Heads up:
There are no amended sections in this chapter.

*The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically adopted by a state agency, or referenced in the adopting ordinance.*

Adopting Agency | BSC |
BSC-CG |
SFM |
HCD |
DSA |
OSHPD |
BSCC |
DPH |
AGR |
DWR |
CEC |
CA |
SL |
SLC |
|||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 1-AC | AC | SS | SS/CC | 1 | 1R | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ||||||||||||

Adopt Entire Chapter | X |
X |
X |
X |
X |
X |
X |
X |
X |
||||||||||||||

Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) | |||||||||||||||||||||||

Adopt only those sections that are listed below | |||||||||||||||||||||||

Chapter/Section | |||||||||||||||||||||||

*This state agency does not adopt sections identified with the following symbol:*

**†**

*The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.0.*

This appendix provides a general
procedure for sizing a water supply system. Because of the
variable conditions encountered, it is impractical to lay down
definite detailed rules of procedure for determining the sizes
of water supply pipes in an appendix, which shall necessarily
be limited in length. For an adequate understanding of the
problems involved, refer to Water-Distributing Systems for
Buildings, Report BMS 79 of the National Bureau of Standards;
and Plumbing Manual, Report BMS 66, also published
by the National Bureau of Standards.

Obtain the necessary
information regarding the minimum daily service pressure in
the area where the building is to be located.

Where the building supply is to be
metered, obtain information regarding friction loss relative to
the rate of flow of meters in the range of sizes likely to be
used. Friction-loss data is capable of being obtained from
most manufacturers of water meters. Friction losses for disk-type meters shall be permitted to be obtained from Chart A102.2.

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch= 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

**CHART A102.2**

FRICTION LOSSES FOR DISK-TYPE WATER METERS

FRICTION LOSSES FOR DISK-TYPE WATER METERS

**FLOW (gallons per minute)**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 pound-force per square inch= 6.8947 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

Obtain available local information
regarding the use of different kinds of pipe with
respect both to durability and to decrease in capacity with the length of service in the particular water supply.

Estimate the supply demand for
the building main, the principal branches and risers of the system
by totaling the fixture units on each, Table A103.1, and
then by reading the corresponding ordinate from Chart A103.1(1) or Chart A103.1(2), whichever is applicable.

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm

CHART A103.1(1)

ESTIMATE CURVES FOR DEMAND LOAD

For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

CHART A103.1(2)

ENLARGED SCALE DEMAND LOAD

For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

APPLIANCES, APPURTENANCES, OR FIXTURES^{2} |
MINIMUM FIXTURE BRANCH PIPE SIZE ^{1,4} (inches) |
Private | Public | ASSEMBLY^{6} |
---|---|---|---|---|

Bathtub or Combination Bath/Shower (fill) | ^{1}/_{2} |
4.0 | 4.0 | - |

^{3}/_{4} inch Bathtub Fill Valve |
^{3}/_{4} |
10.0 | 10.0 | - |

Bidet | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.0 | - | - |

Clothes Washer | ^{1}/_{2} |
4.0 | 4.0 | - |

Dental Unit, cuspidor | ^{1}/_{2} |
- | 1.0 | - |

Dishwasher, domestic | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.5 | 1.5 | - |

Drinking Fountain or Water Cooler | ^{1}/_{2} |
0.5 | 0.5 | 0.75 |

Hose Bibb | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.5 | 2.5 | - |

Hose Bibb, each additionat^{7} |
^{1}/_{2} |
1.0 | 1.0 | - |

Lavatory | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 |

Lawn Sprinkler, each head^{5} |
- | 1.0 | 1.0 | - |

Mobile Home, each (minimum) | - | 12.0 | - | - |

Sinks | - | - | - | - |

Bar | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.0 | 2.0 | - |

Clinical Faucet | ^{1}/_{2} |
- | 3.0 | - |

Clinical Flushometer Valve with or without faucet | 1 | - | 8.0 | - |

Kitchen, domestic | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.5 | 1.5 | - |

Laundry | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.5 | 1.5 | - |

Service or Mop Basin | ^{1}/_{2} |
1.5 | 3.0 | - |

Washup, each set of faucets | ^{1}/_{2} |
- | 2.0 | - |

Shower per head | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.0 | 2.0 | - |

Urinal, 1.0 GPF Flushometer Valve | ^{3}/_{4} |
3.0 | 4.0 | 5.0 |

Urinal, greater than 1.0 GPF Flushometer Valve | ^{3}/_{4} |
4.0 | 5.0 | 6.0 |

Urinal, flush tank | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.0 | 2.0 | 3.0 |

