Part I Administrative

Part II General Safety Provisions

Part III Building and Equipment Design Features

Part IV Special Occupancies and Operations

Part V Hazardous Materials

Part VI Referenced Standards

Part VII Appendices

Heads up: There are no suggested sections in this chapter.
Heads up: There are no amended sections in this chapter.
CALIFORNIA FIRE CODE — MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 5 — FIRE SERVICE FEATURES
(Matrix Adoption Tables are non-regulatory, intended only as an aid to the user.
See Chapter 1 for state agency authority and building applications.)
Adopting Agency BSC BSC-CG SFM HCD DSA OSHPD BSCC DPH AGR DWR CEC CA SL SLC
T-24 T-19* 1 2 1/AC AC SS 1 2 3 4
Adopt Entire Chapter
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) X
Adopt only those sections that are listed below
[California Code of Regulations, Title 19,Division 1] X
Chapter / Section
503
[T-19 §3.05 (a)] X
[T-19 §3.05 (b)] X
503.5.2 X
504.4 X
507.2.1 X
507.3 X
507.5 X
507.5.1 X
507.5.3 X
508.1 X
508.1.2 X
508.1.6 X
508.1.7 X
510.3
This state agency does not adopt sections identified with the following symbol: †
*  The California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 19, Division 1 provisions that are found in the California Fire Code are a reprint from the current CCR, Title 19, Division 1 text for the code user's convenience only. The scope, applicability and appeals procedures of CCR, Title 19, Division I remain the same.
Fire service features for buildings, structures and premises shall comply with this chapter.

501.1.1 Los Angeles City Scope

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
This chapter regulates Fire Department access, fire hydrants, and fire-flow. Fire hydrant and fire-flow requirements are based upon land use. Also included are minimum requirements for supplemental fire protection based on Fire Department response time capabilities, personnel, apparatus availability and fire-flow.
A permit shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.
Construction documents for proposed fire apparatus access, location of fire lanes, security gates across fire apparatus access roads and construction documents and hydraulic calculations for fire hydrant systems shall be submitted to the fire department for review and approval prior to construction.
Where fire apparatus access roads or a water supply for fire protection are required to be installed, such protection shall be installed and made serviceable prior to and during the time of construction except when approved alternative methods of protection are provided. Temporary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection where construction of new roadways allows passage by vehicles in accordance with Section 505.2.

502.1 Definitions

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

AGENCY.

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD.

FIRE COMMAND CENTER.

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY.

FIRE LANE.

FIRE-FLOW.

KEY BOX.

SUPPLEMENTAL FIRE PROTECTION.

TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES.

Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Sections 503.1.1 through 503.1.3.

Approved fire apparatus access roads shall be provided for every facility, building or portion of a building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction. The fire apparatus access road shall comply with the requirements of this section and shall extend to within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of all portions of the facility and all portions of the exterior walls of the first story of the building as measured by an approved route around the exterior of the building or facility.

Exceptions:

  1. The fire code official is authorized to increase the dimension of 150 feet (45 720 mm) where any of the following conditions occur:

    1. 1.1. The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.
    2. 1.2. Fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed because of location on property, topography, waterways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar conditions, and an approved alternative means of fire protection is provided.
    3. 1.3. There are not more than two Group R-3 or Group U occupancies.
  2. Where approved by the fire code official, fire apparatus access roads shall be permitted to be exempted or modified for solar photovoltaic power generation facilities.
The fire code official is authorized to require more than one fire apparatus access road based on the potential for impairment of a single road by vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions or other factors that could limit access.
Fire department vehicle access to buildings used for high-piled combustible storage shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 32.

503.1.4 Building Structure More Than 150 Feet From the Edge of the Roadway

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
If any portion of the first story exterior walls of any building structure is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from the edge of the roadway of an approved street, an approved fire lane shall be provided so that such portion is within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of the edge of the fire lane.

Exception: An entrance to any dwelling unit or guest room shall not be more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) in distance of horizontal travel from the edge of roadway of an improved street or approved fire lane.

503.1.5 Dead-End in Access

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
When required access is provided by an improved street, fire lane or combination of both which results in a dead-end in excess of 700 feet (213 m) in length from the nearest cross street, at least one additional ingress-egress roadway shall be provided in such a manner that an alternative means of ingress-egress is accomplished.

