
Fire extinguishers having ratings less than those specified in Table 13.6.3.2.1.1 and Table 13.6.3.3.1.1 shall be permitted to be installed, provided they are not used in fulfilling the minimum protective requirements of this subsection, except as modified in 13.6.3.2.1.4, 13.6.3.2.1.5, and 13.6.3.3.1.1.1. [10:6.1.1.3]
Portable fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a fully charged and operable condition and shall be kept in their designated places at all times when they are not being used. [10:6.1.2]
Fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located where they are readily accessible and immediately available in the event of fire. [10:6.1.3.1]
Fire extinguishers shall be located along normal paths of travel, including exits from areas. [10:6.1.3.2]
Fire extinguishers shall be installed in locations where they are visible except as permitted by 13.6.3.1.3.3.2. [10:6.1.3.3.1]
In rooms and in locations where visual obstructions cannot be completely avoided, signs or other means shall be provided to indicate the extinguisher location. [10:6.1.3.3.2]
Signs or other means used to indicate fire extinguisher location shall be located in close proximity to the extinguisher. [10:6.1.3.3.3]
Signs or other means used to indicate fire extinguisher location shall be visible from the normal path of travel. [10:6.1.3.3.4]
Portable fire extinguishers other than wheeled extinguishers shall be installed using any of the following means:
  1. Securely on a hanger intended for the extinguisher
  2. In a bracket incorporating releasing straps or bands supplied by the extinguisher manufacturer
  3. In a listed bracket incorporating releasing straps or bands approved for such purpose
  4. In approved cabinets or wall recesses
[10:6.1.3.4]
Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be located in designated locations. [10:6.1.3.5]
Fire extinguishers installed in vehicles or under other conditions where they are subject to dislodgement shall be installed in approved strap-type brackets specifically designed for this application. [10:6.1.3.6]
Fire extinguishers installed under conditions or in locations where they are subject to physical damage (e.g., from impact, vibration, the environment) shall be protected against such damage. [10:6.1.3.7]
Fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 lb (18.14 kg) shall be installed so that the top of the fire extinguisher is not more than 5 ft (1.53 m) above the floor. [10:6.1.3.8.1]
Fire extinguishers having a gross weight greater than 40 lb (18.14 kg) (except wheeled types) shall be installed so that the top of the fire extinguisher is not more than 31/2 ft (1.07 m) above the floor. [10:6.1.3.8.2]
In no case shall the clearance between the bottom of the hand portable fire extinguisher and the floor be less than 4 in. (102 mm). [10:6.1.3.8.3]
Fire extinguishers shall be installed so that the fire extinguisher's operating instructions face outward. [10:6.1.3.9.1]
Hazardous materials identification systems (HMIS) labels, 6-year maintenance labels, hydrostatic test labels, or other labels shall not be located or placed on the front of the extinguisher. [10:6.1.3.9.2]
The restrictions of 13.6.3.1.3.9.2 shall not apply to the original manufacturer's labels, labels that specifically relate to the extinguisher's operation or fire classification, or inventory control labels specific to that extinguisher. [10:6.1.3.9.3]
Cabinets housing fire extinguishers shall not be locked, except where fire extinguishers are subject to malicious use and cabinets include a means of emergency access. [10:6.1.3.10.1]
The location of fire extinguishers as described in 13.6.3.1.3.3.2 shall be marked conspicuously. [10:6.1.3.10.2]
Fire extinguishers mounted in cabinets or wall recesses shall be placed so that the fire extinguisher's operating instructions face outward. [10:6.1.3.10.3]
Where fire extinguishers are installed in closed cabinets that are exposed to elevated temperatures, the cabinets shall be provided with screened openings and drains. [10:6.1.3.10.4]
Cabinets or wall recesses for fire extinguishers shall be installed such that the extinguisher mounting heights specified in 13.6.3.1.3.8.1 and 13.6.3.1.3.8.2 are met. [10:6.1.3.10.5]