Wash Fountain, circular spray | ^{3}/_{4} |
- | 4.0 | - |

Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.5 | 2.5 | 3.5 |

Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Tank | ^{1}/_{2} |
2.5 | 2.5 | 3.5 |

Water Closet, 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve | 1 | 5.0 | 5.0 | 8.0 |

Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Gravity Tank | ^{1}/_{2} |
3.0 | 5.5 | 7.0 |

Water Closet, greater than 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve | 1 | 7.0 | 8.0 | 10.0 |

**Notes:**^{2}Appliances, appurtenances, or fixtures not included in this table shall be permitted to be sized by reference to fixtures having a similar flow rate and frequency of use.^{3}The listed fixture unit values represent their total load on the cold water building supply. The separate cold water and hot water fixture unit value for fixtures having both cold and hot water connections shall be permitted to be three-quarters of the listed total value of the fixture.^{5}For fixtures or supply connections likely to impose continuous flow demands, determine the required flow in gallons per minute (gpm) (L/s) and add it separately to the demand in gpm (L/s) for the distribution system or portions thereof.^{6}Assembly [Public Use (see Table 422.1)].^{7}Reduced fixture unit loading for additional hose bibbs is to be used where sizing total building demand and for pipe sizing where more than one hose bibb is supplied by a segment of water distribution pipe. The fixture branch to each hose bibb shall be sized by 2.5 fixture units.

ESTIMATE CURVES FOR DEMAND LOAD

For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

ENLARGED SCALE DEMAND LOAD

For SI units: 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s

Estimate continuous
supply demands in gallons per minute (gpm) (L/s) for
lawn sprinklers, air conditioners, etc., and add the sum to the
total demand for fixtures. The result is the estimated supply
demand of the building supply.

Decide what is the desirable minimum residual pressure that shall be maintained at the highest fixture in the supply system. The available residual pressure shall be not less than 15 psi (103 kPa).
Where fixtures, fixture fittings or both are installed that require residual pressure exceeding 15 psi (103 kPa), that minimum residual pressure shall be provided.

Determine the elevation of the highest
fixture or group of fixtures above the water (street) main.
Multiply this difference in elevation by 0.43. The result is the loss of static pressure in psi (kPa).

Subtract the sum of loss in
static pressure and the residual pressure to be maintained at
the highest fixture from the average minimum daily service
pressure. The result will be the pressure available for friction loss in the supply pipes, where no water meter is used. Where
a meter is to be installed, the friction loss in the meter for the
estimated maximum demand should also be subtracted from
the service pressure to determine the pressure loss available
for friction loss in the supply pipes.

Determine the developed
length of pipe from the water (street) main to the highest fixture.
Where close estimates are desired, compute with the aid
of Table A104.4(1), Table A104.4(2), or Table A104.4(3),
whichever is applicable, the equivalent length of pipe for fittings
in the line from the water (street) main to the highest
fixture and add the sum to the developed length. The pressure available for friction loss in psi (kPa), divided by the
developed lengths of pipe from the water (street) main to the
highest fixture, times 100, will be the average permissible
friction loss per 100 feet (30480 mm) length of pipe.

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.017 rad

* Allowances are based on nonrecessed threaded fittings. Use one-half the allowances for recessed threaded fittings or streamlined solder fittings.

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm

DIAMETER OF FITTING (inches) | 90° STANDARD ELBOW (feet) | 45° STANDARD ELBOW (feet) | 90° STANDARD TEE (feet) | COUPLING OR STRAIGHT RUN OF TEE (feet) | GATE VALVE (feet) | GLOBE VALVE (feet) | ANGLE VALVE (feet) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