503.1.6 Easements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where fire lanes are required under Section 503.1.4 to provide access for Fire Department emergency vehicles, and such fire lanes are other than access roads, they shall be granted to the City without cost as easements from a public street or alley to the required terminal point. Provided, however, that the easement requirement may be waived, unless otherwise required by the general plan of the City of Los Angeles, where the Department determines that the acquisition of an easement is not necessary for the protection of the public safety and welfare. Fire lanes shall be designated and maintained as follows:
  1. Fire lanes shall have a minimum clear roadway width of 20 feet (6096 mm) when no parking is allowed on either side.
  2. Those portions of a fire lane which must accommodate the operation of Fire Department aerial ladder apparatus shall have a minimum clear roadway width of 28 feet (8534 mm) when no parking is allowed on either side.
  3. Those portions of a fire lane 30 feet (9144 mm) on either side of a private fire hydrant shall have a minimum clear roadway width of 28 feet (8534 mm). No parking shall be permitted within those portions of the roadway which are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of and on the same side of the roadway as a private fire hydrant.
  4. Where parking is allowed on only one side of a required fire lane, parking shall be on the same side of the roadway as the hydrants.
  5. Where parallel parking is allowed on either side of a fire lane, the roadway width shall be increased 8 feet (238 mm) for each parking lane.
  6. Where access requires accommodation of Fire Department apparatus, overhead clearance shall not be less than 14 feet (4267 mm).
  7. Deadend fire lanes shall terminate in cul-de-sacs or other approved turning areas consistent with the Department of Public Works Standard Street Dimension Plan D-22549.
  8. Fire lanes shall be paved to the city engineer's standards for public alleys.

Fire apparatus access roads shall be installed and arranged in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 through 503.2.8.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §3.05(a)] Fire Department Access and Egress. (Roads)

  1. Roads. Required access roads from every building to a public street shall be all-weather hard-surfaced (suitable for use by fire apparatus) right-of-way not less than 20 feet in width. Such right-of-way shall be unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street.

    Exception: The enforcing agency may waive or modify this requirement if in his opinion such all-weather hard-surfaced condition is not necessary in the interest of public safety and welfare.

Fire apparatus access roads shall have an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), exclusive of shoulders, except for approved security gates in accordance with Section 503.6, and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm).
The fire code official shall have the authority to require or permit modifications to the required access widths where they are inadequate for fire or rescue operations or where necessary to meet the public safety objectives of the jurisdiction.
Fire apparatus access roads shall be designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of fire apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide all-weather driving capabilities.
The required turning radius of a fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the fire code official.
Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided with an approved area for turning around fire apparatus.
Where a bridge or an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with AASHTO HB-17. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed loads of fire apparatus. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both entrances to bridges where required by the fire code official. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces that are not designed for such use, approved barriers, approved signs or both shall be installed and maintained where required by the fire code official.
The grade of the fire apparatus access road shall be within the limits established by the fire code official based on the fire department's apparatus.
The angles of approach and departure for fire apparatus access roads shall be within the limits established by the fire code official based on the fire department's apparatus.
Where required by the fire code official, approved signs or other approved notices or markings that include the words NO PARKING—FIRE LANE shall be provided for fire apparatus access roads to identify such roads or prohibit the obstruction thereof. The means by which fire lanes are designated shall be maintained in a clean and legible condition at all times and be replaced or repaired when necessary to provide adequate visibility.
Fire apparatus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner, including the parking of vehicles. The minimum widths and clearances established in Sections 503.2.1 and 503.2.2 shall be maintained at all times.
Traffic calming devices shall be prohibited unless approved by the fire code official.

503.4.2 Fire Lane Maintenance

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Any person owning or having control of any facility, structure, group of structures or premises shall maintain all fire lanes in an unobstructed manner.

Exception: Gates and gate devices approved by the Department.

503.4.3 Obstructions on Fire Roads and Firebreaks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
No person shall install or maintain a radio or television aerial, or the guy wires thereto, on any fire road or firebreak. Antenna wire shall be not less than 16 feet (4877 mm) above a fire road or firebreak.
The fire code official is authorized to require the installation and maintenance of gates or other approved barricades across fire apparatus access roads, trails or other accessways, not including public streets, alleys or highways. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F2200.

Where required, gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved manner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized by the owner and the fire code official.

Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to public officers acting within the scope of duty.

School grounds may be fenced and gates therein may be equipped with locks, provided that safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per occupant are located between the school and the fence. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from school buildings.