For fire resistance-rated walls, only surface-mounted cabinets or listed fire-rated cabinets shall be installed. [10:6.1.3.10.6]
Fire extinguishers shall not be exposed to temperatures outside of the listed temperature range shown on the fire extinguisher label. [10:6.1.3.11]
Fire extinguishers containing only plain water shall be protected to temperatures as low as —40°F (—40°C) by the addition of an antifreeze that is stipulated on the fire extinguisher nameplate. [10:6.1.4.1]
Calcium chloride solutions shall not be used in stainless steel fire extinguishers. [10:6.1.4.2]
The connection to the electronic monitoring device shall be continuously supervised for integrity. [10:6.1.5.1]
The power source for the electronic monitoring device shall be supervised for continuity of power. [10:6.1.5.2]
Minimal sizes of fire extinguishers for the listed grades of hazards shall be provided on the basis of Table 13.6.3.2.1.1, except as modified by 13.6.3.2.1.4 and 13.6.3.2.1.5. [10:6.2.1.1]
Table 13.6.3.2.1.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class A Hazards
Criteria Light Hazard Occupancy Ordinary Hazard Occupancy Extra Hazard Occupancy
Minimum rated single extinguisher 2-A 2-A 4-A
Maximum floor area per unit of A 3000 ft2 1500 ft2 1000 ft2
Maximum floor area per extinguisher 11,250 ft2 11,250 ft2 11,250 ft2
Maximum travel distance to extinguisher 75 ft 75 ft 75 ft
For SI units, 1 ft = 0.305 m; 1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2.
Note: For maximum floor area explanations, see E.3.3 of NFPA 10. [10: Table 6.2.1.1]
The minimum number of extinguishers for Class A hazards shall be sufficient to meet the requirements of 13.6.3.2.1.2.1 through 13.6.3.2.1.2.3. [10:6.2.1.2]
The minimum number of fire extinguishers for Class A hazards for each floor of a building shall be determined by dividing the total floor area by the maximum area to be protected per extinguisher as determined by Table 13.6.3.2.1.1. (See Annex E of NFPA 10.) [10:6.2.1.2.1]
Fire extinguishers shall be located so that the maximum travel distances shall not exceed 75 ft(22.9 m), except as modified by 13.6.3.2.1.4. [10:6.2.1.2.2]
Where the quantity of extinguishers required to satisfy 13.6.3.2.1.2.2 exceeds the number calculated in 13.6.3.2.1.2.1, additional extinguishers shall be installed. [10:6.2.1.2.3]
Smaller fire extinguishers that are rated on Class B and Class C fires but do not have a minimum 1-A rating shall not be used to meet the requirements of 13.6.3.2.1. [10:6.2.1.3]
Fire extinguishers of lesser rating shall be permitted to be installed but shall not be considered as fulfilling any part of the requirements of Table 13.6.3.2.1.1, except as permitted in 13.6.3.2.1.4(A) and 13.6.3.2.1.4(B). [10:6.2.1.3.1]
Up to two water-type extinguishers, each with 1-A rating, shall be permitted to be used to fulfill the requirements of one 2-A rated extinguisher. [10:6.2.1.3.1.1]
Two 21/2 gal (9.46 L) water-type extinguishers shall be permitted to be used to fulfill the requirements of one 4-A rated extinguisher. [10:6.2.1.3.1.2]
Up to one-half of the complement of fire extinguishers specified in Table 13.6.3.2.1.1 shall be permitted to be replaced by uniformly spaced 11/2 in. (38 mm) hose stations for use by the occupants of the building. [10:6.2.1.4]
Where hose stations are so provided, they shall conform to NFPA 14. [10:6.2.1.4.1]
The location of hose stations and the placement of fire extinguishers shall be such that the hose stations do not replace more than every other fire extinguisher. [10:6.2.1.4.2]
Where the area of the floor of a building is less than that specified in Table 13.6.3.2.1.1, at least one fire extinguisher of the minimum size required shall be provided. [10:6.2.1.5]
The protection requirements shall be permitted to be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher rating, provided the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not exceed 75 ft (22.9 m) and the maximum floor area per unit of A is not exceeded. [10:6.2.1.6]
Minimum ratings of fire extinguishers for the listed grades of hazard shall be provided in accordance with Table 13.6.3.3.1.1 [10:6.3.1.1].