^{3}/_{8} |
1.0 | 0.6 | 1.5 | 0.3 | 0.2 | 8 | 4 |

^{1}/_{2} |
2.0 | 1.2 | 3.0 | 0.6 | 0.4 | 15 | 8 |

^{3}/_{4} |
2.5 | 1.5 | 4.0 | 0.8 | 0.5 | 20 | 12 |

1 | 3.0 | 1.8 | 5.0 | 0.9 | 0.6 | 25 | 15 |

1^{1}/_{4} |
4.0 | 2.4 | 6.0 | 1.2 | 0.8 | 35 | 18 |

1^{1}/_{2} |
5.0 | 3.0 | 7.0 | 1.5 | 1.0 | 45 | 22 |

2 | 7.0 | 4.0 | 10.0 | 2.0 | 1.3 | 55 | 28 |

2^{1}/_{2} |
8.0 | 5.0 | 12.0 | 2.5 | 1.6 | 65 | 34 |

3 | 10.0 | 6.0 | 15.0 | 3.0 | 2.0 | 80 | 40 |

4 | 14.0 | 8.0 | 21.0 | 4.0 | 2.7 | 125 | 55 |

5 | 17.0 | 10.0 | 25.0 | 5.0 | 3.3 | 140 | 70 |

6 | 20.0 | 12.0 | 30.0 | 6.0 | 4.0 | 165 | 80 |

* Allowances are based on nonrecessed threaded fittings. Use one-half the allowances for recessed threaded fittings or streamlined solder fittings.

DIAMETER OF FITTING (inches) | 90 DEGREE ELBOW (feet) | 45 DEGREE ELBOW (feet) | COUPLING OR STRAIGHT RUN OF TEE (feet) | 90 DEGREE STANDARD TEE (feet) |
---|---|---|---|---|

^{1}/_{2} |
1.6 | 0.8 | 1.0 | 3.1 |

^{3}/_{4} |
2.1 | 1.1 | 1.4 | 4.1 |

1 | 2.6 | 1.4 | 1.7 | 5.3 |

1^{1}/_{4} |
3.5 | 1.8 | 2.3 | 6.9 |

1^{1}/_{2} |
4.0 | 2.1 | 2.7 | 8.1 |

2 | 5.2 | 2.8 | 3.5 | 10.3 |

DIAMETER OF FITTING (inches) | 90 DEGREE ELBOW (feet) | 45 DEGREE ELBOW (feet) | COUPLING OR STRAIGHT RUN OF TEE (feet) | 90 DEGREE STANDARD TEE (feet) |
---|---|---|---|---|

^{1}/_{2} |
1.5 | 0.8 | 1.0 | 4.0 |

^{3}/_{4} |
2.0 | 1.1 | 1.4 | 5.0 |

1 | 2.5 | 1.4 | 1.7 | 6.0 |

1^{1}/_{4} |
3.8 | 1.8 | 2.3 | 7.0 |

1^{1}/_{2} |
4.0 | 2.1 | 2.7 | 8.0 |

2 | 5.7 | 2.6 | 4.3 | 12.0 |

Knowing the permissible friction loss
per 100 feet (30 480 mm) of pipe and the total demand, the
diameter of the building supply pipe shall be permitted to be obtained from Chart A105.1(1), Chart A105.1(2), Chart A105.1(3), Chart A105.1(4) Chart A105.1(5), Chart A105.1(6), or Chart A105.1(7), whichever is applicable. The
diameter of pipe on or next above the coordinate point corresponding
to the estimated total demand and the permissible
friction loss will be the size needed up to the first branch from the building supply pipe.

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 nun, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, I pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 nun, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A105.1(1)**

**FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD (pounds-force per square inch) PER 100-FOOT LENGTH**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 nun, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, I pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 nun, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A105.1(2)**

**FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD (pounds-force per square inch) PER 100-FOOT LENGTH**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A105.1(3)**

**FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD (pounds-force per square inch) PER 100-FOOT LENGTH**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A105.1(4)**

**FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD (pounds-force per square inch) PER 100-FOOT LENGTH**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A105.1(5)**

**FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD (pounds-force per square inch) PER 100-FOOT LENGTH**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A105.1(6)**

**FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD (pounds-force per square inch) PER 100-FOOT LENGTH**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

**CHART A105.1(7)**

**FRICTION LOSS IN HEAD (pounds-force per square inch) PER 100-FOOT LENGTH**

For SI units: 1 inch = 25 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square inch = 6.8947 kPa, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s

Where copper
tubing or copper alloy pipe is to be used for the supply
piping and where the character of the water is such that slight
changes in the hydraulic characteristics are expected, Chart A105.1(1) shall be permitted to be used.

Chart A105.1(2) shall be used for ferrous
pipe with the most favorable water supply in regards to
corrosion and caking. Where the water is hard or corrosive,
Chart A105.1(3) or Chart A105.1(4) will be applicable. For
extremely hard water, it will be advisable to make additional
allowances for the reduction of the capacity of hot-water lines in service.

The required size of branches and risers shall
be permitted to be obtained in the same manner as the building
supply, by obtaining the demand load on each branch or
riser and using the permissible friction loss computed in Section A104.0.