Every public and private school shall conform with Section 32020 of the Education Code which states:

The governing board of every public school district, and the governing authority of every private school, which maintains any building used for the instruction or housing of school pupils on land entirely enclosed (except for building walls) by fences of walls, shall, through cooperation with the local law enforcement and fire-protection agencies having jurisdiction of the area, make provision for the erection of gates in such fences or walls. The gates shall be of sufficient size to permit the entrance of the ambulances, police equipment and fire-fighting apparatus used by the law enforcement and fire-protection agencies. There shall be no less than one such access gate and there shall be as many such gates as needed to assure access to all major buildings and ground areas. If such gates are to be equipped with locks, the locking devices shall be designed to permit ready entrance by the use of the chain or bolt-cutting devices with which the local law enforcement and fire-protection agencies may be equipped.

503.5.3 Tampering With Established Locks or Barriers

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
No person, except when authorized by the Chief, or an officer or employee of the City acting within the scope of his or her public duties, shall unlock, or tamper with, or cause to be unlocked or tampered with in any manner, any lock, gate, door, seal, barrier, or enclosure which is installed by or under control of the Fire Department of the City of Los Angeles.
The installation of security gates across a fire apparatus access road shall be approved by the fire chief. Where security gates are installed, they shall have an approved means of emergency operation. The security gates and the emergency operation shall be maintained operational at all times. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F2200.

Exterior doors and openings required by this code or the California Building Code shall be maintained readily accessible for emergency access by the fire department. An approved access walkway leading from fire apparatus access roads to exterior openings shall be provided when required by the fire code official.

[California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, §3.05(b)] Fire Department Access and Egress. (Roofs)

(b) Roofs. No person shall install or maintain any security barrier such as barbed wire fencing, razor wire fencing, chain link fencing, or any other fencing material, cable, aerial, antenna, or other obstruction on the roof of any commercial establishment in such a manner as to obstruct or render egress or access hazardous in the event of fire or other emergency.

Exception: Guy wire, rods and aerial antenna masts may be attached to a roof structure having a slope of less than 30 degrees provided there is full clearance of seven feet or more between the roof and said obstruction. Guy wire or rods required to support aerial or antenna masts may be attached to a roof structure a lateral distance from the mast not in excess of one-sixth the height of the mast.

Exterior doors and their function shall not be eliminated without prior approval. Exterior doors that have been rendered nonfunctional and that retain a functional door exterior appearance shall have a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door with the words THIS DOOR BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of letters having a principal stroke of not less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) wide and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high on a contrasting background. Required fire department access doors shall not be obstructed or eliminated. Exit and exit access doors shall comply with Chapter 10. Access doors for high-piled combustible storage shall comply with Section 3206.6.1.
New buildings four or more stories above grade plane, except those with a roof slope greater than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), shall be provided with a stairway to the roof. Stairway access to the roof shall be in accordance with Section 1011.12. Such stairway shall be marked at street and floor levels with a sign indicating that the stairway continues to the roof. Where roofs are used for roof gardens or for other purposes, stairways shall be provided as required for such occupancy classification.

No person shall install or maintain any security barrier such as barbed wire fencing, razor wire fencing, chain link fencing, or any other fencing material, cable, aerial, antenna, or other obstruction on the roof of any commercial establishment in such a manner as to obstruct or render egress or access hazardous in the event of fire or other emergency.

Exception: Guy wire, rods and aerial antenna masts may be attached to a roof structure having a slope of less than 30 degrees provided there is full clearance of 7 feet or more between the roof and said obstruction. Guy wire or rods required to support aerial or antenna masts may be attached to a roof structure a lateral distance from the mast not in excess of one-sixth the height of the mast.

New and existing buildings shall be provided with approved address identification. The address identification shall be legible and placed in a position that is visible from the street or road fronting the property. Address identification characters shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be Arabic numbers or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall not be spelled out. Each character shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) high with a minimum stroke width of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). Where required by the fire code official, address identification shall be provided in additional approved locations to facilitate emergency response. Where access is by means of a private road and the building cannot be viewed from the public way, a monument, pole or other sign or means shall be used to identify the structure. Address identification shall be maintained.

505.1.1 Size

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Additional requirements of address size shall be as follows:
  1. The height in inches of any number or letter therein shall be the sum of one-tenth (1/10) of the distance in feet of the number from the boundary of the property (upon which the building, structure, or parking lot is situated) abutting the street, plus two (2), providing that every number shall not be less than 4 inches (100 mm) in height.
  2. The overall width of any figure in or comprising the number or letter shall be one-half (1/2) of its height. The width of any portion of a figure in or comprising the number or letter shall be one-tenth (1/10) of its height.