Table 13.6.3.3.1.1 Fire Extinguisher Size and Placement for Class B Hazards
Type of Hazard Basic Minimum Extinguisher Rating Maximum Travel Distance to Extinguishers
ft m
Light 5-B 30 9.14
10-B 50 15.25
Ordinary 10-B 30 9.14
20-B 50 15.25
Extra 40-B 30 9.14
80-B 50 15.25
Note:
The specified ratings do not imply that fires of the magnitudes indicated by these ratings will occur, but rather they are provided to give the operators more time and agent to handle difficult spill fires that have the potential to occur.
[10: Table 6.3.1.1]
Two or more fire extinguishers of lower rating shall not be used to fulfill the protection requirements of Table 13.6.3.3.1.1 except as permitted by 13.6.3.3.1.1.2 and 13.6.3.3.1.1.3. [10:6.3.1.1.1]
Up to three AFFF or FFFP fire extinguishers of at least 21/2 gal (9.46 L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to fulfill extra hazard requirements. [10:6.3.1.1.2]
Two AFFF or FFFP fire extinguishers of at least 1.6 gal (6 L) capacity shall be permitted to be used to fulfill ordinary hazard requirements. [10:6.3.1.1.3]
Fire extinguishers of lesser rating, designed for small specific hazards within the general hazard area, shall be permitted to be installed but shall not be considered as fulfilling any part of the requirements of Table 13.6.3.3.1.1, unless permitted by 13.6.3.3.1.1.1 or 13.6.3.3.1.1.2. [10:6.3.1.2]
Fire extinguishers shall be located so that the maximum travel distances do not exceed those specified in Table 13.6.3.3.1.1. [10:6.3.1.3]
The protection requirements shall be permitted to be fulfilled with fire extinguishers of higher ratings, provided the travel distance to such larger fire extinguishers does not exceed 50 ft (15.25 m). [10:6.3.1.4]
Portable fire extinguishers shall not be installed as the sole protection for flammable liquid hazards of appreciable depth where the surface area exceeds 10 ft2 (0.93 m2.) [10:6.3.2.1]
Where personnel who are trained in extinguishing fires in the protected hazards are located on the premises and capable of responding immediately, the maximum surface area shall not exceed 20 ft2 (1.86 m2). [10:6.3.2.2]
For flammable liquid hazards of appreciable depth, a Class B fire extinguisher shall be provided on the basis of at least 2 numerical units of Class B extinguishing potential per 1 ft2 (0.09 m2) of flammable liquid surface of the largest hazard area. [10:6.3.2.3]
AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be provided on the basis of 1-B of protection per 1 ft2 (0.09 m2) of hazard. (For fires involving water-soluble flammable liquids, see 5.5.3 of NFPA 10.) [10:6.3.2.4]
Two or more fire extinguishers of lower ratings, other than AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers, shall not be used in lieu of the fire extinguisher required for the largest hazard area. [10:6.3.2.5]
Up to three AFFF- or FFFP-type fire extinguishers shall be permitted to fulfill the requirements, provided the sum of the Class B ratings meets or exceeds the value required for the largest hazard area. [10:6.3.2.6]
Travel distances for portable fire extinguishers shall not exceed 50 ft (15.25 m). (See Annex E of NFPA 10.) [10:6.3.2.7]
Scattered or widely separated hazards shall be individually protected. [10:6.3.2.7.1]
A fire extinguisher in the proximity of a hazard shall be located to be accessible in the presence of a fire without undue danger to the operator. [10:6.3.2.7.2]
Where hand portable fire extinguishers are installed or positioned for obstacle, gravity/three-dimensional, or pressure fire hazards, the actual travel distance to hazard shall not exceed 30 ft (9 m) unless otherwise specified (See 5.6.1 of NFPA 10.) [10:6.3.3.1]
Where wheeled fire extinguishers of 125 lb (56.7 kg) agent capacity or larger are installed or positioned for obstacle, gravity/three-dimensional, or pressure fire hazards, the actual travel distance to hazard shall not exceed 100 ft (30.5 m) unless otherwise specified. (See 5.6.1 of NFPA 10.) [10:6.3.3.2]
Fire extinguishers with Class C ratings shall be required where energized electrical equipment can be encountered. [10:6.4.1]