Where fixture branches to the building
supply are sized for the same permissible friction loss per 100
feet (30480 mm) of pipe as the branches and risers to the
highest level in the building and lead to the inadequate water
supply to the upper floor of a building, one of the following
shall be provided:

- Selecting the sizes of pipe for the different branches so that the total friction loss in each lower branch is approximately equal to the total loss in the riser, including both friction loss and loss in static pressure.
- Throttling each such branch using a valve until the preceding balance is obtained.
- Increasing the size of the building supply and risers above the minimum required to meet the maximum permissible friction loss.

The size of branches and mains
serving flushometer tanks shall be consistent with sizing procedures for flush tank water closets.

Velocities shall not exceed 10 feet per
second (ft/s) (3 m/s), except as otherwise approved by the
Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Where a pressure-reducing
valve is used in the building supply, the developed
length of supply piping and the permissible friction loss shall be computed from the building side of the valve.

The allowances in Table A104.4(1) for fittings
are based on non-recessed threaded fittings. For
recessed threaded fittings and streamlined soldered fittings,
one-half of the allowances given in the table will be ample.

Assume an office building of four stories
and basement; pressure on the building side of the pressure-reducing
valve of 55 psi (379 kPa) (after an allowance for
reduced pressure falloff at peak demand); an elevation of
highest fixture above the pressure-reducing valve of 45 feet
(13716 mm); a developed length of pipe from the pressure-reducing
valve to the most distant fixture of 200 feet (60960 mm); and fixtures to be installed with flush valves for water
closets and stall urinals as follows:

Where the pipe material and water supply are such that Chart A105.1(2) applies, the required diameter of the building supply is 3

The sizes of the various branches and risers shall be permitted to be determined in the same manner as the size of the building supply or the branch to the hot-water system, by estimating the demand for the riser or branch from Chart A103.1(1) or Chart A103.1(2) and applying the total demand estimate from the branch, riser, or section thereof to the appropriate flowchart.

For SI units : 1 gallon per minute = 0.06 L/s, 1 pound-force per square foot = 6.8947 kPa

Allowing for 15 psi (103 kPa) at the highest fixture under the maximum demand of 252 gallons per minute (15.90 L/s), the pressure available for friction loss is found by the following:

The allowable friction loss per 100 feet (30480 mm) of the pipe is, therefore:

Where the pipe material and water supply are such that Chart A105.1(2) applies, the required diameter of the building supply is 3

^{1}/_{2}inches (90 mm), and the required diameter of the branch to the hot-water heater is 1^{1}/_{2}inches (40 mm).The sizes of the various branches and risers shall be permitted to be determined in the same manner as the size of the building supply or the branch to the hot-water system, by estimating the demand for the riser or branch from Chart A103.1(1) or Chart A103.1(2) and applying the total demand estimate from the branch, riser, or section thereof to the appropriate flowchart.

FIXTURE UNITS AND ESTIMATED DEMANDS | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

BUILDING SUPPLY DEMAND | BRANCH TO HOT WATER SYSTEM | ||||||

KIND OF FIXTURES | NUMBER OF FIXTURES | FIXTURE UNIT DEMAND | TOTAL UNITS | BUILDING SUPPLY DEMAND (gallons per minute) | NUMBER OF FIXTURES | FIXTURE UNIT DEMAND CALCULATION | DEMAND (gallons per minute) |

Water Closets | 130 | 8.0 | 1040 | - | - | - | - |

Urinals | 30 | 4.0 | 120 | - | - | - | - |

Showerheads | 12 | 2.0 | 24 | - | 12 | 12 X 2 X ^{3}/_{4} = 18 |
- |

Lavatories | 100 | 1.0 | 100 | - | 100 | 100 X 1 X ^{3}/_{4} = 75 |
- |

Service Sinks | 27 | 3.0 | 81 | - | 27 | 27 X 3 X ^{3}/_{4} = 61 |
- |

Total | - | - | 1365 | 252 | - | 154 | 55 |

Allowing for 15 psi (103 kPa) at the highest fixture under the maximum demand of 252 gallons per minute (15.90 L/s), the pressure available for friction loss is found by the following:

55 - [15 + (45 x 0.43)] = 20.65 psi (142.38 kPa)

The allowable friction loss per 100 feet (30480 mm) of the pipe is, therefore:

100 x 20.65 ÷ 200 = 10.32 psi (71.15 kPa)