505.1.2 Location

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Design (including shape and style) as well as location of the street address numbers shall be such that they are legible and easily readable. Irrespective of whether the street address number was established before or after June 1, 1973, the Chief shall have the authority to prescribe a street address number larger in size than the dimensions stated in Section 505.1.1 when it is determined that due to lighting conditions, building location, shadows, background, or other reasons, street address numbers of minimum dimensions will not be easily readable from the street or approach to the entrance. A street address number of unusual design or placement may not be employed without prior written approval of the Chief.
Streets and roads shall be identified with approved signs. Temporary signs shall be installed at each street intersection when construction of new roadways allows passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, weather resistant and be maintained until replaced by permanent signs.
Where access to or within a structure or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting purposes, the fire code official is authorized to require a key box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall be of an approved type listed in accordance with UL 1037, and shall contain keys to gain necessary access as required by the fire code official.
An approved lock shall be installed on gates or similar barriers where required by the fire code official.

Key boxes provided for nonstandardized fire service elevator keys shall comply with Section 506.1 and all of the following:

  1. The key box shall be compatible with an existing rapid entry key box system in use in the jurisdiction and approved by the fire code official.
  2. The front cover shall be permanently labeled with the words "Fire Department Use Only—Elevator Keys."
  3. The key box shall be mounted at each elevator bank at the lobby nearest to the lowest level of fire department access.
  4. The key box shall be mounted 5 feet 6 inches (1676 mm) above the finished floor to the right side of the elevator bank.
  5. Contents of the key box are limited to fire service elevator keys. Additional elevator access tools, keys and information pertinent to emergency planning or elevator access shall be permitted where authorized by the fire code official.
  6. In buildings with two or more elevator banks, a single key box shall be permitted to be used where such elevator banks are separated by not more than 30 feet (9144 mm). Additional key boxes shall be provided for each individual elevator or elevator bank separated by more than 30 feet (9144 mm).

Exception: A single key box shall be permitted to be located adjacent to a fire command center or the nonstandard fire service elevator key shall be permitted to be secured in a key box used for other purposes and located in accordance with Section 506.1.

The operator of the building shall immediately notify the fire code official and provide the new key where a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such lock shall be secured in the key box.
An approved water supply capable of supplying the required fire flow for fire protection shall be provided to premises upon which facilities, buildings or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction.
A water supply shall consist of reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or other fixed systems capable of providing the required fire flow.
Private fire service mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 24 as amended in Chapter 80.
Water tanks for private fire protection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 22.
Fire flow requirements for buildings or portions of buildings and facilities shall be determined by an approved method or Appendix B.

507.3.1 Fire-Flow Requirements

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire-flows shall comply with Table 507.3.1 for any structures, group of structures or facilities by the type of land development, or as otherwise determined by the Chief.
  1. Where street alignments mandate the installation of dead-end mains, the fire-flow in gallons per minute may be adjusted downward, depending on the type of land development.
  2. A minimum residual water pressure of 20 pounds per square inch (137.9 kPa) is to remain in the system with the required gallons per minute flowing.
TABLE 507.3.1
FIRE-FLOW BY TYPE OF LAND DEVELOPMENT
TYPE OF LAND DEVELOPMENT FIRE-FLOW IN GALLONS PER MINUTE
Low density Residential 2,000 gpm from three adjacent fire
hydrants flowing simultaneously.
High density Residential and
Neighborhood Commercial
4,000 gpm from four adjacent fire
hydrants flowing simultaneously.
Industrial and Commercial 6,000 to 9,000 gpm from four to six
fire hydrants flowing simultaneously.
High density Industrial and
Commercial (Principal business
districts or Centers)
12,000 gpm available to any block
(where local conditions indicate
that consideration must be given to
simultaneous fires, and additional
2,000 to 8,000 gpm will be
required).