The requirement in 13.6.3.4.1 shall include situations where fire either directly involves or surrounds electrical equipment. [10:6.4.2]
Because fire is a Class A or Class B hazard, the fire extinguishers shall be sized and located on the basis of the anticipated Class A or Class B hazard. [10:6.4.3]
Fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents with Class D ratings shall be provided for fires involving combustible metals. [10:6.5.1]
Fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents (media) shall be located not more than 75 ft (22.9 m) of travel distance from the Class D hazard. (See Section E.6 of NFPA 10.) [10:6.5.2]
Portable fire extinguishers or extinguishing agents (media) for Class D hazards shall be provided in those work areas where combustible metal powders, flakes, shavings, chips, or similarly sized products are generated. [10:6.5.3]
Size determination shall be on the basis of the specific combustible metal, its physical particle size, area to be covered, and recommendations by the fire extinguisher manufacturer based on data from control tests. [10:6.5.4]
Class K fire extinguishers shall be provided for hazards where there is a potential for fires involving combustible cooking media (vegetable or animal oils and fats). [10:6.6.1]
Maximum travel distance shall not exceed 30 ft (9.1 m) from the hazard to the extinguishers. [10:6.6.2]
All solid fuel cooking appliances (whether or not under a hood) with fire boxes of 5 ft3 (0.14 m3) volume or less shall have at least a listed 2-A rated water-type fire extinguisher or a 1.6 gal (6 L) wet chemical fire extinguisher that is listed for Class K fires. [10:6.6.3]
The owner or designated agent or occupant of a property in which fire extinguishers are located shall be responsible for inspection, maintenance, and recharging. (See 13.6.4.1.2.) [10:7.1.1]
Persons performing maintenance and recharging of extinguishers shall be certified. [10:7.1.2.1]
Persons training to become certified shall be permitted to perform maintenance and recharging of extinguishers under the direct supervision and in the immediate presence of a certified person. [10:7.1.2.1.1]
Certification requires that a person pass a test administered by an organization acceptable to the AHJ. [10:7.1.2.1.2]
The test shall, at a minimum, be based upon knowledge of the chapters and annexes of NFPA 10. [10:7.1.2.1.3]
The testing process shall permit persons to use NFPA 10 during the test. [10:7.1.2.1.4]
Persons passing the test required in 13.6.4.1.2.1.2 shall be issued a document or a certificate. [10:7.1.2.1.5]
The document or certificate shall be made available when requested by the AHJ. [10:7.1.2.1.6]
Persons performing maintenance and recharging of extinguishers shall be trained and shall have available the appropriate manufacturer's servicing manual(s), the correct tools, recharge materials, lubricants, and manufacturer's replacement parts or parts specifically listed for use in the fire extinguisher. [10:7.1.2.2]
Persons performing inspections shall not be required to be certified. [10:7.1.2.3]
Fire extinguishers removed from service for maintenance or recharging shall be replaced by a fire extinguisher suitable for the type of hazard being protected and shall be of at least equal rating. [10:7.1.3]
Tags or labels intended for recording inspections, maintenance, or recharging shall be affixed so as not to obstruct the fire extinguisher use, fire extinguisher classification, or manufacturer's labels. [10:7.1.4.1]
Labels indicating fire extinguisher use or classification or both shall be permitted to be placed on the front of the fire extinguisher. [10:7.1.4.2]
Fire extinguishers shall be manually inspected when initially placed in service. [10:7.2.1.1]
Fire extinguishers and Class D extinguishing agents shall be inspected either manually or by means of an electronic monitoring device/system at intervals not exceeding 31 days. [10:7.2.1.2]
Fire extinguishers and Class D extinguishing agents shall be inspected at least once per calendar month. [10:7.2.1.2.1]