507.3.2 Fire Hydrant Spacing

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Fire hydrant spacing and type of hydrant, by type of land development. See Table 507.3.2.
  1. Every first story dwelling unit, first story guest room, and all first story portions of any commercial or industrial building must be within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of an approved fire hydrant.
  2. All fire hydrants shall have 2 1/2 inch by 4-inch (64 mm by100 mm) outlets or 4-inch by 4-inch (100 mm by 100 mm) outlets and conform to the minimum standards of the American Water Works Association for wet barrel hydrants. A minimum of one fire hydrant is to be provided at each intersection. "Built-up" type single 2 1/2-inch (64 mm) outlet hydrants [6-inch (1524 mm) pipe surmounted by an angle valve] shall be used in areas having a static water pressure of 210 psi or more.
  3. Streets with raised median center dividers, excessive traffic loads, or more than 80 feet (24 m) in dedicated width require the installation of hydrants on both sides of the street. Additional intermediate hydrants are required in areas where restricted access, depth of lots, or blocks exceeding the maximum hydrant spacing intervals exist.
TABLE 507.3.2
FIRE HYDRANT SPACING
TYPE OF LAND
DEVELOPMENT
NET LAND
AREA SERVED
PER HYDRANT
(sq. ft.)
DISTANCE
BETWEEN
HYDRANTS ON
ROADS AND
FIRE LANES
(ft.)
TYPE OF
HYDRANT
Low density
Residential
150,000 600 2 1/2" × 4" Double
fire hydrant
High density
Residential
and Neighborhood
Commercial
100,000 300—450 2 1/2" × 4" Double
fire hydrant
Industrial and
Commercial
80,000a 300 2 1/2" × 4" Double
Fire Hydrant or
4" x 4" Double
Fire Hydrant
High density
Industrial and
Commercial
40,000 300 4" × 4" Double
Fire Hydrant
  1. This figure will be systematically reduced where greater fire-flow is required due to restricted access, depth of lots, length of blocks or additional hazards.

507.3.3 Land Use

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Land use and required fire flow. See Table 507.3.3.

TABLE 507.3.3
RESPONSE DISTANCES THAT IF EXCEEDED REQUIRE THE INSTALLATION OF AN AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEM
LAND USEa REQUIRED FIRE FLOW
(gpm)
MAXIMUM RESPONSE
DISTANCEb
ENGINE CO. TRUCK CO.
Low density
Residential
2,000 gpm from three
adjacent fire hydrants
flowing simultaneously.
1 1/2 miles 2 mile
High density
Residential and
Neighborhood
Commercial
4,000 gpm from four
adjacent fire hydrants
flowing simultaneously.
1 1/2 miles 2 mile
Industrial and
Commercial
6,000 to 9,000 from
four to six fire hydrants
flowing simultaneously.
1 mile 1 1/2 miles
High density
Industrial and
Commercial
(Principal business
districts or
Centers)
12,000 available to any
block (where local conditions
indicate that
consideration must be
given to simultaneous
fires, additional 2,000 to
8,000 will be required).
3/4 mile 1 mile
  1. Land use designations are contained in the community plan elements of the General Plan for the City of Los Angeles.
  2. The maximum response distances for both LAFD fire suppression companies (engine and truck) must be satisfied.
The fire code official shall be notified prior to the water supply test. Water supply tests shall be witnessed by the fire code official or approved documentation of the test shall be provided to the fire code official prior to final approval of the water supply system.
Fire hydrant systems shall comply with Sections 507.5.1 through 507.5.6 and Appendix C or by an approved method.

Where a portion of the facility or building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction is more than 400 feet (122 m) from a hydrant on a fire apparatus access road, as measured by an approved route around the exterior of the facility or building, on-site fire hydrants and mains shall be provided where required by the fire code official.

Exception: For Group R-3 and Group U occupancies, equiped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3, the distance requirement shall be not more than 600 feet (183 m).

Buildings equipped with a standpipe system installed in accordance with Section 905 shall have a fire hydrant within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the fire department connections.

Exception: The distance shall be permitted to exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm) where approved by the fire code official.

Fire hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as required by the fire code official. Fire hydrant systems shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times and shall be repaired where defective. Additions, repairs, alterations and servicing shall comply with approved standards. Records of tests and required maintenance shall be maintained.

Private fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 5.

Records of inspections, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.

Unobstructed access to fire hydrants shall be maintained at all times. The fire department shall not be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access to fire protection equipment or fire hydrants.

507.5.4.1 Obstructions of Fire Protective Equipment

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
No person shall erect, construct, maintain, or build, or cause to be erected, constructed, or built, any structure, screen, or fence in such a location as to prohibit or restrict the ready operation and use of any fire hydrant, fire department connection to sprinkler system, exterior or combination standpipe system, or other installed fire protection equipment, nor plant or allow the growth of any vegetation which will hide or obscure said installed fire protection equipment.

507.5.4.2 Obstruction by Vehicle

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
No person shall park or place any vehicle or other mobile equipment in such a manner or position which would hinder or restrict the immediate and complete use, by the Department, of any fire hydrant, Fire Department connection to a sprinkler system, exterior or combination standpipe system, or any other fire protection equipment which is installed for Fire Department use.

507.5.4.3 Penalties and Minimum Fines

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Violation of Sections 507.5.4.1 through 507.5.4.2 shall be subject to penalties and minimum fines as prescribed in Section 109.4.2 and Table 109.4.
A 3-foot (914 mm) clear space shall be maintained around the circumference of fire hydrants, except as otherwise required or approved.
Where fire hydrants are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts or other approved means shall comply with Section 312.