Fire extinguishers and Class D extinguishing agents shall be manually inspected daily or weekly when conditions exist that indicate the need for more frequent inspections. [10:7.2.1.3]
Extinguishers that are electronically monitored for location only, such as those monitored by means of a switch to indicate when the extinguisher is removed from its bracket or cabinet, shall be manually inspected in accordance with 13.6.4.2.2. [10:7.2.1.4]
Periodic inspection or electronic monitoring of fire extinguishers shall include a check of at least the following items:
  1. Location in designated place
  2. Visibility of the extinguisher or means of indicating the extinguisher location
  3. Access to the extinguisher
  4. Pressure gauge reading or indicator in the operable range or position
  5. Fullness determined by weighing or hefting
  6. Condition of tires, wheels, carriage, hose, and nozzle for wheeled extinguishers
  7. Indicator for nonrechargeable extinguishers using push-to-test pressure indicators
[10:7.2.2]
The owner or the owner's agent shall determine the method of extinguisher inspection such as manual inspection, electronic monitoring, or any combination of the two. [10:7.2.2.1]
Any method(s) of inspection other than manual inspection shall require the approval of the authority having jurisdiction. [10:7.2.2.2]
In addition to 13.6.4.2.2, fire extinguishers shall be visually inspected in accordance with 13.6.4.2.2.4 if they are located where any of the following conditions exists:
  1. High frequency of fires in the past
  2. Severe hazards
  3. Locations that make fire extinguishers susceptible to mechanical injury or physical damage
  4. Exposure to abnormal temperatures or corrosive atmospheres
[10:7.2.2.3]
Where required by 13.6.4.2.2.3, the following inspection procedures shall be in addition to those addressed in 13.6.4.2.2:
  1. Verify that operating instructions on nameplates are legible and face outward
  2. Check for broken or missing safety seals and tamper indicators
  3. Examine for obvious physical damage, corrosion, leakage, or clogged nozzle
[10:7.2.2.4]
Periodic inspection of containers of Class D extinguishing agent used to protect Class D hazards shall include verification of at least the following:
  1. Located in designated place
  2. Visibility of the container or means of indicating the container location
  3. Access to the container
  4. Lid is sealed
  5. Fullness by hefting or weighing
  6. No obvious physical damage to container
[10:7.2.2.5]
When an inspection of any fire extinguisher reveals a deficiency in any of the conditions in 13.6.4.2.2 or 13.6.4.2.2.4, immediate corrective action shall be taken. [10:7.2.3]
When an inspection of any rechargeable fire extinguisher reveals a deficiency in any of the conditions in 13.6.4.2.2(3), 13.6.4.2.2(4), 13.6.4.2.2(5), or 13.6.4.2.2(1) through 13.6.4.2.2(3), the extinguisher shall be subjected to applicable maintenance procedures. [10:7.2.3.1]
When an inspection of any nonrechargeable dry chemical fire extinguisher reveals a deficiency in any of the conditions listed in 13.6.4.2.2(3), 13.6.4.2.2(4), 13.6.4.2.2(6), or 13.6.4.2.2.4(1) through 13.6.4.2.2.4(3), the extinguisher shall be removed from further use, discharged, and destroyed at the direction of the owner or returned to the manufacturer. [10:7.2.3.2]
When an inspection of any nonrechargeable fire extinguisher containing a halon agent reveals a deficiency in any of the conditions listed in 13.6.4.2.2(3), 13.6.4.2.2(4), 13.6.4.2.2(6), or 13.6.4.2.2.4(1) through 13.6.4.2.2.4(3), the extinguisher shall be removed from service, shall not be discharged, and shall be returned to the manufacturer, a fire equipment dealer, or a distributor to permit recovery of the halon. [10:7.2.3.3]
Where manual inspections are conducted, records for manual inspections shall be kept on a tag or label attached to the fire extinguisher, on an inspection checklist maintained on file, or by an electronic method. [10:7.2.4.1.1]
Where manual inspections are conducted, the month and year the manual inspection was performed and the initials of the person performing the inspection shall be recorded. [10:7.2.4.1.2]
Personnel making manual inspections shall keep records of all fire extinguishers inspected, including those found to require corrective action. [10:7.2.4.1.3]
Records for manual inspection shall be kept to demonstrate that at least the last 12 monthly inspections have been performed. [10:7.2.4.1.4]
Where electronically monitored systems are employed for inspections, records shall be kept for fire extinguishers found to require corrective action. [10:7.2.4.2.1]
Records for electronic monitoring shall be kept to demonstrate that at least the last 12 monthly inspections have been performed. [10:7.2.4.2.2]
For electronically monitored fire extinguishers, where the extinguisher causes a signal at a control unit when a deficiency in any of the conditions listed in 13.6.4.2.2 occurs, record keeping shall be provided in the form of an electronic event log at the control panel. [10:7.2.4.2.3]
Where required by another section of this Code or NFPA 10, maintenance procedures shall include the procedures detailed in the manufacturer's service manual and a thorough examination of the basic elements of the fire extinguisher, including the following:
  1. Mechanical parts of all fire extinguishers
  2. Extinguishing agent
  3. Expelling means
  4. Physical condition
[10:7.3.1]
Fire extinguishers shall be subjected to maintenance at intervals of not more than 1 year, at the time of hydrostatic test, or when specifically indicated by an inspection discrepancy or electronic notification. [10:7.3.1.1]
An annual external visual examination of all fire extinguishers shall be made to detect obvious physical damage, corrosion, or nozzle blockage; to verify that the operating instructions are present, legible, and facing forward, and that the HMIS information is present and legible, and to determine if a 6-year interval examination or hydrostatic test is due. [10:7.3.2.1]
At the time of the maintenance, the tamper seal of a rechargeable fire extinguisher shall be removed by operating the pull pin or locking device. [10:7.3.2.2]
After the applicable maintenance procedures are completed, a new listed tamper seal shall be installed. [10:7.3.2.2.1]
Seals or tamper indicators on nonrechargeable-type extinguishers shall not be removed. [10:7.3.2.2.2]
All removable extinguisher boots, foot rings, and attachments shall be removed to accommodate thorough annual cylinder examinations. [10:7.3.2.3]
When subjected to temperatures at or above their listed rating, stored-pressure fire extinguishers that require a 12-year hydrostatic test shall be emptied and subjected to the applicable maintenance and recharge procedures on an annual basis. [10:7.3.2.4]
When an external examination of any fire extinguisher reveals a deficiency, immediate corrective action shall be taken. [10:7.3.2.5]
Fire extinguishers shall be internally examined at intervals not exceeding those specified in Table 13.6.4.3.3.1. [10:7.3.3.1]
Table 13.6.4.3.3.1 Maintenance Involving Internal Examination
Extinguisher Type Internal Examination Interval (years)
Stored-pressure loaded stream and antifreeze 1
Pump tank water and pump tank calcium chloride-based 1
Dry chemical, cartridge- and cylinder-operated, with mild steel shells 1*
Dry powder, cartridge- and cylinder-operated, with mild steel shells 1*
Wetting agent 1
Stored-pressure water 5
AFFF (aqueous film-forming foam) 3†
FFFP (film-forming fluoroprotein foam) 3†
Stored-pressure dry chemical, with stainless steel shells 5
Carbon dioxide 5
Wet chemical 5
Dry chemical stored-pressure, with mild steel shells, brazed brass shells, and aluminum shells 6
Halogenated agents 6
Dry powder, stored-pressure, with mild steel shells 6
*Dry chemical and dry powder in cartridge- or cylinder-operated extinguishers are examined annually.
†The extinguishing agent in liquid charge-type AFFF and FFFP extinguishers is replaced every 3 years, and an internal examination (teardown) is normally conducted at that time.