507.5.7 Fire Hydrant Identification

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The Department shall have the authority to identify any fire hydrant by installing a blue reflector on the street or access road adjacent to the hydrant.
Where required by other sections of this code and in all buildings classified as high-rise buildings by the California Building Code and Group I-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a fire command center for fire department operations shall be provided and shall comply with Sections 508.1.1 through 508.1.7.
The location and accessibility of the fire command center shall be approved by the fire chief.

508.1.1.1 Fire Command Center Sign

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The entrance to the fire command center shall be identified by a sign reading, "Fire Control Room," or "Fire Command Center" in letters not less than 1 and 11/2 inches in height.
The fire command center shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the California Building Code or horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the California Building Code, or both.
The fire command center shall be not less than 200 square feet (19 m2) in area with a minimum dimension of 10 feet (3048 mm).
A layout of the fire command center and all features required by this section to be contained therein shall be submitted for approval prior to installation.
Storage unrelated to operation of the fire command center shall be prohibited.

508.1.5.1 Other Uses

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The fire command center shall not be used for any other purpose.

508.1.6 Required Features

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

The fire command center shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain the following features:

  1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system control unit.
  2. The fire department communications system.
  3. Fire alarm system zoning annunciator panel required by Section 907.6.4.3.
  4. Annunciator unit visually indicating the location of the elevators and whether they are operational.
  5. Status indicators and controls for air distribution systems.
  6. The fire fighter's control panel required by Section 909.16 for smoke control systems installed in the building.
  7. Controls for unlocking interior exit stairway doors simultaneously.
  8. Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display panels.
  9. Emergency and standby power status indicators.
  10. A telephone for fire department use with controlled access to the public telephone system.
  11. Fire pump status indicators.
  12. Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, fire protection systems, fire-fighter air-replenishment systems, fire-fighting equipment and fire department access, and the location of fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions.
  13. An approved Building Information Card that includes, but is not limited to, all of the following information:

    1. 13.1. General building information that includes: property name, address, the number of floors in the building above and below grade, use and occupancy classification (for mixed uses, identify the different types of occupancies on each floor) and the estimated building population during the day, night and weekend;
    2. 13.2. Building emergency contact information that includes: a list of the building's emergency contacts including but not limited to building manager, building engineer and their respective work phone number, cell phone number and e-mail address;
    3. 13.3. Building construction information that includes: the type of building construction including but not limited to floors, walls, columns and roof assembly;
    4. 13.4. Exit access stairway and exit stairway information that includes: number of exit access stairways and exit stairways in building; each exit access stairway and exit stairway designation and floors served; location where each exit access stairway and exit stairway discharges, interior exit stairways that are pressurized; exit stairways provided with emergency lighting; each exit stairway that allows reentry; exit stairways providing roof access; elevator information that includes: number of elevator banks, elevator bank designation, elevator car numbers and respective floors that they serve; location of elevator machine rooms, control rooms and control spaces; location of sky lobby; and location of freight elevator banks;
    5. 13.5. Building services and system information that includes: location of mechanical rooms, location of building management system, location and capacity of all fuel oil tanks, location of emergency generator and location of natural gas service;
    6. 13.6. Fire protection system information that includes: location of standpipes, location of fire pump room, location of fire department connections, floors protected by automatic sprinklers and location of different types of automatic sprinkler systems installed including but not limited to dry, wet and pre-action;
    7. 13.7. Hazardous material information that includes: location and quantity of hazardous material.
  14. Work table.
  15. Generator supervision devices, manual start and transfer features.
  16. Public address system, where specifically required by other sections of this code.
  17. Elevator fire recall switch in accordance with California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Division 1, Chapter 4, Subchapter 6, Elevator Safety Orders.
  18. Elevator emergency or standby power selector switch(es), where emergency or standby power is provided.
  19. A master switch for unlocking elevator lobby doors permitted by Section 1010.1.9.10.

Fire command centers shall not be used for the housing of any boiler, heating unit, generator, combustible storage, or similar hazardous equipment or storage.

The fire command center shall be provided with an independent ventilation or air-conditioning system.

Fire protection equipment shall be identified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for the use of the fire department. Approved signs required to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently installed and readily visible.
Where required by the fire code official, gas shutoff valves, electric meters, service switches and other utility equipment shall be clearly and legibly marked to identify the unit or space that it serves. Identification shall be made in an approved manner, readily visible and shall be maintained.
Approved access shall be provided and maintained for all fire protection equipment to permit immediate safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. Storage, trash and other materials or objects shall not be placed or kept in such a manner that would prevent such equipment from being readily accessible.
Access to sprinkler valves, standpipes and other fire protection equipment provided in storage areas shall be served by either a main aisle, side aisle, or an aisle with a minimum width of 3 feet (914 mm). (See Section 903.3.10, "Access aisles and operation clearances.")