[10: Table 7.3.3]
Stored-pressure types of fire extinguishers containing a loaded stream agent shall be disassembled on an annual basis and subjected to complete maintenance. [10:7.3.3.2]
The loaded stream charge shall be permitted to be recovered and re-used, provided it is subjected to agent analysis in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer's instructions. [10:7.3.3.2.1]
When the internal maintenance procedures are performed during periodic recharging or hydrostatic testing, the 1-year requirement shall begin from that date. [10:7.3.3.2.2]
The extinguishing agent of cartridge- or cylinder-operated extinguishers shall be internally examined annually. [10:7.3.3.3]
Wetting agent extinguishers shall be disassembled on an annual basis and subjected to complete maintenance. [10:7.3.3.4]
Pump tank extinguishers shall be internally examined annually. [10:7.3.3.5]
Annual internal examination shall not be required for nonrechargeable fire extinguishers, carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, or stored-pressure fire extinguishers, except for those types specified in 13.6.4.3.3.2. [10:7.3.3.6] 13.6.4.3.4* Annual Maintenance Record Keeping.
Each fire extinguisher shall have a tag or label securely attached that indicates that maintenance was performed. [10:7.3.4.1]
The tag or label, as a minimum, shall identify the following:
  1. Month and year maintenance was performed
  2. Person performing the work
  3. Name of the agency performing the work
[10:7.3.4.1.1]
Each extinguisher that has undergone maintenance that includes internal examination, except extinguishers identified in 13.6.4.3.3.3 and 13.6.4.3.3.5, shall have a verification-of-service collar located around the neck of the container. [10:7.3.4.2]
When maintenance of any fire extinguisher reveals a deficiency, immediate corrective action shall be taken. [10:7.3.5]
Every 6 years, stored-pressure fire extinguishers that require a 12-year hydrostatic test shall be emptied and subjected to the applicable internal and external examination procedures as detailed in the manufacturer's service manual and NFPA 10. [10:7.3.6]
When the applicable maintenance procedures are performed during periodic recharging or hydrostatic testing, the 6-year requirement shall begin from that date. [10:7.3.6.1]
The removal of agent from halon agent fire extinguishers shall only be done using a listed halon closed recovery system. [10:7.3.6.2]
Nonrechargeable fire extinguishers shall not be required to have a 6-year internal examination and shall not be hydrostatically tested but shall be removed from service at a maximum interval of 12 years from the date of manufacture. [10:7.3.6.3]
Nonrechargeable halon agent fire extinguishers shall be disposed of in accordance with 13.6.4.2.3.3. [10:7.3.6.3.1]
When an internal examination of any fire extinguisher reveals a deficiency, immediate corrective action shall be taken. [10:7.3.6.4]
Fire extinguishers that pass the applicable 6-year requirement of 13.6.4.3.6 shall have the maintenance information recorded on a durable weatherproof label that is a minimum of 2 in. × 31/2 in. (51 mm × 89 mm). [10:7.3.6.5]
The new label shall be affixed to the shell by a heatless process, and any previous 6-year internal examination labels shall be removed. [10:7.3.6.5.1]
These labels shall be of the self-destructive type when their removal from a fire extinguisher is attempted. [10:7.3.6.5.2]
The 6-year internal examination label shall, as a minimum, identify the following:
  1. Month and year the 6-year internal examination was performed
  2. Person performing the work
  3. Name of the agency performing the work
[10:7.3.6.5.3]
A conductivity test shall be conducted annually on all carbon dioxide hose assemblies. [10:7.4]
Carbon dioxide hose assemblies that fail the conductivity test shall be replaced. [10:7.4.1]
Carbon dioxide hose assemblies that pass a conductivity test shall have the test information recorded on a durable weatherproof label that is a minimum of 1/2 in. × 3 in. (13 mm × 76 mm). [10:7.4.2.1]
The label shall be affixed to the hose by means of a heatless process. [10:7.4.2.2]
The label shall include the following information:
  1. Month and year the test was performed, indicated by perforation such as is done by a hand punch
  2. Name or initials of person performing the test and the name of the agency performing the test
[10:7.4.2.3]
Where hose stations are installed to comply with 13.6.3.2.1.5, they shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 1962. [10:7.5]
The components of the monitoring device/system shall be tested and maintained annually in accordance with the manufacturer's listed maintenance manual, with the following items included as a minimum:
  1. Power supply inspection/battery change
  2. Obstruction sensor inspection
  3. Location sensor inspection
  4. Pressure indication inspection
  5. Connection continuity inspection (see 13.6.4.6.1.1 and 13.6.4.6.1.2)
[10:7.6.1]
One hundred percent of all units shall be tested upon initial installation or reacceptance with verification of receipt of signal at the control panel or a local alarm. [10:7.6.1.1]
Twenty percent of units shall be tested annually on a rotating basis so that all units are tested within a 5-year period. [10:7.6.1.2]
When used in conjunction with fire alarm systems, fire extinguisher electronic monitoring devices shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with NFPA 72 and 13.6.4.6.1. [10:7.6.2]
When maintenance of any monitoring system reveals a deficiency, immediate corrective action shall be taken. [10:7.6.3]
Discharge hoses on wheeled-type fire extinguishers shall be completely uncoiled and examined for damage annually. [10:7.7.1]
Discharge hoses on wheeled extinguishers shall be coiled in a manner to prevent kinks and to allow rapid deployment in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [10:7.7.1.1]
Pressure regulators provided with wheeled-type fire extinguishers shall be tested annually for outlet static pressure and flow rate in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [10:7.7.2]
When maintenance of any fire extinguisher hose or pressure regulator reveals a deficiency, immediate corrective action shall be taken. [10:7.7.3]
All rechargeable-type fire extinguishers shall be recharged after any use or when the need is indicated by an inspection or servicing. [10:7.8.1.1]
When recharging is performed, the manufacturer's service manual shall be followed. (For recharge agents, see 13.6.4.8.3.) [10:7.8.1.2]
The amount of recharge agent shall be verified by weighing. [10:7.8.1.3]
For those fire extinguishers that do not have the gross weight marked on the nameplate or valve, a permanent label that indicates the gross weight shall be affixed to the cylinder. [10:7.8.1.3.1]
The added label containing the gross weight shall be a durable material of a pressure-sensitive, self-destruct type. (For stored-pressure water-type extinguishers, see 13.6.4.8.3.10.) [10:7.8.1.3.2]
Pump tank water and pump tank calcium chloride-based antifreeze types shall not be required to have weight marked. [10:7.8.1.3.3]
After recharging, a leak test shall be performed on stored-pressure and self-expelling types of fire extinguishers. [10:7.8.1.3.4]
In no case shall an extinguisher be recharged without hydrostatic testing if it is beyond its specified hydrostatic test date. [10:7.8.1.3.5]
Every 12 months, pump tank water and pump tank calcium chloride-based antifreeze types of fire extinguishers shall be recharged with new chemicals or water as applicable. [10:7.8.2.1]
The agent in stored-pressure wetting agent fire extinguishers shall be replaced annually. [10:7.8.2.2]
Only the agent specified on the nameplate shall be used for recharging. [10:7.8.2.2.1]
The use of water or any other additives shall be prohibited. [10:7.8.2.2.2]
The premixed agent in liquid charge-type AFFF and FFFP fire extinguishers shall be replaced at least once every 3 years. [10:7.8.2.3.1]
Only the foam agent specified on the extinguisher nameplate shall be used for recharge. [10:7.8.2.3.2]
The agent in nonpressurized AFFF and FFFP fire extinguishers that is subjected to agent analysis in accordance with manufacturer's instructions shall not be required to comply with 13.6.4.8.2.3.1. [10:7.8.2.3.3]
Only those agents specified on the nameplate or agents proven to have equal chemical composition, physical characteristics, and fire-extinguishing capabilities shall be used. [10:7.8.3.1]