All new buildings shall have approved radio coverage for emergency responders within the building based upon the existing coverage levels of the public safety communication systems of the jurisdiction at the exterior of the building. This section shall not require improvement of the existing public safety communication systems.

Exceptions:

  1. Where approved by the building official and the fire code official, a wired communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 shall be permitted to be installed or maintained instead of an approved radio coverage system.
  2. Where it is determined by the fire code official that the radio coverage system is not needed.
  3. In facilities where emergency responder radio coverage is required and such systems, components or equipment required could have a negative impact on the normal operations of that facility, the fire code official shall have the authority to accept an automatically activated emergency responder radio coverage system.
Existing buildings shall be provided with approved radio coverage for emergency responders as required in Chapter 11.
A construction permit for the installation of or modification to emergency responder radio coverage systems and related equipment is required as specified in Section 105.7.5. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit.
Systems, components and equipment required to provide the emergency responder radio coverage system shall comply with Sections 510.4.1 through 510.4.2.5.
The building shall be considered to have acceptable emergency responder radio coverage when signal strength measurements in 95 percent of all areas on each floor of the building meet the signal strength requirements in Sections 510.4.1.1 and 510.4.1.2.
A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be receivable within the building.
A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be received by the agency's radio system when transmitted from within the building.
The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be designed in accordance with Sections 510.4.2.1 through 510.4.2.5.
Buildings and structures that cannot support the required level of radio coverage shall be equipped with a radiating cable system, a distributed antenna system with Federal Communications Commission (FCC)-certified signal boosters, or other system approved by the fire code official in order to achieve the required adequate radio coverage.
The fire code official shall maintain a document providing the specific technical information and requirements for the emergency responder radio coverage system. This document shall contain, but not be limited to, the various frequencies required, the location of radio sites, effective radiated power of radio sites, and other supporting technical information.
Emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 604. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system for a duration of not less than 24 hours.

If used, signal boosters shall meet the following requirements:

  1. All signal booster components shall be contained in a National Electrical Manufacturer's Association (NEMA) 4-type waterproof cabinet.
  2. Battery systems used for the emergency power source shall be contained in a NEMA 4-type waterproof cabinet.
  3. The signal booster system and battery system shall be electrically supervised and monitored by a supervisory service, or when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location
  4. Equipment shall have FCC certification prior to installation.
The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be capable of modification or expansion in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC.
The installation of the public safety radio coverage system shall be in accordance with Sections 510.5.1 through 510.5.4.
Amplification systems capable of operating on frequencies licensed to any public safety agency by the FCC shall not be installed without prior coordination and approval of the fire code official.

The minimum qualifications of the system designer and lead installation personnel shall include both of the following:

  1. A valid FCC-issued general radio operators license.
  2. Certification of in-building system training issued by a nationally recognized organization, school or a certificate issued by the manufacturer of the equipment being installed.

These qualifications shall not be required where demonstration of adequate skills and experience satisfactory to the fire code official is provided.

Where an emergency responder radio coverage system is required, and upon completion of installation, the building owner shall have the radio system tested to verify that two-way coverage on each floor of the building is not less than 90 percent. The test procedure shall be conducted as follows:

  1. Each floor of the building shall be divided into a grid of 20 approximately equal test areas.
  2. The test shall be conducted using a calibrated portable radio of the latest brand and model used by the agency talking through the agency's radio communications system.
  3. Failure of not more than two nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test.
  4. In the event that three of the test areas fail the test, in order to be more statistically accurate, the floor shall be permitted to be divided into 40 equal test areas. Failure of not more than four nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test. If the system fails the 40-area test, the system shall be altered to meet the 90-percent coverage requirement.
  5. A test location approximately in the center of each test area shall be selected for the test, with the radio enabled to verify two-way communications to and from the outside of the building through the public agency's radio communications system. Once the test location has been selected, that location shall represent the entire test area. Failure in the selected test location shall be considered failure of that test area. Additional test locations shall not be permitted.
  6. The gain values of all amplifiers shall be measured and the test measurement results shall be kept on file with the building owner so that the measurements can be verified during annual tests. In the event that the measurement results become lost, the building owner shall be required to rerun the acceptance test to reestablish the gain values.
  7. As part of the installation a spectrum analyzer or other suitable test equipment shall be utilized to ensure spurious oscillations are not being generated by the subject signal booster. This test shall be conducted at the time of installation and subsequent annual inspections.
The emergency responder radio coverage system installation and components shall also comply with all applicable federal regulations including, but not limited to, FCC 47 CFR Part 90.219.
The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be maintained operational at all times in accordance with Sections 510.6.1 through 510.6.3.

The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be inspected and tested annually or where structural changes occur including additions or remodels that could materially change the original field performance tests. Testing shall consist of the following:

  1. In-building coverage test as described in Section 510.5.3.
  2. Signal boosters shall be tested to verify that the gain is the same as it was upon initial installation and acceptance.
  3. Backup batteries and power supplies shall be tested under load of a period of 1 hour to verify that they will properly operate during an actual power outage. If within the 1-hour test period the battery exhibits symptoms of failure, the test shall be extended for additional 1-hour periods until the integrity of the battery can be determined.
  4. Other active components shall be checked to verify operation within the manufacturer's specifications.
  5. At the conclusion of the testing, a report, which shall verify compliance with Section 510.5.3, shall be submitted to the fire code official.
The building owner shall modify or expand the emergency responder radio coverage system at his or her expense in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC. Prior approval of a public safety radio coverage system on previous frequencies does not exempt this section.
Agency personnel shall have the right to enter onto the property at any reasonable time to conduct field testing to verify the required level of radio coverage.

Section 511 Hearings to Be Held in Connection With Construction of Fire Roads

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

511.1 Duties of the Chief

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
It shall be the duty of the Chief to make a report to the Board concerning any plans for the construction or widening of fire roads, firebreaks and fuelbreaks.

511.2 Public Hearings

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Prior to the performance of any work of construction or widening of fire roads, firebreaks and fuelbreaks, the Board shall hold a public hearing on the plans therefor.

511.3 Notice of the Time, Place, and Purpose

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Notice of the time, place, and purpose of a public hearing shall be given in the following manner:
  1. By at least one publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the City, designated for the purpose of the City Clerk, not less than 10 days prior to the date of the hearing.
  2. By mailing written notice not less than 10 days prior to the date of such hearing, to the owners of all property within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of the boundaries of the proposed fire roads, firebreaks and fuelbreaks, or in those instances where existing fire roads, firebreaks and fuelbreaks are proposed to be widened within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of the new boundaries. Where all property within the 300-foot (91 440 mm) radius is under the same ownership as the property upon which the construction is proposed to be performed, the owners of all property adjoining that property in the same ownership as that involved in the proposed construction, or separated only by a street, alley, public right-of-way or other easement, shall also be notified in the same manner.

511.4 Firebreaks

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to firebreaks authorized to be constructed pursuant to Section 104.11.4 of this article.

512.1 Response Distances

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Response distances based on land use and fire flow requirements shall comply with Table 507.3.3. These requirements pertain to all buildings and structures, groups of structures, or facilities unless otherwise determined by the Chief.

512.2 Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where a response distance is greater than that shown in Table 507.3.3, all structures shall be constructed with automatic fire sprinkler systems. Additional fire protection shall be provided as required by the Chief.

Section 513 Supplemental Fire Protection

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.

513.1 Where Required

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Where the Chief determines that any or all of the supplemental fire protection equipment or systems described in this section may be substituted in lieu of the requirements of this chapter with respect to any facility, structure, group of structures or premises, the person owning or having control thereof shall either conform to the requirements of this chapter or shall install such supplemental equipment or systems. Where the Chief determines that any or all of such equipment or systems are necessary in addition to the requirements of this Chapter as to any facility, structure, group of structures or premises, the owner thereof shall install such required equipment or systems.

513.2 Supplemental Fire Protection Equipment or Systems

AMENDMENT
This section has been amended at the state or city level.
Supplemental fire protection equipment or systems shall consist of:
  1. Fire protective signaling systems which shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 9 of this article.
  2. Fire hydrants which shall be installed in accordance with Section 507.3.1 of this chapter, or as required by the Chief.
  3. Automatic fire extinguishing systems which shall be installed in accordance with, but not limited to, Chapter 9 of this article.
  4. Smoke removal systems which shall be designed for the hazard to be protected and shall be approved by the Chief.
  5. Standpipe systems which shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 9 of the LAMC (Plumbing Code).
  6. Systems or equipment not specified. The installation, arrangement of, or alteration thereto, of other fire protection equipment or systems which are deemed necessary to provide minimum fire protection as may be required by the Chief.
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